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# Control Systems: Principles and Design 882

P
ROBLEMS
Each problem covers an important area of control-system analysis or design.
Important MATLAB commands are included as help to these problems, in the
form of script files. In MATLAB, script files are called M-files. In attempting
a problem, the reader can type the MATLAB commands in the script file in an
interactive manner, or use the script file as an M-file.
Following each problem, one or more what-ifs may be posed to examine
the special features of MATLAB commands are included in the script files to
enhance the learning experience. Partial answers to the problems are also in-
cluded.
The description of the MATLAB functions used in the script files can easily
be accessed from the help file using help command.
B.1 Figure 4.7 shows the model of a heat exchanger control loop. Plot
response of the system to unit-step input G
r
, for K
A
= 10, and for K
A
= 5.
Comment on the effect of amplifier gain on transient and steady-state
accuracy.
B.2 Figure 4.7 shows the model of a heat exchanger control loop. Plot re-
sponse of the system to unit-step disturbance G
i
, for K
A
= 10, and for K
A
= 5.
Comment on the effect of amplifier gain on transient and steady-state
accuracy.
B.3 Figure 4.7 shows the model of a heat exchanger control loop. Determine
the closed-loop poles of the system. Sketch a pole-zero map and
therefrom comment upon stability.
B.4 Review Example 5.3 revisited.
A non-unity feedback system has process transfer function
G(s) =
K
s s 1 a f
and feedback transfer function
H(s) =
1
1

Ts
Ts
Appendix B: MATLAB Environment 883
What are the combinations of K and T for which the system is stable?
B.5 The Script PB.4 revisited.
The MATLAB response to this script shows the stability region for a
non-unity feedback system. Take a point in this region and determine the
response of the resulting feedback system to a unit-ramp input.
B.6 Review Example 6.2 revisited.
A unity-feedback system is characterized by the open-loop transfer
function
G(s) =
1
0 5 1 0 2 1 s s s . . a f a f
(a) Determine the damping ratio and natural frequency of dominant
closed-loop poles.
(b) Determine the error constants K
p
, K
v
, and K
a
.
(c) Determine peak overshoot, time to peak, and settling time of the step
response of the feedback system. Are your results different from
the ones given in the text? Why?
(Ans: M
p
= 12.1186%; t
p
= 3 sec; t
s
= 4.52 sec)
B.7 Examples 6.2 and 6.4 revisited.
A unity-feedback position control system has open-loop transfer
function
G(s) =
4500
361 2 s s . a f
Plot step response of the system with a cascade controller D(s) with
(a) D(s) = 184.1
(b) D(s) = 184.1 + 0.324s
(c) D(s) = 14.728 + 147.28/s
Compare the responses for (a) and (b), and those for (a) and (c).
Comment upon the effects of derivative and integral control actions.
B.8 Examples 9.2 and 9.4 revisited.
A unity-feedback system has open-loop transfer function
G(s) =
10
1 0 1 1 0 05 s s s . . a f a f
(a) Determine gain margin, phase margin, gain crossover frequency and
phase crossover frequency.
(b) Determine resonance peak, resonance frequency, and bandwidth.
The answers will be slightly different from the ones given in the
text. The text answers are based upon Bode plot obtained using
asymptotic approximation.
B.9 Design Example 1 in Section 7.5 revisited.
A unity-feedback system has open-loop transfer function
Control Systems: Principles and Design 884
G(s) =
K
s s s 1 5 a f a f
Relative stability specification calls for a peak overshoot of 14%. Find
the value of K to meet this specification and the resulting closed-loop
poles. What is the natural frequency of dominant pair of poles?
Using LTI Viewer, determine the peak overshoot and settling time of the
closed-loop step response. (Ans: 19%; 9.51 sec)
B.10 Example 7.8 revisited.
A unity-feedback system has open-loop transfer function
G(s) =
K
s s 2 a f
It is desired that dominant closed-loop poles provide damping ratio
= 0.5 and have an undamped natural frequency M
n
ity error constant K
v
is required to be greater than 4.
(a) Verify that only gain adjustment cant meet these objectives.
(b) Design a lead compensator to meet the objectives.
(c) Using LTI Viewer, determine the peak overshoot and settling time of
p
= 21%; t
s
= 0.02 sec)
(d) Design a lag compensator to meet the objectives (Refer Example
7.10).
