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LABORATORY MANUAL
Workshop Practice - II
(ME 392)




Department of ME!ANIAL E!ANIAL E!ANIAL E!ANIAL En"ineerin"

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PATTERN MA#IN$% &AND MOULDIN$ AND
A&TIN$





Department of ME!ANIAL En"ineerin"

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PATTERN MAKING, SAND MOULDING AND CASTING
OBJECTIVES:

1. To prepare a wooden pattern for given object
2. To prepare a sand mould from the prepared pattern for casting a iron block as shown
3. To melt and pour iron metal into the mould.


Fig. The basic production steps in sand casting

EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS:
Pattern, molding flasks, molding tools, sand muller, riddle, sand, molasses, bentonite, melting furnace,
flues, pouring ladle, p!rometer, hacksaw, file.

PATTERN:
The pattern is the principal tool during the casting process. "t can be said as a model or the replica of the
object to be cast ecept for the various allowances a pattern eactl! resembles the casting to be made.
"t ma! be defined as a model or form around which sand is packed to give rise to a cavit! known as mold
cavit! in which when molten metal is poured, the result is the cast object. #hen this mould$cavit! is
filled with molten metal, molten metal solidifies and produces a casting %product&. 'o the pattern is the
replica of the casting.

The pattern is alwa!s made somewhat larger than the final job to be produced. This ecess in
dimensions is referred to as the pattern allowances. There are mainl! three categories of pattern
allowances, namel!, i& 'hrinkage allowance, ii& (achining allowance and iii& )raft or Taper *llowance.
Shrinkage a!"an#e is provided to take care of the contraction of a casting. (achining operations are
re+uired to produce the finished surface of the final product of the casting. The ecess in dimensions of
the casting %and conse+uentl! in the dimensions of the pattern& over those of the final job to take care
of the machining is called Ma#hining a!"an#e$ Ta%er a!"an#e is a positive allowance and is given on
all the vertical surfaces of pattern so that its withdrawal becomes easier. The normal amount of taper on
the eternal surfaces varies from 1, mm to 2, mm$mt.

The most commonl! used pattern material is wood, since it is readil! available and of low weight. *lso, it
can be easil! shaped and is relativel! cheap.

CASTING:

-asting process is one of the earliest metal shaping techni+ues known to human being. "t means pouring
molten metal into a refractor! mold cavit! and allows it to solidif!. The solidified object is taken out
from the mold either b! breaking or taking the mold apart. The solidified object is called casting and the
techni+ue followed in method is known as casting process.
&ig$: .ob/1 for making a pattern
&ig$: .ob/2 for making a pattern
-asting process is one of the earliest metal shaping techni+ues known to human being. "t means pouring
molten metal into a refractor! mold cavit! and allows it to solidif!. The solidified object is taken out
ther b! breaking or taking the mold apart. The solidified object is called casting and the
techni+ue followed in method is known as casting process.
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-asting process is one of the earliest metal shaping techni+ues known to human being. "t means pouring
molten metal into a refractor! mold cavit! and allows it to solidif!. The solidified object is taken out
ther b! breaking or taking the mold apart. The solidified object is called casting and the

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*n! casting process involves three basic steps, i.e. mold making, melting and pouring of metals into the
mold cavit!, and removal and finishing of casting after complete solidification.

SAND CASTING PROCESS:

'and is one of the cheaper, fairl! refractor! materials and hence commonl! used for making mold
cavities. 'and basicall!, contains grains of silica %'i02& and some impurities. For mold making purposes
sand is mied with a binder material such as cla!, molasses, oil, resin etc. The t!pical foundr! sand is a
miture of fresh and rec!cled sand, which contains approimatel! 1,2345 silica %'i02&, 3265 water, 1,2
2,5 cla!, and 1265 additives.

The grain si7e and grain shape are ver! important as the! define the surface +ualit! of casting and the
major mold parameters such as strength and permeabilit!8

i& 9igger grain si7e results in a worse surface finish
ii& "rregular grain shapes produce stronger mold
iii' :arger grain si7e ensures better permeabilit!

OT(ER CASTING PROCESSES:

";<='T(=;T -*'T";> %:0'T #*? -*'T";>&8
"n investment casting, the pattern is made of wa, which melts after making the mold to produce the
mold cavit!.

P=@(*;=;T (0:) -*'T";> P@0-=''='8
"n contrar! to sand casting, in permanent mold casting the mold is used to produce not a single but
man! castings.

A0T2-A*(9=@ )"=2-*'T";>8
"n hot chamber die2casting, the metal is melted in a container attached to the machine, and a piston is
used to inject the li+uid metal under high pressure into the die.

-0:) -A*(9=@ )"= -*'T";>8
"n cold2chamber die2casting, molten metal is poured into the chamber from an eternal melting
container, and a piston is used to inject the metal under high pressure into the die cavit!.

-=;T@"FB>*: -*'T";>8
"n centrifugal casting, molten metal is poured into a rotating mold to produce tubular parts such as
pipes, tubes, and rings.

PROCEDURES:

MOLD MAKING:

i. Place the drag part of the pattern with parting surface down on ground or molding board at the
center of the drag %flask&.
ii. @iddle molding sand to a depth of about 2 cm in the drag and pack this sand carefull! around
the pattern with fingers.
iii. Aeap more molding sand in the drag and ram with rammer carefull!.

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iv. 'trike off the ecess sand using strike bar.
v. (ake vent holes to within 1 cm of the pattern surface in the drag.
vi. Turn this complete drag and place the cope portion %flask& over it.
vii. Place the cope half of the pattern over the drag pattern matching the guide pins and appl!
parting sand over the parting surface. *lso place the sprue pin and riser pin in proper positions.
viii. -omplete the cope half b! repeating steps %ii& to %v&.
i. @emove the sprue and riser pins and make a pouring basin. 'eparate the cope and drag halves,
and place them with their parting faces up.
. (oisten sand at the copes of the pattern and remove pattern halves carefull! using draw spikes.
i. -ut gate and runner in the drag. @epair and clean the cavities in the two mold halves.
ii. *ssembled the two mold halves assemble and clamp them together.

MELTING AND POURING:

i. (elt the metal in the furnace. Bse appropriate flues at proper stages and measure metal
temperature from time to time.
ii. Pour the molten metal into the pouring ladle at a higher temperature %sa! 1,,o- higher& than
the pouring temperature. *s soon as the desired pouring temperature is reached, pour the
li+uid metal into the mold in a stead! stream with ladle close to the pouring basin of the mold.
)o not allow an! dross or slag to go in.
iii. *llow sufficient time for the metal to solidif! in the mold. 9reak the mold carefull! and remove
the casting.
iv. -ut2off the riser and gating s!stem from the casting and clean it for an! sand etc.
v. "nspect the casting visuall! and record an! surface and dimensional defects observed.




Fig. shows the various parts of a t!pical sand mold.




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MELTING AND POURING O& METALS:

The net important step in the making of casting is the melting of metal. * melting process must be
capable of providing molten metal not onl! at the proper temperature but also in the desired +uantit!,
with an acceptable +ualit!, and within a reasonable cost. "n order to transfer the metal from the furnace
into the molds, some t!pe of pouring device, or ladle, must be used. The primar! considerations are to
maintain the metal at the proper temperature for pouring and to ensure that onl! +ualit! metal will get
into the molds.

REMOVAL AND &INIS(ING O& CASTINGS:

*fter complete solidification, the castings are removed from the mold. (ost castings re+uire some
cleaning and finishing operations, such as removal of cores, removal of gates and risers, removal of fins
and flash, cleaning of surfaces, etc.



SC(EMATIC ILLUSTRATION O& T(E SEQUENCE O& OPERATIONS &OR SAND CASTING:


'tep 1 'tep 2


'tep 3 'tep C



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'tep 4


'tep 6

'tep 1 'tep 3


'tepD


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'tep 1, 'tep 11


'tep 12


MOLDING TOOLS:

'everal hand tools, such as rammer, trowel, hand riddle, shovel, rammers, 'trike off bar, (allet, )raw
spike, <ent rod, :ifters, Trowels, 'licks, 'moothers, 'pirit level, >ate cutter, 9ellows etc. are used as aids
in making a mold.

Aand riddle 'hovel @ammers 'prue pin

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'trike off bar )raw spike <ent rod


:ifter Trowel 'lick


'moother >ate cutter 9ellows

CASTING QUALIT):

There are numerous conditions in the casting operation for different defects to appear in the cast
product. 'ome of them are common to all casting processes8

1. (isruns8 -asting solidifies before completel! fill the mold. @easons are low pouring
temperature, slow pouring or thin cross section of casting.
2. -old shut8 Two portions flow together but without fusion between them. -auses are similar to
those of a misrun.
3. -old shots8 #hen splattering occurs during pouring, solid globules of metal are entrapped in the
casting. Proper gating s!stem designs could avoid this defect.
C. 'hrinkage cavit!8 <oids resulting from shrinkage. The problem can often be solved b! proper
riser design but ma! re+uire some changes in the part design as well.
4. (icro2porosit!8 ;etwork of small voids distributed throughout the casting. The defect occurs
more often in allo!s, because of the manner the! solidif!.
6. Aot tearing8 -racks caused b! low mold collapsibilit!. The! occur when the material is restrained
from contraction during solidification. * proper mold design can solve the problem.






AIM: To prepare a wooden pattern for given object of given dimensions.




TOOLS REQUIRED:



SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS:



RESULT:



PRECAUTIONS:





LABORATORY EXERCISE_1

PATTERN MAKING

To prepare a wooden pattern for given object of given dimensions.
SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS:
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LABORATORY EXERCISE_2

MOULD MAKING



AIM: To prepare a sand mold from the prepared pattern.



TOOLS REQUIRED:



SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS:



RESULT:



PRECAUTIONS:


























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LABORATORY EXERCISE_3

CASTING



AIM: To melt and pour wa into the mould.



TOOLS REQUIRED:



SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS:



RESULT:



PRECAUTIONS:


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FITTING SHOP




DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

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FITTING

INTRODUCTION:


Machine tools are capable of pro!cin" #or$ at a faster rate% b!t% there are occasions #hen
co&ponents are processe at the bench' So&eti&es% it beco&es necessar( to replace or repair
co&ponent #hich &!st be fit acc!ratel( #ith another co&ponent on reasse&bl(' This in)ol)es a
certain a&o!nt of han fittin"' The asse&bl( of &achine tools% *i"s% "a!"es% etc% in)ol)es certain
a&o!nt of bench #or$' The acc!rac( of #or$ one epens !pon the e+perience an s$ill of the
fitter'

The ter& ,bench #or$- refers to the pro!ction of co&ponents b( han on the bench% #here as
fittin" eals #hich the asse&bl( of &atin" parts% thro!"h re&o)al of &etal% to obtain the
re.!ire fit'

/oth the bench #or$ an fittin" re.!ires the !se of n!&ber of si&ple han tools an
consierable &an!al efforts' The operations in the abo)e #or$s consist of filin"% chippin"%
scrapin"% sa#in" rillin"% an tappin"'

HOLDING TOOLS:

BENCH VICE:


The bench )ice is a #or$ holin" e)ice' It is the &ost co&&onl( !se )ice in a fittin" shop' The
bench )ice is sho#n in Fi"!re'
















Figure0 /ench 1ice

It is fi+e to the bench #ith bolts an n!ts' The )ice bo( consists of t#o &ain parts% fi+e *a#
an &o)able *a#' 2hen the )ice hanle is t!rne in a cloc$#ise irection% the sliin" *a# forces
the #or$ a"ainst the fi+e *a#' 3a# plates are &ae of harene steel' Serrations on the *a#s
ens!re a "oo "rip' 3a# caps &ae of soft &aterial are !se to protect finishe s!rfaces% "rippe
in the )ice' The si4e of the )ice is specifie b( the len"th of the *a#s'

The )ice bo( is &ae of cast Iron #hich is stron" in co&pression% #ea$ in tension an so
fract!res !ner shoc$s an therefore sho!l ne)er be ha&&ere'

V BLOCK:

1 bloc$ is rectan"!lar or s.!are bloc$ #ith a 1 "roo)e on one or both sies opposite to each

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other' The an"le of the ,1- is !s!all( 56
6
' 1 bloc$ #ith a cla&p is !se to hol c(linrical #or$
sec!rel(% !rin" la(o!t of &eas!re&ent% for &eas!rin" operations or for rillin" for this the bar is
face lon"it!inall( in the 1 Groo)e an the scre# of 1 cla&p is ti"htene' This "rip the ro is
fir& #ith its a+is parallel to the a+is of the ) "roo)e'

C-CLAMP:

This is !se to hol #or$ a"ainst an an"le plate or ) bloc$ or an( other s!rface% #hen "rippin" is
re.!ire'

Its fi+e *a# is shape li$e En"lish alphabet ,C- an the &o)able *a# is ro!n in shape an irectl(
fitte to the threae scre# at the en 'The #or$in" principle of this cla&p is the sa&e as that of
the bench )ice'

















