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STUDY GUIDE RT 244 (Notes from Bushongs text) pg pg !

Radiation Protection & Radiobiology Notes

"um#n B$o%og&
"um#n Response To Ion$'$ng R#($#t$on
Early Effects of Radiation: When response occurs within minutes or days after
Late Effects of Radiation: When response is not observed for many months or
years after exposure.
Effects of fetal irradiation: Death, malformation, malignancy, diminished growth.
)ompos$t$on of "um#n Bo(&
)e%% Theor&* !" of the body is hydrogen and oxygen.
#ydrogen: $%"
&xygen: '!.("
)arbon: *%.("
+itrogen: '.,"
+o%e,u%#r )ompos$t$on
Water: %" - . simple molecule.
/rotein: *!" - . macromolecule.
0at: '" - . macromolecule.
&ther: 1"
T$ssues #n( -rg#ns* 23he most radiosensitive cells in the human body are
Lymphocytes 4 5permatogonia.
.un(#ment#% /r$n,$p%es of R#($o0$o%og&
1#2 of Bergon$e #n( Tr$0on(e#u
*6 &lder cells are more radioresistant.
'6 7ounger cells are more radiosensitive.
#ow these principles apply to radiation safety: 3he fetus is more radiosensitive
to radiation than a child or adult.
B$o%og$, .#,tors 3ffe,t$ng R#($osens$t$4$t&
.ge: #umans are most sensitive before birth.
8ender: 0emales are less radiosensitive than males.
+o%e,u%#r #n( )e%%u%#r R#($o0$o%og&
Irr#($#t$on of +#,romo%e,u%es* 2p.,!%6 0ollows a Linear, +on-threshold
dose9response relationship.
Radiation Effects on D+.: D+. is the most radiosensitive macromolecule.
*6 )ell death
'6 :alignant disease
16 8enetic damage
R#($o%&s$s of 5#ter* ;ndirect Effect. :ost prevalent in humans.
We are mostly water: %" Water
STUDY GUIDE RT 244 (Notes from Bushongs text) pg 2 pg ! 2
3he brea<down of water by radiation is harmful.
=rea<down products, called free radicals, cause D+. damage.
D+. damage can cause somatic and genetic outcomes.
D$re,t #n( In($re,t Effe,t
Direct Effect: Radiation hits D+. causing cell damage.
;ndirect Effect: ' 5tep process 3he principle action of radiation on humans is the
;ndirect Effect.
*6 Radiation brea<s down water molecules.
'6 =rea< down products 2free radicals6 damage D+..
S$ng%e6T#rget7 S$ng%e6"$t +o(e%
/oisson Distribution: . statistical law. ;f *%% rain drops fell on *%% s>uares, $1"
will be wet, 1(" will be dry.
E#r%& Effe,ts of R#($#t$on
3,ute R#($#t$on 1eth#%$t&* ?-ray beams are not large or intense enough to
cause radiation lethality.
Early Effects: 5ee a radiation response within a few days.
1o,#% T$ssue D#m#ge*Re>uires a higher dose to produce a response. Results
in tissue atrophy.
5<in: Er&them#- a sunburn-li<e redness. 5ED
25<in Erythema Dose to affect
!%" of pop.6 at $%% Rad.
8onads: &varies 4 3estes are very sensitive to radiation. /ermanent sterility at
!%% Rad.
1#te Effe,ts of R#($#t$on
1o,#% T$ssue Effe,ts
5<in: #igh doses of radiation causes discolored and weathered appearance of
)hromosomes: Damage to lymphocytes can produce both an early and a late
)ataracts: 3he eye@s sensitivity is age dependent. ;ncrease in age, increases
effects. )ataracts at *,%%% Rad
1$fe Sp#n Shorten$ng
*% days per rad: 7ou can loose *% days of life for every rad received.
Relative safety of occupation: Radiologic 3echnology is considered a safe
R$s8 Est$m#tes
Relative Ris<: &bserved cases A Expected cases. Estimate used when you
don@t <now the original dose.
Excess Ris<: &bserved cases - Expected cases. Estimate using the excess
cases induced.
.bsolute Ris<: Estimate using ' <nown dose levels.