B.11 Example 10.4 revisited.
A unity-feedback system has open-loop transfer function
G(s) =
K
s s 1 a f
It is desired to have the velocity error constant K
v
= 10. Furthermore,
we desire that the phase margin of the system be atleast 45. Design a
phase-lag compensator to achieve these specifications.
Are your results different from the ones given in the text? Why?
Using LTI Viewer, determine the peak overshoot and settling time of the
lag-compensated system. (Ans: M
p
= 28%; t
s
= 14 sec)
B.12 Example 10.1 revisited.
Repeat Problem B.11 under the constraint that we use phase-lead com-
pensation to achieve the performance specifications. (Ans: M
p
= 29%;
t
s
= 1.77 sec)
B.13 Example 8.16 revisited.
A unity-feedback system has open-loop transfer function
G(s) =
e
s s s
s
D

J
1 2 a f a f
Determine gain crossover frequency, phase crossover frequency, phase
margin and gain margin when (i) J
D
= 0 (ii) J
D
= 1.
Appendix B: MATLAB Environment 885
B.14 Example 11.4 revisited.
For a unity-feedback system with plant transfer function G(s) = 1/s
2
,
show that the cascade compensator D(s) = 0.81(s + 0.2)/(s + 2) meets
the specifications: = 0.7, M
n
= 0.3. Plot step response of the compen-
sated system.
Now discretize the compensator (sampling time T = 1 sec) and plot step
response of the discretized system with digital compensator. Comment
upon the discrepancy with respect to performance achieved using ana-
log design.
(Help: The response of the MATLAB script gives the digital compen-
sator as
D(z) =
0 4458 0 3648 . . z
z

Therefore,
U z
E z
a f
a f
=
0 4458 0 3648
1
1
. .

z
or
u(k) = 0.4458 e(k) 0.3648 e(k1)
B.15 Example 12.9 revisited
Show that the Inverted Pendulum described in this example is unstable.
Also show that state-feedback
u(t) = k x(t)
k = [ 27 12.544 0.258 1.033]
stabilizes this system.
For initial conditions
x(0) = [0.1 0 0 0]
T
and zero external input, simulate the feedback system.
Script PB.1
cTear aTT,
cTose aTT,
d1sp{'kefer l1g.4.1 ')
Step response of heat exchanger controT system
bTock d1agram man1puTat1on
D110,0vtf{0.1,|3 1|),0ptf{50,|30 1|),
Ntf{0.16,|10 1|),
0fw1D1*0v*0p,
M10.16*feedback{0fw1,N),
Step response
t|0.0.1.300|,
y1step{M1,t),
Control Systems: Principles and Design 886
pTot{t,y1,'r'),t1tTe{'Step response')
xTabeT{'t1me|sec|'),yTabeT{'temp|degC|'),gr1d
yss1y1{Tength{t)),
T1ne{t,yss1*ones{Tength{t),1)),T1ne{t,ones{Tength{t),1)),
text{23,1.1,'K_A10')
hoTd on
Change 1n ampT1f1er ga1n
D25,0fw2D2*0v*0p,
M20.16*feedback{0fw2,N),
y2step{M2,t),
pTot{t,y2,'r'),
yss2y2{Tength{t)),
T1ne{t,yss2*ones{Tength{t),1)),T1ne{t,ones{Tength{t),1)),
text{28,1.15,'K_A5')
hoTd off
Script PB.2
cTear aTT
cTose aTT
d1sp{'kefer l1g.4.1 ')
kesponse of heat exchanger controT system to
step d1sturbance
bTock d1agram man1puTat1on
N1tf{3,|30 1|),
D110,0vtf{0.1,|3 1|),0ptf{50,|30 1|),
Nstf{0.16,|10 1|),
N1Ns*D1*0v*0p,
Mw1-1*feedback{1,N1)*N1,
kesponse to step d1sturbance
t|0.0.1.300|,
y1step{Mw1,t),subpTot{2,1,1),pTot{t,y1,'r')
Tegend{'D1sturbance step response for K_A10'),
xTabeT{'t1me|sec|'),yTabeT{'temp|degC|'),gr1d
yss1y1{Tength{t)),
T1ne{t,yss1*ones{Tength{t),1))