Figure0 1 bloc$ Figure0 C cla&p

MARKING AND MEASURING TOOLS:

SURFACE PLATE0

The s!rface plate is &achine to fine li&its an is !se for testin" the flatness of the #or$ piece'
It is also !se for &ar$in" o!t s&all bo+ an is &ore precio!s than the &ar$in" table' The e"ree
of the finishe epens !pon #hether it is esi"ne for bench #or$ in a fittin" shop or for !sin"
in an inspection roo&7 the s!rface plate is &ae of Cast Iron% harene Steel or Granite stone' It
is specifie b( len"th% #ith% hei"ht an "rae' Hanles are pro)ie on t#o opposite sies% to
carr( it #hile shiftin" fro& one place to another'














Figure0 S!rface plate Figure0 An"le plate



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TRY-SQUARE:

It is &eas!rin" an &ar$in" tool for 56
6
an"le 'In practice% it is !se for chec$in" the s.!areness
of &an( t(pes of s&all #or$s #hen e+tre&e acc!rac( is not re.!ire 'The blae of the Tr( s.!are
is &ae of harene steel an the stoc$ of cast Iron or steel' The si4e of the Tr( s.!are is
specifie b( the len"th of the blae'

SCRIBER:

A Scriber is a slener steel tool% !se to scribe or &ar$ lines on &etal #or$ pieces' It is &ae of
harene an te&pere Hi"h Carbon Steel' The tip of the scriber is "enerall( "ro!n at 89
o
to 8:
o
'
It is "enerall( a)ailable in len"ths% ran"in" fro& 89:&& to 9:6&& 'It has t#o pointe ens the
bent en is !se for &ar$in" lines #here the strai"ht en cannot reach'













Figure0 Tr( s.!are
Figure0 Scriber


ODD LEG CALIPER:

This is also calle ,3enn( Caliper- or Her&aphroite' This is !se for &ar$in" parallel liners fro& a
finishe e"e an also for locatin" the center of ro!n bars7 it has one le" pointe li$e a i)ier
an the other le" bent li$e a caliper' It is specifie b( the len"th of the le" !p to the hin"e point'

DIVIDER:

It is basicall( si&ilar to the calipers e+cept that its le"s are $ept strai"ht an pointe at the
&eas!rin" e"e' This is !se for &ar$in" circles% arcs la(in" o!t perpenic!lar lines% b( settin"
lines' It is &ae of case harene &il steel or harene an te&pere lo# carbon steel' Its si4e
is specifie b( the len"th of the le"















Figure0 O le" caliper an i)ier

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TRAMMEL:

Tra&&el is !se for ra#in" lar"e circles or arcs'

PUNCHES:

These are !se for &a$in" inentations on the scribe lines% to &a$e the& )isible clearl(' These
are &ae of hi"h carbon steel' A p!nch is specifie b( its len"th an ia&eter ;sa( as 8:6-
89':&&<' It consists of a c(linrical $n!rle bo(% #hich is plain for so&e len"th at the top of it'
At the other en% it is "ro!n to a point' The tapere point of the p!nch is harene o)er a len"th
of 96 to =6&&'

Dot punch is !se to li"htl( inent alon" the la(o!t lines% to locate center of holes an to pro)ie
a s&all center &ar$ for i)ier point% etc' for this p!rpose% the p!nch is "ro!n to a conical point
ha)in" >6? incl!e an"le' Center punch is si&ilar to the ot p!nch% e+cept that it is "ro!n to a
conical point ha)in" 56? incl!e an"le' It is !se to &ar$ the location of the holes to be rille'









Figure0 P!nches
CALIPERS:

The( are inirect &eas!rin" tools !se to &eas!re or transfer linear i&ensions' These are !se
#ith the help of a steel R!le to chec$ insie an o!tsie &eas!re&ents' These are &ae of Case
harene &il steel or harene an te&pere lo# carbon steel' 2hile !sin"% b!t the le"s of the
caliper are set a"ainst the s!rface of the #or$% #hether insie or o!tsie an the istance
bet#een the le"s is &eas!re #ith the help of a scale an the sa&e can be transferre to
another esire place' These are specifie b( the len"th of the le"' In the case of o!tsie caliper%
the le"s are bent in#ars an in the case of insie caliper% the le"s bent o!t#ars'



















Figure0 Calipers

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CUTTING TOOLS:

HACK SA!:

The Hac$ Sa# is !se for c!ttin" &etal b( han' It consists of a fra&e% #hich hols a thin blae%
fir&l( in position' Hac$sa# blae is specifie b( the n!&ber of teeth for centi&eter' Hac$sa#
blaes ha)e a n!&ber of teeth ran"in" fro& : to 8: per centi&eter ;c&<' /laes ha)in" lesser
n!&ber of teeth per c& are !se for c!ttin" soft &aterials li$e al!&in!&% brass an bron4e'
/laes ha)in" lar"er n!&ber of teeth per centi&eter are !se for c!ttin" har &aterials li$e steel
an cast Iron'

Hac$sa# blaes are classifie as ;i< All har an ;ii< fle+ible t(pe' The all har blaes are &ae of
H'S'S% harene an te&pere thro!"ho!t to retain their c!ttin" e"es lon"er' These are !se to
c!t har &etals' These blaes are har an brittle an can brea$ easil( b( t#istin" an forcin"
the& into the #or$ #hile sa#in"'

Fle+ible blaes are &ae of H'S'S or lo# allo( steel b!t onl( the teeth are harene an the rest
of the blae is soft an fle+ible' These are s!itable for !se b( !ns$ille or se&i s$ille persons'











Figure: Hac$sa# fra&e #ith blae

CHISELS:

Chisels are !se for re&o)in" s!rpl!s &etal or for c!ttin" thin sheets' These tools are &ae fro&
6'5@ to 8'6@ carbon steel of octa"onal or he+a"onal section' Chisels are anneale% harene an
te&pere to pro!ce a to!"h shan$ an har c!ttin" e"e' Annealin" relie)es the internal
stresses in a &etal' The c!ttin" an"le of the chisel for "eneral p!rpose is abo!t >6?'







Figure: Flat chisel

T!IST DRILL:

T#ist rills are !se for &a$in" holes' These are &ae of Hi"h spee steel' /oth strai"ht an
taper shan$ t#ist rills are !se' The parallel shan$ t#ist rill can be hel in an orinar( self A
centerin" rill chec$' The tapper shan$ t#ist rill fits into a corresponin" tapere bore pro)ie
in the rillin" &achine spinle'




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Figure: T#ist rills

TAPS AND TAP !RENCHES:

A tap is a harene an steel tool% !se for c!ttin" internal threa in a rill hole' Han Taps are
!s!all( s!pplie in sets of three in each ia&eter an threa si4e' Each set consists of a tapper
tap% inter&eiate tap an pl!" or botto&in" tap' Taps are &ae of hi"h carbon steel or hi"h
spee steel'



























Figure: Taps an tap #rench


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DIES AND DIE HOLDERS:

Dies are the c!ttin" tools !se for &a$in" e+ternal threa' Dies are &ae either soli or split
t(pe' The( are fi+e in a ie stoc$ for holin" an a*!stin" the ie "ap' The( are &ae of Steel or
Hi"h Carbon Steel'

















Figure: Dies an ie holer

BENCH DRILLING MACHINE:

Holes are rille for fastenin" parts #ith ri)ets% bolts or for pro!cin" internal threa' /ench
rillin" &achine is the &ost )ersatile &achine !se in a fittin" shop for the p!rpose' T#ist rills%
&ae of tool steel or hi"h spee steel are !se #ith the rillin" &achine for rillin" holes'

Follo#in" are the sta"es in rillin" #or$

8' Select the correct si4e rills% p!t it into the chec$ an loc$ it fir&l(

9' A*!st the spee of the &achine to s!it the #or$ b( chan"in" the belt on the p!lle(s' Bse hi"h
spee for s&all rills an soft &aterials an lo# spee for lar"e ia&eter rills an har
&aterials'

=' La(o!t of the location of the pole an &ar$ it #ith a center p!nch'

C' Hol the #or$ fir&l( in the )ice on the &achine table an cla&p it irectl( on to the &achine
table'
:' P!t on the po#er% locate the p!nch &ar$ an appl( sli"ht press!re #ith the Fee Hanle'

>' Once Drillin" is co&&ence at the correct location% appl( eno!"h press!re an contin!e
rillin"' 2hen rillin" steel appl( c!ttin" oil at the rillin" point'

D' Release the press!re sli"htl(% #hen the rill point pierces the lo#er s!rface of the &etal' This
pre)ents the rill catchin" an a&a"in" the #or$ or rill'

E' On co&pletion of rillin" retrace the rill o!t of the #or$ an p!t off the po#er s!ppl('



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Figure: /ench rill

FINISHING TOOLS:

REAMERS:

Rea&in" is an operation of si4in" an finishin" a rille hole% #ith the help of a c!ttin" tool calle
rea&er ha)in" a n!&ber of c!ttin" e"es' For this% a hole is first rille% the si4e of #hich is
sli"htl( s&aller than the finishe si4e an then a han rea&er or &achine rea&er is !se for
finishin" the hole to the correct si4e'

Han Rea&er is &ae of Hi"h Carbon Steel an has left han spiral fl!tes so that% it is pre)ente
fro& scre#in" into the #hole !rin" operation' The Shan$ en of the rea&er is &ae strai"ht so
that it can be hel in a tap #rench' It is operate b( han% #ith a tap #rench fitte on the s.!are
en of the rea&er an #ith the #or$ piece hel in the )ice' The bo( of the rea&er is "i)en a
sli"ht tapper at its #or$in" en% for its eas( entr( into the #hole !rin" operation% it is rotate
onl( in cloc$ #ise irection an also #hile re&o)in" it fro& the #hole'













Figure: Rea&ers

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FILES:

Filin" is one of the &ethos of re&o)in" s&all a&o!nts of &aterial fro& the s!rface of a &etal
part' A file is harene steel too% ha)in" s&all parallel ro#s of c!ttin" e"es or teeth on its
s!rfaces'

On the faces% the teeth are !s!all( ia"onal to the e"e' One en of the file is shape to fit into a
#ooen hanle' The fi"!re sho#s )ario!s parts of a han file' The han file is parallel in #ith
an taperin" sli"htl( in thic$ness% to#ars the tip' It is pro)ie #ith o!ble c!t teeth' On the
faces% sin"le c!t on one e"e an no teeth on the other e"e #hich is $no#n as a safe e"e'








Figure0 Parts of a han file

Files are classifie accorin" to their shape% c!ttin" teeth an pitch or "rae of the teeth' The
fi"!re sho#s the )ario!s t(pes of files base on their shape'











Figure: Sin"le an o!ble c!t files

















Neele file
Figure: T(pes of files

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MISCELLANEOUS TOOLS:

FILE CARD:

It is a &etal br!sh% !se for cleanin" the files% to free the& fro& filin"s% clo""e inFbet#een the
teeth'

Figure: File car

SPIRIT LEVEL:

It is !se to chec$ the le)elin" of &achines'

HAMMER:

Ha&&er is a stri$in" tool #hich is !se to appl( force on an( han c!ttin" tool for c!ttin"%
chippin"% &ar$in" an pro!cin" i&pressions' Ha&&ers are specifie on the basis of their #ei"ht
an si4e of the peen' Generall( ha&&ers are &ae of carbon steel ha)in" percenta"e of carbon
of 6'E A 8' Ha&&ers are cate"ori4e as0F ball peen% cross peen an strai"ht peen ha&&ers'

BALL PEEN HAMMER:

/allF Peen Ha&&ers are na&e% epenin" !pon their shape an &aterial an specifie b( their
#ei"ht' A ball peen ha&&er has a flat face #hich is !se for "eneral #or$ an a ball en%
partic!larl( !se for ri)etin"'


Figure: /all peen ha&&er

CROSS-PEEN HAMMER:

It is si&ilar to ball peen ha&&er% e+cept the shape of the peen' This is !se for chippin"% ri)etin"%
benin" an stretchin" &etals an ha&&erin" insie the c!r)es an sho!lers'



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STRAIGHT-PEEN HAMMER:

This is si&ilar to cross peen ha&&er% b!t its peen is inFline #ith the ha&&er hanle' It is !se for
s#a"in"% ri)etin" in restricte places an stretchin" &etals'

Figure: Cross peen ha&&er Fi"!re Figure: Strai"ht peen ha&&er

SCRE! DRIVER:

A scre# ri)er is esi"ne to t!rn scre#s' The blae is &ae of steel an is a)ailable in ifferent
len"ths an ia&eters' The "rinin" of the tip to the correct shape is )er( i&portant' A star scre#
ri)er is speciall( esi"ne to fit the hea of star scre#s' The en of the blae is fl!te instea of
flattene' The scre# ri)er is specifie b( the len"th of the &etal part fro& hanle to the tip'