R#($#t$on In(u,e( +#%$gn#n,&
STUDY GUIDE RT 244 (Notes from Bushongs text) pg 9 pg ! 9
Leu<emia: Linear, +on-threshold. ,-( year latent period. '% year Bat ris<B period.
3hyroid )ancer: Linear, +on-threshold dose9response relationship.
=one )ancer: Radium watch-dial painters developed bone cancer.
5<in )ancer: 0ollows a threshold dose9response relationship.
=reast )ancer: .tomic blast survivors who received *% Rads plus, exhibited a
ris< factor of ,:*.
Lung )ancer: Cranium miners show a ris< factor of :*.
Liver )ancer: B3horotrastB contrast agent, caused liver cancer after *!-'% year
latent period.
Tot#% R$s8 of +#%$gn#n,&
&verall .bsolute Ris< of :alignancy: 2p.,(6 .pproximately *% cases9*%

persons9rad9year, '! years after exposure.
R#($#t$on #n( /regn#n,&
;rradiation in Ctero: #igh dose may interrupt fertility.
0irst two wee<s: 3he first two wee<s of pregnancy may be the safest. . high
dose may produce a spontaneous abortion. 3his is an all or none
dose9response relationship.
:aDor organ formation: 0rom the 'nd - *%th wee< of gestation. #igh rad dose
will produce s<eletal, organ and )+5 abnormalities.
5ummary of effects
"e#%th /h&s$,s
)#r($n#% /r$n,$p%es of R#($#t$on /rote,t$on* 3ime, Distance and 5hielding.
+$n$m$'e T$me* Eeep exposure time as short as possible.
Exposure F exposure rate x time
+#x$m$'e D$st#n,e* Cse the longest 5;D possible from the source.
Doubling the distance drops the exposure by , times.
3echnologist should be as far from the source as practical.
+#x$m$'e Sh$e%($ng* ;nsert shielding between the source and person.
#alf Galue Layer of Lead 2at %<Gp6: .*Hmm Lead.
3enth Galue Layer of Lead 2at % <Gp6: .$,mm Lead.
Dose 1$m$t (D1)
Definition: Ensures that radiation wor<ers have the same ris< as those in safe
industries. 3here is no patient DL.
5ummary of DL:
5ummary of +)R/ Dose Limit Recommendations. 25ee the last page of this
3nnu#% D1 $s st$%% : rem;&r (:< mS4;&r)
)umu%#t$4e D1 $s Rem x #ge (< mS4 x #ge)
E(u,#t$on#% )ons$(er#t$ons
STUDY GUIDE RT 244 (Notes from Bushongs text) pg 4 pg ! 4
.L.R. principle: :aintain radiation exposures .s Low .s Reasonably
=6R#&s #n( /regn#n,&
Radiobiology of /regnancy: T$me (epen(en,e 2first ' wee<s are safest6 4
(ose (epen(en,e 2'%% Rad dose will certainly cause radiation effects6.
3he /regnant Radiographer: DL F ! m5v9H months. 5hould wear ' film badges,
one at collar, one at waist.
/regnancy in Diagnostic Radiology
0etal Dose by Exam: .n ./ L-5pine exam of the mother gives the highest fetal
Des$gn$ng for R#($#t$on /rote,t$on
Des$gn of =6r#& 3pp#r#tus
Re>uirements of the )ontrol /anel: :ust show two things.
*6 Display conditions of exposure.
'6 /ositively indicate when x-rays are being produced.
R#($#t$on /rote,t$on Des$gns .or =6r#& E>u$pment
5ource-to-;mage Distance ;ndicator: . tape measure. :ust be accurate to within
'" of 5;D.
)ollimation: Light localiIed, variable aperture. :ust be within '" of 5;D.
*6 Light LocaliIer: Light bulb.
'6 Gariable .perture )ollimation: )an be adDusted by the 3echnologist.
16 ?-ray field9 light field agreement. :ust be within '" of the 5;D.
/ositive =eam Limitation 2/=L6: .utomatic )ollimators. :ust be accurate to
within '" of the 5;D.
=eam .lignment Device 2cross-hair target6: Line up the cross-hair target for
proper tube9film alignment.
0iltration: '.!mm .luminum at (% <Gp.