Change 1n ampT1f1er ga1n
D25,N2Ns*D2*0v*0p,Mw2-1*feedback{1,N2)*N1,
y2step{Mw2,t),subpTot{2,1,2),pTot{t,y2,'r')
Tegend{'D1sturbance step response for K_A5')
xTabeT{'t1me|sec|'),yTabeT{'temp|degC|'),gr1d
Appendix B: MATLAB Environment 887
yss2y2{Tength{t)),
T1ne{t,yss2*ones{Tength{t),1))
Script PB.3
cTear aTT
cTose aTT
d1sp{'kefer l1g.4.1 ')
Stab1T1ty anaTys1s of heat exchanger controT system
bTock d1agram man1puTat1on
D10,
0vtf{0.1,|3 1|),
0ptf{50,|30 1|),
Ntf{0.16,|10 1|),
0fwD*0v*0p,
M0.16*feedback{0fw,N),
Stab1T1ty test
CTosed_Toop_oTespoTe{M)
pzmap{M)
Script PB.4
cTear aTT
cTose aTT
d1sp{'kefer kev1ew LxampTe 5.3 ')
Stab1T1ty reg1on for a feedback system
1|0.1.0.05.10|,K|0.0.05.10|,
x0*1,y0*1,
nTength{1),
mTength{K),
for 11.n
for ]2.m
0tf{|K{])|,|1 1 0|),
Ntf{|-1{1) 1|,|1{1) 1|),
|num,den|tfdata{feedback{0,N),'v'),
proots{den),
1f max{reaT{p))0,
x{1)1{1),
y{1)K{]-1),
break
end
end
end
Control Systems: Principles and Design 888
Wa1t for the response
pTot{x,y),
gr1d,
xTabeT{'1'),
yTabeT{'K'),
gtext{'Stab1T1ty keg1on')
gtext puts up a cross ha1r.os1t1on the cross ha1r
on the graph w1th the mouse & cT1ck.
Script PB.5
cTear aTT,
cTose aTT,
d1sp{'kefer the Scr1pt ML 4.')
kamp response of a feedback system
SeTect a po1nt 1n the stab1T1ty reg1on
10.5,K1,
0tf{K,|1 1 0|),Ntf{|-1 1|,|1 1|),
Mfeedback{0,N),
kamp response
t|0.0.1.30|,
ut,
|y,t|Ts1m{M,u,t),
pTot{t,y,t,u),gr1d
xTabeT{'t1me|sec|'),yTabeT{'y{t)'),
Script PB.6
cTear aTT
cTose aTT
d1sp{'kefer kev1ew LxampTe 6.2')
erformance spec1f1cat1ons 1n t1me-doma1n
Open-Toop transfer funct1on
denconv{conv{|1 0|,|0.5 1|),|0.2 1|),
0tf{1,den),
Un1ty-feedback system
Mfeedback{0,1),
Damp1ng rat1o & naturaT frequency
|wn,zeta,p|damp{M),
os1t1on,veToc1ty & acceTerat1on error constants
Kpdcga1n{0),
0vtf{|1 0|,1)*0,
Kvdcga1n{0v),
0atf{|1 0|,1)*0v,
Appendix B: MATLAB Environment 889
eakovershoot,t1me to peak,& settT1ng t1me
t|0.0.01.10|,
ystep{M,t),
|Mp,1|max{y),tpt{1),
Ok operat1on
]max{f1nd{{y<0.98)|{y1.02))),
tst{]),
Output the resuTts
wnwn{1)
zetazeta{1)
KpKp
KvKv
KaKa
Mp{Mp-1)*100
tptp
tsts
Obta1n performance specs us1ng L11 V1ewer
Tt1v1ew{'step',M)
Script PB.7
cTear aTT
cTose aTT
d1sp{'kefer LxampTes 6.2 & 6.4')
1D controT of a pos1t1on servo
Un1ty-feedback system
0tf{4500,|1 361.2 0|),
Kc184.1,
M1feedback{Kc*0,1),
Step response w1th & D controTTers
t|0.0.0001.0.04|,
y1step{M1,t),
KD0.324,
D1tf{|KD Kc|,1),
M2feedback{D1*0,1),
y2step{M2,t),
f1gure{1),
pTot{t,y1,t,y2),gr1d,xTabeT{'t'),yTabeT{'y{t)'),
text{0.005,1.4,'W1th controT')
text{0.003,1.01,'W1th D controT')
Step response w1th & 1 controTTers
Kc14.128,K1141.28,
Control Systems: Principles and Design 890
D2tf{|Kc K1|,|1 0|),
M3feedback{D2*0,1),
y3step{M3,t),
f1gure{2),
pTot{t,y1,t,y3),gr1d,
xTabeT{'t'),yTabeT{'y{t)'),
text{0.005,1.5,'W1th controT')
text{0.02,1.15,'W1th 1 controT')
Script PB.8
cTear aTT
cTose aTT
d1sp{'kefer LxampTes 9.2 & 9.4 ')
erformance spec1f1cat1ons 1n frequency-doma1n
Open-Toop transfer funct1on
denconv{conv{|1 0|,|0.1 1|),|0.05 1|),
0tf{10,den),
f1gure{1),
Un1ty-feedback system
Mfeedback{0,1),
kead hase marg1n & 0a1n marg1n from f1gure 1.