Figure: Scre# ri)ers

SAFE PRACTICE:

The follo#in" are so&e of the safe an correct #or$ practices in bench #or$ an fittin" shop #ith
respect to the tools !se
8' Geep hans an tools #ipe clean an free of irt% oil an "rease' Dr( tools are safer to !se
than slipper( tools'
9' Do not carr( sharp tools on poc$ets'
=' 2ear leather shoes an not sanals'
C' Don-t #ear loose clothes'
:' Do not $eep #or$in" tools at the e"e of the table'

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>' Position the #or$ piece s!ch that the c!t to be &ae is close to the )ice' This practice pre)ents
sprin"in"% sa# brea$a"e an personal in*!r('
D' Appl( force onl( on the for#ar ;c!ttin"< stro$e an relie)e the force on the ret!rn stro$e
#hile sa#in" an filin"'
E' Do not hol the #or$ piece in han #hile c!ttin"'
5' Bse the file #ith a properl( fitte ti"ht hanle'
86' After filin"% re&o)e the b!rrs fro& the e"es of the #or$% to pre)ent c!ts to the fin"ers'
88' Do not !se )ice as an an)il'
89' 2hile sa#in"% $eep the blae strai"ht7 other#ise it #ill brea$
8=' Do not !se a file #itho!t hanle'
8C' Clean the )ice after !se'






























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LABORATORY EXERCISE_1

FITTING



AIM: To &a$e 1F fit fro& the "i)en t#o MS plates an rillin" an Tappin" as sho#n in fi"!re'



THEORY:

Machine tools are capable of pro!cin" #or$ at a faster rate% b!t% there are occasions #hen
co&ponents are processe at the bench' So&eti&es% it beco&es necessar( to replace or repair
co&ponent #hich &!st be fit acc!ratel( #ith another co&ponent on reasse&bl(' This in)ol)es a
certain a&o!nt of han fittin"' The asse&bl( of &achine tools% *i"s% "a!"es% etc% in)ol)es certain
a&o!nt of bench #or$' The acc!rac( of #or$ one epens !pon the e+perience an s$ill of the
fitter'

The ter& ,bench #or$- refers to the pro!ction of co&ponents b( han on the bench% #here as
fittin" eals #hich the asse&bl( of &atin" parts% thro!"h re&o)al of &etal% to obtain the
re.!ire fit'

/oth the bench #or$ an fittin" re.!ires the !se of n!&ber of si&ple han tools an
consierable &an!al efforts' The operations in the abo)e #or$s consist of filin"% chippin"%
scrapin"% sa#in" rillin"% an tappin"'


TOOLS REQUIRED:

/ench )ice% set of Files% Tr(Fs.!are% Scriber% Steel r!le% /allFpeen ha&&er% Dot p!nch% Hac$sa#%
1ernier caliper% S!rface plate% An"le plate% :&& rill bit% =&& rill bit% M> tap set #ith #rench%
An)il an Drillin" &achine'





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SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS:

8' The b!rrs in the pieces are re&o)e an the i&ensions are chec$e #ith steel r!le'
9' Ma$e both pieces s!rface le)els an ri"ht an"les b( fi+in" in the 1ice% !se Files for re&o)in"
&aterial to "et le)el'
=' 2ith the help of Tr( s.!are chec$ the ri"ht an"les an s!rface le)els'
C' Bsin" S!rface plate an An"le plate &ar$ the "i)en t#o &etal pieces as per ra#in" #ith steel
r!le an o le" caliper'
:' P!nch the scribe lines #ith ot p!nch an ha&&er $eepin" on the An)il' P!nch to p!nch
"i)es : && "ap'
>' C!t e+cess &aterial #here)er necessar( #ith Hac$sa# fra&e #ith blae'
D' The corners an flat s!rfaces are file b( !sin" s.!areHflat an trian"!lar file to "et the sharp
corners'
E' No# a hole of ia&eter E': && is rille b( a &an!al rillin" &achine'
5' An internal threa is pro!ce #ith the help of tap an tape #rench on the rille hole'
E' Di&ensions are chec$e b( )ernier caliper an &atch the t#o pieces' An( efect notice% are
rectifie b( filin" #ith a s&ooth file'
5' Care is ta$en to see that the p!nche ots are not crosse% #hich is inicate b( the half of the
p!nch ots left on the pieces'

RESULT:

The re.!ire 1F fittin" is th!s obtaine% b( follo#in" the sta"es% as escribe abo)e'


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MACHINING PROCESSES






DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

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MACHINING PROCESSES - INTRODUCTION:

Metal cutting or traditional machining roce!!e! are al!o "no#n a! con$entional machining roce!!e!%
The!e roce!!e! are commonl& carried out in machine !ho! or tool room 'or machining c&lindrical or
'lat (o)! to a de!ired !hae* !i+e and 'ini!h on a rough )loc" o' (o) material #ith the hel o' a #edge
!haed tool% General metal cutting oeration! are !ho#n in the )elo# 'igure,



Cutting tool! er'orm! the main machining oeration% The& comri!e o' !ingle oint cutting tool or
multioint cutting tool!% It i! a )od& ha$ing teeth or cutting edge! on it% A !ingle oint cutting tool -!uch
a! a lathe* !haer and lanner and )oring tool. ha! onl& one cutting edge* #herea! a multi,oint cutting
tool -!uch a! milling cutter* milling cutter* drill* reamer and )roach. ha! a num)er o' teeth or cutting
edge! on it! eriher&%

A cutting tool made o' a much harder material than the material o' the art to )e machined% Cutting
tool! are made o' material #hich can )e hardened )& !uita)le heat treatment% During machining* lot o'
heat i! generated and the temerature o' the cutting edge o' the tool ma& reach /0123114C% The tool
mu!t maintain it! hardne!! e$en at !uch ele$ated temerature!% Thi! roert& o' retaining it! hardne!!
at ele$ated temerature! i! called 5red hardne!!6% Cutting tool! de$elo the roert& o' red,hardne!!
due to addition o' tung!ten and mol&)denum to high car)on !teel% The!e da&!* cutting tool! are made o'
high !eed !teel* or tung!ten car)ide% Tool! made o' ceramic material! -li"e Al7O8* SiC.* and
ol&cr&!talline diamond! are al!o u!ed 'or !ecial alication!%

High speed steels (18:4:1 are mo!t commonl& oerated a! cutting tool! at much higher !eed i%e% t#ice
or thrice #here a! tool !teel% It i! the mo!t common "ind o' cutting tool% It contain! 9:; tung!ten* <;
chromium and 9 ; $anadium* 1%: car)on and remaining iron% Ch!"#i$# imro$e! corro!ion re!i!tance%
T$%gste% increa!e! hardne!!* #ear re!i!tance* !hoc"! re!i!tance and magnetic reluctance and
&'%'di$# imro$e! ten!ile !trength* ela!tic limit* ductilit&* 'atigue re!i!tance* !hoc" re!i!tance and
re!on!e to heat treatment%








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GEOMETR( O) SING*E POINT CUTTING TOO*:



NOMENC*ATURE SING*E POINT TOO*:

(i +AC, RA,E ANG*E:

It i! the angle )et#een the 'ace o' the tool and a line arallel #ith )a!e o' the tool mea!ured in a
erendicular lane through the !ide cutting edge% I' the !loe 'ace i! do#n#ard to#ard the no!e* it i!
negati$e )ac" ra"e angle and i' it i! u#ard to#ard no!e* it i! o!iti$e )ac" ra"e angle% Thi! angle hel!
in remo$ing the chi! a#a& 'rom the #or" iece%

(ii SIDE RA,E ANG*E:

It i! the angle )& #hich the 'ace o' tool i! inclined !ide#a&!% Thi! angle o' tool determine! the thic"ne!!
o' the tool )ehind the cutting edge% It i! ro$ided on tool to ro$ide clearance )et#een #or" iece and

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tool !o a! to re$ent the ru))ing o' #or", iece #ith end 'la"e o' tool% It i! the angle )et#een the
!ur'ace the 'lan" immediatel& )elo# the oint and the line do#n 'rom the oint erendicular to the
)a!e%

(iii END RE*IE) ANG*E:

It i! the angle that allo#! the tool to cut #ithout ru))ing on the #or", iece% It i! de'ined a! the angle
)et#een the ortion o' the end 'lan" immediatel& )elo# the cutting edge and a line erendicular to
the )a!e o' the tool* mea!ured at right angle! to the 'lan"% Some time e=tra end clearance i! al!o
ro$ided on the tool that i! al!o "no#n a! end clearance angle% It i! the !econdar& angle directl& )elo#
the end relie' angle%

(i- SIDE RE*IE) ANG*E:

It i! the angle that re$ent! the inter'erence a! the tool enter! the material% It i! the angle )et#een the
ortion o' the !ide 'lan" immediatel& )elo# the !ide edge and a line erendicular to the )a!e o' the
tool mea!ured at right angle! to the !ide% It i! incororated on the tool to ro$ide relie' )et#een it!
'lan" and the #or" iece !ur'ace% Some time e=tra !ide clearance i! al!o ro$ided on the tool that i! al!o
"no#n a! !ide clearance angle% It i! the !econdar& angle directl& )elo# the !ide relie' angle%

(- END CUTTING EDGE ANG*E:

It i! the angle )et#een the end cutting edge and a line erendicular to the !han" o' the tool% It ro$ide!
clearance )et#een tool cutting edge and #or" iece%

(-i SIDE CUTTING EDGE ANG*E:

It i! the angle )et#een !traight cutting edge on the !ide o' tool and the !ide o' the !han"% It i! al!o
"no#n a! lead angle% It i! re!on!i)le 'or turning the chi a#a& 'rom the 'ini!hed !ur'ace%

(-ii NOSE RADIUS:

It i! the no!e oint connecting the !ide cutting edge and end cutting edge% It o!!e!!e! !mall radiu!
#hich i! re!on!i)le 'or generating !ur'ace 'ini!h on the #or",iece
















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*ATHE- INTRODUCTION:

In a machine !ho* metal! are cut to !hae on di''erent machine tool!% A lathe i! u!ed to cut and !hae
the metal )& re$ol$ing the #or" again!t a cutting tool% The #or" i! clamed either in a chuc"* 'itted on to
the lathe !indle or in,)et#een the center!% The cutting tool i! 'i=ed in a tool o!t* mounted on a
mo$a)le carriage that i! o!itioned on the lathe )ed% The cutting tool can )e 'ed on to the #or"* either
length#i!e or cro!!,#i!e% >hile turning* the chuc" rotate! in counter,cloc"#i!e direction* #hen $ie#ed
'rom the tail !toc" end%

PRINCIPA* PARTS O) A *ATHE:


)ig$!e: Part! o' a center Lathe

A)o$e 'igure !ho#! a center lathe* indicating the main art!% The name i! due to the 'act that #or"
iece! are held )& the center!%

1. +ED:

It i! an e!!ential art o' a lathe* #hich mu!t )e !trong and rigid% It carrie! all art! o' the machine and
re!i!t! the cutting 'orce!% The carriage and the tail !toc" mo$e along the guide #a&! ro$ided on the
)ed% It i! u!uall& made o' ca!t iron%

/. HEAD STOC,:

It contain! either a cone ulle& or gearing! to ro$ide the nece!!ar& range o' !eed! and 'eed!% It
contain! the main !indle* to #hich the #or" i! held and rotated%

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0. TAI* STOC,:

It i! u!ed to !uort the right hand end o' a long #or" iece% It ma& )e clamed in an& o!ition along the
lathe )ed% The tail !toc" !indle ha! an internal Mor!e taer to recei$e the dead center that !uort!
the #or"% Drill!* reamer!* ta! ma& al!o )e 'itted into the !indle* 'or er'orming oeration! !uch a!
drilling* reaming and taing%

4. CARRIAGE OR SADD*E:

It i! u!ed to control the mo$ement o' the cutting tool% The carriage a!!em)l& con!i!t! o' the longitudinal
!lide* cro!! !lide and the comound !lide and aron% The cro!! !lide mo$e! acro!! the length o' the )ed
and erendicular to the a=i! o' the !indle% Thi! mo$ement i! u!ed 'or 'acing and to ro$ide the
nece!!ar& deth o' cut #hile turning% The aron* #hich i! )olted to the !addle* i! on the 'ront o' the
lathe and contain! the longitudinal and cro!! !lide control!% Thi! mo$ement i! controlled )& manuall&
oerating the hand tra$er!ing #heel% It can al!o )e imarted thi! tra$er!ing motion at di''erent !eed!
automaticall& )& engaging into the )eed R"d "! )eed Sh'1t.