Des$gn of /rote,t$4e B#rr$ers
3ypes of Radiation:
/r$m#r& R#($#t$on* 3he useful beam.
*6 :ost of the radiation comes from primary beam.
'6 :ost dangerous.
16 #ardest to shield against.
/r$m#r& B#rr$ers* .ny wall to which the useful beam can be directed.
Se,on(#r& R#($#t$on* ' types
*6 5catter Radiation: )omes from the patient.
'6 Lea<age Radiation )omes from the tube.
Se,on(#r& B#rr$ers* 3he control booth barrier is a secondary barrier. Do not
have to contain lead.
R#($#t$on Dete,t$on #n( +e#surement
STUDY GUIDE RT 244 (Notes from Bushongs text) pg : pg ! :
T&pes of Dos$meters* *6 0ilm =adges: Csed most often. #ave a limited range.
+ot reusable.
'6 3hermoluminescent Dosimeter 23LD6: #ave a wide range. .re reusable.
R#($#t$on /rote,t$on /ro,e(ures
Est$m#t$on of /#t$ent Dose
5<in Dose: Easiest to measure using 3LD@s.
8onadal Dose: ;mportant because of suspected genetic response. GSD-
8enetically 5ignificant Dose.
=one :arrow Dose: ;mportant because bone marrow is the target organ
believed responsible for leu<emia.
Re(u,t$on of -,,up#t$on#% Exposure* Do not aim the tube toward the control
booth barrier.
/ersonne% +on$tor$ng* Re>uired when you will receive more than *9,th the DL.
0ilm =adges: )heap, easy to use, easy to process, accurate and have been
used for decades.
3LD: +ewer, can be worn for up to 1 months.
/oc<et ;oniIation )hamber: :ust be charged daily before use.
/#t$ent "o%($ng* Radiology personnel should never be used to hold patients.
Cse family or friends of patient.
Re(u,t$on of Unne,ess#r& /#t$ent Dose
Cnnecessary Examinations: 3he technologist has no control over this.
Repeat Examinations: 3he J * reason for high patient dose. Due to patient
positioning over the photo-cells.
Radiographic 3echni>ue: Cse high <Gp techni>ue to reduce patient dose.
3he ;mage Receptor: Cse the fastest film9screen combination to reduce patient
/atient /ositioning: =e sure the useful beam does not intercept the gonads if
patient is seated for extremity films.
5pecific .rea 5hielding: 3he lens of the eye, breasts and gonads are fre>uently
shielded from the primary beam.
.rom N)R/ Report No? @ 1$m$t#t$on of Exposure to Ion$'$ng R#($#t$on Issue(*
Summ#r& of Re,ommen(#t$ons
.. -,,up#t$on#% exposures
*. Effective dose limits
a6 3nnu#% :< mS4;&r (: Rem;&r)
b6 )umu%#t$4e < mS4 x 3ge ( Rem x 3ge)
'. E>uivalent dose annual limits for tissues and organs
a6 Lens of eye *!% m5v 2*! Rem6
b6 5<in, hands and feet !%% m5v 2!% Rem6
STUDY GUIDE RT 244 (Notes from Bushongs text) pg @ pg ! @
=. 8uidance for emergency occupational exposure 2not listed6
). /ublic exposures 2annual6 are *9*%th the occupational exposures.
*. Effective dose limit, continuous or fre>uent exposure * m5v 2%.* Rem6
'. Effective dose limit, infre>uent exposure ! m5v 2.! Rem6
1. E>uivalent dose limits for tissues and organs
a6 Lens of eye *! m5v 2*.! Rem6
b6 5<in, hands and feet !% m5v 2! Rem6
,. Remedial action for natural sources:
a6 Effective dose 2excluding radon6 K! m5v
b6 Exposure to radon decay products K( x *%-1 Lh m-1
D. Education and training exposures 2annual6
*. Effective dose limit *m5v 2%.* Rem6
'. E>uivalent dose limit for tissues and organs
a6 Lens of eye *! m5v 2*.! Rem6
b6 5<in, hands and feet !% m5v 2! Rem6
E. Embryo-fetus exposures 2monthly6
*. E>uivalent dose limit %.! m5v 2.%! Rem6
0. +egligible individual dose 2annual6 %.%* m5v 2.%%* Rem6