marg1n{0),
w|1.0.001.100|',
|mag,phase|bode{M,w),
lrequency-response of feedback system
f1gure{2),
bode{M,w),
magdb20*Tog10{mag),
kesonance peak
|Mr,1|max{magdb),
wrw{1),
kesonancepeakMr
kesonancefrequecnywr
bandw1dth
SeTect proper frequency range.lunct1on 1nterp1q
requ1res monoton1c 1ncreas1ng data.
w1|wr.0.001.100|',
|mag1,phase1|bode{M,w1),
mag1db20*Tog10{mag1),
wb1nterp1q{-mag1db,w1,3),
bandw1dthwb
L11 V1ewer funct1ons are ava1TabTe 1n f1gure 2
w1ndow.Obta1n resonance peak,resonance frequency,
and bandw1dth us1ng these funct1ons.
Appendix B: MATLAB Environment 891
Obta1n performance specs from N1choTs chart
f1gure{3)
L11 V1ewer funct1ons are ava1TabTe 1n f1gure 3
w1ndow.Zoom the -3db contour reg1on,and reg1on
of tangency to an M-contour.kead off the vaTues
of bandw1dth & resonance frequency by cT1ck1ng
at appropr1ate pTaces.kead the resonance peak
from the ngr1d.
ngr1d,n1choTs{0),
pause
1he ga1n-phase pTot of 0{s) 1s not tangent to any
of the M-contours ava1TabTe 1n ngr1d.Us1ng g1nput
fuct1on,read the vaTues of phase & ga1n of 0{s) at
the expected po1nt of tangency & caTcuTate Mr.Come
out of pause state by press1ng any key.
|theta,db|g1nput{1),
db to absoTute vaTue
rp10.{db.20),
thetatheta*p1180,
|x,y|poT2cart{theta,rp),
kefer Lqns.{9.20-9.21)
Mr{{x.2+y.2).{{{1+x).2)+y.2)).0.5,
Mr20*Tog10{Mr)
Script PB.9
cTose aTT
cTear aTT
d1sp{'kefer Sect1on 1.5{Des1gn LxampTe 1)')
koot Tocus ga1n for spec1f1ed zeta
denconv{conv{|1 1|,|1 5|),|1 0|),
0tf{1,den),
Mp0.14,
zetasqrt{{{Tog{Mp)p1)2)){1+{{Tog{Mp)p1)2)),
f1gure{1),
rTocus{0),
ax1s equaT,ax1s{|-1 2 -5 5|),
Draw zeta-T1ne.1o get a Tonger T1ne,we have used
Targe vaTue of wn 1n spchart funct1on.
spchart{gca,zeta,10),
kepTace spchart command by sgr1d{zeta,wn) 1f work1ng w1th
MA1LAb 5.3 vers1on.
|KK poTesCL|rTocf1nd{0)
os1t1on crossha1r cursor on po1nt of 1ntersect1on
Control Systems: Principles and Design 892
of root Tocus w1th zeta-T1ne & cT1ck.