2. COMPOUND REST:

It !uort! the tool o!t% ?& !#i$eling the comound re!t on the cro!! !lide* !hort taer! ma& )e turned
to an& de!ired angle!%

3. TOO* POST:

The tool o!t hold! the tool holder or the tool* #hich ma& )e ad(u!ted to an& #or"ing o!ition%

4. *EAD SCRE5:

It i! a long threaded !ha't* located in 'ront o' the carriage* running 'rom the head,!toc" to the tail !toc"%
It i! geared to the !indle and control! the mo$ement o' the tool* either 'or automatic 'eeding or 'or
cutting thread!% The hal' nut or !lit nut i! u!ed 'or thread cutting in a lathe% It engage! or di!engage!
the carriage #ith the lead !cre# !o that the rotation o' the lead !cre# i! u!ed to tra$er!e the tool along
the #or" iece to cut !cre# thread!%

8. CENTERS:

There are t#o center! "no#n a! dead center and li$e center% The dead center i! o!itioned in the tail
!toc" !indle and the li$e center* in the head,!toc" !indle% >hile turning )et#een center!* the dead
center doe! not re$ol$e #ith the #or" #hile the li$e center re$ol$e! #ith the #or"%

5OR,-HO*DING DE&ICES:

1. THREE 6A5 CHUC,:

It i! a #or" holding de$ice ha$ing three (a#! -!el',centering. #hich #ill clo!e or oen #ith re!ect to the
chuc" center or the !indle center* a! !ho#n in 'igure% It i! u!ed 'or holding regular o)(ect! li"e round
)ar!* he=agonal rod!* etc%




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/. )OUR 6A5 CHUC,:

A 'our (a#! chuc" i! 'or claming irregularl& !haed (o)!% In <,(a#! chuc" each (a# mo$e! in radiall&
indeendent o' other (a#!% Centering mean! that the centre line o' the #or" iece !hould nearl&
coincide #ith centre line o' machine !indle% It i! not enough to hold the (o) centrall& in the chuc"* the
ortion o' #or" iece ro(ecting out o' chuc" !hould al!o )e centrall& laced%


)ig$!e: Three (a# chuc" )ig$!e: Four (a# chuc"

0. )ACE P*ATE:

It i! a late o' large diameter* u!ed 'or turning oeration!% Certain t&e! o' #or" that cannot )e held in
chuc"! are held on the 'ace late #ith the hel o' $ariou! acce!!orie!%


)ig$!e: Face late )ig$!e: Lathe dog and dri$ing late

4. *ATHE DOGS AND DRI&ING P*ATE:

The!e are u!ed to dri$e a #or" iece that i! held )et#een center!% The!e are ro$ided #ith an oening
to recei$e and clam the #or" iece and dog tail* the tail o' the dog i! carried )& the in ro$ided in the
dri$ing late 'or dri$ing the #or" iece%

*ATHE OPERATIONS:

1. TURNING:

C&lindrical !hae!* )oth e=ternal and internal* are roduced )& turning oeration% Turning i! the roce!!
in #hich the material i! remo$ed )& a tra$er!ing cutting tool* 'rom the !ur'ace o' a rotating #or" iece%
The oeration u!ed 'or machining internal !ur'ace! i! o'ten called the )oring oeration in #hich a hole
re$iou!l& drilled i! enlarged% For turning long #or"* 'ir!t it !hould )e 'aced and center drilled at one end
and then !uorted )& mean! o' the tail,!toc" centre%




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/. +ORING:

?oring i! enlarging a hole and i! u!ed #hen correct !i+e drill i! not a$aila)le% Ho#e$er* it !hould )e noted
that )oring cannot ma"e a hole%

0. )ACING:

Facing i! a machining oeration* er'ormed to ma"e the end !ur'ace o' the #or" iece* 'lat and
erendicular to the a=i! o' rotation% For thi!* the #or" iece ma& )e held in a chuc" and rotated a)out
the lathe a=i!% A 'acing tool i! 'ed erendicular to the a=i! o' the lathe% The tool i! !lightl& inclined
to#ard! the end o' the #or" iece%

4. TAPER TURNING:

A taer i! de'ined a! the uni'orm change in the diameter o' a #or" iece* mea!ured along it! length% It i!
e=re!!ed a! a ratio o' the di''erence in diameter! to the length% It i! al!o e=re!!ed in degree! o' hal'
the included -taer. angle% Taer turning re'er! to the roduction o' a conical !ur'ace* on the #or" iece
on a lathe% Short !tee taer! ma& )e cut on a lathe )& !#i$eling the compound rest to the re@uired
angle% Here* the cutting tool i! 'ed )& mean! o' the comound !lide 'eed handle% The #or" iece i!
rotated in a chuc" or 'ace late or )et#een center!%

2. DRI**ING:

Hole! that are a=iall& located in c&lindrical art! are roduced )& drilling oeration* u!ing a t#i!t drill%
For thi!* the #or" iece i! rotated in a chuc" or 'ace late% The tail !toc" !indle ha! a !tandard taer%
The drill )it i! 'itted into the tail !toc" !indle directl& or through drill chuc"% The tail !toc" i! then mo$ed
o$er the )ed and clamed on it near the #or"% >hen the (o) rotate!* the drill )it i! 'ed into the #or" )&
turning the tail !toc" hand #heel%

3. ,NUR*ING:

It i! the roce!! o' em)o!!ing a diamond !haed regular attern on the !ur'ace o' a #or" iece u!ing a
!ecial "nurling tool% Thi! tool con!i!t! o' a !et o' hardened !teel roller! in a holder #ith the teeth cut on
their !ur'ace in a de'inite attern% The tool i! held rigidl& on the tool o!t and the roller! are re!!ed
again!t the re$ol$ing #or" iece to !@uee+e the metal again!t the multile cutting edge!% The uro!e o'
"nurling i! to ro$ide an e''ecti$e griing !ur'ace on a #or" iece to re$ent it 'rom !liing #hen
oerated )& hand%

4. CHAM)ERING:

It i! the oeration o' )e$eling the e=treme end o' a #or" iece% Cham'er i! ro$ided 'or )etter loo"* to
ena)le nut to a!! 'reel& on threaded #or" iece* to remo$e )urr! and rotect the end o' the #or"
iece 'rom )eing damaged%

8. THREADING:

Threading i! nothing )ut cutting helical groo$e on a #or" iece% Thread! ma& )e cut either on the
internal or e=ternal c&lindrical !ur'ace!% A !eciall& !haed cutting tool* "no#n a! thread cutting tool* i!
u!ed 'or thi! uro!e% Thread cutting in a lathe i! er'ormed )& tra$er!ing the cutting tool at a de'inite
rate* in roortion to the rate at #hich the #or" re$ol$e!%

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All the oeration! o' Lathe are !ho#n in the 'ollo#ing 'igure!A,


)ig$!e: Oeration! o' Lathe




















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SA)ET( PRECAUTIONS:

9% Al#a&! #ear e&e rotection , re'era)l& indu!trial @ualit& !a'et& gla!!e! #ith !ide,!hield!% The
lathe can thro# o'' !har* hot metal chi! at con!idera)le !eed a! #ell a! !in o'' !iral! o'
metal that can )e @uite ha+ardou!% DonBt ta"e chance! #ith &our e&e!%

7% >ear !hort !lee$e !hirt!* loo!e !lee$e! can catch on rotating #or" and @uic"l& ull &our hand or
arm into harmB! #a&%

8% >ear !hoe! , re'era)l& leather #or" !hoe! , to rotect &our 'eet 'rom !har metal chi! on the
!ho 'loor and 'rom tool! and chun"! o' metal that ma& get droed%

<% Remo$e #ri!t #atche!* nec"lace!* chain! and other (e#elr&% Tie )ac" long hair !o it canBt get
caught in the rotating #or"% Thin" a)out #hat haen! to &our 'ace i' &our hair get! entangled%

0% Al#a&! dou)le chec" to ma"e !ure &our #or" i! !ecurel& clamed in the chuc" or )et#een
center! )e'ore !tarting the lathe% Start the lathe at lo# !eed and increa!e the !eed graduall&%

/% Get in the ha)it o' remo$ing the chuc" "e& immediatel& a'ter u!e% Some u!er! recommend
ne$er remo$ing &our hand 'rom the chuc" "e& #hen it i! in the chuc"% The chuc" "e& can )e a
lethal ro(ectile i' the lathe i! !tarted #ith the chuc" "e& in the chuc"%

3% Cee &our 'inger! clear o' the rotating #or" and cutting tool!% Thi! !ound! o)$iou!* )ut I am
o'ten temted to )rea" a#a& metal !iral! a! the& 'orm at the cutting tool%

:% A$oid reaching o$er the !inning chuc"% For 'iling oeration!* hold the tang end o' the 'ile in
&our le't hand !o that &our hand and arm are not a)o$e the !inning chuc"%

D% Ne$er u!e a 'ile #ith a )are tang , the tang could )e 'orced )ac" into &our #ri!t or alm%






















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*A+ORATOR( E7ERCISE81

*ATHE



AIM: To reare a (o) on lathe in$ol$ing 'acing* out!ide turning* taer turning* !te turning*
radiu! ma"ing and arting o''%



TOO*S AND MATERIA*S RE9UIRED:



SE9UENCE O) OPERATIONS:



RESU*T:



PRECAUTIONS:























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SHAPER- INTRODUCTION:

The !haer -al!o called !haing machine. i! a recirocating t&e o' machine tool u!ed 'or roducing
!mall 'lat !ur'ace! #ith the hel o' a !ingle oint tool recirocating o$er the !tationar& #or" iece% The
'lat !ur'ace ma& )e hori+ontal* inclined or $ertical% The recirocating motion o' the tool i! o)tained
either )& the cran" and !lotted le$er @uic" return motion mechani!m or >hit#orth @uic" return motion
mechani!m%


)ig.: Part! roduced on a !haer

PRINCIPA* PARTS O) A SHAPER:


)ig.: Princial Part! o' a Shaer


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The rincial art! o' a !haer* a! !ho#n in the re$iou! Figure! are a! 'ollo#!A

1. +ASE:

It i! a hea$& !tructure o' ca!t iron #hich !uort! other art! o' a !haer%

/. CO*UMN:

It i! a )o=,li"e !tructure made u o' ca!t iron and mounted uon the )a!e% It contain! the dri$ing
mechani!m and i! ro$ided #ith t#o machined guide #a&! on the to o' it on #hich the ram
recirocate!%

0. RAM:

It i! a recirocating mem)er #hich recirocate! on the guide #a&! ro$ided a)o$e the column% It carrie!
a tool,!lide on it! head and a mechani!m 'or ad(u!ting the !tro"e length%

4. TOO* HEAD:

It i! attached to the 'ront ortion o' the ram #ith the hel o' a nut and a )olt% It i! u!ed to hold the tool
rigidl&E it al!o ro$ide! the $ertical and angular mo$ement! to the tool 'or cutting%

2. CROSS-RAI*:

It i! attached to the 'ront $ertical ortion o' the column% It i! u!ed 'or the 'ollo#ing t#o uro!e!A
-a. It hel! in ele$ating the ta)le o$er the column in the u#ard direction* and
-b. The ta)le can )e mo$ed in a direction erendicular to the a=i! o' the ram o$er thi! cro!!
rail%

3. TA+*E:

It i! u!ed 'or holding the #or" iece% It can )e ad(u!ted hori+ontall& and $erticall& #ith the hel o'
!indle!%

5OR,ING PRINCIP*E AND OPERATION O) A SHAPER:

>e ha$e alread& di!cu!!ed that in a !haer* a !ingle oint cutting tool recirocate! o$er the !tationar&
#or" iece% The tool i! held in the tool o!t o' the recirocating ram and er'orm! the cutting oeration
during it! 'or#ard !tro"e% It ma& )e noted that during the )ac"#ard !tro"e o' the ram* the tool doe! not
remo$e material 'rom the #or" iece% ?oth the!e !tro"e! -i%e%* 'or#ard and )ac"#ard !tro"e!. 'orm one
#or"ing c&cle o' the !haer% For !haing in hori+ontal direction* a! !ho#n in Fig% -a.% the clamed #or"
iece i! 'ed again!t the recirocating tool a'ter e$er& cutting c&cle% The deth o' cut i! ad(u!ted )&
mo$ing the tool do#n#ard to#ard! the #or" iece% For !haing in $ertical direction* a! !ho#n in Fig%
-).% the tool i! 'ed $erticall& to#ard! the #or" iece a'ter e$er& cutting c&cle% The deth o' cut i!
ad(u!ted )& mo$ing the #or" iece !ide#a&!%



ee

-a. Shaing in Hori+ontal Direction -). Shaing in Fertical Direction
)ig.: >or"ing Princile and Oeration o' a Shaer

SHAPER MECHANISM:

In a !haer* rotar& motion o' the dri$e i! con$erted into recirocating motion o' the ram )& the
mechani!m hou!ed #ithin the column or the machine% In a !tandard !haer metal i! remo$ed in the
'or#ard cutting !tro"e* #hile the return !tro"e goe! idle and no metal i! remo$ed during thi! eriod% The
!haer mechani!m i! !o de!igned that it mo$e! the ram holding the tool at a comarati$el& !lo#er
!eed during 'or#ard cutting !tro"e* #herea! during the return !tro"e it allo# the ram to mo$e at a
'a!ter !eed to reduce the idle return time% Thi! mechani!m i! "no#n a! @uic" return mechani!m%



)ig.: Guic" Return Mechani!m






ee
C*ASSI)ICATIONS O) SHAPERS:

The !haer! are cla!!i'ied a! 'ollo#!A

1. ACCORDING TO THE RAM DRI&ING MECHANISM:

According to the ram dri$ing mechani!m* the !haer! are cla!!i'ied a! 'ollo#!A

(' CRAN, SHAPER:

In a cran" !haer* a cran" and a !lotted le$er @uic" return motion mechani!m i! u!ed to gi$e
recirocating motion to the ram% The cran" arm i! ad(u!ta)le and i! arranged in!ide the )od& o' a )ull
gear -al!o called cran" gear.%

(: GEARED SHAPER:

In a geared !haer* the ram carrie! a rac" )elo# it* #hich i! dri$en )& a !ur gear% Thi! t&e o' !haer i!
not #idel& u!ed%

(; H(DRAU*IC SHAPER:

In a h&draulic !haer* a h&draulic !&!tem i! u!ed to dri$e the ram% Thi! t&e o' !haer i! more e''icient
than the cran" and geared !haer%

/. ACCORDING TO POSITION AND TRA&E* O) RAM:

According to the o!ition and tra$el o' ram* the !haer! are cla!!i'ied a! 'ollo#!A

(' HORI<ONTA* SHAPER:

In a hori+ontal !haer* the ram mo$e! or recirocate! in a hori+ontal direction% Thi! t&e o' !haer i!
mainl& u!ed 'or roducing 'lat !ur'ace!%

(: &ERTICA* SHAPER:

In a $ertical !haer* the ram recirocate! $erticall& in the do#n#ard a! #ell a! in u#ard direction% Thi!
t&e o' !haer i! $er& con$enient 'or machining internal !ur'ace!* "e&#a&!* !lot! or groo$e!%

0. ACCORDING TO THE DIRECTION O) CUTTING STRO,E:

According to the direction o' cutting !tro"e* the !haer! are cla!!i'ied a! 'ollo#!A

(' PUSH-CUT SHAPER:

In a u!h,cut !haer* the ram u!he! the tool acro!! the #or" during cutting oeration% In other #ord!*
'or#ard !tro"e i! the cutting !tro"e and the )ac"#ard !tro"e i! an idle !tro"e% Thi! i! the mo!t general
t&e o' !haer u!ed in common ractice%

(: DRA5-CUT SHAPER:

In a dra#,cut !haer* the ram dra#! or ull! the tool acro!! the #or" during cutting oeration% In other
#ord!* the )ac"#ard !tro"e i! the cutting !tro"e and 'or#ard !tro"e i! an idle !tro"e%

ee
4. ACCORDING TO THE DESIGN O) THE TA+*E:

According to the de!ign o' the ta)le* the !haer! are cla!!i'ied a!A

(' STANDARD OR P*AIN SHAPER:

In a !tandard or lain !haer* the ta)le ha! onl& t#o mo$ement! i%e%* hori+ontal and $ertical* to gi$e the
'eed% It cannot )e !#i$eled or tilted%

(: UNI&ERSA* SHAPER:

In a uni$er!al !haer* in addition to the a)o$e t#o mo$ement!* the ta)le can )e !#i$eled a)out a
hori+ontal a=i! arallel to the ram and the uer ortion o' the ta)le can )e tilted a)out the other
hori+ontal a=i! erendicular to the 'ir!t a=i!% Thi! t&e o' !haer i! mo!tl& u!ed in tool room #or"%

SPECI)ICATIONS O) A SHAPER:

The !haer i! !eci'ied a! 'ollo#!A

9% Ma=imum length o' !tro"e i! millimeter!*
7% Si+e o' the ta)le* i%e%* length* #idth and deth o' the ta)le*
8% Ma=imum $ertical and hori+ontal tra$el o' the ta)le*
<% Ma=imum num)er o' !tro"e! er minute*
0% Po#er o' the dri$e motor*
/% T&e o' @uic" return mechani!m%
3% Floor !ace re@uired* and
:% >eight%



















ee


*A+ORATOR( E7ERCISE8/

SHAPER



AIM: To reare hori+ontal !ur'aceH$ertical !ur'aceH!lot! or F,groo$e! on a !haer%



TOO*S AND MATERIA*S RE9UIRED:



SE9UENCE O) OPERATIONS:



RESU*T:



PRECAUTIONS:
























ee
MI**ING- INTRODUCTION:

Milling i! the machine oeration in #hich the remo$al o' metal 'rom the #or" iece ta"e! lace due to a
rotating cutting tool -cutter. #hen the #or" i! 'ed a!t it% The cutter ha! multile cutting edge! and
rotate! at a $er& 'a!t rate% The rotating cutting tool "no#n a! the IMilling CutterJ i! a multile oint tool
ha$ing the !hae o' a !olid re$olution #ith cutting teeth arranged either on the eriher& or on end or
on )oth% The re$ol$ing cutter i! held on a !indle or ar)or and the #or" iece i! clamed or )olted on
the machine ta)le or ma& )e in a $i!e or a three (a# chuc" or an inde= head held or a rotar& ta)le etc%
The milling roce!! i! emlo&ed 'or roducing 'lat contoured or helical !ur'ace!* 'or ma"ing helical
groo$e!* to cut teeth and toothed gear!%

5OR,ING PRINCIP*E O) MI**ING:

?elo# 'igure illu!trate! the #or"ing rincile emlo&ed in metal remo$ing oeration on a milling
machine% The (o) or #or" iece i! rigidl& clamed on the ta)le o' the machine or in a chuc" or an inde=
head and re$ol$ing multiteeth cutter i! mounted either on a !indle or an ar)or% The (o) i! 'ed !lo#l&
a!t the cutter% The #or" can )e 'ed in a $ertical* longitudinal or cro!! direction% >ith the mo$ement o'
the #or" iece* the cutter teeth remo$e metal 'rom the (o) in the 'orm o' chi! to roduce the de!ired
!hae%

)ig.: >or"ing Princile o' Milling Machine

MI**ING METHODS:

There are t#o di!tinct method! o' milling cla!!i'ied a! 'ollo#!A

1. Up-#illi%g "! ;"%-e%ti"%'l #illi%g, In the u,milling or con$entional milling* the metal i! remo$ed in
'orm o' !mall chi! )& a cutter rotating again!t the direction o' tra$el o' the #or" iece%

/. D"=% #illi%g "! ;li#: #illi%g, Do#n milling i! al!o "no#n a! clim) milling% In thi! method* the metal
i! remo$ed )& a cutter rotating in the !ame direction o' 'eed o' the #or" iece%

ee

)ig. Princial o' u,milling

)ig. Princial o' do#n,milling

T(PES O) MI**ING MACHINES:

The milling machine! are a$aila)le in di''erent !hae! and !i+e!% The!e machine! ma& )e cla!!i'ied a!
'ollo#!A

(1 CO*UMN AND ,NEE T(PE MI**ING MACHINES:

The!e general uro!e machine! ha$e t#o main !tructural element! a $ertical column* and a "nee li"e
ca!ting% The "nee #hich i! attached to a $ertical column can !lide in a $ertical direction on the column !o
that the $ariou! height! o' #or" iece! can )e accommodated in the #or" ta)le% The tra$er!al
mo$ement o' the #or" ta)le i! ro$ided )& mounting the ta)le on the !addle #hich in turn i! mounted
on the "nee% The ta)le #hich i! mounted on the !addle mo$e! at right angle! to the !addle% The #or"
iece i! o!itioned and clamed on the ta)le% The hori+ontal* $ertical column and "nee t&e milling
machine! are illu!trated )elo#A

(' HORI<ONTA* MI**ING MACHINES:

The!e machine! can )e 'urther cla!!i'ied a! lain or uni$er!al milling machine!% In a lain milling
machine* the ta)le cannot )e !#i$eled in a hori+ontal lane% The ta)le ma& )e 'ed in a longitudinal* cro!!
or $ertical direction! on a lain milling* machine% In ca!e o' uni$er!al milling machine* the ta)le can )e
!#i$eled u to <04 in a hori+ontal lane to the right or le't% Thi! arrangement ma"e! the angular and
helical milling oeration! )& u!ing the uni$er!al milling machine% In addition to the three rincial
mo$ement! a! incororated in a lain milling machine* the ta)le can )e 'ed at an angle to the milling
cutter%

ee

)ig.: Hori+ontal Sindle Column and Cnee T&e

(: &ERTICA* MI**ING MACHINES:

In $ertical "nee t&e milling machine!* the o!ition o' the cutter !indle i! $ertical% Though it ha! the
!ame ta)le mo$ement! a! in lain milling cutter* the !indle head !#i$el or it ma& )e a com)ination o'
the !liding and !#i$el head t&e% The!e machine! are !uita)le 'or end milling and 'ace milling oeration!%


)ig.: Fertical Sindle Column and Cnee T&e

ee
(; RAM T(PE MI**ING MACHINES:

In the ram t&e milling machine!* the milling head i! mounted at the 'ront end o' the ram through a
!ingle or dou)le !#i$el (oint #hich in turn i! mounted on the to o' the column% The ram can mo$e
'or#ard and )ac"#ard in a direction arallel to the !addle mo$ement% The!e additional 'eature! ena)le
the !indle a=i! to mo$e in a hori+ontal* $ertical and an angular direction% The!e ram t&e milling
machine! can )e 'urther cla!!i'ied a!* -i. Turret ram t&e milling machine and -ii. Ram head milling
machine%

(/ +ED T(PE MI**ING MACHINES:

?ed t&e milling machine! are comarati$el& hea$ier and rigid than column and "nee t&e milling
machine!% In the!e machine!* the ta)le i! mounted o$er a 'i=ed )ed in the lace o' a "nee% The !indle
head imart! the cro!! or $ertical motion in!tead o' a ta)le% Deending on the num)er o' !indle head!
ro$ided in the!e machine!* the& can )e 5named a! !imle=* dule= and trile= milling machine!% Their
t&e! ma& )e cla!!i'ied a! hori+ontal or $ertical* )a!ed on the orientation o' the !indle a=i!%

(' MANU)ACTURING OR )I7ED +ED T(PE MI**ING MACHINE:

In addition to the manual ad(u!tment o' all !lide! in the!e machine!* the automatic c&cle o' oeration
'or 'eeding the ta)le 'eature i! incororated to gi$e an ad$antage in reetiti$e t&e o' #or"% Thi!
automatic 'eeding c&cle o' the ta)le include! the !tart* raid aroach* cutting 'eed* raid tra$er!e to
the ne=t (o)* @uic" return and !to% The!e machine! are articularl& !uita)le 'or large roduction #or"%

(: HORI<ONTA* +ED T(PE MI**ING MACHINES:

The!e machine! are u!uall& ro$ided #ith the a)o$e !aid 'eature!% A! the name imlie!* the !indle i!
mounted hori+ontall& and it can )e ad(u!ted u or do#n a column 'itted to the !ide o' the )ed% The
a$aila)le t&e! o' hori+ontal )ed t&e milling machine! are the !imle= and dule= milling machine%

(; &ERTICA* +ED T(PE MI**ING MACHINE:

The !indle i! mounted $erticall& in the!e machine!% All the other 'eature! in hori+ontal )ed t&e milling
machine! are incororated in thi! machine% The tran!$er!e mo$ement can )e o)tained )& mounting the
head unit o$er a cro!!,arm%

(0 P*ANER T(PE MI**ING MACHINES:

A! the name imlie!* the machine! !tructure re!em)le! a laner% The ta)le #hich carrie! the #or" iece
mo$e! longitudinall& and it i! 'ed again!t a re$ol$ing cutter% Thi! machine i! di!tingui!hed 'rom a laner
machine )& the $aria)le ta)le 'eeding mo$ement and the rotating cutter 'eature!% The!e machine! are
u!ed 'or hea$& !toc" remo$al in large #or" iece! and 'or dulication o' ro'ile! and contour!%

(4 SPECIA* PURPOSE MI**ING MACHINES:

Secial uro!e milling machine! ha$e )een de$eloed to !uit 'or !eci'ic "ind! o' #or" more ea!ier
than the con$entional machine!% Some o' the common 'eature! incororated 'rom con$entional
machine! are the ro$i!ion 'or mo$ing the #or" iece or tool in di''erent direction! and the !indle 'or
rotating the cutter%


ee
(' ROTATING TA+*E MI**ING MACHINE:

The!e high,roduction machine! ha$e a circular ta)le #hich rotate! a)out a $ertical a=i!% Their
con!truction i! a modi'ication to a $ertical milling machine% The rotar& ta)le milling machine! are
adated 'or machining 'iat !ur'ace! )& u!ing 'ace milling cutter!% The cutter! are mounted on t#o
$ertical !indle!* one 'or roughing and the other 'or 'ini!hing the #or"% The!e machine! can ha$e t#o or
more cutter !indle!% The !indle head can )e !et at di''erent height! along the $ertical #a&! o' the
column and #hile the milling i! in rogre!! the oerator can continuou!l& load or unload the #or"
iece! in the machine%

(: DRUM T(PE MI**ING MACHINE:

The drum milling machine! are adoted 'or the machining o' t#o end 'ace! o' a #or" iece
!imultaneou!l& in a continuou! machining c&cle% The drum #hich rotate! in a hori+ontal a=i! i! u!ed 'or
claming the #or" iece!% The 'ace milling cutter! are mounted on a num)er o' hori+ontal !indle! and
remo$e! metal 'rom the t#o end 'ace! o' the #or" iece% The art! are 'ini!hed in one comlete turn o'
the central drum%

(; TRACER CONTRO**ED MI**ING MACHINE:

It reroduce! the comle= !hae! li"e mold ca$itie! and core* cam!* die!* etc%* )& tracing the !hae o'
the ma!ter model or temlate% The !hae! are reroduced in the #or" iece! )& !&nchroni+ed
mo$ement! o' the cutter and tracing element% Thi! ro$ide! an automatic control to the 'eeding motion
o' the machine% The !t&lu! trace! the ma!ter or temlate to roduce the coordinate! o' the cutter ath
#hich i! u!ed to roduce the #or" iece !hae!%

(d THREAD MI**ING MACHINES:

Thi! machine i! u!ed 'or cutting thread! and #orm!% Thread! roduced )& thi! thread milling oeration
gi$e )etter 'ini!h and greater accurac& than the con$entional thread cutting method!% The milling tool!
ha$ing !ingle ro# o' teeth or a num)er o' !uch ro#! u!ed 'or the!e thread milling oeration!%

(e ,E(-5A( MI**ING MACHINE:

The "e&,#a& milling machine! are u!ed 'or art! re@uiring the "e&,#a&! in a high degree o' accurac&%
The!e machine! are u!ed in large )atch roduction% It u!e! an automatic c&cle to machine the "e&,#a&
#hich include! the hori+ontal mo$ement o' the #or" ta)le* to 'eed o' cutter* tran!$er!e mo$ement o'
cutter* etc%

(1 S,IN AND SPAR MI**ING MACHINES:

The !tructure o' )oth the!e machine! re!em)le! a laner machine in aearance% In 5!ar milling
machine6* the #or" remain! !tationar& and the rotating cutter! are mo$ed to and 'ro to er'orm the
oeration!% In addition to the a)o$e !aid rincile* the !"in milling machine6 u!e! another de!ign 'or the
machining uro!e! in #hich the #or" iece i! mounted on a ta)le #hich i! mo$ed a!t the re$ol$ing
milling cutter!% The machine! ma& ha$e hori+ontal or $ertical !indle a=i!% The!e machine! are mo!tl&
u!ed in aircra't indu!trie!%





ee
(g P*ANETAR( MI**ING MACHINE:

The!e machine! are !o called )ecau!e o' their lanetar& -circular. ath o' the cutter! during the
oeration% The #or" i! held !tationar& #hile all the mo$ement! #hich are e!!ential 'or the cutting are
made )& the re$ol$ing cutter! and are the rincial 'eature! that di!tingui!h thi! machine 'rom the
normal method% The !indle t&e! o' )oth hori+ontal and $ertical de!ign! are a$aila)le% The lanetar&
milling machine! are u!ed 'or milling )oth internal and e=ternal thread! and !ur'ace!%

INDE7ING:

Inde=ing i! the oeration o' di$iding the eriher& o' a iece o' #or" into an& num)er o' e@ual art!% In
cutting !ur gear e@ual !acing o' teeth on the gear )lan" i! er'ormed )& inde=ing% Inde=ing i!
accomli!hed )& u!ing a !ecial attachment "no#n a! di$iding head or inde= head a! !ho#n in Figure
)elo#,


MI**ING MACHINE OPERATIONS:

The oeration! that can )e er'ormed on a milling machine are )roadl& cla!!i'ied a! 'ollo#!A

-9. Plain Milling -7. Face Milling -8. Angular Milling -<. Staggered Milling -0. Form Milling -/. End
Milling

P*AIN MI**ING:

It i! al!o "no#n )& !la) milling% A lain milling cutter i! u!ed to roduce a lain* 'lat* hori+ontal !ur'ace
arallel to the a=i! o' rotation% The #or" i! mounted on a ta)le and the tool i! !ecured roerl& on the
!indle% The !eed and 'eed o' the machine i! !et u )e'ore !tarting the oeration and the deth o' cut
i! ad(u!ted )& rotating the $ertical 'eed !cre# o'6 the ta)le%

)ACE MI**ING:

The 'ace milling oeration i! u!ed 'or machining 'lat !ur'ace! )& a 'ace milling cutter #hich i! rotating in
an a=i! erendicular to the #or" !ur'ace% The deth o' cut i! ad(u!ted )& rotating the ta)le! cro!! 'eed
!cre#%


ee
ANGU*AR MI**ING:

The angular milling i! the oeration u!ed 'or machining 'lat !ur'ace! at an angle% Deending uon
#hether the machining ha! to )e carried out in a !ingle or t#o mutuall& inclined !ur'ace!* a !ingle or
dou)le angle cutter ma& )e u!ed% The F,)loc"! o' an& !i+e can )e machined )& thi! oeration%

STAGGERED MI**ING:

The!e t&e! o' cutter! are narro# and c&lindrical ha$ing !taggered teeth and #ith alternate teeth ha$ing
oo!ite heli= angle!% The!e cutter! are u!ed 'or milling dee !lot!%

)ORM MI**ING:

The!e t&e! o' milling cutter! are u!ed to cut !ome ro'ile or contour on the #or" iece% The!e can )e
u!ed to cut con$e=* conca$e* corner rounding and gear tooth in the #or" iece%

END MI**ING:

The!e t&e! o' cutter! ha$e teeth on the circum'erential !ur'ace at one end% The& are u!ed 'or 'acing*
ro'iling and end milling oeration!%






























ee
All the oeration! o' Milling Machine are !ho#n in the 'ollo#ing 'igure!A,



)ig. Fariou! t&e! o' milling oeration!

ee


*A+ORATOR( E7ERCISE80

MI**ING MACHINE



AIM: To reare a (o) in$ol$ing !ide and 'ace milling on a milling machine%



TOO*S AND MATERIA*S RE9UIRED:



SE9UENCE O) OPERATIONS:



RESU*T:



PRECAUTIONS:



ee
SHEET METAL FORMING







Department of MECHANICAL ECHANICAL ECHANICAL ECHANICAL Engineering

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SAFETY PRECAUTIONS OF SHEET METAL:

1. Heavy sheet must be handled by using gloves.
2. Check whether head portion of the mallet and hammer should be tightly fixed to the handle.
3. Respective snips should be selected according to the sheet metal thickness.
. !urrs should be removed in the edges of the sheet metal after the cutting process.
". #o not let sheet metal slip through your hands.
$. %hile cutting operation& blade should be perpendicular to the 'ob and along the marking line.
(. )de*uate care should be taken while folding& hamming or scamming operations.
+. %aste materials should be cleaned by using wire brush.
,. -ecessary sheet metal working tools should be collectively selected and handled because that
avoids confusion.
1.. High force should not be applied while leveling the plate.

GENERAL PROCEDURE FOR SHEET METAL WORK:

1. /he exact si0e and shape of the sheet to be cut is given by the development of the concerned
ob'ect.
2. /he development is drawn on a flat sheet metal and then the sheet is cut.
3. /he cut sheet is folded or rolled to the re*uired shape before the 'oints are made by welding or
any other form of fastening.

SPECIFICATION OF SHEET METAL:

/he sheets are specified by standard gauge numbers. 1ach gauge designates a definite thickness. /he
gauge number can be identified by standard wire gauge 2or3 4.%.5.
/he following table shows gauge numbers and their corresponding thicknesses of sheet. /he larger the
gauge numbers& the lesser the thickness and vice versa.



TOOLS USED IN SHEET METAL WORK:

SNIPS (OR) SHEARS:

4nips are hand sheets& varying in length from 2..mm to $..mm. 2..mm and 2".mm lengths are most
commonly used. Curved snips or bend snips are used for trimming along inside curves.


ee
STRIKING TOOLS6
HAMMERS:

Hammers are used in sheet metal work for following6 stretching& leveling& riveting& strengthening of
sheet metal 'oints& etc.

PUNCHES:

7n sheet metal work& punch is used foe making out work& locating centers etc. there are two types of
punches.

SUPPORTING TOOLS:

STAKES:

4takes are nothing but anvils of sheet metal workers& used for bending& hamming& scamming& forming&
etc. using hammers or mallet.

BENDING TOOLS:

8lat nose pliers and round nose pliers are used in sheet metal work for forming and holding work.

LAYOUT TOOLS:
SCRIBER:

7t is a long wire of steel with its one end sharply pointed and hardened& to scratch a line on the sheet
metal for laying out patterns.

DIVIDERS6

#ividers are used for drawing circles or arcs on sheet metal. /hey are used to mark a desired distance
between two points and to divide lines into e*ual parts.

TRAMMELS:

7t is used for making of arcs and circles. 9aximum si0e of the arc that can be described depends on the
length of the beam in scriber.

GROOVING TOOLS:

7n order to 'oin the sheet metal 'obs& their ends are grooved with the help of grooving tools. /his process
is called grooving.







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SHEET METAL OPERATIONS:

SHEARING:

/he following are the basic shearing operations.

1. Cutting off
2. :arting
3. !lanking
. :unching
". -otching
$. 4litting
(. ;ancing
+. -abbing
,. /rimming

BENDING:

7t means that the metal is stressed beyond the elastic limit& so that the metal is bent into right angle and
forming occurs when complete items or parts are shaped. 7t incorporates angle bending& roll forming
and scamming.
JOINING:

)fter bending the metal is 'oined by rivet& soldering or bra0ing. /he main difference between welding on
one hand and soldering and bra0ing on the other is that& in either soldering or in bra0ing process& the
temperatures used are not high enough to cause melting of parent metals to be 'oined. 7n soldering
temperatures up to 2(<C are used and in bra0ing process& temperatures above 2(<C are employed.









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LABORATORY EXERCISE_1

SHEET METAL FORMING



AIM: To make a square tray from a given metal sheet.

TOOLS REQUIRED: Mallet, Snip, Stake, Steel Rule, Ball peen hammer, Straight edge, Rivets,
Scriber, etc.

PROCEDURES:

1. The given metal sheet is smoothed using mallet.
2. The development of square tray is drawn on the sheet with given dimensions using the scriber.
3. The unmarked and excess portions in the sheet are removed using snip.
4. Folding is done as per the given order using mallet and stake.
5. Bending is done as per the given dimension using the stake and mallet.
6. The tray is riveting using the given rivets and hammer.


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RESULT:



PRECAUTIONS:




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WELDING











Department of MECHANICAL ECHANICAL ECHANICAL ECHANICAL Engineering

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WELDING:

Welding is the process of joining metals by melting the parts and then using a filler to form a
joint. Welding can be done using different energy sources, from a gas flame or electric arc or a
laser or ultrasound.

Now, it is extensively used in manufacturing industry, construction industry (construction of
ships, tanks, locomotives and automobiles) and maintenance work, replacing riveting and
bolting, to a greater extent.

TYPES OF WELDING:

Plastic Welding or Pressure Welding:
he piece of metal to be joined are heated to a plastic state and forced together by external
pressure. !xample" #esistance welding.

Fusion Welding or Non-Pressure Welding
he material at the joint is heated to a molten state and allowed to solidify. !xample" $as
welding, %rc welding.

CLASSIFICATION OF WELDING POCESSES:

(i) %rc welding
&arbon arc
'etal arc
'etal inert gas
ungsten inert gas
(lasma arc
)ubmerged arc
!lectro*slag
(ii) $as Welding
+xy*acetylene
%ir*acetylene
+xy*hydrogen
(iii) #esistance Welding
,utt
)pot
)eam
,ra-ing
)oldering
(rojection
(ercussion



(iv) hermit Welding
(v) )olid )tate Welding
.riction
/ltrasonic
0iffusion
!xplosive
(vi) Newer Welding
!lectron*beam
1aser
(vii) #elated (rocess
+xy*acetylene cutting
%rc cutting
2ard*facing






O!Y-F"EL WELDING# GAS WELDING:

+xy*fuel welding (commonly called oxyacetylene welding, oxy welding, or
process that uses fuel gases and oxygen to weld metals. 3n +xy
used to weld metals. Welding metal results when two pieces are heated to a temperature that
produces a shared pool of molten metal. he molten pool is generally supplied with add
metal called filler. .iller material depends upon the metals to be welded.

orches that do not mix fuel with oxygen (combining, instead, atmospheric air) are not
considered oxyfuel torches and can typically be identified by a single tank (+xy
generally re4uires two tanks, fuel and oxygen). 'ost metals cannot be melted with a single
tank torch. %s such, single tank torches are typically used only for soldering and bra-ing, rather
than welding.