Mfeedback{KK*0,1),
|wn zeta p|damp{M),
wnwn{1)
AnaTys1s us1ng L11 V1ewer
Tt1v1ew{'step',M)
Script PB.10
cTose aTT
cTear aTT
d1sp{'kefer LxampTe 1.8 ')
Compensator des1gn on root Tocus pTots
Tant modeT
0tf{1,|1 2 0|),
Uncompensated root Tocus
f1gure{1)
rTocus{0),
ax1s equaT,ax1s{|-1 2 -5 5|),
kepTace spchart command by sgr1d{zeta,wn) 1f work1ng w1th
MA1LAb 5.3 vers1on.
spchart{gca,|0.5 1|,4),
0a1n ad]ustment does not sat1sfy specs.
Lead compensator zero 1n the reg1on beTow des1red
dom1nant poTe,]ust to the Teft of open-Toop poTe.
1ake zero at -2.9 and poTe at - beta.
beta1nput{'Lnter tr1aT vaTue of beta.')
Dtf{|1 2.9|,|1 beta|),
f1gure{2)
rTocus{D*0)
ax1s equaT,ax1s{|-1 2 -5 5|),
spchart{gca,|0.5 1|,4),
|KK poTesCL|rTocf1nd{D*0)
Tace the crossha1r cursor at sd po1nt & cT1ck.
0vtf{|1 0|,1)*KK*D*0,
Kvdcga1n{0v)
erform s1muTat1on study on cTosed-Toop 1l
us1ng L11 V1ewer.
Mfeedback{KK*D*0,1),
Tt1v1ew{'step',M)
Carry out the des1gn on 0U1 us1ng the command
s1sotooT{0)
Appendix B: MATLAB Environment 893
Script PB.11
cTear aTT,cTose aTT
d1sp{'kefer LxampTe 10.4')
Lag compensat1on on bode pTots
Uncompensated system
den|1 1 0|,
0tf{10,den),
f1gure{1),
marg1n{0),
kead uncompensated phase marg1n from f1gure 1.
wTogspace{-1,1,100)',
|mag ph|bode{0,w),
mag & ph are arrays,the funct1on 1nterp1 does
not accept these arrays.keshape the arrays
1nto coTumn vectors.
phreshape{ph,100,1),
magreshape{mag,100,1),
h1-180+spec1f1ed phase marg1n+eps1Ton-129
h11nput{'Lnter phase angTe h1 .')
SeTect frequency range properTy,funct1on 1nterp1
requ1res monoton1c data.
wg1nterp1{ph,w,h1)
wg 1s the des1red ga1n crossover wg'.
beta1nterp1{ph,mag,h1)
Upper corner frequency at wg'8.
wcu1nput{'Lnter upper corner frequency .')
tau1wcu,
Dtf{|tau 1|,|beta*tau 1|),
f1gure{2),
kead phase marg1n of compensated system
from f1gure 2.
marg1n{D*0),
bandw1dth{uncompensated & compensated)
w|1.0.1.10|,
|mag,ph,w|bode{feedback{0,1)),
magdb20*Tog10{mag),
wb1nterp1q{-magdb,w,3)
|mag1,ph1,w|bode{feedback{D*0,1)),
mag1db20*Tog10{mag1),
wb11nterp1q{-mag1db,w,3)
AnaTys1s on N1choTs chart
f1gure{3)
0cD*0,
Control Systems: Principles and Design 894
ngr1d,n1choTs{0,0c),
Step-response anaTys1s us1ng L11 V1ewer
Mfeedback{D*0,1),
Tt1v1ew{'step',M)
Carry out the des1gn on 0U1 us1ng command
s1sotooT{0)
Script PB.12
cTear aTT,cTose aTT
d1sp{'kefer LxampTe 10.1')
Uncompensated system
den|1 1 0|,
0tf{10,den),
f1gure{1),
marg1n{0),
kead uncompensated phase marg1n from f1gure 1.
ph1Mspec1f1ed phase marg1n-uncompensated phase marg1n
+eps1Ton30
aTpha{1-s1n{ph1M*p1180)){1+s1n{ph1M*p1180)),
wTogspace{-1,1,100)',
|mag,ph|bode{0,w),
magdb20*Tog10{mag),
magdbreshape{magdb,100,1),
wm1nterp1{magdb,w,-20*Tog10{1sqrt{aTpha))),
tau1{wm*sqrt{aTpha)),
Dtf{|tau 1|,|aTpha*tau 1|),
f1gure{2),
kead compensated phase marg1n from f1gure 2.
marg1n{D*0),
bandw1dth{uncompensated & compensated)
w|1.0.1.10|,
|mag,ph,w|bode{feedback{0,1)),
magdb20*Tog10{mag),
wb1nterp1q{-magdb,w,3)
|mag1,ph1,w|bode{feedback{D*0,1)),
mag1db20*Tog10{mag1),
wb11nterp1q{-mag1db,w,3)
AnaTys1s on N1choTs chart
f1gure{3)
0cD*0,
ngr1d,n1choTs{0,0c),
Appendix B: MATLAB Environment 895
pause
1he ga1n-phase pTot of 0{s) 1s not tangent
to any M-contour ava1TabTe 1n ngr1d.Us1ng g1nput
funct1on,read the vaTues of ga1n & phase of 0{s)
at the expected po1nt of tangency & caTcuTate Mr.
Come out of the pause state by press1ng any key.
|theta,db|g1nput{1),
db to absoTute vaTue
rp10.{db.20),
thetatheta*p1180,
|x,y|poT2cart{theta,rp),
kefer Lqns.{9.20-9.21)
Mr{{x.2+y.2).{{{1+x).2)+y.2)).0.5,
Mr20*Tog10{Mr)
Step-response anaTys1s us1ng L11 V1ewer
Mfeedback{D*0,1),
Tt1v1ew{'step',M)
Carry out the des1gn on 0U1 us1ng command
s1sotooT{0)
Script PB.13
cTear aTT,cTose aTT
d1sp{'kefer LxampTe 8.16')
denconv{conv{|1 0|,|1 1|),|1 2|),
0tf{1,den),
f1gure{1),
marg1n{0),
tauD1,
01tf{1,den,'1nputDeTay',tauD),
lunct1on marg1n does not accept deadt1me modeT.
f1gure{2),
marg1n{011),
Script PB.14
cTear aTT
cTose aTT
d1sp{'kefer LxampTe 11.4')
D1scret1zat1on of anaTog des1gn
Control Systems: Principles and Design 896
AnaTog des1gn
0tf{1,|1 0 0|),
Dtf{|1 0.2|,|1 2|),
f1gure{1)
rTocus{D*0),
ax1s equaT,ax1s{|-2.5,0.5,-2,2|)
kepTace spchart command by sgr1d{zeta,wn) 1f work1ng w1th
MA1LAb 5.3 vers1on.
spchart{gca,|0.1 1|,0.3),
|K,poTesCL|rTocf1nd{D*0)
Move the crossha1r at 1ntersect1on po1nt
of zeta-T1ne & wn-c1rcTe and cT1ck.
f1gure{2)
Step response w1th anaTog controTTer.
step{feedback{K*D*0,1)),
hoTd on
D1scret1zat1on
Dzc2d{K*D,1,'tust1n')
Dz 1s a z-transform 1l,1t can eas1Ty be
converted 1nto a d1fference equat1on.
kefer|180|.
0zc2d{0,1),
Step response w1th d1g1taT controTTer.
step{feedback{Dz*0z,1)),
Compar1son of the pTots shows that sampT1ng
rate needs to be 1ncreased.
Script PB.15
cTear aTT
cTose aTT
d1sp{'kefer LxampTe 12.9')
State var1abTe anaTys1s{1nverted enduTum)
1nverted penduTum system
A|0 1 0 0,4.4531 0 0 0,0 0 0 1,-0.5809 0 0 0|,
b|0,-0.3941,0,0.9211|,c|1 0 0 0|,
sysss{A,b,c,0),
State feedback
poTesOLe1g{A)
k|-21 -12.544 -0.258 -1.033|,
sysCLss{A-b*k,|0, 0, 0, 0|,c,0),
poTesCLe1g{A-b*k)
S1muTat1on
t|0.0.1.20|,
x0|0.1,0,0,0|',
Appendix B: MATLAB Environment 897
|y,t,X|1n1t1aT{sysCL,x0,t),
f1gure{1)
subpTot{2,2,1),pTot{t,X{.,1)),gr1d,Tegend{'x_1')
subpTot{2,2,2),pTot{t,X{.,2)),gr1d,Tegend{'x_2')
subpTot{2,2,3),pTot{t,X{.,3)),gr1d,Tegend{'x_3')
subpTot{2,2,4),pTot{t,X{.,4)),gr1d,Tegend{'x_4')