APPAAT"S:

he apparatus used in gas welding consists basically of an oxygen source (567 kg8cm
fuel gas source (%cetyelene
%cetylene* 9.57 kg8cm
6
) and two flexible hoses (one of each for each cylinder), and a torch.
.ig.
PESS"E EG"LATO:

he regulator is used to control pressure from the tanks by reducing pressure and regulating
flow rate. +xy*gas regulators usually have two stages" he first stage of the regulator releases
the gas at a constant rate from the cylinder despite the pressure
as the gas in the cylinder is used. he second stage of the regulator controls the pressure
reduction from the intermediate pressure to low pressure. 3t is constant flow. he valve
assembly has two pressure gauges, one indicat
LDING:
fuel welding (commonly called oxyacetylene welding, oxy welding, or
fuel gases and oxygen to weld metals. 3n +xy*fuel welding, a weldin
Welding metal results when two pieces are heated to a temperature that
produces a shared pool of molten metal. he molten pool is generally supplied with add
metal called filler. .iller material depends upon the metals to be welded.
orches that do not mix fuel with oxygen (combining, instead, atmospheric air) are not
considered oxyfuel torches and can typically be identified by a single tank (+xy
generally re4uires two tanks, fuel and oxygen). 'ost metals cannot be melted with a single
tank torch. %s such, single tank torches are typically used only for soldering and bra-ing, rather
welding consists basically of an oxygen source (567 kg8cm
fuel gas source (%cetyelene*5: kg8cm
6
), two pressure regulators (+xygen
) and two flexible hoses (one of each for each cylinder), and a torch.
.ig." )chematic diagram of $as Welding
he regulator is used to control pressure from the tanks by reducing pressure and regulating
gas regulators usually have two stages" he first stage of the regulator releases
the gas at a constant rate from the cylinder despite the pressure in the cylinder becoming less
as the gas in the cylinder is used. he second stage of the regulator controls the pressure
reduction from the intermediate pressure to low pressure. 3t is constant flow. he valve
assembly has two pressure gauges, one indicating cylinder pressure, and the other indicating
ee
fuel welding (commonly called oxyacetylene welding, oxy welding, or gas $elding) is a
fuel welding, a welding torch is
Welding metal results when two pieces are heated to a temperature that
produces a shared pool of molten metal. he molten pool is generally supplied with additional

orches that do not mix fuel with oxygen (combining, instead, atmospheric air) are not
considered oxyfuel torches and can typically be identified by a single tank (+xy*fuel welding
generally re4uires two tanks, fuel and oxygen). 'ost metals cannot be melted with a single*
tank torch. %s such, single tank torches are typically used only for soldering and bra-ing, rather
welding consists basically of an oxygen source (567 kg8cm
6
) and a
), two pressure regulators (+xygen* 5 kg8cm
6
and
) and two flexible hoses (one of each for each cylinder), and a torch.

he regulator is used to control pressure from the tanks by reducing pressure and regulating
gas regulators usually have two stages" he first stage of the regulator releases
in the cylinder becoming less
as the gas in the cylinder is used. he second stage of the regulator controls the pressure
reduction from the intermediate pressure to low pressure. 3t is constant flow. he valve
ing cylinder pressure, and the other indicating

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hose pressure. )ome oxy*gas regulators only have one stage, and one pressure gauge. With
those the gas flow gets less as the cylinder pressure drops.

GAS %OSES:

he hoses used are specifically designed for welding. he hose is usually a double*hose design,
meaning that there are two hoses joined together. he oxygen hose is green and the fuel hose
is red. he type of gas the hose will be carrying is important because the connections will have
different threads for different types of gas. .uel gases (red) will use left*hand threads and a
groove cut into the nut, while the oxygen (green) will use right*hand threads. his is a safety
precaution to prevent hoses from being hooked up the wrong way. here are basically two
types of connections that can be used. he first is using a jubilee clip. he second option is using
a crimped connector. he second option is probably safer as it is harder for this type of
connection to come loose. he hoses should also be clipped together at intervals approximately
; feet apart.

NON-ET"N &AL&E:

,etween the regulator and hose, and ideally between hose and torch on both oxygen and fuel
lines, a flashback arrestor and8or non*return valve should be installed to prevent flame or
oxygen*fuel mixture being pushed back into either cylinder and damaging the e4uipment or
making a cylinder explode.

he flashback arrestor (not to be confused with a check valve) prevents shock waves from
downstream coming back up the hoses and entering the cylinder (possibly rupturing it), as
there are 4uantities of fuel8 oxygen mixtures inside parts of the e4uipment (specifically within
the mixer and blowpipe8no--le) that may explode if the e4uipment is incorrectly shut down<
and acetylene decomposes at excessive pressures or temperatures. he flashback arrestor will
remain switched off until someone resets it, in case the pressure wave created a leak
downstream of the arrestor.

C%EC' &AL&E:

% check valve lets gas flow in one direction only. Not to be confused with a flashback arrestor, a
check valve is not designed to block a shock wave. he pressure wave could occur while the ball
is so far from the inlet that the pressure wave gets past before the ball reaches its off position.
% check valve is usually a chamber containing a ball that is pressed against one end by a spring"
gas flow one way pushes the ball out of the way, and no flow or flow the other way lets the
spring push the ball into the inlet, blocking it.

TOC%ES:

he torch is the part that the welder holds and manipulates to make the weld. 3t has a
connection and valve for the fuel gas and a connection and valve for the oxygen, a handle for
the welder to grasp, a mixing chamber (set at an angle) where the fuel gas and oxygen mix, with
a tip where the flame forms. he top torch is a welding torch and the bottom is a cutting torch.

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WELDING TOC%:

% welding torch head is used to weld metals. 3t can be identified by having only one or two
pipes running to the no--le and no oxygen*blast trigger.

5) OSE-("D TOC%: % rose*bud torch is used to heat metals for bending, straightening, etc.
where a large area needs to be heated. 3t is called as such because the flame at the end looks
like a rose*bud. % welding torch can also be used to heat small area such as rusted nuts and
bolts. 3n this case, no filler rod is used with the torch.

6) IN)ECTO TOC%: % typical +xy*fuel torch, called an e4ual*pressure torch, merely mixes the
two gasses. 3n an injector torch, high pressure oxygen comes out of a small no--le inside the
torch head so that it drags the fuel gas along with it, via venturi effect.

F"ELS:

.uel processes may use a variety of fuel gases, the most common being acetylene. +ther gases
that may be used are propylene, li4uefied petroleum gas (1($), propane, natural gas, hydrogen,
and '%(( gas.

ACETYLENE: %cetylene is the primary fuel for oxy*fuel welding and is the fuel of choice for repair
work and general welding. %cetylene gas is shipped in special cylinders designed to keep the
gas dissolved.

he cylinders are packed with porous materials (e.g. kapok fiber, diatomaceous earth, or
(formerly) asbestos), then filled to around 79= capacity with acetone, as acetylene is acetone
soluble. his method is necessary because above 69> k(a (;9 lbf8in?) (absolute pressure)
acetylene is unstable and may explode. here is about 5>99 k(a (679 lbf8in?) pressure in the
tank when full. %cetylene when combined with oxygen burns at a temperature of ;699 @& to
;799 @& (7A99 @. to :;99 @.), highest among commonly used gaseous fuels. %s fuel acetyleneBs
primary disadvantage, in comparison to other fuels, is high cost. %s acetylene is unstable at a
pressure roughly e4uivalent to ;; feet859 meters underwater, water submerged welding is
reserved for hydrogen rather than acetylene.

T%E OLE OF O!YGEN:

+xygen is not the fuel" 3t is what chemically combines with the fuel to produce the heat for
welding. his is called BoxidationB, but the more general and more commonly used term is
BcombustionB. he heat is released because the molecules of the products of combustion have a
lower energy state than the molecules of the fuel and oxygen. he word CoxygenC is often
shorted to BoxyB, as in the term Boxy*acetylene torchB. +xygen is usually produced elsewhere by
distillation of li4uefied air and shipped to the welding site in high pressure vessels (commonly
called CtanksC or CcylindersC) at a pressure of about 65999 k(a (;999 lbf8in? D 699
atmospheres). 3t is also shipped as a li4uid in 0ewar type vessels (like a large hermos jar) to
places that use large amounts of oxygen. 3t is also possible to separate oxygen from air by

ee
passing the air, while under pressure, through a -eolite sieve which selectively absorbs the
nitrogen and lets the oxygen (and argon) pass. his gives a purity of oxygen of about E;=. his
works well for bra-ing.

TYPES OF FLA*E:

%ddition of little more oxygen give a bright whitish cone surrounded by the transparent
blue envelope is called Neutral flame (3t has a balance of fuel gas and oxygen) (;6999c)
/sed for welding steels, aluminium, copper and cast iron



3f more oxygen is added, the cone becomes darker and more pointed, while the envelope
becomes shorter and more fierce is called +xidi-ing flame
2as the highest temperature about ;F999c
/sed for welding brass and bra-ing operation



+xygen is turned on, flame immediately changes into a long white inner area (.eather)
surrounded by a transparent blue envelope is called &arburi-ing flame (;9999c)




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SAFETY *EAS"ES:

(roper protection should be worn at all times, including protecting the eyes against glare
and flying sparks.
'ore than 58> the capacity of the cylinder should not be used per hour. his causes the
acetylene to rapidly come out of solution, like carbon dioxide bubbles violently fi--ing from a
fi--y soft drink that has just been shaken.
%cetylene is dangerous above 57 psi pressure. 3t is unstable and explosively decomposes.
(roper ventilation when welding will help to avoid large chemical exposure.

SAFETY WIT% CYLINDES:

When using fuel and oxygen tanks they should be fastened securely upright to a wall or a post
or a portable cart. %n oxygen tank is especially dangerous for the reason that the oxygen is at a
pressure of 65 '(a (;999 lbf8in? D 699 atmospheres) when full, and if the tank falls over and its
valve strikes something and is knocked off, the tank will effectively become an extremely
deadly flying missile propelled by the compressed oxygen, capable of even breaking through a
brick wall. .or this reason, never move an oxygen tank around without its valve cap screwed in
place. +n oxyacetylene torch system there will be three types of valves, the tank valve, the
regulator valve, and the torch valve. here will be one of them for each gas. he gas in the tanks
or cylinders is at high pressure. +xygen cylinders are generally filled to approximately 6699 psi.
he regulator converts the high pressure gas to a low pressure stream suitable for welding.
Never attempt to directly use high pressure gas.






















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AC WELDING:

E+"IP*ENTS:

% welding generator (0.&.) or ransformer (%.&.)
wo cables* one for work and one for electrode
!lectrode holder
!lectrode
(rotective shield
$loves
Wire brush
&hipping hammer
$oggle

AC WELDING POWE SO"CES:

he main re4uirement of a power source is to deliver controllable current at a voltage
according to the demands of the welding process being used. !ach welding process has distinct
differences from one another, both in the form of process controls re4uired to accomplish a
given operating condition and the conse4uent demands on the power source. herefore, arc
welding power sources are playing very important role in welding. he conventional welding
power sources are"
POWE SO"CE S"PPLY:
Po$er Source Su,,l-
Welding Trans.or/er AC
Welding ecti.ier DC
Welding Generators AC or DC (depending on generator)

Welding transformers, rectifiers and 0& generators are being used in shop while engine coupled
%& generators as well as sometimes 0& generators are used at site where line supply is not
available. Normally rectifiers and transformers are preferred because of low noise, higher
efficiency and lower maintenance as compared to generators. )election of power source is
mainly dependent on welding process and consumable. he open circuit voltage normally
ranges between >9*E9G in case of welding transformers while in the case of rectifiers it is 79*A9
G. 2owever, welding voltages are lower as compared to open circuit voltage of the power
source.

,ased on the static characteristics power sources can be classified in two categories
H &onstant current or drooping or falling characteristic power source.
H &onstant potential or constant voltage or flat characteristic power source.


&onstant voltage power source does not have true constant voltage output. 3t has a slightly
downward or negative slope becaus
in the welding circuit to cause a minor droop in the output volt ampere characteristics.

With constant voltage power supply the arc voltage is established by setting the output voltage
on the source. he power source shall supply necessary current to melt the electrode at the
rate re4uired to maintain the preset voltage or relative arc length. he speed of electrode drive
is used to control the average welding current. he use of such power sour
with a constant electrode wire feed results in a self regulating or self adjusting arc length
system. 0ue to some internal or external fluctuation if the change in welding current occurs, it
will automatically increase or decrease the ele
length.

D"TY CYCLE:

0uty cycle is the ratio of arcing time to the weld cycle time multiplied by 599. Welding cycle
time is either 7 minutes as per !uropean standards or 59 minutes as per %merican standard
accordingly power sources are designed. 3t arcing time is continuously 7 minutes then as per
!uropean standard it is 599= duty cycle and 79= as per %merican standard. %t 599= duty cycle
minimum current is to be drawn i.e. with the reduction of duty cyc
higher level. he welding current which can be drawn at a duty cycle can be evaluated from the
following e4uation"


*AN"AL *ETAL AC WELDING:

'anual metal arc welding (''%W) or shielded metal arc welding ()'%W) is the oldes
most widely used process being used for fabrication. he arc is struck between a flux covered
stick electrode and the work piece
as welding circuit. 3t includes welding power source,
clamp and the consumable coated electrode. .igure below shows details of welding circuit.

GAS *ETAL AC WELDING 0G*AW1 O *ETAL INET GAS WELDING 0*IG1

'etal inert gas welding ('3$) or more appropriately called as
utili-es a consumable electrode and hence, the term metal appears in the title.
gas shielded arc welding processes utili-ing the consumable electrodes,
welding (.&%W) all of which can be
welding process is shown in the
which is fed at a constant rate, through the feed rollers. he welding
&onstant voltage power source does not have true constant voltage output. 3t has a slightly
downward or negative slope because of sufficient internal electrical resistance and inductance
in the welding circuit to cause a minor droop in the output volt ampere characteristics.
With constant voltage power supply the arc voltage is established by setting the output voltage
ource. he power source shall supply necessary current to melt the electrode at the
rate re4uired to maintain the preset voltage or relative arc length. he speed of electrode drive
is used to control the average welding current. he use of such power sour
with a constant electrode wire feed results in a self regulating or self adjusting arc length
system. 0ue to some internal or external fluctuation if the change in welding current occurs, it
will automatically increase or decrease the electrode melting rate to regain the desired arc
0uty cycle is the ratio of arcing time to the weld cycle time multiplied by 599. Welding cycle
time is either 7 minutes as per !uropean standards or 59 minutes as per %merican standard
accordingly power sources are designed. 3t arcing time is continuously 7 minutes then as per
!uropean standard it is 599= duty cycle and 79= as per %merican standard. %t 599= duty cycle
minimum current is to be drawn i.e. with the reduction of duty cycle current drawn can be of
higher level. he welding current which can be drawn at a duty cycle can be evaluated from the

*AN"AL *ETAL AC WELDING:
'anual metal arc welding (''%W) or shielded metal arc welding ()'%W) is the oldes
most widely used process being used for fabrication. he arc is struck between a flux covered
work piece. he work pieces are made part of an electric circuit, known
as welding circuit. 3t includes welding power source, welding cables, electrode holder, earth
clamp and the consumable coated electrode. .igure below shows details of welding circuit.
GAS *ETAL AC WELDING 0G*AW1 O *ETAL INET GAS WELDING 0*IG1
'etal inert gas welding ('3$) or more appropriately called as gas metal arc welding
utili-es a consumable electrode and hence, the term metal appears in the title.
gas shielded arc welding processes utili-ing the consumable electrodes,
welding (.&%W) all of which can be termed under '3$. he typical setup for
the .igure. he consumable electrode is in the
which is fed at a constant rate, through the feed rollers. he welding torch is connected to the
ee
&onstant voltage power source does not have true constant voltage output. 3t has a slightly
e of sufficient internal electrical resistance and inductance
in the welding circuit to cause a minor droop in the output volt ampere characteristics.
With constant voltage power supply the arc voltage is established by setting the output voltage
ource. he power source shall supply necessary current to melt the electrode at the
rate re4uired to maintain the preset voltage or relative arc length. he speed of electrode drive
is used to control the average welding current. he use of such power source in conjunction
with a constant electrode wire feed results in a self regulating or self adjusting arc length
system. 0ue to some internal or external fluctuation if the change in welding current occurs, it
regain the desired arc
0uty cycle is the ratio of arcing time to the weld cycle time multiplied by 599. Welding cycle
time is either 7 minutes as per !uropean standards or 59 minutes as per %merican standard and
accordingly power sources are designed. 3t arcing time is continuously 7 minutes then as per
!uropean standard it is 599= duty cycle and 79= as per %merican standard. %t 599= duty cycle
le current drawn can be of
higher level. he welding current which can be drawn at a duty cycle can be evaluated from the
'anual metal arc welding (''%W) or shielded metal arc welding ()'%W) is the oldest and
most widely used process being used for fabrication. he arc is struck between a flux covered
. he work pieces are made part of an electric circuit, known
welding cables, electrode holder, earth
clamp and the consumable coated electrode. .igure below shows details of welding circuit.
GAS *ETAL AC WELDING 0G*AW1 O *ETAL INET GAS WELDING 0*IG1:
gas metal arc welding ($'%W)
utili-es a consumable electrode and hence, the term metal appears in the title. here are other
such as flux cored arc
termed under '3$. he typical setup for $'%W or '3$
. he consumable electrode is in the form of a wire reel
torch is connected to the

ee
gas supply cylinder which provides the necessary inert gas. he electrode and the work*piece
are connected to the welding power supply.


.ig." )chematic diagram of shielded metal arc welding ()'%W)


.ig." )chematic diagram of 'etal inert gas welding ('3$)

TIG WELDING:

ungsten 3nert $as (3$) or $as ungsten %rc ($%) welding is the arc welding process in which
arc is generated between non consumable tungsten electrode and work piece. he tungsten
electrode and the weld pool are shielded by an inert gas normally argon and helium. .igures
show the principle of tungsten inert gas welding process.


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.ig." )chematic diagram of ungsten 3nert $as (3$)

3$ welding can be used in all positions. 3t is normally used for root passes during welding of
thick pipes but is widely being used for welding of thin walled pipes and tubes. his process can
be easily mechani-ed i.e. movement of torch and feeding of filler wire, so it can be used for
precision welding in nuclear, aircraft, chemical, petroleum, automobile and space craft
industries. %ircraft frames and its skin, rocket body and engine casing are few examples where
3$ welding is very popular.

ESISTANCE WELDING:

#esistance welding processes are pressure welding processes in which heavy current is passed
for short time through the area of interface of metals to be joined. hese processes differ from
other welding processes in the respect that no fluxes are used, and filler metal rarely used. %ll
resistance welding operations are automatic and, therefore, all process variables are preset and
maintained constant. 2eat is generated in locali-ed area which is enough to heat the metal to
sufficient temperature, so that the parts can be joined with the application of pressure.
(ressure is applied through the electrodes.

he heat generated during resistance welding is given by following expression"

% 2 I
3
T

Where, % is heat generated, I is current in amperes, is resistance of area being welded,
T is time for the flow of current.

he process employs currents of the order of few I%, voltages range from 6 to 56 volts and
times vary from few ms to few seconds. .orce is normally applied before, during and after the
flow of current to avoid arcing between the surfaces and to forge the weld metal during post
heating. he necessary pressure shall vary from ;9 to :9 N mm depending upon material to be
welded and other welding conditions. .or good 4uality welds these parameters may be
properly selected which shall depend mainly on material of components, their thicknesses, type
and si-e of electrodes.


ee
TEC%NI+"ES OF WELDING:

PEPAATION OF WO':

,efore welding, the work pieces must be thoroughly cleaned of rust, scale and other foreign
material. he piece for metal generally welded without beveling the edges, however, thick work
piece should be beveled or veed out to ensure ade4uate penetration and fusion of all parts of
the weld. ,ut, in either case, the parts to be welded must be separated slightly to allow better
penetration of the weld.

,efore commencing the welding process, the following must be considered
a) !nsure that the welding cables are connected to proper power source.
b) )et the electrode, as per the thickness of the plate to be welded.
c) )et the welding current, as per the si-e of the electrode to be used.

able. !lectrode current Gs electrode si-e Gs plate thickness.

(late thickness, mm !lectrode si-e, mm !lectrode current range, amp

5.: 5.: F9 :9
6.7 6.7 79 A9
F.9 ;.6 E9 5;9
:.9 F.9 569 5>9
A.9 7.9 5A9 6>9
67.9 :.9 ;99 F99

N+!" While making butt welds in thin metal, it is a better practice to tack*weld the pieces
intervals to hold them properly while welding.

STI'ING AN AC:

he following are the stages and methods of striking an arc and running a bead
a) )elect an electrode of suitable kind and si-e for the work and set the welding current at a
proper value.
b) .asten the ground clamp to either the work or welding table.
c) )tart or strike the arc by either of the following methods*


i1 STI'E AND WIT%DAW:
3n this method the arc is started by moving the end of the electrode onto the work with a slow
sweeping motion, similar to striking a match.


ii1 TO"C% AND WIT% DAW:
3n this method, the arc is started by keeping the electrode perpendicular to the work and
touching or bouncing it lightly on the work. his method is preferred as it facilitates restarting
the momentarily broken arc 4uickly. 3f the electrode sticks to the work, 4uickly bend it back and
forth, pulling at the same time. 'ake sure to keep the shield in front of the face, when the
electrode is freed from sticking.

ee
d) %s soon as the arc is struck, move the electrode along, slowly from left to right, keeping at
57J to 67J from vertical and in the direction of welding.















)trike and withdraw ouch and withdraw

.igure" striking an arc

WEA&ING:


% steady, uniform motion of the electrode produces a satisfactory bead. 2owever, a slight
weaving or oscillating motion is preferred, as this keeps the metal molten a little longer and
allows the gas to escape, bringing the slag to the surface. Weaving also produces a wider bead
with better penetration.

TYPES OF )OINTS:

Welds are made at the junction of the various pieces that make up the weldment. he junctions
of parts, or joints, are defined as the location where two or more numbers are to be joined.
(arts being joined to produce the weldment may be in the form of rolled plate, sheet, pipes,
castings, forgings, or billets. he five basic types of joints are listed below.




















.igure" ypes of welding joints.


ee
% butt joint is used to join two members aligned in the same plane (fig. view %). his joint is
fre4uently used in plate, sheet metal, and pipe work. % joint of this type may be either s4uare
or grooved.

&orner and tee joints are used to join two members located at right angles to each other (fig.
views , and &). 3n cross section, the corner joint forms an 1 shape, and the tee joint has the
shape of the letter . Garious joint designs of both types have uses in many types of metal
structures.
% lap joint, as the name implies, is made by lapping one piece of metal over another (fig. view
0). his is one of the strongest types of joints available< however, for maximum joint efficiency,
you should overlap the metals a minimum of three times the thickness of the thinnest member
you are joining. 1ap joints are commonly used with torch bra-ing and spot welding applications.
%n edge joint is used to join the edges of two or more members lying in the same plane. 3n most
cases, one of the members is flanged, as shown in the above figure, view !. While this type of
joint has some applications in plate work, it is more fre4uently used in sheet metal work. %n
edge joint should only be used for joining metals 58F inch or less in thickness that are not
subjected to heavy loads.

WELDING POSITIONS:

0epending upon the location of the welding joints, appropriate position of the electrode and
hand movement is selected. he figure shows different welding positions.


















.igure" Welding positions

FLAT POSITION WELDING:
3n this position, the welding is performed from the upper side of the joint, and the face of the
weld is approximately hori-ontal. .lat welding is the preferred term< however, the same
position is sometimes called down hand.

%OI4ONTAL POSITION WELDING:

3n this position, welding is performed on the upper side of an approximately hori-ontal surface
and against an approximately vertical surface.


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&ETICAL POSITION WELDING
3n this position, the axis of the weld is approximately vertical.

O&E%EAD POSITION WELDING
3n this welding position, the welding is performed from the underside of a joint.

AD&ANTAGES 5 DISAD&ANTAGES OF AC WELDING:

AD&ANTAGES:
5. Welding process is simple.
6. !4uipment is portable and the cost is fairly low.
;. %ll the engineering metals can be welded because of the availability of a wide variety of
electrodes.
DISAD&ANTAGES:
5. 'echani-ed welding is not possible because of limited length of the electrode.
6. Number of electrodes may have to be used while welding long joints.
;. % defect (slag inclusion or insufficient penetration) may occur at the place where welding is
restarted with a fresh electrode.






























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LABORATORY EXERCISE_1

ARC WELDING



AIM: To prepare a butt joint with mild steel strip using Arc welding technique.



EQUIPMENT & MATERIALS REQUIRED:



SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS:



RESULT:



PRECAUTIONS:

























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LABORATORY EXERCISE_2

GAS WELDING



AIM: To prepare a butt joint with mild steel strip using Gas welding technique.



EQUIPMENT & MATERIALS REQUIRED:



SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS:



RESULT:



PRECAUTIONS: