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Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003

````````````````````````````CRIMINAL LAW MIDTERM SUMMARY


Sarah Huggins
PART I: THE AIMS AND PURPOSES OF PUNISHMENT .................................................. 2
PART II: SOURCES OF THE CRIMINAL LAW: CODIFICATION VS. COMMON
LAW CRIMES ............................................................................................................................... 5
CASE: R. V. Sedley........................................................................................................................................................... 5
CASE: Commonwealth v. Mochan.................................................................................................................................... 5
CASE: Frey v. Fedoruk...................................................................................................................................................... 5
S. 177 Criminal Code Peeping Toms............................................................................................................................... 6
Procedural Classification of Offences, page 161-163.......................................................................................................... 6
A - STATUTORY INTERPRETATION; RULE OF STRICT CONSTRUCTION OF PENAL PROVISIONS...............................7
Using the Rule of Strict Construction................................................................................................................................. 7
CASE: R v. Goulis............................................................................................................................................................. 8
CASE: R. v. Par............................................................................................................................................................... 8
Applying Rule from Par.................................................................................................................................................... 9
CASE: R. v. Muchikekwanape........................................................................................................................................ 10
CASE: R v. Mac.............................................................................................................................................................. 10
PART III: CORNERSTONE PRECEPTS: THE PRESUMPTION OF INNOCENCE
AND THE REQUIREMENT OF PROOF BEYOND A REASONABLE DOUBT .............. 11
CASE: Woolmington v. D.P.P......................................................................................................................................... 11
Golden Thread Quote........................................................................................................................................................ 12
CASE: R v. Osolin........................................................................................................................................................... 13
PART IV: THE ACTUS REUS (PHYSICAL) REQUIREMENT FOR CRIMINAL
LIABILITY .................................................................................................................................. 15
A - THE UNLAWFUL ACT INTERPRETATION PRINCIPLES.......................................................................................15
[1] Prostitution, etc.............................................................................................................................................16
CASE: Hutt v. R.............................................................................................................................................................. 16
Notes on the Crime of Prostitution (page 192-196)...........................................................................................................17
Criminal Code: ss. 197, 210-213...................................................................................................................................... 17
Case: R v. DiGuiseppe..................................................................................................................................................... 18
[2] The Unlawful Act for the Crime of Assault and Sexual Assault....................................................................19
S. 265 Criminal Code........................................................................................................................................................ 20
CASE: R v. Jobidon......................................................................................................................................................... 20
CASE: Bolduc and Bird v. R........................................................................................................................................... 22
CASE: R v. Cuerrier........................................................................................................................................................ 23
[3] The Proper Scope of the Criminal Law.........................................................................................................24
Notes on the Proper Scope of the Criminal Law (page 167-173)......................................................................................24
[4] The Unlawful Act in Breaking and Entering.................................................................................................27
Case: Johnson v. R........................................................................................................................................................... 27
[5] The Unlawful Act of Causing a Public Disturbance.....................................................................................28
CASE: R. v. Lohnes......................................................................................................................................................... 28
Interpreting a Statute......................................................................................................................................................... 29
B OMISSIONS..........................................................................................................................................................29
CASE: Fagan v. Commissioner of Metropolitan Police...................................................................................................29
CASE: R. v. Miller........................................................................................................................................................... 30
CASE: Moore v. R........................................................................................................................................................... 31
C CAUSATION.........................................................................................................................................................31
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Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
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Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
PART I: THE AIMS AND PURPOSES OF PUNISHMENT
What does each author see as the function of the criminal law, the function of punishment
(which is basically the criminal law in action)? On what basis is the criminal law (i.e.
punishment of criminals usually by imprisonment) justified?
"ol#s$ein an# "ol#s$ein% &riminal law as a las$ resor$ 'ro&ess
H(L(A( Har$% aim o $he &riminal law )i(e( &riminal legisla$ion* is #enun&ia$ion o &on#u&$( +his
is $o be #is$inguishe# rom ,us$ii&a$ions or 'unishmen$ when $hose laws are -iola$e#
#e$erren&e. re$ribu$ion. -engean&e. reorma$ion( /no$e $ha$ Har$ also belie-es $ha$ in a-ouring a
mo#ern. orwar#0loo1ing. u$ili$arian ,us$ii&a$ion or 'unishmen$ o-er a ba&10war# loo1ing.
moral &ul'abili$y ,us$ii&a$ion or 'unishmen$. so&ie$y has $en#e# $owar#s $he 2elimina$ion o
res'onsibili$y34
Sweeny &ase )#run1 #ri-ing*% aim o 'unishmen$ is 56+ re$ribu$ion )$hough &our$ here
misun#ers$an#s re$ribu$ion as -engean&e*( Fun#amen$al 'ur'ose o &riminal sen$en&ing is $o
enhan&e 'ro$e&$ion o so&ie$y( 7n or#er $o a&&om'lish $his 'ur'ose. 'unishmen$ mus$ be
a&&e'$able $o so&ie$y in or#er $o a&hie-e so&ie$al a&&e'$an&e )1* ulillmen$ o $he -arious
u$ili$arian goals. i(e( #e$erren&e. isola$ion. rehabili$a$ion an# #enun&ia$ion. is &ri$i&al or so&ie$al
a&&e'$an&e 8 )2* 'unishmen$ shoul# be 'ro'or$iona$e $o gra-i$y o oen&e )moral &ul'abili$y*(
S$e'hen% Main aim o $he &riminal law an# 'unishmen$ is $he e9'ression an# gra$ii&a$ion o
so&ie$y:s ha$re# $owar#s $he &riminal an# his &on#u&$( )i(e( -engean&e. re-enge*(
Mor$on% Criminal law as a &on$em'orary morali$y 'lay( +he main aim o $he &riminal law is $o
#emons$ra$e un#amen$al -alues $o &i$i;ens( 7$:s ob,e&$ is $o ins$ill 2abi#ing by $he rules3 -alues
in or#inary &i$i;ens( +hus $he raison #:e$re o $he &riminal law is $he or#inary &i$i;en. no$ $he
&riminal( Criminal law is only one o $he ins$i$u$ions by whi&h -alues are #emons$ra$e#(
H(R(S( Ryan% sugges$s $ha$ one aim o $he &riminal law shoul# be $o gi-e &i$i;ens &oni#en&e in
$he legal or#er )$his e&hoes Sweeny*( +his sugges$s $ha$ i we #i#n:$ balan&e in$eres$s )e(g( allow
'unishmen$s $o rele&$ $he seriousness o $he harm an# $he anger o $he &ommuni$y*. so&ie$y
woul# no$ ha-e &oni#en&e in $he sys$em an# migh$ no$ abi#e by i$(
- 5o$e $ha$ $here is no general agreemen$ as $o $he un&$ion o $he &riminal law<$he aims an#
,us$ii&a$ions o 'unishmen$( So&ie$y has no$ &ome $o any general &onsensus( Philoso'hers
#isagree#( Con$em'orary analys$s #isagree( )+al1 abou$ $his #isagreemen$( =ho belie-es
wha$>* )May also $al1 abou$ #is&re'an&ies in un#ers$an#ing issues ? e(g( re$ribu$ion*( =ill
we e-er agree> 56( Par$ o $he reason no &on&lusi-e resear&h as $o whi&h o $he aims o
$he sys$em are a&$ually being ulille# A5@ so mu&h -aria$ion a&ross #ieren$ 1in#s o
&rimes(
- @o we wan$ $o agree> Maybe no$( Maybe $he in$eres$s o so&ie$y an# $he &riminal are bes$
ser-e# i we see1 $o balan&e $he -arious ,us$ii&a$ions an# aims( Perha's general so&ie$al
a&&e'$an&e o $he sys$em will be grea$es$ i ea&h 'erson sees his<her -alues in&lu#e# as 'ar$
o $he balan&ing a&$( 56 AUS+7F7CA+765 7S APPR6PR7A+B 65 7+S 6=5( For
e9am'le. Lewis 'oin$s ou$ $ha$ i #e$erren&e were $he only ,us$ii&a$ion. we &oul# ,us$iy
'unishing an inno&en$ man so long as so&ie$y $hough$ he was guil$y( 7n CAM &ase. &our$
s'ea1s $o im'or$an&e o CALA5CB ? sees re$ribu$ion as a res$rain$ on $he u$ili$arian
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,us$ii&a$ions( An# i$ is e-i#en$ $ha$ i we #i# no$ mee$ so&ie$y:s #eman# $o see 'unishmen$
a&&or# somewha$ wi$h $he harm #one. so&ie$y migh$ no$ a&&e'$ $he &riminal law sys$em a$ all(
)e(g( 'arliamen$ has #e&i#e# $ha$ im'aire# #ri-ing &ausing bo#ily harm #eser-es lesser
sen$en&e $han $ha$ &ausing #ea$h*(
- Also some #isagreemen$ as $o who $he law s'ea1s $o> @oes i$ s'ea1 $o all &i$i;ens )as
Mor$on sugges$s* or only $o some>
- Signii&an&e o wha$ -iew you $a1e ? wha$ ins$i$u$ions are engage#> 7ns$i$u$ional a&$ors
$hemsel-es may ha-e in&en$i-e $o 'romo$e $he ,us$ii&a$ion $ha$ engages $heir ins$i$u$ion(
Har$% when use u$ili$arian ,us$ii&a$ions. nee# reason. e9'erien&e an# s&ien&e8 Lewis% $his
ne&essarily &rea$es role or e9'er$s an# 're&lu#es or#inary &i$i;en 'ar$i&i'a$ion( =hen use
more $ra#i$ional ,us$ii&a$ion )re$ribu$ion* ? engage ,uris$s an# &i$i;ens )$hey are &a'able o
ma1ing $he #e$ermina$ion*( @e-lin )sor$ o sugges$s*% when use rehab as ,us$ii&a$ion ?
engage so&ial wor1ers an# 'sy&hologis$s( =hen use moral re$ribu$ion as a ,us$ii&a$ion ?
engage &our$s an# lawyers( =hen use isola$ion<#e$erren&e as a ,us$ii&a$ion ? may engage
'rison sys$em( =hen use #enun&ia$ion as a ,us$ii&a$ion )a la Har$* ? engage legisla$orsD
Aruments for!aainst "arious justifications of punishment#
$%&'&%A(&A) *$+%&,&-A%&O)+#
Har$ sees $hese as $he mo#ern &on&e'$ion o 'unishmen$ goal o $he &riminal law is $o re#u&e
&rime an# 'ro$e&$ so&ie$y rom $he &riminalD$hus 'unishmen$ is ,us$iie# on $he basis $ha$ i$
#e$ers<reorms a &riminal. #e$ers 'o$en$ial &riminals. isola$es &riminals rom so&ie$y( A&&or#ing
$o $his u$ili$arian -iew. $he ol#er &on&e'$ion o 'unishmen$. un#er whi&h $he ,us$ii&a$ion or
'unishmen$ is in $he moral res'onsibili$y o $he &riminal. is irra$ional( He belie-es $ha$ in $his
way. $he &riminal law has $en#e# $owar# $he elimina$ion o res'onsibili$y(
C(S( Lewis reers $o $hese u$ili$arian ,us$ii&a$ions as $he 2humani$arian $heory o 'unishmen$3
whi&h he belie-es is only #isguise# as being humane( 7n a&$. b<& i$ has no 'la&e or $he moral
&ul'abili$y o $he wrong#oer. i$ is un,us$ an# &ruel% 2mer&y #e$a&he# rom ,us$i&e grows
unmer&iul3( /see below or his s'e&ii& &ri$i&isms4
Mi&hael an# =e9ler%
.eterrence
.ef/n (+weeny) "eneral @e$erren&e% legal san&$ion im'ose# on a&$ual oen#ers will
#is&ourage 'o$en$ial oen#ers( S'e&ii& @e$erren&e% legal san&$ion im'ose# on an oen#er will
#is&ourage $ha$ in#i-i#ual rom re0oen#ing(
0ros# supports the notion that the oal of the criminal law is the protection of society
(+weeney)
-ons#
- Bm'iri&al Resear&h% Li$$le em'iri&al resear&h $o su''or$ #e$erren&e &laims )mos$ly base# on
&ommon sense*( Su&&ess o #e$erren&e -aries wi#ely #e'en#ing on $he &rime )mur#er -s( $a9
e-asion*8 $his hol#s $rue or s'e&ii& #e$erren&e also )ra$es o re&i#i-ism -ary rom &rime $o
&rime* 5o e-i#en&e $ha$ more se-ere san&$ions ha-e a grea$er #e$erren$ ee&$ )es' or &rimes
o 'assion*( )&i$e e#i$ors o SE@*
- Lewis% B9em'lary 'unishmen$s )using &riminal as an e9am'le or a means $o someone else:s
en#* are wi&1e#8 #e$erren&e ,us$ii&a$ion alone &oul# su''or$ 'unishing an inno&en$ man )so
long as so&ie$y $hin1s him guil$y*(
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- +here are some a&$s $ha$ ,us$ &anno$ be #e$erre# ? negligen&e is one o $hem8 &rimes o
'assion are ano$her
- La&1 o in$en$ion G #ii&ul$ i no$ im'ossible $o #e$er(
(ehabilitation
@e:n% i#ea $ha$ we &an &ure $he oen#er an# $hus 'ermanen$ly ensure $ha$ he #oes no$ re0
oen#( Sweeny &ase% rehabili$a$ion is no$ a&&om'lishe# by &us$o#ial sen$en&es(
For% @e-lin so&ial wor1ers. me#i&al 'eo'le li1e $his argumen$(
Aainst#
- (esearch# li$$le e-i#en&e as $o $he ee&$i-eness o -arious 'unishmen$s( "ra-e
me$ho#ologi&al 'roblems asso&ia$e# wi$h &on#u&$ing $his resear&h( Also.
e9'er$s<'sy&hia$ris$s ha-e li$$le abili$y $o 're#i&$ #angerousnessDan# ye$ su&h
're#i&$ions<#e$ermina$ions are ne&essary i oen#ers are $o be release# on&e $hey ha-e been
ully 2$rea$e#3 or 2&ure#3(
- 'ewis#
- 2Cures3 soun#s more ,us$ an# mer&iul $han 2'unishmen$s3 bu$ )1* 2&ures3 are ,us$ as
&om'ulsory an# )2* a 2&ure3 in&lu#es mos$ o $he elemen$s or whi&h 'unishmen$ is eare#
)loss o liber$y. normali$y. 'ro'er$y. e$&(*(
- Problem o i9ing $he righ$ sen$en&e reHuires relian&e on e9'er$ o'inion8 no longer a role or
$he or#inary man8 $hus &onsi#era$ions o ,us$i&e an# righ$s may no$ be em'loye#(
- 7 &rime is a #isease. how &an i$ be 'ar#one#>
1eneance
@e:n% Re'risal or harm $ha$ is mo$i-a$e# by emo$ion an# anger
C(A(M(% has no role $o 'lay in a &i-ili;e# sys$em o sen$en&ing(
A(F( S$e'hen% -engean&e is a -ali# aim o 'unishmen$( Ha$re# an# -engean&e are #ee'ly roo$e#
in human na$ure8 an# &riminal 'unishmen$ is a ne&essary an# #esirable means by whi&h $his
ha$re# &an be e9'resse#( Punishmen$s shoul# rele&$ $he #egree o ha$re# $owar#s $he &riminal(
B9'ression o ha$re# is $he 'rimary aim o &riminal ,us$i&e8 #ire&$ 're-en$ion o &rime is $he
se&on#ary aim(
Sweeney &ase ? Au#ge =oo# &onuses re$ribu$ion an# -engean&e(
II+H7S 7S A JAL7@ AUS+7F7CA+765 ? see s( K0 o $he &riminal law ? long sen$en&e or
negligen$ &on#u&$( @oesn:$ ser-e a highly #e$erren$ un&$ion or re$ribu$i-e un&$ionD(so maybe
i$ is -engean&e( Maybe 'arl wan$e# so&ie$y:s anger $o be able $o be e9'resse# )when someone
#ie# as resul$ o negligen$ use o e9'losi-es*(
.enunciation
@e:n )C(A(M( Case*% symboli&. &olle&$i-e s$a$emen$ $ha$ oen#er has en&roa&he# on so&ie$al
-alues( A s$a$emen$ $ha$ $hese $y'es o &on#u&$ are no$ a&&e'$able in $his so&ie$y b<& $hey oen#
share# -alues(
C(A(M( &ase says $ha$ #enun&ia$ion is a ,us$ii&a$ion or 'unishmen$
Har$ em'hasi;es $ha$ #enun&ia$ion is $he aim no$ o 'unishmen$ bu$ o $he &riminal law )i(e(
legisla$ion* more generally(
Mor$on% &riminal law is a &on$em'orary morali$y 'lay( +he 'ur'ose o $he &riminal $rial is $o
#emons$ra$e so&ie$y:s -alues $o i$s &i$i;ens )ins$ill in $hem 2rule0abi#ing3 -alues*(
)O)2$%&'&%A(&A) *$+%&,&-A%&O)%
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(etribution!*ust .eserts(?)#
@e:n )CAM &ase*% #e$ermina$ion o a 'unishmen$ whi&h rele&$s $he moral &ul'abili$y o an
oen#er( +a1es a&&oun$ o in$en$ional ris10$a1ing o oen#er. &onseHuen$ial harm &ause#.
norma$i-e &hara&$er o &on#u&$(
B9am'le%
Pros%
- Calan&es u$ili$arian ,us$ii&a$ions8 may a&$ as a res$rain$ on $hem an# $hus resul$ in more ,us$
san&$ions )i(e( where u$ili$arian ,us$ii&a$ions alone migh$ lea# $o harsh<se-ere<unair
san&$ions* )Sweeny &ase*
- Lewis% lea#s $o ,us$i&e(
=ho su''or$s whi&h ,us$ii&a$ions> May #e'en# on $he e9$en$ $o whi&h i$ engages &er$ain
ins$i$u$ional a&$ors( 7 you are a so&ial wor1er. you woul# li1ely su''or$ a rehabili$a$ion
un&$ion(
Ul$ima$ely. in or#er or any $heory o 'unishmen$ or sys$em o sen$en&ing $o be su&&essul. i$
mus$ be a&&e'$able $o $he 'ubli& )CAM &ase an# Ryan ma1e $his 'oin$*( +his sugges$s a nee# $o
balan&e all $he &om'e$ing &onsi#era$ions an# ,us$ii&a$ions(
A'+O3as4, are there institutions that would better ser"e these oals wrt this
act!conduct!criminal?
-et4o"ic case#
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PART II: SOURCES OF THE CRIMINAL LAW: CODIFICATION VS.
COMMON LAW CRIMES
-A+5# (. 1. +edley
R. v. Sedley (6778), pae 6
Se#ley was in#i&$e# a$ &ommon law or se-eral mis#emeanors agains$ $he Ning:s 'ea&e( Crime agains$ $he 1ing:s
'ea&e or a mis#emeanor(
+hrew 'iss #own o a bal&ony( Jery similar $o Mo&han(

-A+5# -ommonwealth ". 9ochan
Commonwealth v. Mochan (6:;;)
,acts#
- @$. o-er 1 mon$h 'erio#. on numerous o&&asions. $ele'hone# a woman( His language on &alls was obs&ene.
lu#e an# il$hy(
- 5o s$a$u$e in Penn( $ha$ 'unishe# su&h &on#u&$( 5o &ase $ha$ ha# been #e&i#e# in $he s$a$e $ha$ ma#e su&h
&on#u&$ &riminal( /5o$e $ha$ while Cana#a has a e#eral &riminal law. &rim law in USA is regula$e# by $he
in#i-i#ual s$a$es4
*udement#
- 5o$ im'$ $ha$ $here is no 're&e#en$ whi&h #e&i#es $his O(
- +es$ is no$ whe$her $here is 're&e#en$ in $he boo1s bu$ ra$her whe$her oen&e &an be 'unishe# un#er &ommon
law( Any a&$ whi&h $en#s $o in,ure $he 'ubli&. $o su&h an e9$en$ $o reHuire s$a$e $o in$erere an# 'unish
wrong#oer. as in $he &ase o a&$s whi&h in,ure 'ubli& morali$y or obs$ru&$ go-ernan&e(
- =ha$e-er o'enly ou$rages #e&en&y an# in,ures 'ubli& morals is a &rime(
-ommentary#
- 5o$eD$here is a &on$rol here mus$ be some$hing $ha$ so&ie$y agrees woul# ou$rage #e&en&y( Can:$ ,us$
'unish any ol# &on#u&$( )Con$rol is on ,u#ge. 'oli&e an# 'rose&u$or*(
- Con&ern $ha$ a ,u#ge migh$ ha-e $oo mu&h 'ower $o #e&i#e wha$ 'ubli& morals are(
- Con&ern un&er$ain$y wr$ wha$ a&$ions are allowe# or no$ allowe#( )Righ$s o $he oen#er<in#i-i#ual* ? a$ $he
$ime when $he guy ma#e $he &all. he #i#n:$ 1now i$ woul# be a &rime( Cu$ wha$:s $he 'hiloso'hy behin#
'ro$e&$ing $his 1in# o guy> +he i#ea $ha$ we wan$ $o 'ro$e&$ righ$s $ha$ he ha# beore he be&ame a lu#e &aller(
- +his #e&ision 'u$s $he so&ie$y o-er $he in#i-i#ual righ$s( Pro$e&$s so&ie$y a$ $he e9'ense o an in#i-i#ual(
- Argumen$ or 2le9ible3 &riminal law )gi-ing ,u#ge:s 'ower* im'ossible $o ma1e an e9haus$i-e lis$ o all
beha-iours $ha$ migh$ engage &riminal liabili$y Willis article% he wan$s le9ibili$y8 no &ons$rain$ o &o#e an#
s$a$u$es
- /an asi#e s$a$u$es are no$ re$roa&$i-e8 &ase law is re$roa&$i-e )bu$ in many &asesDonly when &our$ says i$ was
re$roa&$i-e* on&e &rime is #e&lare#. i$ was always a &rime4
-A+5# ,rey ". ,edoru4
Frey v. Fedoruk , <6:;=> +.-.-. pae 8
,acts#
- Frey was seen on Fe#oru1:s 'ro'er$y 'ee'ing in$o a win#ow o $he house( Fe#oru1 &hase# him wi$h a bu$&her:s
1nie. &augh$ him an# #e$aine# him( A 'oli&e oi&er arri-e# an# arres$e# him w<o warran$(
- Frey sue# or mali&ious 'rose&u$ion an# alse im'risonmen$( +he $rial ,u#ge an# &our$ o A''eal #ismisse# $he
&ase. saying $ha$ a &ommon law &rime was ,us$ii&a$ion or arres$ w<o warran$(
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&ssue#
7s $he &ommission o a &ommon0law &rime a ,us$ii&a$ion or arres$<im'risonmen$ wi$hou$ warran$> 7s $he a&$
&ommi$$e# by Frey a &rime a$ &ommon law>
?eld#
5o(
(atio#
- Criminal oen&es are oun# only in $he Criminal Code an# es$ablishe# Common law( 5o 'erson &an be
&on-i&$e# o a &rime $ha$ is no$ oun# in one o $hese $wo 'la&es( Sin&e being a 2'ee'ing $om3 was no$ an
oen&e 1nown $o $he law. $here was no ,us$ii&a$ion in law or Fe#oru1 an# S$one $o ha-e im'risone# Frey(
- 7$ &anno$ be hel# as a ma$$er o law $ha$ &on#u&$ no$ o$herwise &riminal be&omes &riminal be&ause a na$ural an#
'robable resul$ $hereo will be $o 'ro-o1e o$hers $o -iolen$ re$ribu$i-e a&$ion( +his woul# resul$ in grea$
un&er$ain$y(
- Au#i&ial oi&ers #o 56+ ha-e $he 'ower $o #e&lare any$hing $o be an oen&e whi&h is in,urious $o $he 'ubli&
al$hough i$ may no$ ha-e been 're-iously regar#e# as su&h(
-ommentary#
/A( =illis. 1!L0. 'age L4
- =here #o we now s$an# w< 'ee'ing $oms> no$ 'rohibi$e# by any se&$ion in $he &o#e an# is no$ a &riminal
oen&e a$ &ommon law
- =here #o we s$an# w< &ommon law oen&es> ear $ha$ i &rimes are &onine# $o $hose es$ablishe# in s$a$u$es.
lose a#-an$age o &ommon law8 i$s a#-an$age o being &a'able o a''li&a$ion $o new &ombina$ions o
&ir&ums$an&es $ha$ re&ur( =hen Criminal Co#e was irs$ in$ro#u&e# in$o H o C. &ommon law was 'reser-e#D
in or#er $o gi-e $he &o#e 2elas$i&i$y3(
- 7n $his &ase. $he Su'reme Cour$ re,e&$e# $his no$ion o elas$i&i$y in a-our o &er$ain$y in a#minis$ra$ion no
one shall be 'unishe# or any$hing $ha$ is no$ e9'ressly 'rohibi$e# by law( S(C( &hose $o 'la&e $he 'ro$e&$ion o
$he in#i-i#ual rom o''ression abo-e $he 'ro$e&$ion o $he s$a$e rom #isor#er(
- 5o$e% 1!LL Re-ision o $he Criminal Co#e abolishe# Common0law oen&es )s( !* bu$ 'reser-e# &ommon law
#een&es( 7$ also ma#e i$ a &rime $o be a 'ee'ing $om(
- O% Ha-e Proessor =illis:s ears been sa$isie# by legisla$i-e a&$ion>
<+4lar>#
- Rule rom $his &ase 'u$s bur#en on legisla$ure )$o #e&lare a&$s $ha$ are in,urious $o so&ie$y &riminal*
- S( ! elimina$es &ommon law oen&es ? goes beyon# F -( F whi&h hel# $ha$ &rimes ha# $o be wri$$en )in Co#e
6R in Common /&ase4 law*
- Res'onse $o F -( F S( 1PP Criminal Co#e
($'5% Law mus$ be wri$$en #own beore 'erson &an be &on-i&$e# o a &rime( )5o$ eHui-alen$ $o S( ! o Co#e
whi&h elimina$es ALL &ommon law oen&es*( 5o$e $ha$ $his is $he PR75C7PLB 6F LB"AL7+Y ? &i$i;ens shoul#
1now beorehan# wha$ is 'unishable(
+. 6@@ -riminal -ode A 0eepin %oms
B-eryone who. wi$hou$ lawul e9&use. $he 'roo o whi&h lies on him. loi$ers or 'rowls a$ nigh$
on $he 'ro'er$y o ano$her 'erson near a #welling house si$ua$e# on $ha$ 'ro'er$y is guil$y o an
oen&e 'unishable on summary &on-i&$ion(
+he &riminal law is $he mos$ se-ere inringemen$ on in#i-i#ual liber$y( 7$ shoul# be use#
s'aringly an# as a las$ resor$( +his is why $he s$a$u$e is rea# so narrowly(
-omments#
- Crown mus$ 'ro-e% loi$ering. a$ nigh$. on 'ro'er$y o ano$her. near #welling house on $ha$
'ro'er$y
- A&&use# &an% 'ro-e lawul e9&use( )+his is a s$a$u$ory e9&e'$ion $o bur#en on $he &rown as
en-isione# by =oolming$on*
Page K o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- See how narrowly i$ is #ra$e# only #welling houses. only a$ nigh$(
- =hy #i# Parliamen$ #ra$ i$ so narrowly> $o a-oi# ri-olous &harges. $o 're-en$ $he mos$
righ$ening beha-iour )nigh$. near your house. e$&(*(
- AL=AYS ASN% =ha$ is 'ur'ose o s$a$u$e> =ha$ 1in# o &on#u&$ is i$ #esigne# $o &o-er>
=hy is i$ as narrow or as wi#e as i$ is> )"ol#s$ein ? &rim law is las$ resor$( +here are o$her
ins$i$u$ions ou$ $here*
How $o rea# a CC s$a$u$e%
0wha$ are $he elemen$s
0wha$ are $he 'oli&y im'li&a$ions
0wha$ o$her 'o$en$ial &rimes &an all un#er a s$a$u$e(
0rocedural -lassification of Offences, pae 6762678
- Criminal Code #is$inguishes be$ween )1* in#i&$able oen&es8 )2* oen&es $riable only by way o summary
&on-i&$ion 'ro&ee#ings8 )3* oen&es $riable on in#i&$men$ 6R by way o summary &on-i&$ion 'ro&ee#ings(
- +his #esigna$ion ae&$s $rial an# a''eal 'ro&e#ures bu$ also many 're0$rial righ$s an# res'onsibili$ies(
- +he se&$ion whi&h &rea$es $he oen&e an# s'e&iies i$s 'unishmen$ also s$a$es $he manner in whi&h i$ is $o be
$rie#(
6en&es $riable only on in#i&$men$
- 7n#i&$able oen&es #i-i#e# in$o $hree &a$egories
- /14 9ost serious offences ? gi-en in$o e9&lusi-e ,uris#i&$ion o $he su'erior Cour$ o &riminal ,uris#i&$ion(
/B9&lusi-e ,uris#i&$ion G no o$her &our$ &an $ry $hese oen&es4
- /24 'east serious offences ? absolu$ely w<in $he ,uris#i&$ion o a Magis$ra$e /Absolu$e G en$i$le# $o $ry $hese
oen&es8 no$ #e'en#en$ on a&&use#:s ele&$ing $o be so $rie#4(
- /34 (emainin Offences ? a&&use# is allowe# $o &hoose his mo#e o $rial ? ele&$ 'ro-in&ial Cour$ ,u#ge wi$h
no ,ury. a Au#ge w<o a ,ury. or a Cour$ &om'ose# o a ,u#ge an# ,ury( 7 he #oesn:$ &hoose. ge$s ,u#ge an# ,ury(
Re&en$ly ena&$e# 'ro-isions allow $he a&&use# $o &hange his min# an# re0ele&$ his mo#e o $rial(
Summary Con-i&$ion 6en&es
- +rial beore a 'ro-in&ial ,u#ge w<o a ,ury an# w<o a 'reliminary inHuiry
- Ma9imum 'enal$y or a summary &on-i&$ion oen&e )unless o$herwise 'ro-i#e#* G Q2000 ine or si9 mon$hs:
im'risonmen$ or bo$h(
Hybri# 6en&es
- 7ns$an&es in whi&h legisla$ion ma1es $he oen&e 'unishable on in#i&$men$ or on summary &on-i&$ion a$ $he
o'$ion o $he Crown(
Commen$s by S1lar%
- "e$ some eeling as $o #ieren$ $y'es o oen&es ? 3 $y'es
- 7n#i&$able oen&es ? analogous $o $he &ommon law 2elony3 )use# in USA*. summary &on-i&$ion oen&es ?
analogous $o 2mis#emeanor3 0 general ma9imum im'risonmen$ is M mon$hs bu$ or some &rimes ma9imum is 2
years )are $hese hybri#s>*
- Pro&e#ures are #ieren$ or in#i&$able an# summary &on-i&$ion oen&es
- Hybri#% in#i&$able oen&e wi$h ma9 F years im'risonmen$ 6R 'unishable on summary &on-i&$ion 0 $his gi-es
'ower $o $he 'rose&u$or b<& he<she &an &hoose ? &an use $his in a 'lea bargaining si$ua$ion( Prose&u$or will
&hoose #e'en#ing on $he a&$s o $he &ase )i(e( se-eri$y o $he &rime &ommi$$e#*(
'aw (eform -ommission of -anada, The Jury in Criminal Trials, pae 67B
- Oues$ions o law #e&i#e# by ,u#ge( Oues$ions o a&$ #e&i#e# by ,ury( So who a''lies law $o a&$s>
- Au#ge ins$ru&$s ,ury on $he law ,ury $hen a''lies $he law(
- +HUS. ,ury ins$ru&$ions mus$ sa$isy $wo reHuiremen$s% )1* mus$ be a&&ura$e8 )2* mus$ be easy $o un#ers$an#(
Page ! o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- +hese $wo reHuiremen$s may &onli&$ $o ma1e ins$ru&$ions a&&ura$e. may nee# $o ma1e $hem long re'e$i$ious
an# #is,oin$e#8 $his may sa&rii&e &om'rehensibili$y(
- 6$en allege# $ha$ one o $he mos$ serious #ei&ien&ies o $rial by ,ury is $he ,ury:s inabili$y $o ollow an#
&om'rehen# $he ins$ru&$ions gi-en by $he ,u#ge( Conusion abou$ $he law G ,urors &anno$ 'erorm $heir
un&$ion(
S1lar%
- Au#ge -s( Aury )un&$ion* ? in =oolming$on. ,u#ge s&rewe# u' when ins$ru&$ing $he ,ury )miss$a$e# $he law*8 Os
o law or ,u#ge. Os o a&$ or ,ury( Au#ge mus$ ins$ru&$ ,ury wr$ wha$ $he law is( Aury mus$ a''ly $he law $o
$he a&$s(
- B9am'le o ins$ru&$ion $ha$ a ,u#ge gi-es% Woolmington v. D.P.P )man 1ills es$range# wie an# says i$ was an
a&&i#en$*% 3 -er#i&$s 'ossible guil$y o mur#er. guil$y o manslaugh$er. aHui$$al
-
A - Statutory Interpretation; Rule of Strict Construction of Penal Provisions
A'WAC+ A+D# =ha$ is $he 'ur'ose o $he s$a$u$e> =ha$ 1in# o &on#u&$ is i$ #esigne# $o
&o-er(
S1lar% +here are 'oli&ies behin# all &riminal s$a$u$es( Language mus$ be in$er're$e# in ligh$ o
$hese 'oli&ies<reasons or ena&$men$ S( 1PP. Pare. =oolming$on all show e9am'les o $his(
$sin the (ule of +trict -onstruction
Pro-ision wi$h 'ossibili$y o mul$i'le in$er're$a$ions base# on li$eral rea#ing o $he $e9$( may
use #i&$ionary $o illumina$e #e:n(

5ee# $o #e$ermine i $here is one 2righ$3 one Loo1 $o &on$e9$<'arliamen$:s in$en$(

@e$ermining Parliamen$:s in$en$<'ur'ose% )1* -onteEt 0 loo1 a$ surroun#ing 'ro-isions an#


se&$ion hea#ing )is $here a uni$ing ea$ure $ha$ &an be sai# $o be un#erlying 'oli&y
&onsi#era$ion>*8 )2* -ommon sense and rationality )Parliamen$:s in$en$ woul# no$ be rele&$e#
by an in$er're$a$ion $ha$ is &on$rary $o &ommon sense ? Par*8 )3* ,rench teEt ? loo1 a$ Fren&h
-ersion o $e9$ ? R v. Mac( 7S +HBRB 65B 75+BRPRB+A+765 +HA+ C675C7@BS =7+H
PARL7AMB5+:S 75+B5+>

7 more $han one 'ossible in$er're$a$ion "B5U75B ambigui$y use rule o s$ri&$
&ons$ru&$ion &hoose in$er're$a$ion $ha$ a-ours a&&use#(
SH% =hen #oing s$a$u$ory in$er're$a$ion. also loo1 $o au$hori$ies )i(e( 're&e#en$* A5@ $o 'oli&y
&onsi#era$ions(
-A+5# ( ". Foulis
R. v. Goulis , <6:G6> Ont. -.A., pae ;B
@o&$rine o S$ri&$ Cons$ru&$ion
- =ell 1nown rule o s$a$u$ory &ons$ru&$ion i a 'enal 'ro-ision is reasonably &a'able o $wo in$er're$a$ions.
$ha$ in$er're$a$ion whi&h is $he more a-ourable $o $he a&&use# mus$ be a#o'$e#(
- +his #oes 56+ mean $ha$ a wor# whi&h has $wo a&&e'$e# meanings mus$ always be gi-en $he more res$ri&$i-e
meaning(
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Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- +o #e$ermine $he &orre&$ meaning. Cour$ mus$ irs$ en#ea-our $o #e$ermine $he sense in whi&h Parliamen$ use#
$he wor# rom $he &on$e9$ in whi&h i$ a''ears(
- 6nly in $he &ase o an ambigui$y whi&h s$ill e9is$s a$er $he ull &on$e9$ is &onsi#ere# shoul# $he abo-e rule o
&ons$ru&$ion be use#( +his is ano$her way o s$a$ing $he 'rin&i'le $ha$ $he &on#u&$ allege# agains$ $he a&&use#
mus$ be &learly brough$ wi$hin $he 'ros&ri'$ion(
S1lar:s Commen$s )Aanuary 1M. 2003*%
- =e see $he 'rin&i'le lai# ou$ here a''lie# in Pare
- Loo1 $o see i 'ro-ision is enuinely ambiuous )2 eHual meanings* in$er're$ in a-our o a&&use# )#o&$rine
o s$ri&$ &ons$ru&$ion*(
- @e&i#ing i $here is genuine ambigui$y ? usually mus$ loo1 $o in$en$ion o 'arliamen$( 7 s$ill ambiguous ? use
s$ri&$ &ons$ru&$ion( ParR shows $ha$ $he rule o s$ri&$ &ons$ru&$ion #oesn:$ always a''ly(
(ule
7 a 'enal 'ro-ision is reasonably &a'able o $wo in$er're$a$ions. mus$ a#o'$ $he in$er' whi&h is more a-ourable $o
$he a&&use#( +his rule shoul# only be use# when 'ro-ision is s$ill ambiguous a$er $he ull &on$e9$ is &onsi#ere#
)'arliamen$:s in$en$. e$&(*(
-A+5# (. ". 0arH
R. v. Par , <6:G@> +.-.-., pae ;8
,acts#
- A&&use# in#e&en$ly assaul$e# a P0year ol# boy( +he a&&use# sai# $ha$ i $he 1i# $ol# his mom. he woul# 1ill
him( He hel# $he boy #own or 2 minu$es an# when $he 1i# $hrea$ene# $o $ell his mo$her. $he a&&use# 1ille# him
$hrough s$rangula$ion an# hi$$ing him wi$h an oil il$er(
- +he a&&use# was &harge# wi$h an# &on-i&$e# o irs$0#egree mur#er on $he basis o wha$ is now 231)L* o $he
Co#e( He is a''ealing $he -er#i&$ on $he basis $ha$ $he #ea$h was no$ &ause# 2while &ommi$$ing3 an in in#e&en$
assaul$(
&ssue#
Shoul# $he a&&use# ha-e been &on-i&$e# o 1
s$
#egree mur#er gi-en $ha$ i$ reHuires $ha$ $he #ea$h is &ause# 2while
&ommi$$ing3 $he assaul$>
?eld#
Yes( A''eal allowe#. &on-i&$ion res$ore#(
(atio#
- Res'on#en$ argues $ha$ 2while &ommi$$ing3 mus$ be narrowly &ons$rue# so as $o ele-a$e mur#er $o irs$ #egree
only when $he #ea$h an# un#erlying oen&e o&&ur simul$aneously( )2simul$aneous a''roa&h3D&oin&i#es w<
li$eral rea#ing*( /+here are $hus $wo 'ossible in$er're$a$ions o $his 'ro-ision simul$aneous an# &on$inuous4
- +he seriousness o im'osing &riminal 'enal$ies o any sor$ #eman#s $ha$ $he #o&$rine o s$ri&$ &ons$ru&$ion be
use# an# $hus $ha$ reasonable #oub$s be resol-e# in a-our o $he a&&use#(
- 7n or#er $o in$er're$ $he s$a$u$e in $his way. &our$ mus$ loo1 a$ $he $e9$ A5@ a$ $he s&heme an# 'ur'ose o $he
legisla$ion )legisla$or:s in$en$>*(
- -ommon sense and rationality# Here. $he narrow &ons$ru&$ion orwar#e# by $he res'on#en$ &anno$ be
reasonably a$$ribu$e# $o 'arliamen$ be&ause )1* i$ woul# be #ii&ul$ $o #eine $he beginning an# en# o an
in#e&en$ assaul$ an# )2* $he simul$aneous a''roa&h lea#s $o #is$in&$ions $ha$ are arbi$rary an# irra$ional( )3*
7sn:$ $he &rime ,us$ as serious i &ommi$$e# simul$aneous wi$h assaul$ as i &ommi$$e# a$er i$> /S1lar% maybe
more serious4( An in$er're$a$ion $ha$ runs &on$rary $o &ommon sense shoul# no$ be a#o'$e# i a reasonable
al$erna$i-e is a-ailable(
- 0arliament/s underlyin policy# +he 'oli&y &onsi#era$ions un#erlying $he 'ro-ision )i(e( im'osi$ion o
e9&e'$ional 'enal$ies /Mur#er 14 on oen&es in-ol-ing $he unlawul #omina$ion o 'eo'le* sugges$ $ha$ $he
2single $ransa&$ion analysis3 a''roa&h be use#( 7n $he &ase a$ bar. $he mur#er was $em'orally an# &ausally
&onne&$e# $o $he un#erlying oen&e( 7$ orme# 'ar$ o one &on$inuous seHuen&e o e-en$s8 'ar$ o $he same
$ransa&$ion(
-ommentary (+4lar)#
- Ra$ionale or using #o&$rine o s$ri&$ &ons$ru&$ion seriousness o im'osing &riminal 'enal$ies8 liber$y is a$
s$a1e( His$ory% #ra&onian 'enal 'ro-isions(
Page 11 o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- Law Reorm Commission sai# $ha$ $here was no organi;ing 'rin&i'le uni$ing all $hese &rimes ele-a$e mur#er $o
Mur#er 1( Cour$ says $here 7S an organi;ing 'rin&i'le unlawul #omina$ion o one 'erson by ano$her( +his
unlawul #omina$ion singles ou$ $hese &ases or $he more harsh 'unishmen$ asso&ia$e# wi$h Mur#er 1 )2L years
w<o a 'ossibili$y o 'arole*(
- ParR is a lesson wr$ how &our$s a''roa&h in$er're$a$ion o language in $he &riminal &o#e )see i$ in Hutt, Mac
also*( =e #on:$ ha-e $he same rules o in$er're$a$ion in $he &i-il an# &riminal lawD=HY> b<& liber$y is a$
s$a1e in $he &riminal law(
(ule%
+inle %ransaction (ule# 2=hile &ommi$$ing3 means $ha$ $he mur#er an# assaul$ was 'ar$ o one &on$inuous
seHuen&e o e-en$s. 'ar$ o $he same $ransa&$ion(
+trict -onstruction# 6nly in$er're$ in a-our o $he a&&use# i $here is genuine ambigui$y( )See rule rom R( -(
"oulis being a''lie# hereDwhere $here is no "B5U75B ambigui$y*(
Applyin (ule from 0arH
- +wo &onsi#era$ions $o be ma#e )1* 7s i$ a single. &on$inuous $ransa&$ion>8 )2* 7s $here a
si$ua$ion o unlawul #omina$ion o one 'erson by ano$her>
- A$ wha$ 'oin$ #oes $he $ransa&$ion an# $he #omina$ion en#> A$ $he 'oin$ a$ whi&h $hey en#
mur#er is no longer #one 2while &ommi$$ing3 $he assaul$ an# $he a&&use# woul# only be
guil$y o irs$ #egree mur#er(
- 5Eample# ParR &ase bu$ a$er se9ual assaul$. 1i# goes $o 'ee( Yells or his Mommy an# guy
1ills him( S1lar% 5o longer a single $ransa&$ion( +here is a brea1 in $he seHuen&e o e-en$s(
CU+D&onsi#er 'oli&y un#erling $he single $ransa&$ion a''roa&h unlawul #omina$ion(
=hile -i&$im is s$ill in sigh$ o a&&use#. he is un#er his #omina$ion( +hus. $his 7S a single
$ransa&$ion an# $he mur#er o&&urre# while $he a&&use# was &ommi$$ing $he assaul$(
- 5Eample# A$er se9ual assaul$. $hey go $o Ma&@onal#:s( Ni# $hrea$ens $o $ell Mommy so
a&&use# $a1es him in$o 'ar1ing lo$ an# 1ills him( 5o longer a single $ransa&$ion b<& brea1 in
$he seHuen&e o e-en$s )#eini$e brea1D#ri-e $o Ma&@onal#sD$ime or a&&use# $o $hin1*(
@omina$ion no longer un#er his unlawul #omina$ion )why>Dboy has &han&e $o run. no$
being hel# #own. no$ in &ons$an$ sigh$ o $he a&&use#. a&&use# is buying him oo#*( +his
migh$ no$ be mur#er 1 un#er 231)L* bu$ i$ may be mur#er 1 un#er 231)2* b<& here $he mur#er
migh$ be 'lanne# an# #elibera$e(
- =r$ 'oin$ a$ whi&h #omina$ion en#s #oes age. se9. men$al s$a$e o -i&$im ma$$er>
Problem wi$h $his where #o you #raw $he line )M. P. 10 years ol#>>*(
R. v Russell 2!" !#$ SCC.
An elabora$ion o Pare rule(
Fa&$s% Russell se9ually assaul$ S( A$er se9ually assaul$ing her an# $ying her u' an# gagging
her. he re$ie# her( Russell $hen wen$ #owns$airs an# 1ille# =hi$a1er(
7ssue% 7n$er're$a$ion 'roblem% @oes ss( 231<L reHuire $ha$ $he &rimes be &ommi$$e# $o $he same
-i&$im or $he single $ransa&$ion rule $o be a''lie#(
Page 12 o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
5CI 7n $his &ase. $he -i&$im o $he or&ible &oninemen$ is no$ $he same as $he -i&$im o $he
'erson $ha$ is 1ille#(
2=hile &ommi$$ing 'roblem3% 5o$ an issue. S is s$ill $ie# u'(
Ra$io%
0arliament/s intent +? analytical 9A0#
&on$e9$
P 1L o ,u#gemen$% =hen 'arliamen$ wan$e# $o a## 231(M( Criminal harassmen$(
Loo1 a$ o$her 'ro-isions% in $he &on$e9$ o o$her 'ro-isions%
+he using o e9'losi-esD ss( K1
7 Parliamen$ ha# in$en#e# $o res$ri&$ $he s&o'e o s( 231)L*. i$ &oul# ha-e #one so e9'li&i$ly. as i$
#i# in s( 231)M*( +ha$ Parliamen$ #i# no$ in&or'ora$e su&h a res$ri&$ion sugges$s $ha$ i$ in$en#e#
Twhile &ommi$$ing or a$$em'$ing $o &ommi$T $o a''ly e-en where $he -i&$im o $he mur#er an#
$he -i&$im o $he enumera$e# oen&e are no$ $he same(
Common Sense%
+hus an organi;ing 'rin&i'le or s( 21F)L* &an be oun#( +his 'rin&i'le is $ha$ where a mur#er is
&ommi$$e# by someone alrea#y abusing his 'ower by illegally #omina$ing ano$her. $he mur#er
shoul# be $rea$e# as an e9&e'$ionally serious &rime(
=ha$ 'oli&y &onsi#era$ions also e9is$>
=ha$ sor$ o message #oes $his sen# $o $he 'o'ula$ion( 7B 'ur'ose o $he &riminal law( Here
'arliamen$ wan$s $o 'unish e9e'$ionaly serious<blamewor$hy &rimes(
@is$in&$ion% 6C7+BR% 7n a number o 're&e#en$s. &i$ing Pare e&$D(H6=BJBR. in $hose &ase
$his issue was no$ in ron$ o $he &our$( +he ra$io was s'e&ii& $o $he a&$s o $hose 'ar$i&ular
&ases(
RULB% +he e9'ression Twhile &ommi$$ing or a$$em'$ing $o &ommi$T reHuires $he 1illing $o be
&losely &onne&$e#. $em'orally an# &ausally. wi$h an enumera$e# oen&e( As long as $ha$
&onne&$ion e9is$s. i$ is imma$erial $ha$ $he -i&$im o $he 1illing an# $he -i&$im o $he enumera$e#
oen&e are no$ $he same(
Hol#ing% @oesn:$ ha-e $o be $he same -i&$im(
The preliminary inquiry judge did not err in finding that s. 231(5) may apply even where the victim of the
murder and the victim of the enumerated offence are not the same. f the ordinary meaning of the words
is consistent with the conte!t in which the words are used and with the o"ject of the #ct$ then that is the
interpretation that should govern. The language of s. 231(5) is clear. The provision does not state that the
Page 13 o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
victim of the murder and the victim of the enumerated offence must "e one and the same. t requires only
that the accused have %illed while committing or attempting to commit one of the enumerated offences. f
&arliament had intended to restrict the scope of s. 231(5)$ it could have done so e!plicitly. 'udgments
from this (ourt dealing with s. 231(5) never intended to foreclose its application to multiple)victim
scenarios. *one of those previous cases involved multiple)victim scenarios$ and the issue was simply not
addressed "y the (ourt. +ection 231(5) reflects &arliament,s determination that murders committed in
connection with crimes of domination are particularly "lameworthy and deserving of more severe
punishment. The e!pression -while committing or attempting to commit- requires the %illing to "e closely
connected$ temporally and causally$ with an enumerated offence. #s long as that connection e!ists$ it is
immaterial that the victim of the %illing and the victim of the enumerated offence are not the same.
n this case$ there was sufficient evidence to warrant committing the accused to trial for first degree
murder. The e!istence of a temporal lin% was conceded$ and the preliminary inquiry judge found that the
(rown had adduced sufficient evidence to allow a jury to find the requisite causal connection. #
preliminary inquiry judge,s determination of sufficiency is entitled to the greatest deference. only if there is
no evidence on an element of the offence$ or on an essential condition of s. 231(5)$ can a reviewing court
vacate the committal. /hile the jury would "e entitled to find that the accused,s intention in confronting
the tenant was entirely independent of the forci"le confinement of +$ it would also "e entitled to conclude
that the accused murdered the tenant to facilitate his forci"le confinement of +$ or that he forci"ly confined
+ to facilitate his murder of the tenant.
=e nee# $o lin1 $he 1illing o =hi$a1er $o $he #omina$ion o S. s(231 a''lies( 7 $he reason is
in#e'en#en$. 2be&ause he is ra&is$3 $hen 231(L #oes no$ a''ly(
-A+5# (. ". 9uchi4e4wanape
R. v Muchikekwana%e (B==B) 677 -.-.-. (9anitoba -.A.)
,acts#
- =oman is 1ille#8 man is seen wal1ing w< her $w#s a bri#ge8 she is hear# s&reaming( Poli&e in# her bo#y in $he
ri-er(
- B-i#en&e o se9ual in$er&ourse( La&era$ion in $he geni$al area( B9'er$ e-i#en&e shows $ha$ la&era$ion o&&urre#
a$ or a$er $he 'oin$ o #ea$h(
- Canno$ be 'ro-e# beyon# R@ $ha$ se9ual assaul$ $oo1 'la&e beore she #ie#(
- A&&use# #enie# $ha$ he 1ille# $he woman( Al$erna$i-e argumen$% i ,ury in#s $ha$ beyon# R@. $he a&&use#
1ille# her. $here is reasonable #oub$ as $o when $he assaul$ was &ommi$$e# )beore or a$er #ea$h*D$hus shoul#
no$ be mur#er 1(
- %rial *ude instructed jury% 7 you are sa$isie# beyon# R@ $ha$ a&&use# mur#ere# #e&ease#. he woul# be
guil$y o 1
s$
#gr mur#er i $he mur#er o&&urre# while &ommi$$ing $he assaul$( =hile &ommi$$ing woul# be
sa$isie# i $he se9ual assaul$ an# 1illing were 'ar$ o $he same $ransa&$ion. e-en i $he hear$bea$ o $he #e&ease#
ha# in a&$ &ease# by $he $ime $he se9ual assaul$ $oo1 'la&e(
&ssue#
=as $he $rial ,u#ge in error> Mus$ ,ury in# $ha$ #e&ease# was ali-e when assaul$ $oo1 'la&e 6R is i$ sui&ien$ $ha$
assaul$ an# mur#er are 75+BR+=75B@ in or#er or 1
s$
#egree mur#er $o be ma#e ou$>
?oldin!(atio#
- Cour$ in#s ins$ru&$ions $o be &orre&$( =ha$ &ons$i$u$es single $ransa&$ion mus$ be $ailore# &areully in ea&h
&ase( Leg in$en#e# $ha$ where a&&use# e9'loi$s 'ower an# &ommi$s mur#er in 'ro&ess. mur#er in 1
s$
#gr is
es$ablishe#(
Page 1F o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- So when assaul$ an# mur#er are so ine9$ri&ably lin1e# as $o &ons$i$u$e a $ransa&$ion. 231)L* is sa$isie#( +o say
o$herwise woul# be #e&i#ing $he issue on $he ma$$er o minu$es an# se&on#s(
<.issent>#
- Poin$s $o a #ieren$ 'ar$ o 231)L* 2while &ommi$$ing or a$$em'$ing $o &ommi$3( 7 she is alrea#y #ea#. $his
is no longer a &ommission o a se9ual assaul$D&anno$ &ommi$ a se9ual assaul$ on a #ea# bo#y(
- /5o$e% a&$ says 2a$$em'$ing $o &ommi$3 a se9ual assaul$ wha$ i he #i#n:$ 1now $ha$ she was #ea#> 7 he
#i#n:$ 1now $ha$. he woul# be 2a$$em'$ing $o &ommi$3 se9ual assaul$( 7 he #i# 1now $ha$ she was #ea#. $his is a
-iola$ion o 1K2 )b* ? in#e&en$ -iola$ion o a #ea# bo#y( +his &rime is no$ enough $o ele-a$e mur#er 2 $o mur#er
14(
+4lar#
7 he 1new she was #ea# $he #issen$ woul# be &orre&$ )he was &ommi$$ing ne&ro'hilia*( 7 he $hough$ she was
ali-e he woul# be guil$y o a$$em'$ing a se9ual assaul$ )re&all wha$ a$$em'$ is i you s$ab a #ea# bo#yD&an be
guil$y o a$$em'$e# mur#er*( +o ha-e $he mens rea or ne&ro'hilia you mus$ belie-e $ha$ $he 'erson is #ea#( 7
you $hin1 $he 'erson is ali-e &oul# ne-er be guil$y o ne&ro'hilia( 7 you ha-e $he mens rea or a 'ar$i&ular &rime.
e-en i i$ was no$ 'ossible $o &ommi$ i$. you will be guil$y o a$$em'$ing $o &ommi$ $ha$ &rimeDb<& you are morally
blamewor$hy or $ha$ &rime( +he a&$us reus woul# be $he a$$em'$ $o &ommi$ i$(
($'5#
Mur#er an# a se9ual assaul$ )or a$$em'$e# se9ual assaul$* orm a single $ransa&$ion so long as $hey are ine9$ri&ably
lin1e#( 7$ #oesn:$ ma$$er i $he -i&$im is #ea# or ali-e when $he mur#er is &ommi$$e# )unless $he a&&use# 1nows $ha$
she is #ea#*( +his su''or$s Parliamen$:s in$en$ion $o im'ose e9&e'$ional 'unishmen$ when mur#er o&&urs in $he
'ro&ess o e9'loi$a$ion o 'ower<#omina$ion(
-A+5# ( ". 9ac
R. v. Mac
,acts#
- A&&use# was &harge# wi$h 'ossession o $ool or 'ur'ose o orgery 'ursuan$ $o s( 3M!)b* o
$he Criminal Co#e(
- +he language o $his se&$ion says $ha$ $he $ools mus$ be 2a#a'$e# or $he 'ur'ose o orgery3(
- +rial ,u#ge &on-i&$e# a&&use#( C(A( o-er$urne# &on-i&$ion by using s$ri&$ &ons$ru&$ion rule(
+ha$ is. 2a#a'$e#3 &an ha-e $wo meanings ? sui$able or $ha$ 'ur'ose 6R mo#iie# or al$ere#
or $ha$ 'ur'ose( C(A( sai# wor# was ambiguous an# $hus in$er're$e# i$ as 2mo#iie# or
al$ere# or $ha$ 'ur'ose3 in a-our o $he a&&use#(
&ssue#
=ha$ is $he meaning o 2a#a'$e#3 in s( 3M!)b* o $he Criminal Law>
?eld#
A#a'$e# means 2sui$able or3( A''eal allowe#( Con-i&$ion res$ore#(
(atio#
- Fren&h an# Bnglish -ersions o $he Co#e are eHually au$hori$a$i-e( =hen wor#s o one
-ersion raise ambigui$y. &our$s shoul# irs$ loo1 $o $he o$her oi&ial language -ersion(
- S( 3M!)b* an# 3F2)1* /orging an# alsiying &re#i$ &ar#s4 are rela$e# 'ro-isions an# shoul# be
rea# $oge$her( 3F2)1* uses 2a#a'$e#3 in $he Bnglish -ersion an# 2mo#iiR3 in $he Fren&h
-ersion( 3M!)b* uses 2a#a'$e#3 in $he Bnglish an# 2a#a'$R3 in $he Fren&h( "i-en $ha$
2mo#iiR3 was use# in 3F2)1* an# 2a#a'$R3 in 3M!)b*. $he &orre&$ in$er're$a$ion o 2a#a'$e#3
in 3M!)b* is 2sui$able or3(
- +he meaning o 3M!)b* is $hus no$ ambiguous an# $he rule o s$ri&$ &ons$ru&$ion shoul# no$ be
a''lie#(
Page 1L o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
(ule%
7 language is ambiguous. loo1 a$ $he $ransla$ion $o hel' &lariy ambigui$y( S1lar a##s% +he
reasoning use# in $his &ase reHuires $ha$ Parliamen$ in$en#e# $o use #ieren$ wor#s in $he Fren&h
an# Bnglish -ersions(
+4lar#
+his rule ma1es senseDbu$ 'erha's no$ in $his &ase( Problem in $his &ase is $ha$ i$ may no$ ha-e
been Parliamen$:s in$en$ion $o use #ieren$ wor#s in $he Fren&h an# Bnglish -ersions( +his &ase
is being #e&i#e# on $he basis o a&$ions $a1en by $he $ransla$ion oi&e(
PART III: CORNERSTONE PRECEPTS: THE PRESUMPTION OF
INNOCENCE AND THE REQUIREMENT OF PROOF BEYOND A
REASONABLE DOUBT
Woolmington: Presum'$ion o 7nno&en&e( Crown has bur#en o 'roo an# mus$ 'ro-e guil$
beyon# reasonable #oub$( @oub$ &an be raise# by a&&use# or by Crown(
Osolin:
Lichfus an# tar: gi-e meaning $o 2'roo beyon# reasonable #oub$3 )while =oolming$on
es$ablishes i$ as $he s$an#ar# o 'roo*(
-A+5# Woolminton ". ..0.0.
&oolmin'ton v. (.P.P ., <6:8;> ?.'., pae @72GB
+his &ase ar$i&ula$es $he &orners$one 're&e'$s o 'resum'$ion o inno&en&e an# $ha$ $he Crown mus$ normally 'ro-e
$o a s$an#ar# o 'roo beyon# a reasonable #oub$( 5o$e $ha$ $hese 're&e'$s were asser$e# by $he H o L rela$i-ely
re&en$ly(
,acts#
- =oolming$on sho$ an# 1ille# his es$range# wie( He was &on-i&$e# o willul mur#er an# sen$en&e# $o #ea$h(
- He is a''ealing $he &on-i&$ion on $he basis $ha$ he sho$ her a&&i#en$ally( He &laims $ha$ he bough$ $he gun an#
$oo1 i$ $o where she was li-ing so $ha$ he &oul# s&are her in$o $hin1ing he was going $o &ommi$ sui&i#e( He
&laims $ha$ while #rawing $he gun. i$ wen$ o a&&i#en$ally an# 1ille# her(
- A$er $he shoo$ing. he ran o on a bi&y&le( +he aun$ saw him run o( +he aun$ hear# him say% 2Are you going
$o &ome ba&1 home>3 /no$eD$his is e-i#en&e $ha$ shows in$en$4
- A$ $rial. $he ,u#ge ins$ru&$e# $he ,ury $ha$ 2on&e i$ is shown $o a ,ury $ha$ somebo#y has #ie# $hrough $he a&$ o
ano$her. $ha$ is 'resume# $o be mur#er. unless $he 'erson who has been guil$y o $he a&$D&an sa$isy a ,ury $ha$
wha$ ha''ene# was some$hing less /a&&i#en$al. manslaugh$er. ,us$iiable. e$&(4(3 +ha$ is. on&e $he 1illing is
es$ablishe#. $he bur#en o 'roo is on $he 'risoner $o 'ro-e any &ir&ums$an&es o a&&i#en$. ne&essi$y or inirmi$y(
&ssue#
@i# $he ,u#ge mis0ins$ru&$ $he ,ury wr$ $he 'resum'$ion o inno&en&e an# bur#en o 'roo> )i(e by ins$ru&$ing $he
,ury $ha$ i$ is in&umben$ on $he a&&use# $o 'ro-e his inno&en&e>*( @i# $he man in$en# $o 1ill his wie or was i$
a&&i#en$al>
?eld#
Yes ? ,ury was misins$ru&$e#(
(atio#
- 7n some e9&e'$ional &ases only. $he onus is 'la&e# u'on $he a&&use# $o es$ablish a #een&e )insani$y. s$a$u$ory
e9&e'$ions*(
- +he a&&use# is en$i$le# $o $he benei$ o any #oub$ brough$ ou$ in e-i#en&e(
Page 1M o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- +he 'rose&u$ion mus$ 'ro-e $he guil$ o $he 'risoner an# $here is no bur#en lai# on $he 'risoner $o 'ro-e his
inno&en&e( 7$ is sui&ien$ or him $o raise a #oub$ as $o his guil$8 he is no$ boun# $o sa$isy $he ,ury o his
inno&en&e(
- 7n or#er or a&&use# $o be &on-i&$e#. $he 'rose&u$ion mus$ 'ro-e $he &ase beyon# reasonable #oub$(
- =here in$en$ is an ingre#ien$ o a &rime. $here is no onus on $he #$ $o 'ro-e $ha$ $he a&$ allege# was a&&i#en$al(
7. a$ $he en# o an# on $he whole o $he &ase. $here is reasonable #oub$. &rea$e# by $he e-i#en&e gi-en by ei$her
$he 'rose&u$ion or $he 'risoner. as $o whe$her $he 'risoner 1ille# $he #e&ease# w< a mali&ious in$en$ion. $he
'rose&u$ion has no$ ma#e ou$ $he &ase an# $he 'risoner is en$i$le# $o an a&Hui$$al(
- Prose&u$ion mus$ show mali&e ? a&&use# &an rebu$ bu$ #oesn:$ ha-e $o 'ro-e no mali&e in or#er $o be a&Hui$$e#(
- /SoD2 ways $o be a&Hui$$e# ,ury a&&e'$s a&&use#:s e9'lana$ion as $o why #ea$h was unin$en$ional<a&&i#en$al
6R ,ury is le$ wi$h reasonable #oub$ whe$her )e-en i his e9'lana$ion is no$ a&&e'$e#*. $he a&$ was in$en$ional
or 'ro-o1e#4
-ommentary# (+4lar)
?ow do you pro"e intent to 4ill?
- Cy a 'erson:s &on#u&$( You 'ro-e wha$ one in$en#s by wha$ he #oes( Loo1 a$ $he &ir&ums$an&es o $he e-en$(
/7n $his &aseDsawe#0o sho$ gun su''or$s a&&i#en$ CU+ ri#ing o an# s$aring #own aun$ su''or$s in$en$4
- Cy a &onession )as in ParR*
- Cy showing mo$i-e )e(g( i no e-i#en&e o animosi$y. e-i#en&e o a&&i#en$ is s$ronger* /7n $his &ase. use o wor#
,ealousy in a s$a$emen$ shows mo$i-e4
- =here #oes $he ,u#ge ge$ $his &ra;y 'rin&i'le> )i(e( $ha$ 'risoner has bur#en o 'ro-ing a&&i#en$* one o $he
mos$ renowne# &riminal law wri$ers )Fos$er* s$a$e# i$Dan# $hen o$her wri$ers an# ,u#ges ollowe# i$(
- Mos$ Criminal Co#e 'ro-isions $ha$ shi$ bur#en $o a&&use# are $he sub,e&$ o a &har$er &hallenge )-iola$ion o
'resum'$ion o inno&en&e guaran$ee# by s( 11#*
($'5#
All $he elemen$s o 'roo mus$ be es$ablishe# by $he Crown( 5o shi$ o bur#en o 'roo )e9&e'$ or #een&e o
insani$y an# s$a$u$ory e9&e'$ions*( 7$ is no$ or $he a&&use# $o es$ablish his inno&en&e bu$ or $he 'rose&u$ion $o
es$ablish his guil$( 7n or#er or a&&use# $o be &on-i&$e#. Crown mus$ 'ro-e $he &ase beyon# reasonable #oub$( +he
'rose&u$ion 6R $he a&&use# may be $he sour&e o reasonable #oub$(
0resumed &nnocence

A&&use# raises #oub$ as $o guil$ an# ,ury a&&e'$s i$( A&&use# raises #oub$ as $o guil$ bu$
no$ a&&e'$e#
6R A5@
Crown unable $o 'ro-e CR@ $ha$ he is guil$y Crown 'ro-es guil$ CR@(

A-I$&%%A' -O)1&-%&O)
Folden %hread Iuote
Famous Huo$e rom =oolming$on% !hroughout the "e# of the $nglish Criminal La" one golden
thread is al"a%s to #e seen, that it is the dut% of the &rosecution to &rove the &risoner's guilt
su#(ect to the defence of insanit% and su#(ect also to an% statutor% e)ce&tions. *f, at the end of
and on the "hole of the case, there is a reasona#le dou#t, created #% the evidence given #% either
the &rosecution or the &risoner as to "hether the &risoner +illed the deceased "ith malicious
intention, the &rosecution has not made out the case and the &risoner is entitled to an ac,uittal(
-A+5# ( ". Osolin
Page 1P o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
Prose&u$ion has onus o nega$i-ing all 'ossible #een&es CU+ a #een&e is no$ in $he &ase unless $here is e-i#en&e
&a'able o su''or$ing i$( =he$her or no$ su&h e-i#en&e e9is$s is $o be #e&i#e# by $he AU@"B
R. v. )solin , <6::8> +.-.-. pae GB
,acts#
- A&&use# &harge# wi$h se9ual assaul$( A$ $rial. he $es$iie# $ha$ $he &om'lainan$ was an eager 'ar$i&i'an$ in all
$he a&$s lea#ing u' $o an# in&lu#ing se9ual in$er&ourse(
- +he ,u#ge #i# no$ &harge $he ,ury wr$ $he #een&e o honest #ut mista+en #elief in consent b<& he rule# $ha$ $here
was no 2air o reali$y3 $o $he #een&e(
- A&&use# was oun# guil$y(
&ssue#
@i# ,u#ge mis&harge $he ,ury wr$ $he #een&e o hones$ bu$ mis$a1en belie in &onsen$> /=ha$ is $he meaning o $he
wor#s 2sui&ien$ e-i#en&e3 in s( 2ML)F*>4
?eld#
56(
(atio#
- A basi& rule a''li&able $o all #een&es /s( 2ML)F*4% A $rial ,u#ge mus$ ins$ru&$ $he ,ury only u'on $hose #een&es
or whi&h $here is a real a&$ual basis( A #een&e shoul# no$ be 'u$ $o $he ,ury i a reasonable ,ury 'ro'erly
ins$ru&$e# woul# ha-e been unable $o a&Hui$ on $he basis o $he e-i#en&e $en#ere# in su''or$ o $ha$ #een&e( 7$
is or $he $rial ,u#ge $o #e&i#e whe$her $he e-i#en&e is sui&ien$ $o warran$ 'u$$ing a #een&e $o a ,ury as $his is a
Hues$ion o law alone(
- 7 ,u#ge #e&i#es $ha$ e-i#en&e is sui&ien$. he will 'u$ $he #een&e $o $he ,ury8 $he ,ury will $hen weigh i$ an#
#e&i#e whe$her i$ raises a reasonable #oub$(
- +his is an e9am'le o $he #i-ision o $as1s be$ween ,u#ge an# ,ury% i$ is $he ,u#ge who
#e$ermines i $here is sui&ien$ e-i#en&e a##u&e# $o gi-e rise $o $he #een&e(
-ommentary#
- +his &ase #oes 56+ &on$ra#i&$ general 'rin&i'le $ha$ bur#en o 'roo is on $he 'rose&u$ion(
6solin #oes 56+ 'u$ 'u$$ing a bur#en o 'roo on $he a&&use#( 7$ is 'u$$ing an
BJ7@B5+7ARY CUR@B5 on $he a&&use# $o raise $he issues(
- 7$ is u' $o $he a&&use# $o ma1e a #een&e a 2li-e issue3 in $he &ase( A&&use# 'ro-i#es some
e-i#en&e ,u#ge #e&i#es i $here is 2air o reali$y3 $o i$ )i $here is 'ossibili$y $ha$
reasonable ,ury &oul# a&Hui$ base# on e-i#en&e* 7 yes. &harges ,ury o $his #een&e
'rose&u$ion $hen has ,ob o nega$i-ing i$ ,ury will weigh i$ an# #e$ermine i i$ raises
reasonable #oub$(
- @is$in&$ion b$wn Os o law an# Os o a&$ is ar$ii&ial( =r$ sui&ien&y o e-i#en&e. a''ears
$o be a O o a&$ bu$ is 56+Dis a O o law(
(ule#
A $rial ,u#ge mus$ ins$ru&$ $he ,ury only u'on $hose #een&es or whi&h $here is a real a&$ual
basis( +rial ,u#ge mus$ #e&i#e i $here is sui&ien$ e-i#en&e $ha$ a reasonable ,ury &oul# a&Hui$
on basis o i$( Sui&ien&y o e-i#en&e $o su''or$ a #een&e is a Hues$ion o law. or $he ,u#ge $o
answer(
+upreme -ourt may decide that a defence is such that burden should be shifted#
- B9am'le @a-io &ase new #een&e &rea$e#% 'erson is S6 #run1 $ha$ he #oesn:$ 1now
wha$ he is #oing(
- 7n $he @a-io &ase. $rial ,u#ge use# $his #een&e +rial ,u#ge #i#n:$ belie-e @a-io:s &laim
$ha$ he 2#i#n:$ 1now wha$ he was #oing3 bu$ a&Hui$$e# him b<& $here was reasonable #oub$
$ha$ he 1new wha$ he was #oing(
Page 1K o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- S(C(C( sai# $ha$ or u$ure &ases bur#en o 'roo or $his #een&e shoul# be shi$e# $o $he
a&&use# a&&use# mus$ 'ro-e beyon# a balan&e o 'robabili$ies $ha$ he #i#n:$ 1now wha$ he
was #oing(
- Ha# bur#en been shi$e# $o @a-io in $his &ase. woul# ha-e been &on-i&$e#(
- IIA&&use# ne-er has $o 'ro-e any$hing beyon# reasonable #oub$( 6nly has $o 'ro-e beyon#
$he balan&e o 'robabili$ies( )SH% in all &ases where $he bur#en lies on $he a&&use#Ds(
1PP>*
-.D. Allen, *e'al (uties and )ther +ssays in Juris%rudence (6:86)
- U7$ is be$$er $ha$ $en guil$y 'ersons shoul# be a&Hui$$e# $han $ha$ one inno&en$ 'erson shoul# be &on-i&$e#(: Allen
&hallenges $his s$a$emen$% 27$ all #e'en#s on wha$ $he guil$y 'ersons ha-e been #oing an# $he general so&ial
&on#i$ions in whi&h $hey ha-e been #oing i$3(
- CU+ i ra$io is e9$en#e# in#eini$ely ? sys$em o ,us$i&e brea1s #own an# so&ie$y is in &haos( =e &an 'ermi$ a
2humane le-el o #oub$3 $o 're-ail o-er se&uri$y while remembering $ha$ $he a&Hui$$al o $en guil$y 'ersons is
$en $imes as grea$ a ailure o (ustice as $he &on-i&$ion o one inno&en$ 'erson(
- Allen &om'ares $he bur#en o 'roo in $he &i-il an# &riminal $rial% Calan&e o 'robabili$ies )&i-il* -s( 'roo
beyon# reasonable #oub$ )&riminal*( He argues $ha$ al$hough 2reasonable #oub$3 is no$ u$$ere# in &i-il &ases.
$he reHuire# #egree o &er$ain$y is $he same(
- Prin&i'le o Ureasonable #oub$: li$$le more $han a &ounsel o 'ru#en&e8 $he #egree o &er$ain$y $ha$ one woul#
a&$ u'on in one:s own gra-e an# im'or$an$ &on&erns( Su&h a #egree o &er$ain$y shoul# e9is$ wr$ all legal
ma$$ers(
- Allen:s 'oin$% =hy shoul# liber$y be 'ro$e&$e# more $han 'ro'er$y>
- He sugges$s $ha$% i$:s no$ as i $he ,ury has $o be more &areul in a &riminal &ase )$han a &i-il &ase*. i$ ,us$ has $o
be more 'ersua#e#( Liber$y #oes reHuire $ha$ $here be a s$ronger o-erall &ase on $he 'ar$ o $he 'rose&u$ion
beore we sen# a 'erson $o ,ail(
'aw (eform -ommission of -anada, ,urdens o- Proo- and Presum%tions (6:@8)
- @is&usses $wo &en$ral &on&e'$s% high s$an#ar# o 'roo. 'resum'$ion o inno&en&e ),u#ge mus$ #ire&$ ,ury as $o
bo$h*( "uil$ beyon# a reasonable #oub$ is ine9$ri&ably lin1e# $o 'resum'$ion o inno&en&e(
- *ustification for hih standard of proof in criminal cases% 'ur'oses or whi&h &riminal san&$ion is use#.
seriousness o #e'ri-a$ion o liber$y. s$igma$i;a$ion o a&&use# $ha$ resul$s rom &on-i&$ion8 o$her so&ial. e&on
&onseHuen&es $ha$ a &riminal &on-i&$ion en$ails(
- +his high s$an#ar# o 'roo is e9'resse# by 2'roo beyon# a reasonable #oub$3
- Ci-il &ases ? 2're'on#eran&e o e-i#en&e3 )o&us on am$ o e-i#en&e $ha$ 'rose&u$ion mus$ 'ro#u&e*8
Criminal &ases ? o&us on #egree o belie o e-i#en&e brough$ by 'rose&u$ion
- Crown sa$isies i$s bur#en o 'roo i i$ &on-in&es $he ,ury beyon# a reasonable #oub$ o $he e9is$en&e o all
$he a&$s $he Crown mus$ 'ro-e
- 2Proo beyon# reasonable #oub$3 is a goo# ormula$ion b<& &an be un#ers$oo# by laymen8 i$s meaning is
'ere&$ly in$elligible )no$e $his is &oun$ere# in $he Li&hus &ase*
- Au#ge mus$ also ins$ru&$ ,ury $ha$ a&&use# is inno&en$ un$il 'ro-en guil$y
- 0resume "s. Assume# 'reerable $o use $he la$$er ? sugges$s $ha$ as a ma$$er o so&ial 'oli&y. a 'erson:s
inno&en&e is 2assume#3 rom $he ou$se$ o $he &ase( 2Presume3 ? a a&$ $ha$ is inerre# rom &er$ain basi& a&$s
'ro-e# a$ $rial(
- *ustification for presumption of innocence% so $ha$ ,ury will ignore all sus'i&ions arising rom $he arres$.
in#i&$men$ an# arraignmen$ an# rea&h a &on&lusion solely rom $he legal e-i#en&e a##u&e#(
-ase# (. ". 'ifchus
R v. *i-chus , <6::@> +.-.-., pae G@2:=
,acts#
- A&&use# &harge# an# &on-i&$e# o rau#(
Page 1! o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- A&&use# a''eale# ,u#gemen$ on basis $ha$ $rial ,u#ge ha# mis0ins$ur&$e# $he ,ury on $he meaning o $he
e9'ression 2'roo beyon# reasonable #oub$3( Au#ge ha# ins$ru&$e# ,ury $ha$ $he wor#s in $he e9'ression were $o
be un#ers$oo# in $heir or#inary. na$ural. e-ery#ay sense(
&ssue#
@i# $he ,u#ge mis0ins$ru&$ $he ,ury wr$ $he meaning o 2'roo beyon# reasonable #oub$3>
?eld#
C(A(% Yes. A''eal allowe#( 5ew $rial or#ere#(
S(C(C(% Yes. #enie# Crown:s a''eal(
(atio#
- +he e9'ression 2'roo beyon# reasonable #oub$3 is &om'ose# o wor#s use# in e-ery#ay s'ee&h. bu$ $ha$ ha-e a
s'e&ii& an# s'e&ial meaning when use# in &riminal 'ro&ee#ings(
- C<& a 'erson:s liber$y is a$ s$a1e. i$ is &ru&ial $ha$ ,ury be &orre&$ly ins$ru&$e# as $o i$s meaning(
- A goo# #eini$ion shoul# e9'lain $ha$% )1* s$an#ar# o 'roo beyon# a reasonable #oub$ is ine9$ri&ably lin1e# $o
'resum'$ion o inno&en&e 'rin&i'le8 )2* bur#en o 'roo always res$s on $he 'rose&u$ion. ne-er shi$s $o
a&&use#8 )3* reasonable #oub$ is no$ #oub$ base# on sym'a$hy or 're,u#i&e bu$ reason an# &ommon sense8 )F* i$
is logi&ally &onne&$e# $o $he e-i#en&e or absen&e o e-i#en&e8 )L* i$ #oes no$ in-ol-e 'roo $o an absolu$e
&er$ain$y8 )M* more is reHuire# $han 'roo $ha$ $he a&&use# is 'robably guil$y(
- A goo# #e:n shoul# no$ in&lu#e% #es&ribing $he $erm as ha-ing an or#inary meaning )i(e( i$ has a s'e&ial
meaning in $he &riminal &on$e9$* ? &on$ras$ $o ar$i&le abo-e8 $elling ,ury $o a''ly same s$an#ar# as $hey woul#
a''ly in $heir own im'$ ma$$ers )&on$ras$ $o Allen ar$i&le*. e$&( )'age KK*
- 7 $he &harge se$ ou$ by $he $rial ,u#ge gi-es rise $o $he reasonable li1elihoo# $ha$ $he ,ury misa''rehen#e# $he
s$an#ar# o 'roo. $hen as a general rule $he -er#i&$ will ha-e $o be se$ asi#e an# a new $rial #ire&$e#(
-ommentary#
5laboration on model chare elements#
- @oub$ base# on reason% mus$ ha-e reason or $he #oub$ )e(g( you $hin1 $ha$ 'rose&u$ion:s
e-i#en&e was no$ &on-in&ing*
- Proo beyon# reasonable #oub$ #oes no$ ha-e $o be 'roo $o an absolu$e &er$ain$y% Cer$ain$y
runs rom 0V 0 100V( Jeyond reasonable doubt G abou$ !LV )sure $ha$ he is guil$yDso
$ha$ W!LV you ha-e reasonable #oub$*( Jalance of probabilities G abou$ L0(1V )sure
$ha$ he is res'onsible*(
($'5#
Bs$ablishes mo#el &harge or ins$ru&$ing ,ury as $o meaning o 2'roo beyon# reasonable #oub$3(
7n&lu#es M im'or$an$ ins$ru&$ions an# some ins$ru&$ions $ha$ shoul# 56+ be in&lu#e#( Mos$
im'or$an$ly. mus$ be #oub$ base# on reason. mus$ no$ be &er$ain$y o guil$( Shoul# 56+ #es&ribe
$erm as ha-ing i$s or#inary meaning(
7 ,u#ge:s &harge gi-es rise $o reasonable li1elihoo# $ha$ ,ury misa''rehen#e# $he s$an#ar# o
'roo. new $rial mus$ be or#ere#(
R v tarr )2001*
7ssues o ina#eHua&y o $he #e&ri'$ion o reasonable #oub$ &harge by ,u#ge $o ,ury in $his &ase(
0Au#ge has $o $ell $he ,ury $ha$ absolu$e &er$aini$y an# 'robabili$y. reasonable #oub$ is &loser $o
absolu$e &er$ain$y(
Ra$io%
0aj.The reasona"le dou"t instruction given in this case falls prey to many of the same
difficulties outlined in Lifchus$ and li%ely misled the jury as to the content of the criminal
standard of proof. The %ey difficulty with this instruction is that it was not made clear to
Page 20 o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
the jury that the (rown was required to do more than prove the accused,s guilt on a
"alance of pro"a"ilities. The trial judge told the jury that they could convict on the "asis
of something less than a"solute certainty of guilt$ "ut did not e!plain$ in essence$ how
much less. n addition$ rather than telling the jury that the words -reasona"le dou"t-
have a specific meaning in the legal conte!t$ the trial judge e!pressly instructed the jury
that the words have no -special connotation- and -no magic meaning that is peculiar to
the law-. 1y asserting that a"solute certainty was not required$ and then lin%ing the
standard of proof to the -ordinary everyday- meaning of the words -reasona"le dou"t-$
the trial judge could easily have "een understood "y the jury as asserting a pro"a"ility
standard as the applica"le standard of proof. The trial judge did refer to the (rown,s
onus and to the presumption of innocence$ and he stated that the accused should
receive the "enefit of any reasona"le dou"t. The error in the charge is that the jury was
not told how a reasona"le dou"t is to "e defined. #s was emphasi2ed repeatedly in
Lifchus and again in Bisson$ a jury must "e instructed that the standard of proof in a
criminal trial is higher than the pro"a"ility standard used in ma%ing everyday decisions
and in civil trials. n this case the jury was not told that something more than pro"a"ility
was required in order to convict$ and nearly all of the instructions they were given
wea%ened the content of the reasona"le dou"t standard in such a manner as to suggest
that pro"a"ility was indeed the requisite standard of proof. The reasona"le li%elihood
that the jury applied the wrong standard of proof raises a realistic possi"ility that the
accused,s convictions constitute a miscarriage of justice.
3issent4
/hile trial judges are now e!pected to follow the Lifchus model charge$ failure to do so
in cases tried "efore Lifchus does not constitute reversi"le error if the charge conveys to
the jury the special meaning attached to reasona"le dou"t. 3espite not having the
"enefit of this (ourt,s decision in Lifchus$ the trial judge included most of the suggested
elements in his charge to the jury. The charge instructed the jurors that a reasona"le
dou"t must not "e an imaginary or frivolous dou"t. that it is a dou"t "ased upon reason
and common sense. that it must "e "ased on the evidence that the jurors heard in the
courtroom. and that the (rown is not required to prove its case to a"solute certainty.
The trial judge,s charge was not flawless$ in that the trial judge erroneously stated that
the words -reasona"le dou"t- are used in their everyday$ ordinary sense and have no
special legal meaning. The verdict ought not to "e distur"ed$ however$ "ecause the
charge$ when read as a whole$ ma%es it clear that the jury could not have "een under
any misapprehension as to the correct "urden and standard of proof to apply. The
charge communicated clearly to the jury that they could not find the accused guilty on a
"alance of pro"a"ilities. 0oreover$ the charge made it clear to them that the standard of
proof "eyond a reasona"le dou"t is ine!trica"ly lin%ed to the presumption of innocence
and that this "urden never shifts to the accused. n light of the trial judge,s compliance
with the "ul% of the principles enunciated in Lifchus$ the charge was not automatically
vitiated "y the failure to include a specific item mentioned in Lifchus or "y the inclusion
of an improper item.
S$raying rom Lifchus. 7
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Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
Ra$io%
n a##i$ion. ra$her $han $elling $he ,ury $ha$ $he wor#s Treasonable #oub$T ha-e a s'e&ii& meaning
in $he legal &on$e9$. $he $rial ,u#ge e9'ressly ins$ru&$e# $he ,ury $ha$ $he wor#s ha-e no Ts'e&ial
&onno$a$ionT an# Tno magi& meaning $ha$ is 'e&uliar $o $he lawT( Cy asser$ing $ha$ absolu$e
&er$ain$y was no$ reHuire#. an# $hen lin1ing $he s$an#ar# o 'roo $o $he Tor#inary e-ery#ayT
meaning o $he wor#s Treasonable #oub$T. $he $rial ,u#ge &oul# easily ha-e been un#ers$oo# by
$he ,ury as asser$ing a 'robabili$y s$an#ar# as $he a''li&able s$an#ar# o 'roo( +he $rial ,u#ge #i#
reer $o $he CrownXs onus an# $o $he 'resum'$ion o inno&en&e. an# he s$a$e# $ha$ $he a&&use#
shoul# re&ei-e $he benei$ o any reasonable #oub$(
PART IV: THE ACTUS REUS (PHYSICAL) REQUIREMENT FOR
CRIMINAL LIABILITY
A - The Unlawful Act Interpretation Principles
- +ra#i$ional analysis o a &rime a$ &ommon law #i-i#e# in$o actus reus )$he guil$y a&$ *an# mens rea )$he
guil$y min#*(
- +hese e9'ressions are $a1en rom $he ma9im% 2$here is no guil$y a&$ w<o a guil$y min#3
- +hese e9'ressions are $he &us$omary language o $he Cour$s bu$ au$hor C( Howar# says $ha$ a$ 'resen$ #ay
)1!PP* $hey are res'onsible or mu&h &onusion o $hough$Dan# $ha$ $here are goo# reasons $o aban#on $hem in
a-our o o$her $erminology(
=HY RBOU7RB A5 AC+>
- Reason or reHuiremen$ o a&$us reus im'ossibili$y o 'ro-ing a 'urely men$al s$a$e( +his argumen$ is alse
)we &an 'ro-e men$al s$a$e says S1lar an# =illiamsDby loo1ing a$ &on#u&$*
- =illiams B reasons for the reKuirement of an act# )1* $he #ii&ul$y o #is$inguishing b$wn #ay#ream an#
in$en$ion in $he absen&e o beha-iour $en#ing $owar# $he a&$8 )2* un#esirabili$y o s'rea#ing $he &rim law so
wi#e as $o &o-er a men$al s$a$e $ha$ $he a&&use# migh$ be $oo irresolu$e e-en $o begin $o $ransla$e in$o a&$ion(
- +here MUS+ be some a&$ by whi&h $he a&&&use#:s guil$y min# is 'u$ in$o a&$ion )ully or 'ar$ly ? a$$em'$*(
- A(F( S$e'hen )1KK3*% i we #i# no$ ha-e an a&$ reHuiremen$. all man1in# woul# be &riminals )we all ha-e ba#
$hough$s*( Crim law mus$ be &onine# w<in narrow limi$s8 a''lie# only $o #eini$e<o-er$ a&$s whi&h &an be
#is$in&$ly 'ro-e#(
&dentifyin the A!( and 9!( in a pro"ision#
+4lar# Always se'ara$e a 'ro-ision in$o A<R an# M<R reHuiremen$s A<R G wha$ $he 'erson #i# or #i#n:$ #o A5@
$he surroun#ing &ir&ums$an&es )e(g( 2soli&i$ in a 'ubli& 'la&e3*( M<R G $he men$al s$a$e. wha$ is in $he min# o $he
a&&use# )e(g( 2or $he 'ur'oses o ob$aining se9ual ser-i&es3*(
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Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
[1] Prostitution, etc.
-A+5# ?utt ". (.
&ntro )ote (+ L .)# or mos$ &rimes. a&$ reHuiremen$ is sel0e-i#en$( Some &rimes. law:s #es&ri'$ion o $he a&$
reHuires &areul ,u#i&ial analysis b<& i$ is -ague or in-ol-es wha$ a''ears $o be a mos$ minimal orm o an a&$(
Hu$$ Case% #e:n o a&$ reHuiremen$ is #ii&ul$<&on$ro-ersial( S1lar% LA5"UA"B CA5 HAJB MA5Y
MBA575"S ? whi&h #o we a#o'$>
.utt v. R , <6:@G> +.-.-. pae 6G@
,acts#
- @e$e&$i-e in unmar1e# &ar #ro-e along s$ree$ an# s$o''e# when he saw a&&use#(
- A&&use# smile# a$ him an# he re$urne# $he smile( A&&use# a''roa&he# $he &ar an# go$ in(
- @e$e&$i-e an# a&&use# ha# &on-ersa$ion in whi&h she re-eale# she was a 'ros$i$u$e(
- @e$e&$i-e an# a&&use# #ro-e $o ho$el an# he arres$e# a&&use# an# &harge# her un#er s. 6:;.6 or 2soli&i$ing in a
'ubli& 'la&e or $he 'ur'oses o 'ros$i$u$ion(3
&ssue#
@i# Cour$ o A''eal err in in$er're$ing $he wor# 2soli&i$3 in s( 1!L(1>
?eld#
YBS( A''eal allowe#. &on-i&$ion Huashe#(
(atio#
- 2Soli&i$3 is no$ #eine# in $he Criminal Co#e
- @i&$ionary #e:n o soli&i$ sugges$s i$ reHuires $ha$ $he Hualiying a&$ion be 2'ressing3 or 2'ersis$en$3 an# no$
merely 2a #emons$ra$ion o an in$en$ion $o ma1e one a-ailable or 'ros$i$u$ion(3
- +his in$er're$a$ion is su''or$e# by )1* legisla$i-e his$ory ? Parliamen$ wishe# $o &on#emn a&$s $ha$ &on$ribu$e#
$o 'ubli& in&on-enien&e8 )2* surroun#ing 'ro-isions ? S( 1!L(1 is 'ar$ o Par$ J )2@isor#erly Houses. "aming
an# Ce$$ing3* whi&h has a uniying a&$or. i(e( 'rohibi$ing &on$ribu$ions $o 'ubli& in&on-enien&e or unres$(
- 7n $his &ase. a&&use#:s &on#u&$ was nei$her 'ressing nor 'ersis$en$ an# i$ #i# no$ &on$ribu$e $o 'ubli&
in&on-enien&e or unres$( A&&use# #i# no$ en$er $he oi&er:s &ar unin-i$e# )i any$hing. he en&ourage# her by
smiling*( A&&use# was merely ma1ing hersel a-ailable or 'ros$i$u$ion(
Obiter#
- 7ssue o oi&er:s &ar being a 2'ubli& 'la&e3 was no$ raise# by &ounsel(
- Criminal &o#e #eines 2'ubli& 'la&e3 as in&lu#ing any 'la&e $o whi&h $he 'ubli& ha-e a&&ess as o righ$ or by
in-i$a$ion(
- 6i&er:s &ar was no$ a 'ubli& 'la&e. bu$ ra$her a 'ri-a$e 'la&e o whi&h he ha# sole &on$rol( +his woul# ha-e
been sui&ien$ $o #is'ose o $he a''eal i raise#(
-ommentary#
A''roa&h $o in$er're$ing $he s$a$u$e%
- /14 @i&$ionary #e:n 2 'ossible #e:ns 2 'ossible meanings $hereore loo1 a$ Parliamen$:s in$en$(
- /24 Parliamen$:s in$en$ 'eislati"e history# 're01!P2. was oen&e $o be a 'ros$i$u$e 'ro-ision was
re'la&e# wi$h s( 1!L whi&h a##e# $he wor# 2soli&i$3 wasn:$ enough $o ,us$ s$an# $hereDso i Parliamen$
a##e# 2soli&i$3. i$ mus$ ha-e ha# 2some$hing else in min#3
- /34 Parliamen$:s in$en$ +urroundin 0ro"isions# #eal wi$h gambling. be$$ing. baw#y houses8 uniying
$heme is 'ubli& in&on-enien&e in-ol-e#( )see $his reasoning in ParR also*
- So. $ha$ 2some$hing else3 mus$ be 'ressing an# 'ersis$en$8 &on$ribu$ing $o 'ubli& in&on-enien&e an# unres$(
S&o'e o $he Criminal Law
- Poli&y behin# $his &ase we #on:$ wan$ $o ma1e all a&$s &riminal( How ar #o we wan$ $o e9$en# $he rea&h o
$he &riminal law> 5o$e #isagreemen$ b$wn C(A( an# S(C( w< res'e&$ $o $his(
@is&ourse b$wn $he &our$s an# $he legisla$ure
- Cour$ re'eale# s( 1PL an# a##e# 1!L( Cour$ in$er're$e# 1!L narrowly( Parliamen$ re'la&e# i$ wi$h a new 1!L
)now s( 213* no$i&e how &hange rele&$s 'ubli& #issa$isa&$ion w< resul$ o Hu$$ &ase 213 goes ba&1 $o
&our$s b<& li$igan$s ini$ia$e &har$er &hallenge )ree#om o e9'ression*
Page 23 o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
(ule#
Meaning o soli&i$ in&lu#es an elemen$ o 'ressing an# 'ersis$en&e(
)otes on the -rime of 0rostitution (pae 6:B26:7)
Article# 2Publi& 6'inion. Aggressi-e Soli&i$ing or&e Cra&1#own on C(C( Pros$i$u$es3 )1!P!*
- Resul$ o Hutt #e&ision% 2has le$ 'ros$i$u$es -ir$ually ree $o 'ly $heir $ra#e or more $han a year3
- A$er Hutt #e&ision. 'oli&e an# 'rose&u$ors s$o''e# going a$er soli&i$ing &on-i&$ions( +he Jan&ou-er s$ree$
s&ene lourishe#(
- 2Poli&e an# 'rose&u$ors say 'ubli& 'ressure an# more aggressi-e soli&i$ing or&e# $hem $o &ome u' wi$h a new
s$ra$egyDarguing in &our$ $ha$ a 'ros$i$u$e is ,us$ as 'ressing an# 'ersis$en$ in a''roa&hing $en men as
a''roa&hing one man $en $imes(
- C(C( will &on$inue $o 'ress or Criminal Co#e amen#men$s
Amendment to -riminal code @e&ember 1!KL )see 'age 1!F*
- See se&$ion 213()1* Has Parliamen$ sol-e# $he 'roblem o Hu$$> Has i$ &rea$e# new 'roblems>
Article# 2Soli&i$ing Law a Cus$ in Mos$ Ci$ies3 )1!K!*
- 5ew $ough an$i0soli&i$ing law has no$ been ee&$i-e in mos$ &i$ies )e9&e'$ 6$$awa*
- Re'or$ shows $ha$ main ee&$ o new law was $o mo-e s$ree$ 'ros$i$u$es rom one area o #own$own $o ano$her
),us$ #is'la&ing $he 'roblem*
- +here are Char$er &hallenges $o $he new legisla$ion )-iola$ion o guaran$ee o ree#om o e9'ression>*
- B-en $hough lo$s o &harges ha-e been lai#. s$u#y shows $ha$ $here are no ewer 'ros$i$u$es wor1ing $he s$ree$s
in mos$ &i$ies(
Mos$ 2se9 or sale3 s$ill $a1es 'la&e in &ars. e-en $hough $he leg in&lu#es $he insi#es o a &ar
wi$hin i$s #e:n o a 2'ubli& 'la&e3(
-riminal -ode# ss. 6:@, B6=2B68
0art 1&&! .&+O(.5('C ?O$+5+, FA9&)F A). J5%%&)F
7n$er're$a$ion
+. 6:@ (6) #eini$ions o 2&ommon baw#y0house3. 2'la&e3. 2'ros$i$u$e3. 2'ubli& 'la&e3 e$&(
Caw#y Houses
+. B6= (6) Nee'ing Common Caw#y0House
+. B6= (B) Lan#lor#. inma$e. e$&( o Common Caw#y House
+. B66 +rans'or$ing Person $o Caw#y House
Pro&uring
+. B6B (6) Pro&uring
+. B6B (B) Aggra-a$e# oen&e in rela$ion $o li-ing on $he a-ails o 'ros$i$u$ion o a 'erson un#er $he age
o 1K years
+. B6B (8) Presum'$ion
+. B6B (M) 6en&e ? 'ros$i$u$ion o 'erson un#er 1K
6en&e in Rela$ion $o Pros$i$u$ion
+. B68 (6) 6en&e in Rela$ion $o Pros$i$u$ion
+. B68 (B) @e:n o 2'ubli& 'la&e3 )no$e #i rom #e:n a$ beginning o Par$ J77*
B68 (6) B-ery 'erson who in a 'ubli& 'la&e or in any 'la&e o'en $o 'ubli& -iew
)a* s$o's or a$$em'$s $o s$o' any mo$or -ehi&le.
)b* im'e#es $he ree low o 'e#es$rian or -ehi&ular $rai& or ingress $o or egress rom 'remises a#,a&en$ $o $ha$
'la&e. or
Page 2F o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
)&* s$o's or a$$em'$s $o s$o' any 'erson or in any manner &ommuni&a$es or a$$em'$s $o &ommuni&a$e wi$h any
'erson
or $he 'ur'oses o engaging in 'ros$i$u$ion or o ob$aining $he se9ual ser-i&es o a 'ros$i$u$e is guil$y o an oen&e
'unishable on summary &on-i&$ion(
B68 (B) 7n $his se&$ion. 2'ubli& 'la&e3 in&lu#es any 'la&e $o whi&h $he 'ubli& ha-e a&&ess as o righ$ or by in-i$a$ion.
e9'ress or im'lie#. an# any mo$or -ehi&le lo&a$e# in a 'ubli& 'la&e or in any 'la&e o'en $o 'ubli& -iew(
+. B68 What did 0arliament say about the ?utt decision?
/14 =i#ens a 'ubli& 'la&e ? o-errules &our$ in Hu$$ )i(e( $ha$ 'ri-a$e &ar &anno$ be 'ubli& 'la&e*
/24 =i#ens 'eo'le who &an be &on-i&$e# ? s( 213 e9'li&i$ly &o-ers $he 'ros$i$u$e an# $he ,ohn
/34 =i#ens actus reus elemen$ o 2soli&i$3 $o 2&ommuni&a$ion3 or 2a$$em'$e# &ommuni&a$ion3( +his is -ery wi#eD
&an in&lu#e a win1. no#. smile. e$&( )no$e Char$er &hallenge base# on -iola$ion o ree#om o e9'ression*(
)ote# 9!( in +.B68 or $he 'ur'oses o engaging in 'ros$i$u$ion how #o we 'ro-e $his in$en$> show
'ur'ose by SURR6U5@75" C65+BS+% wor#s $ha$ a&&om'any &ommuni&a$ion. $ime o #ay. $es$imony rom
$hose who 1now a&&use#. 'as$ beha-iour. wha$ she:s wearing(
R. v. Malmo Lavigne
-ase# ( ". .iFuiseppe
,acts#
- A&&use# o'era$e# an a#ul$ en$er$ainmen$ 'arlour an# was &harge# wi$h 1ee'ing a &ommon0baw#y house
&on$rary $o s( 210 o $he Criminal Co#e(
- +rial ,u#ge s$aye# 'ro&ee#ings agains$ a&&use# on groun#s $ha$ $he e9'ressions 2a&$s o in#e&en&y3 an#
2'ros$i$u$ion3 in s( 1!P )whi&h are elemen$s o $he oen&e* were -ague an# ill0#eine#. so as $o &ons$i$u$e an
inringemen$ o S( P o $he Char$er( Au#ge hel# $ha$ $here mus$ be &er$ain$y an# 're#i&$abili$y o $he allege#
&riminal &on#u&$. an# $ha$ su&h was la&1ing as a resul$ o $he -agueness o $he e9'ressions use# in s( 210(
&ssue#
Are 2a&$s o in#e&en&y3 an# 2'ros$i$u$ion3 un&ons$i$u$ionally -ague as #eining elemen$s o $he oen&e o 1ee'ing a
&ommon baw#y0house &on$rary $o s( 210>
?eld#
56( Crown:s a''eal allowe#( Ma$$ers remi$$e# $o 65 Cour$ o Aus$i&e or +rial
(atio#
- +he -oi# or -agueness #o&$rine is no$ $o be a''lie# $o $he bare wor#s o a s$a$u$ory 'ro-ision bu$. ra$her. $o $he
'ro-ision as a''lie# $o ,u#i&ial #e&isions( 7$ mus$ be &onsi#ere# whe$her $he im'ugne# se&$ions o $he Criminal
Co#e ha-e been or &an be gi-en sensible meanings by $he &our$s(
- B9'ressions are no$ im'ermissibly -ague merely be&ause $hey es&a'e 're&ise $e&hni&al or ma$hema$i&al
#eini$ion( +he -ery na$ure o language will always mean $ha$ $here will be a &er$ain area o le9ibili$y o'en $o
in$er're$a$ion an# ,u#i&ial a''re&ia$ion( +his #oes no$ eHua$e wi$h im'ermissible -agueness(
- 2A&$s o in#e&en&y3 are $o be in$er're$e# a&&or#ing $o $he &ommuni$y s$an#ar# o $oleran&e( +here was bin#ing
au$hori$y rom $he S(C(C( $ha$ $he im'ugne# e9'ressions a$ issue were no$ un&ons$i$u$ionally -ague( +he
&ommuni$y s$an#ar# o $oleran&e $es$ has been a ea$ure o $his area o $he law or o-er F0 years an# has been
a''lie# reine# an# a#a'$e# by $he &our$s(
- 2Pros$i$u$ion3 has also been hel# by $he S(C(C( no$ $o be im'ermissibly -ague(
- Rule o s$are #e&isis 'rohibi$e# &our$ rom re-isi$ing $he &ons$i$u$ionali$y o $he e9'ressions(
-ommentary#
- =hy woul# -ague language be &hallengable un#er s( P )un#amen$al ,us$i&e*> b<&
un#ermines &er$ain$y o &riminal law( Peo'le nee# $o 1now in a#-an&e wha$ a&$ions are
'unishable )F -( F ? $he 'rin&i'le o legali$y*
- How woul# one 'ro-e wha$ $he 2&ommuni$y s$an#ar# o $oleran&e3 is> B9'er$s )e(g(
so&iology 'roessors*. 6'inion Polls( Case# on e-i#en&e. i$ is u' $o &our$ $o #e&i#e wha$ $he
s$an#ar# is(
Page 2L o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- 2Communi$y S$an#ar# o +oleran&e3 ? no$ highly un&er$ain wr$ wha$ sor$ o &on#u&$ allowe#(
=HY> C<& when one a&$s. mus$ 2as&er$ain an area o ris13( A&&use# in $his &ase shoul#
ha-e 1nown he was wal1ing in$o &on$ro-ersial wa$ers( His a&$i-i$ies &oul# reasonably &ome
w<in $he s&o'e o 2in#e&en&y3 an# he shoul# 1now i$(
- ,'5N&J&'&%C# Re&all =illis: su''or$ or $he le9ibili$y o $he &ommon law( +his &ase
su''or$s gi-ing $he &our$ some le9ibili$y $o in$er're$ language an# allow in$er're$a$ions $o
&hange o-er $ime )as so&ie$y:s -alues &hange*(
(ule#
Language is no$ -ague i i$ has been gi-en meaning by $he &our$s( +here is bin#ing au$hori$y
rom S(C(C( $ha$ 2a&$s o in#e&en&y3 are $o be in$er're$e# a&&or#ing $o a &ommuni$y s$an#ar# o
$oleran&e*(
+he -ery na$ure o language is $ha$ i$ is o'en $o in$er're$a$ion( +he a&$ $ha$ in$er're$a$ion is
reHuire# #oes no$ ma1e $he language im'ermissibly -ague(
[2] The Unlawful Act for the Crime of Assault and Sexual Assault
-riminal -ode# ss. B7M2B@8.B
0A(% 1&&&! O,,5)-5+ AFA&)+% %?5 05(+O)
Assaul$s
+. B7M.6 (6) U$$ering +hrea$s
+. B7; (6) Assaul$
+. B7; (B) A''li&a$ion
+. B7; (8) Consen$
+. B7; (M) A&&use#:s belie as $o &onsen$
+. B77 (7) ASSAUL+ C65J7C+765 ? ma9imum 'enal$y G L years
+. B7@ Assaul$ wi$h a =ea'on or Causing Co#ily Harm )ma9 10 years*
+. B7G Aggra-a$e# Assaul$ )ma9 1F years*
+. B7: Unlawully Causing Co#ily Harm )ma9 1K mon$hs*
+. B7:.6 +or$ure )ma9 1F years*
+. B@= Assaul$ing A Pea&e 6i&er )ma9 L years*
+. B@6 Se9ual Assaul$ )ma9 10 years*
+. B@B Se9ual Assaul$ wi$h a wea'on. $hrea$s $o a $hir# 'ar$y &ausing bo#ily harm )ma9 1F years8 min F
years where a irearm is use#*
+. B@8 Aggra-a$e# Se9ual Assaul$ )ma9 lie8 min F years where irearm is use#*
+. B@8.6 (6) Meaning o 2&onsen$3 )or $he 'ur'oses o 2P1. 2P2. 2P3*
+. B@8.6 (B) =here no &onsen$ ob$aine#
Page 2M o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
+. B@8.B =here belie in &onsen$ no$ a #een&e
6rgani;a$ion o $he &rime o assaul$%
+here is a hierar&hy )&lus$er* in $he Co#e:s organi;a$ion
- 7n Aobi#on. $he ass
R. v. *amy se9ual assaul$ &ase8 'rose&u$ion wan$e# $o &harge a&&use# un#er s( 2P2 )se9ual assaul$ wi$h a
wea'on* ra$her $han s( 2P1 whi&h &arries a lesser sen$en&e(
- 7ssue% 7s a @il#o a wea'on>
- +rial ,u#ge sai# 56( C(A( sai# YBS(
- S(C(C( Loo1 $o #e:n o wea'on in S( 2% 2means any$hing use#. #esigne# $o be use# or in$en#e# or use )a*
in &ausing #ea$h or in,ury $o any 'ersonD3 S(C(C( in$er're$e# $his #is,un&$i-ely( +he #il#o was use# $o &ause
harm an# $hus was a wea'on( A&&use# guil$y o oen&e 'ursuan$ $o s( 2P2(
+. B7; -riminal -ode
2ML )1* A 'erson &ommi$s assaul$ when
/a4 wi$hou$ $he &onsen$ o ano$her 'erson. he a''lies or&e in$en$ionally $o $ha$ o$her 'erson. #ire&$ly or in#ire&$ly8
/b4 he a$$em'$s. or $hrea$ens. by an a&$ or a ges$ure. $o a''ly or&e $o ano$her 'erson. i he has. or &auses $ha$ o$her
'erson $o belie-e u'on reasonable groun#s $ha$ he has. 'resen$ abili$y $o ee&$ his 'ur'ose(
/&4 while o'enly wearing or &arrying a wea'on or an imi$a$ion $hereo. he a&&os$s or im'e#es ano$her 'erson or begs
/24 +his se&$ion a''lies $o all orms o assaul$. in&lu#ing se9ual assaul$. se9ual assaul$ wi$h a wea'on. $hrea$s $o a
$hir# 'ar$y or &ausing bo#ily harm an# aggra-a$e# se9ual assaul$(
/34 For $he 'ur'oses o $his se&$ion. no &onsen$ is ob$aine# where $he &om'lainan$ submi$s or #oes no$ resis$ by
reason o
/a4 $he a''li&a$ion o or&e $o $he &om'lainan$ or $o a 'erson o$her $han $he &om'lainan$8
/b4 $hrea$s or ear o $he a''li&a$ion o or&e $o $he &om'lainan$ or $o a 'erson o$her $han $he &om'lainan$8
/&4 rau#8 or
/#4 $he e9er&ise o au$hori$y(
-A+5# ( ". *obidon
R v. Jo/idon , <6::6> +.-.-., pae B6:
,acts#
Page 2P o !!
s. B7; #eines assaul$ broa#ly% in$en$ional or
unin$en$ional a''li&a$ion o or&e wi$hou$ $he
&onsen$ o ano$her 'erson
s. B77 sim'le assaul$ whi&h
&arries L year ma9imum
&on-i&$ion(
s. B7@ a##s a wea'on or bo#ily harm )s(2
#eines wea'on as a gun*. ma9imum 10
years(
s. B7G aggra-a$e# assaul$%
woun#s. maims. #isigures or
en#angers $he lie o $he
&om'lainan$ ma9( 1F years(
s. B7: $or$ure% inli&$s se-ere 'ain or
suering( Ma9imum 1F years(
s. B@= assaul$ing a 'ea&e oi&er.
ma9imum L years
s. 2P102P3 se9ual assaul$% mini0&lus$er 1
s( 2P1 &ombine# in#e&en$ assaul$ an# ra'e
)10 years*(
s( 2P2 assaul$ w<wea'on )F years min. 1F
years ma9*(
s( 2P3 aggra-a$e# )lie. F yrs( minimum*(
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- Figh$ in a bar be$ween a&&use# an# ano$her man( Car owner s$o''e# i$ an# men agree# $o $a1e i$ ou$si#e(
A&&use# s$ru&1 -i&$im wi$h his is$( Ji&$im be&ame un&ons&ious an# a&&use# &on$inue# $o s$ri1e( Ji&$im la$er
#ie# o &on$usions $o $he hea#(
- +rial ,u#ge a&Hui$$e# a&&use# on $he basis $ha$ $he men &onsen$e# $o a air is$ igh$( S( 222 o $he Criminal
Co#e 'ro-i#es $ha$ a 'erson &ommi$s &ul'able homi&i#e when he &auses $he #ea$h o a human being by means
o an unlawul a&$( S( 2ML #eines $he unlawul a&$ o assaul$. an# in&lu#es a reHuiremen$ o la&1 o &onsen$(
Sin&e $here was &onsen$. $here was no assaul$ an# $hus no unlawul a&$(
- C(A( o-er$urne# $he ,u#gemen$ an# &on-i&$e# a&&use# on basis $ha$ 2&onsen$3 shoul# be &ons$rue# sub,e&$ $o
&ommon law limi$s(
&ssue#
Mus$ Crown 'ro-e absen&e o &onsen$ in all &ases or are $here &ommon law limi$a$ions whi&h res$ri&$ or nega$e $he
legal ee&$i-eness o &onsen$ in all &ases> /7s &onsen$ always &onsen$>4
?eld#
Common law limi$a$ions $o &onsen$( A''eal #ismisse#( Con-i&$ion u'hel#(
(atio#
S$e' 1% Cour$ ,us$iies using $he &ommon law $o gi-e meaning $o an# #e$ermine $he limi$s o &onsen$%
- S( K)3* allows or &ommon0law #een&es( +hus. &ommon law &an be use# $o #eine $he s&o'e o legally
ee&$i-e &onsen$( =hile &onsen$ is. in reali$y. a ormal reHuiremen$ o $he a&$us reus o $he assaul$ 6FFB5CB.
i$ un&$ions as a #een&e be&ause $he a&&use# o$en leans on i$ as a #een&e $o liabili$y(
- Parliamen$:s in$en$ion was $ha$ $he oen&e o assaul$ woul# be e9'laine# an# in$er're$e# by $he &our$s
in&remen$ally o-er $he &ourse o $ime( 7 $his was no$ i$s in$en$ion. i$ woul# no$ ha-e #eine# assaul$ so wi#ely
as $o 'ossibly in&lu#e many orms o non0&riminal &on#u&$ )s&ar e9am'le*( /+lar disagrees "ith this
(ustification. *t is not for courts to find that ver% insignificant a&&lications of force are not assault. Rather, is
u& to court to give light sentence OR u& to &rosecutor not to &ress charges4(
- +he a&$ $ha$ Parliamen$ aile# $o ena&$ a lis$ o &on#u&$ $o whi&h one &oul# no$ &onsen$ #oes no$ sugges$ $ha$ i$
in$en#e# $o elimina$e $hem rom $he oen&e o assaul$ an# rely only on $he our a&$ors s'e&iie# in 2ML)3*(
Su&h lis$ woul# ha-e been #ii&ul$ an# im'ra&$i&al $o 'res&ribe an# was unne&essary gi-en $he e9is$en&e o $he
&ommon law(
S$e' 2% Cour$ summari;es $he Common law 'osi$ion
- Bnglan#% A":s Reeren&e &on-i&$ion o assaul$ will no$ be barre# i 2bo#ily harm is in$en#e# an#<or
&ause#3( "on$hier em'hasi;es $ha$ C#n 'osi$ion woul# reHuire $ha$ bo#ily harm be bo$h in$en$ional an# &ause#(
- Cana#a% @i-ision in Cana#ian ,uris'ru#en&e CU+ "on$hier em'hasi;es $ha$ general &ommon law 'osi$ion )as
ar$i&ula$e# in A":s Reeren&e* is s$rongly in a-our o limi$ing &onsen$ in is$0igh$s(
S$e' 3% "on$hier &an-asses 'oli&y &onsi#era$ions su''or$ing nulliie# &onsen$
- +ocial uselessness o is$ igh$s )no$ in 'ubli& in$eres$ $ha$ a#ul$s shoul# &ause harm w<o reason*
- Consensual igh$s may lea# $o larer brawls an# $o serious brea&hes o $he 'ubli& 'ea&e )whi&h we #o no$ wish
$o en&ourage*
- .eterrence# Common law limi$s on &onsen$ migh$ #e$er $hese a&$i-i$ies )bu$ ,u#ge #oesn:$ wan$ $o 'ush $his
$oo arDb<& o $he s'on$aneous. o$en #run1en na$ure o many is$igh$s*
- 9orality# san&$i$y o human bo#y shoul# mili$a$e agains$ -ali#i$y o &onsen$ $o bo#ily harm
- 0aternalism# some argue $ha$ limi$ing abili$y o a#ul$ $o &onsen$ reely is 'a$ernalis$i&( All &riminal law is
'a$ernalis$i& $o some #egree(
S$e' F% Hol#ing
- Common law &ases an# rele-an$ 'oli&y &onsi#era$ions res$ri&$ $he e9$en$ $o whi&h &onsen$ may be nulliie#(
- +he limi$a$ion #eman#e# by s( 2ML as i$ a''lies $o $he &ir&ums$an&es o $his a''ealD-i$ia$es &onsen$ be$ween
a#ul$s in$en$ionally $o a''ly or&e &ausing serious hur$ or non0$ri-ial bo#ily harm $o ea&h o$her in $he &ourse o a
is$0igh$ or brawl( )$es$ en$ails $ha$ minor:s &onsen$ $o a#ul$:s in$en$ional a''li&a$ion o or&e woul# also be
nega$e#*(
S$e' L% Limi$a$ions $o hol#ing
- S'or$s% some orms o in$en$ionally a''lie# or&e &learly all w<in s&o'e o $he rules o $he game )G im'lie#
&onsen$*
- Me#i&al +rea$men$s. S$un$men )$hese $hree a&$i-i$ies are so&ially useul*
- 7n$en$ional a''li&a$ions o or&e whi&h &ause minor hur$ or $ri-ial bo#ily harm( )use #e:n o bo#ily harm oun#
in 2MP)2* o Co#e*(
- S&hoolyar# s&ules ? al$hough he lea-es o'en $he Hues$ion as $o whe$her 1i#s un#er 1K &oul# use &onsen$ o
#een&e i $hey really mean $o hur$ $he o$her 1i#(
Page 2K o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
<+opin4a, .issentin>#
- +he absen&e o &onsen$ is an essen$ial ingre#ien$ o $he actus reus an# $he reHuiremen$ o absen&e o &onsen$ is
a un#amen$al 'rin&i'le o $he &ommon law(
- Parliamen$:s in$en$ion is -ery &lear in S( 2ML )i(e( $ha$ absen&e o &onsen$ is reHuire#*( Aob o ,u#ge is no$ $o
e-alua$e $he so&ial u$ili$y o $he a&$i-i$y bu$ $o s&ru$ini;e $he &onsen$ $o #e$ermine i i$ a''lie# $o $he -ery
a&$i-i$y whi&h is $he sub,e&$ o $he &harge(
- Absen&e o &onsen$ &anno$ be swe'$ away by a robus$ a''li&a$ion o ,u#ge0ma#e 'oli&y(
- +he ee&$ o "on$hier:s a''roa&h is $o &rea$e an oen&e where one #oes no$ e9is$ )i(e( in$en$ional a''li&a$ion o
or&e w< $he &onsen$ o $he -i&$im*( +his un#ermines $he le$$er an# s'iri$ o s( !)a* whi&h is in 'la&e $o ensure
&er$ain$y in $he &riminal law( So&ial u$ili$y $es$ &rea$es 'roblem o un&er$ain$y(
- 7n $he &ase a$ bar. $he e9$en$ o &onsen$ gi-en #i# no$ e9$en# $o being s$ru&1 on&e 1no&1e# un&ons&ious an# $he
a&&use# 1new $ha$ $he &onsen$ #i# no$ e9$en# beyon# &ons&iousness( +here was $hus no &onsen$ $o $he 2blows3
$ha$ 1ille# him(
- Poli&y% wan$s 'arliamen$ $o #e&i#e &rimes no$ C6@BS(
-ommentary#
- S( 2ML Absen&e o &onsen$ is 'ar$ o a&$us reus( S( 2ML)3* s'e&iies s'e&ii& ins$an&es in whi&h &onsen$ migh$
no$ be -ali#( +hese #o no$ in&lu#e 2is$ igh$3( S( 2ML)3*)a* migh$ ha-e &ome in$o 'lay i $he a&&use# 1new $ha$
$he -i&$im was un&ons&ious an# ye$ 1e'$ 'ummeling him( /$his is $he &ru9 o So'in1a:s ,u#gemen$ S( 2ML )3*
)a* sugges$s $ha$ &onsen$ &an ne-er e9$en# 'as$ a 'oin$ a$ whi&h -i&$im is 'hysi&ally able $o &onsen$4
- (ole of common law in the criminal law $o wha$ e9$en$ &an &ommon law be use# $o #eine an# gi-e
meaning $o &rimes> So'in1a an# "on$hier #isagree( "on$hier &an use &ommon law $o illumina$e an# gi-e
&on$en$ $o Criminal Code( So'in1a )1* by #oing $his. &rea$e a new oen&e8 )2* no$ ,us$ using &ommon law $o
illumina$e Criminal &o#eDis using i$ $o inser$ new 'oli&y &onsi#era$ions in$o $he &riminal law8 )3* i Parliamen$
#oesn:$ li1e a&Hui$$al. &an amen# $he Co#e( 5o$e $ha$ one may agree $ha$ $he Common law &an be use#Dan#
ye$ no$ agree wi$h how "on$hier a''lie# i$ )use o 'oli&y &onsi#era$ions*(
- S1lar agrees wi$h "on$hier big #ieren&e b$wn &rea$ing new &rime )as in Frey -( Fe#oru1* an# using
&ommon law $o #e&i#e wha$ legal limi$a$ions $o &onsen$ are(
- Nnie igh$s C#n au$hori$ies say $ha$ &onsen$ is -i$ia$e# in 1nie igh$s 7 So'in1a is righ$. woul# ha-e $o
in# $ha$ 1nie igh$s were &onsen$e# $o(
- 5lements of case# Common law issue. Cana#ian au$hori$ies. Poli&y Consi#era$ions. Hol#ing. Limi$a$ion on
hol#ing
- So'in1a o-er$urning Os o a&$ ? S(C(C( has no ,uris#i&$ion $o #o $his(
- Case o SEM se9% )1* in$en$ional a' o or&e ? yes8 )2* &auses non0$ri-ial bo#ily harm ? yes8 )3* in$en#s $o
&ause non0$ri-ial bo#ily harm ? yes( CU+D'oli&y ? bigger brawls. #e$erren&e. morali$y. so&ial u$ili$y.
'a$ernalism
(ule#
'imitation on -onsent# +here is a limi$a$ion in s( 2ML whi&h -i$ia$es &onsen$ be$ween a#ul$s in$en$ionally $o a''ly
or&e &ausing serious hur$ or non0$ri-ial bo#ily harm $o ea&h o$her in $he &ourse o a is$ igh$ or brawl(
7n or#er or &onsen$ $o be -i$ia$e#. serious<non0$ri-ial bo#ily harm )#eine# in s( 2* mus$ be in$en#e# A5@ &ause#(
Blemen$s o a Aobi#on -i$ia$e# &onsen$% )1* is$0igh$ or brawl8 )2* in$en$ion $o a''ly or&e8 )3* in$en$ion $o &ause
serious hur$ or non0$ri-ial bo#ily harm8 )F* &ausing o non0$ri-ial bo#ily harm or serious hur$8 )F* 2 a#ul$s or a#ul$
an# minor8 )L* no$ a s&hoolyar# s&ule. s'or$ing a&$i-i$y or so&ially useul a&$i-i$y(
-ommon 'aw may be use# $o gi-e meaning $o 'ro-isions in $he Criminal Code(
-A+5# Jolduc and Jird ". (.
,olduc and ,ird v. R , <6:7@> +.-.-., pae B87
,acts#
- Col#u& was a #o&$or in C(C( He was $rea$ing $he &om'lainan$. Mrs( 6sborne( Cir# was a 'roessional musi&ian
who was 'lanning on a$$en#ing me#i&al s&hool(
Page 2! o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- 6n one o Mrs( 6sborne:s -isi$s8 Col#u& ga-e Cir# a lab&oa$ an# s$e$hos&o'e an# $ol# 'a$ien$ $ha$ Cir# was a
me#i&al in$ern( Col#u& as1e# i 'a$ien$ woul# min# i Cir# obser-e# an# 'a$ien$ res'on#e# $ha$ i$ was ine(
- Col#u& e9amine# 'a$ien$:s 'ri-a$e 'ar$s an# Cir# wa$&he# bu$ #i# no$ $ou&h(
- +rial ,u#ge &on-i&$e# bo$h a&&use# o in#e&en$ assaul$ un#er s( 1F1( C(A( #ismisse# $he a''eal
&ssue#
@i# $he &on#u&$ o Col#u& )an# Cir#>* in $he &ir&ums$an&es &ons$i$u$e $he oen&e o in#e&en$ assaul$ &on$rary $o S(
1F1 o $he Criminal Co#e>
?eld#
/Ma,ori$y4% 5o( A''eal allowe#(
(atio#
- S( 1F1)2* 'ro-i#es $ha$ an a&&use# may be &on-i&$e# o in#e&en$ly assaul$ing a emale i he #oes any$hing $o her
wi$h her &onsen$. where $ha$ &onsen$ was ob$aine# by alse an# rau#ulen$ re'resen$a$ions as $o $he na$ure an#
Huali$y o $he a&$(
- +he e9amina$ion an# $rea$men$ were &onsen$e# $o by $he &om'lainan$(
- +he rau# $ha$ was 'ra&$ise# on her was no$ as $o $he na$ure an# Huali$y o wha$ was $o be #one bu$ was as $o
Cir#:s i#en$i$y as a me#i&al in$ern( 7$ was no$ re'resen$e# $ha$ he woul# #o any$hing bu$ obser-e( A&$ woul#
ha-e been no #ieren$ i Cir# wasn:$ $here( His 'resen&e as #is$in&$ rom some o-er$ a&$ by him was no$ an
assaul$(
- @is$inguish rom R. v. Harmes ? re'resen$e# a&$ as me#i&al $rea$men$ when a&$ was se9ual in$er&ourse )no$
me#i&al $rea$men$ a$ all* ? $his is rau# as $o na$ure an# Huali$y o a&$(
<.issent>#
- Cour$ #oesn:$ nee# $o be &on&erne# wi$h 'ro-isions o s( 1F1)2*( /+hus $here is no nee# $o &onsi#er $he
au$hori$ies on $he 2na$ure an# Huali$y o $he a&$(34
- S( 230 #eines assaul$ an# #oes no$ reer $o $he 2na$ure an# Huali$y o $he a&$3 bu$ merely $o 2rau#3(
- +he 2or&e3 a''lie# may be o -ery sligh$ #egree an# may be mere $ou&hing(
- +he &onsen$ ob$aine# rom Mrs( 6sborne was a &onsen$ $o $he e9amina$ion by Col#u& o her 'ri-a$e 'ar$s an#
$he $ou&hing $hem in $he &ourse o $rea$men$ in $he 'resen&e o a #o&$or. an# no$ a mere me#i&al s$u#en$ or
layman( She only ga-e her &onsen$ on $he basis $ha$ Cir# was a #o&$or(
- +hus. $he in#e&en$ assaul$ )$he mere $ou&hing* u'on her was no$ $he a&$ $o whi&h she &onsen$e#(
-ommentary#
- S'en&e:s #issen$ ? awul ? he #i# no$ a''ly $he &o#e as wri$$en( He ignore# $he 'ro-ision
un#er whi&h $he $wo were &harge# an# loo1e# a$ a more general assaul$ 'ro-ision whi&h only
men$ione# 2rau#3( )no$ 2na$ure an# Huali$y o a&$3*( 6 &ourse $hey were guil$y o rau#D
Rule o s$a$ &ons$ru&$ion% s'e&ii& always 're-ails o-er $he general
- Coul# ha-e oun# $hem guil$y by 'laying aroun# wi$h $he wor# 2Huali$y3( Col#u&:s
re'resen$a$ion o $he Huali$y o $he a&$ ? a gyne e9am( +he Huali$y o $he a&$ 'erorme# ? an
e9hibi$ion. a show(
- +-O05 O, %?5 -(&9&)A' 'AW# )see $his in -o#idon an# Cuerrier also* ? un#erlying
,u#gemen$ is 1nowle#ge $ha$ $here are o$her me&hanisms whi&h will ee&$i-ely ser-e
un&$ions o #e$erren&e. rehabili$a$ion. isola$ion. -engean&e. re$ribu$ion. e$&( Col#u& will
li1ely lose his li&ense an# be sue# &i-illy( Criminal law is or las$ resor$ )"ol#s$ein*( +here
are o$her ins$i$u$ions )Har$*(
(ule#
7n or#er or a misre'resen$a$ion )rau#* $o -i$ia$e &onsen$ on $hese a&$s. $he rau# mus$ be as $o
$he na$ure an# Huali$y o $he a&$( Here i$ was rau# as $o $he surroun#ing &ir&ums$an&es(
Re'resen$a$ion o a&$ an# a&$ were. in na$ure an# Huali$y. i#en$i&al(
-A+5# ( ". -uerrier
R. v. Cuerrier , <6::G> +.-.-., pae BM6
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Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
,acts#
- A&&use# $es$e# 'osi$i-e or H7J8 'ubli& heal$h nurse ins$ru&$e# him $o use &on#oms an#
inorm all 'ros'e&$i-e se9ual 'ar$ners $ha$ he was H7J( He re,e&$e# $his a#-i&e b<& i$
woul#n:$ allow him $o ha-e a se9 lie(
- A&&use# ha# un'ro$e&$e# se9 wi$h &om'lainan$s wi$hou$ inorming $hem he was H7J
'osi$i-e(
- +hey $es$iie# $ha$ i $hey ha# 1nown he was H7J 'osi$i-e. $hey woul# no$ ha-e ha#
un'ro$e&$e# se9( /5o$ $ha$ $hey woul#n:$ ha-e ha# se9 a$ all4(
- A&&use# was &harge# wi$h $wo &oun$s o aggra-a$e# assaul$ 'ursuan$ $o s( 2MK an# a&Hui$$e#
a$ $rial an# in $he C o A /'robably #i#n:$ go or aggra-a$e# se9ual assaul$ b<& women woul#
ha-e &onsen$e# $o 'ro$e&$e# se94(
&ssue#
@oes $he A&&use#:s &on#u&$ &ons$i$u$e rau# whi&h woul# -i$ia$e &onsen$ or $he 'ur'oses o
aggra-a$e# assaul$>
?eld#
Yes( A''eal Allowe#( 5ew $rial or#ere#(
(atio#
<-ory, 9ajor, Jastarache>#
- +erms o 2ML)3*)&* ? no longer ne&essary when e9amining whe$her &onsen$ in assaul$ or
se9ual assaul$ &ases was -i$ia$e# by rau# $o &onsi#er whe$her $he rau# rela$e# $o $he 2na$ure
an# Huali$y o $he a&$3(
- +he essen$ial elemen$s o rau# are #ishones$y. whi&h &an in&lu#e non0#is&losure o
im'or$an$ a&$s. an# #e'ri-a$ion or ris1 o #e'ri-a$ion(
- A &onsen$ $ha$ is no$ base# u'on 1nowle#ge o $he signii&an$ rele-an$ a&$ors is no$ a -ali#
&onsen$( 7n $his &ase. $he &onsen$ &anno$ sim'ly be $o ha-e se9ual in$er&ourse( Ra$her i$ mus$
be &onsen$ $o ha-e in$er&ourse wi$h a 'ar$ner who is H7J 'osi$i-e(
- +he e9$en$ o $he #u$y $o #is&lose will in&rease wi$h $he ris1s a$$en#an$ u'on $he a&$ o
in$er&ourse( 7 one 'ar$ner has H7J. $he ris1s a$$en#an$ u'on in$er&ourse are grea$er. $hus
$here is a grea$er #u$y $o #is&lose(
- Howe-er. $his mus$ be limi$e#( +o say $ha$ any rau# whi&h in#u&es &onsen$ will -i$ia$e
&onsen$ woul# bring wi$hin $he se9ual assaul$ 'ro-isions o $he Co#e beha-iour whi&h la&1s
$he re'rehensible &hara&$er o &riminal a&$s( +hus. $he e9is$en&e o rau# shoul# no$ -i$ia$e
&onsen$ unless $here is a signii&an$ ris1 o serious harm(
<'/?ereuE .ube>#
- Amen#men$ $o Criminal Co#e shows Parliamen$:s in$en$ion $o mo-e away rom $he
unreasonably s$ri&$ &ommon law a''roa&h $o $he -i$ia$ion o &onsen$ by rau#(
- Frau# is sim'ly abou$ whe$her $he #ishones$ a&$ in Hues$ion in#u&e# ano$her $o &onsen$ $o $he
ensuing 'hysi&al a&$. whe$her or no$ $ha$ a&$ was 'ar$i&ularly ris1y an# #angerous(
- Limi$ing rau# $o si$ua$ions where a 2signii&an$ ris1 o bo#ily harm3 is e-i#en$ is
un,us$iiably res$ri&$i-e(
<9c'achlin, Fonthier>#
- Law is se$$le# ? rau# #oes no$ -i$ia$e &onsen$ unless $he mis$a1e goes $o $he na$ure an#
Huali$y o $he a&$ or $he i#en$i$y o $he 'ar$ner( Frau# as $o &olla$eral as'e&$s )li1e -enereal
#isease* #i# no$ -i$ia$e &onsen$( Parliamen$ #i# no$ in$en# $o remo-e $he &ommon law
limi$a$ions on rau# or assaul$ by amen#ing S( 2ML )3*( Amen#men$s #i# no$ ous$ $he
&ommon law go-erning rau# in rela$ion $o assaul$(
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Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- 7$ is u' $he &our$s howe-er $o u'#a$e $he &ommon law rom $ime $o $ime $o bring i$ in$o
harmony wi$h nee#s o so&ie$y(
- CU+Di we lea-e &er$ain$y o #ual &ri$eria )i(e( na$ure o a&$ ? se9ual -s( non0se9ual A5@
i#en$i$y o 'er'e$ra$or*. &oul# o'en #oor $oo wi#e )e(g( 'romising ur &oa$ or se9 &oul#
-i$ia$e &onsen$*( 2+he &our$s shoul# no$ broa#en $he &riminal law $o &a$&h &on#u&$ $ha$
so&ie$y generally -iews as non0&riminal( 7 $ha$ is $o be #one. Parliamen$ mus$ #o i$(3
- 5ee# $o broa#en &ommon law by a narrow in&remen$ $ha$ only &a$&hes harm o $he sor$ here
a$ issue( +hus rau# shoul# -i$ia$e &onsen$ $o &on$a&$ where $here was )a* #e&e'$ion as $o $he
se9ual &hara&$er o $he a&$8 )b* #e&e'$ion as $o $he i#en$i$y o $he 'er'e$ra$or8 )&* #e&e'$ion as
$o $he 'resen&e o a se9ually $ransmi$$e# #isease gi-ing rise $o serious ris1 or 'robabili$y o
ine&$ing $he &om'lainan$(
- =he$her or no$ a se9ual 'ar$ner is ine&$e# wi$h a se9ually $ransmi$$e# #isease goes $o $he
na$ure o $he a&$ o in$er&ourse i$sel( @e&e'$ion as $o $his as'e&$ o $he a&$ &hanges $he
na$ure o $he a&$ )rom some$hing 'leasurable $o some$hing #ea#ly*( Com'are $his $o
#e&e'$ion as $o o$her in#u&emen$s $o ha-e se9 )'romises o ur &oa$s* whi&h #o no$ go $o $he
na$ure o $he a&$(
-ommentary#
- Use o &ommon law $o 2inorm3 $he meaning o rau#% in Aobi#on. &ommon law is use# $o
inorm meaning o &onsen$( 6''osi$e resul$s Aobi#on ? wi#en &riminal liabili$y. narrow
&onsen$8 Cuerrier ? narrow &riminal liabili$y )wi#en &onsen$*(
- +-O05 O, %?5 -(&9&)A' 'AW# @o no$ wan$ $o &a$&h 2non0&riminal3 &on#u&$( Parl:s
in$en$ion &oul# no$ ha-e been $o allow all orms o #ishones$y $o -i$ia$e &onsen$ $o se9(
Au#ges limi$ ins$an&es in whi&h rau# &an -i$ia$e &onsen$( Cory ? mus$ be signii&an$ ris1 o
serious bo#ily harm( M&La&hlin ? limi$e# by na$ure an# Huali$y o a&$ )'romising ur &oa$
or se9 #oesn:$ go $o na$ure an# Huali$y o $he se9*
- 75 or#er $o be guil$y. women #i#n:$ a&$ually ha-e $o ge$ H7J ? s( 2MK 2en#angering lie3. no$
,us$ &ommi$$ing harm(
- 7 women ha# #ie# o H7J ? unlawul a&$ manslaugh$er 6R mur#er )#e'en#ing on i he
wan$e# $o gi-e $hem H7JDi ine&$ion was in$en$ional*( Problem o &ausa$ion woul# e9is$
)#i# $hey ge$ H7J rom him>*(
(ule#
Consen$ no$ base# on 1nowle#ge o signii&an$ rele-an$ a&$ors is no$ -ali# &onsen$(
Frau# G #ishones$y )whi&h in&lu#es non0#is&losure* Y #e'ri-a$ion or ris1 o #e'ri-a$ion
)signii&an$ ris1 o serious bo#ily harm*( /no$e $ha$ in or#er $o be non0#is&losure ? 'erson mus$
1nowDe(g( 1nowle#ge o ine&$ion4
[3] The Proper Scope of the Criminal Law
)otes on the 0roper +cope of the -riminal 'aw (pae 67@26@8)
Cana#ian Commi$$ee on Corre&$ions% !o"ards .nit%: Criminal -ustice and Corrections )6uime$ Re'or$* )1!M!*
- /14 5o a&$ shoul# be &riminally 'ros&ribe# unless i$s in&i#en&e. a&$ual or 'o$en$ial is su#stantiall% damaging to
societ%(
- /24 5o a&$ shoul# be &riminally 'unishe# where i$s in&i#en&e may a#eHua$ely be &on$rolle# by so&ial or&es
o$her $han $he &riminal 'ro&ess )e(g( 'ubli& o'inion. leg rela$ing $o men$al heal$h. so&ial<e&onomi& &on#i$ion.
e$&(*
- /34 5o law shoul# gi-e rise $o so&ial or 'ersonal #amage grea$er $han i$ was #esigne# $o 're-en$(
Page 32 o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- Ma1ing &on#u&$ &riminal shoul# be $he s$o' o las$ resor$( Criminal san&$ions shoul# be em'loye# only as an
una-oi#able ne&essi$y )b<& are #amaging $o $he in#i-i#ual an# his amily an# e9'ensi-e or $he s$a$e*(
- When should somethin be included in the cataloue of crimes?
- =here manies$ e-il woul# resul$ rom ailure $o in$erere
- =here no o$her so&ial or o$her legisla$i-e or&es are no$ li1ely $o be ee&$i-e
- =hen $he #amage $o $he in#i-i#ual or his amily. or $he e9'ense $o $he s$a$e is no$ ,us$iie# by $he #amage
being 're-en$e#(
+D'A(# Language a bi$ s$rong here 2manies$ e-il38 less s$rong language in law reorm &ommission is more
a''ro'ria$e )2a&$ is wrongulDmos$ 'eo'le in so&ie$y see i$ as su&h3*(
Law Reorm Commission o Cana#a. Re&ort: Our Criminal La" )1!PM*
- Criminal law is no$ $he bes$ nor only means o bols$ering -alues
- Criminal law is a blun$ )insensi$i-e rela$i-e $o o$her so&ial ins$i$u$ions* an# &os$ly )Q an# human liber$y*
ins$rumen$(
- So &riminal law shoul# be an ins$rumen$ o las$ resor$(
- =a$&hwor# is res$rain$% wr$ $he s&o'e o &riminal law. $he meaning o &riminal guil$. $he use o $he &riminal $rial
an# &riminal sen$en&e(
- +cope of -riminal 'aw# M conditions for somethin to be classified as a crime
- /14 A&$ is wrongul )mos$ 'eo'le in so&ie$y mus$ see i$ as wrong*
- /24 mus$ &ause harm $o o$her 'eo'le. $o so&ie$y. or $o 'eo'le nee#ing 'ro$e&$ion rom $hemsel-es
- /34 Mus$ &ause harm $ha$ is serious in na$ure an# #egree
- /F4 Mus$ &ause harm $ha$ is bes$ #eal$ wi$h $hrough $he &riminal law(
- +hese &on#i$ions &onine &riminal law $o &rimes o -iolen&e. #ishones$y an# o$her oen&es $ra#i$ionally in $he
&en$re o $he s$age(
- 2Any o$her oen&es. no$ really wrong bu$ 'enally 'rohibi$e# b<& $his is $he mos$ &on-enien$ way o #ealing wi$h
$hem. mus$ s$ay ou$si#e $he Criminal Co#e an# Hualiy merely as Huasi0&rimes or -iola$ions3 )SE@% Are $here
#angers in $his las$ re&ommen#a$ion>*
5(@( =al1er. 2Crime an# Punishmen$ in Cri$ain3
- =al1er #is&usses wha$ he &alls 2bor#erline oen&es3( Su&h oen&es are on one o $wo bor#ers% )1* bor#er
b$wn &riminal an# &i-il law8 )2* bor#er b$wn &riminal law an# mere #is&ouragemen$ by so&ial #isa''ro-al( +he
lo&a$ion o $hese boun#aries -aries #e'en#ing on $he ,uris#i&$ion in Hues$ion )i(e( mos$ Co#es 'rohibi$ mur#er.
$he$. -iolen&e. ra'e. e$&Dbu$ o$her oen&es are 'rohibi$e# in some 'la&es an# no$ o$hers*(
- Mos$ 2bor#erline oen&es3 in-ol-e se9ual &on#u&$% B9$ra0mari$al in$er&ourse. homose9ual a&$s. Abor$ion.
Pros$i$u$ion )#is$inguish be$ween selling se9 an# soli&i$ing in $he s$ree$s*
- 6$her non0se9ual 2bor#erline oen&es3% A$$em'$e# sui&i#e. 5egligen$ 7n,ury
- 6en&es $ha$ a''ear in mos$ &o#es bu$ ha-e been &ri$i&i;e# as unne&essary% 7n&es$. Bu$hanasia. Cigamy
- Some 'rohibi$ions ha-e been &ri$i&i;e# or being $oo wi#e in s&o'e% Use o nar&o$i&s an# o$her a##i&$i-e #rugs
w<o 'res&ri'$ion( @rug0use may be more ee&$i-ely &urbe# wi$h o$her non0'enal san&$ions(
- Some argue or $he &rea$ion o new oen&es% Ar$ii&ial 7nsemina$ion )>*
+L.# Which of these crimes meet the -ommission/s M criteria (listed abo"e)?
+D'A(# Mos$ o wha$ =al1er is reerring $o Ji&$imless &rimes )e(g( 'ros$i$u$ion*( Many
argue $ha$ -i&$imless &rimes shoul# no$ be &rimes a$ all we #on:$ wan$ 'oli&e see1ing ou$
'ros$i$u$es when $hey &oul# be s$o''ing mur#erers( Also b<& no harm was #one(
Authors#
- "ol#s$ein an# "ol#s$ein% &riminal law as a las$0resor$ 'ro&ess( 7$ is only one 'ar$ in $he
2mosai&3 o 'ubli& an# 'ri-a$e. e9$ernal an# in$ernal &on$rols o-er human beha-iour(
- H(L(A( Har$% 7$ is u' $o legisla$ors $o #e&i#e wha$ orms o &on#u&$ shoul# be inhibi$e#
)#enoun&e#* by $he use o $he &riminal law( Some orms o &on#u&$ are be$$er le$ $o o$her
so&ie$al ins$i$u$ions )su&h as &hur&h. $he amily. $ra#e unions. e#u&a$ors. e$&(* see $his
behin# ,u#gemen$ in Col#u& -( Cir#(
Page 33 o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- Mor$on% aim o $he &riminal law is $o #emons$ra$e so&ie$y:s -alues $o i$s &i$i;ens( Criminal
$rial as a &on$em'orary morali$y 'lay( Cu$. &riminal law is only one ins$i$u$ion by whi&h
morali$y is &rea$e# or su''or$e#( Many o$her ins$i$u$ions o'era$e $o ins$ill law0abi#ing -alues
in &i$i;ens(
Why should criminal law be of last resort?
- Cos$ $o so&ie$y )e9'ensi-e $o 1ee' 'eo'le in 'rison*
- Human liber$y is a$ s$a1e(
- Ce&ause $here are o$her ins$i$u$ions ou$ $here $ha$ migh$ be more ee&$i-e. more a&&essible.
e$&( Criminal law is blun$. less sensi$i-e $han o$her so&ie$al ins$i$u$ions(
-ases that address +cope implicitly or eEplicitly#
- -o#idon: ma1es a ruleDbu$ we #on:$ wan$ $his rule $o e9$en# $o all 2assaul$ si$ua$ions3(
@on:$ wan$ &onsen$ $o be -i$ia$e# in so&ially useul si$ua$ions su&h as me#i&al 'ro&e#ures an#
s'or$s an# s$un$s in mo-ies( ALS6. a$ basis o using &ommon law $o illumina$e &onsen$ ?
no$ion $ha$ Parliamen$ &oul#n:$ 'ossibly ha-e in$en#e# all in$en$ional a''li&a$ions o or&e $o
&ome w<in $he ambi$ o 2assaul$3(
- Lohnes: no$ a''ro'ria$e or &riminal law $o e9$en# $o a&$s $ha$ so&ie$y has $ra#i$ionally
a&&e'$e# )e(g( singing in 'ubli& so long as i$ #oesn:$ &ause an e9$ernally manies$e# 'ubli&
#is$urban&e*( ReHuiremen$ o &er$ain$y an# a&$ $ha$ &rim law im'inges on liber$y G limi$
s&o'e o law. in$er're$ narrowly(
- Hutt: im'li&i$ in narrowing #e:n o soli&i$ #esire no$ $o e9$en# $he &riminal law $o
women merely s$an#ing on $he s$ree$( +hey $hough$ $his rele&$e# Parliamen$:s in$en$ion )i(e(
when i$ a##e# 2soli&i$3 in$o $he Criminal Co#e*
- /olduc and /ird: un#erlying &our$:s ,u#gemen$ is an $he re&ogni$ion $ha$ $he re'rehensible
&on#u&$ o Col#u& will be #eal$ wi$h by o$her so&ie$al ins$i$u$ions( 7 &rim law is $o be $he
ins$i$u$ion o las$ resor$ an# gi-en $ha$ $hese so&ie$ies will ee&$i-ely a&$ as a #e$erren$ $o $his
&on#u&$ an# 'ro-i#e a 'unishmen$ $ha$ ma$&hes his moral &ul'abili$y. i$ is bes$ $o lea-e
Col#u& $o $hese o$her ins$i$u$ions(
- Cuerrier: &our$ e9'li&i$ly e9'resses &on&ern $ha$ &riminal law no$ e9$en# $o a&$s $ha$ are no$
&riminal )e(g( #on:$ wan$ $o &rea$e a 're&e#en$ $ha$ woul# allow 'romising ur or se9 $o
&ons$i$u$e rau# or 'ur'oses o -i$ia$ing &onsen$*(
- S( 1PP )Pee'ing $oms* Parliamen$ ma#e $his 're$$y narrow in or#er $o en&om'ass only
some $y'es o &on#u&$( @i#n:$ wan$ $he &riminal law $o rea&h $oo ar(
Who decides what the proper scope is? Jy what mechanisms is it eEpanded or contracted?
- (eKuirement of the act ? a&$us reus reHuiremen$ ensures $ha$ &rim law is no$ e9$en#e# so as
$o 'unish $hose who are $oo irresolu$e $o 'u$ $heir men$al s$a$e in$o a&$ion( 7 we 'unishe#
guil$y min#s. all men woul# be &riminals )A(F( S$e'hen*
- 0arliament 0 Blimina$ion o &ommon law oen&es ? only Parliamen$ &an e9'an# $he s&o'e
o $he &riminal law by ma1ing new oen&es or ma1ing e9is$ing oen&es broa#er( +hey are
assume# $o ar$i&ula$e $he -alues o so&ie$y insoar as $hey are a #emo&ra$i&ally ele&$e# bo#y(
Rela$e# ? limi$s wi$hin s$a$u$es $hemsel-es 0 Parliamen$ i$sel re&ogni;es $he im'or$an&e o
limi$ing $he s&o'e o $he &riminal law $o in&lu#e only some a&$s $ha$ are -ery e-il righ$ening.
e$&( or e9am'le. #ra$ s( 1PP )see abo-e* Hui$e narrowly(
Page 3F o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- -ourts ? im'li&i$ly an# e9'li&i$ly ? we see &our$s using me&hanisms o in$er're$a$ion $o limi$
or e9'an# $he s&o'e o $he &riminal law( +hey may #o $his im'li&i$ly as in Col#u& an# Cir#.
in whi&h i$ is e-i#en$ $ha$ $he &our$ re&ogni;es $ha$ $he $wo men will be #is&i'line# in ano$her
ins$i$u$ion )i(e( 'roessional e$hi&s* an# $hus $ha$ a resor$ $o $he &riminal law is 'erha's no$
nearly as ,us$iie#( B9'li&i$ly as in Aobi#on in whi&h $he &our$ e9'li&$ly limi$s $he s&o'e $o
$he si$ua$ions in whi&h &onsen$ in igh$s &an be -i$ia$e# so as no$ $o allow $he &riminal law $o
e9$en# $o so&ially useul a&$i-i$ies su&h as me#i&al 'ro&e#ures. s'or$s an# mo-ie s$un$s(
Cour$ #oes $his also in Hu$$Dgi-es a res$ri&$i-e rea#ing $o $he meaning o soli&i$D
un#erlying $his is $he &our$:s -alue abou$ how ar $he &riminal law shoul# rea&h. wha$ i$
shoul# en&om'ass an# wha$ $he 'ur'ose o i$ is /no$i&e $ha$ $here is no general agreemen$ wr$
$his issueDC(A( $hough$ o$herwiseZ$ha$ $he &riminal law SH6UL@ e9$en# $o 'unish a&$s
su&h as Hu$$:s4
- @is&ourse b$wn $he &our$s an# Parliamen$ ? &our$ says one $hing8 'arliamen$ res'on#s(
Parliamen$ says some$hing8 &our$ in$er're$s( )see $his in Hu$$ an# F -( F*
- Prose&u$ion. 'oli&e an# &i$i;ens ? base# on wha$ $hey re'or$. see1 ou$ an# 'ress &harges or(
+hey im'li&i$ly ar$i&ula$e $heir -alues abou$ how ar $he &riminal law shoul# e9$en#( 2
'eo'le in a #omes$i& #is'u$e may no$ re'or$ i$ $o $he 'oli&e un$il i$ is a$ a sui&ien$ly
#angerous le-el o -iolen&e( +his sugges$s $ha$ mos$ #omes$i& #is'u$es are bes$ le$ $o
resolu$ion w<in $he amily ins$i$u$ion(
- Re'or$s ? 6uime$ ? manies$ e-il( Law &ommission re'or$ ? -ery wrongul a&$s(
)ote# &onne&$ion be$ween SC6PB an# A7MS 6F CR7M75AL LA= ? shoul# only ma1e
&on#u&$ &riminal i aims o &riminal law &an only be me$ by #oing so( 7 some o$her ins$i$u$ion
&an be$$er ser-e $he aims o #e$erren&e. rehab. isola$ion. #enun&ia$ion. re$ribu$ion an# -engean&e.
$hen le$ i$( Also. shoul#n:$ ma1e &on#u&$ &riminal i $he a&$ #oesn:$ sugges$ $ha$ $hese aims are
ne&essary )e(g( non0in$en$ional a&$ ? is #e$erren&e a''ro'ria$e>*(
[4] The Unlawful Act in Breaking and Entering
-ase# *ohnson ". (
Johnson v. R , <6:@@> +.-.-., pae BMG
,acts#
- A&&use# en$ere# a 'ar$ly &ons$ru&$e# uno&&u'ie# #welling house $hrough an o'en #oorway
lea#ing in$o house rom &ar'or$( +he #oor ha#n:$ been ins$alle# an# $he boar#s $ha$ $he
owner ha# naile# $o $he o'ening $em'orarily ha# been remo-e#(
- A$ $rial. a&&use# was &on-i&$e# o brea1ing an# en$ering 'ursuan$ $o s( 30K )b* /now 3L0 )b*4
o $he Criminal Co#e(
&ssue#
@oes en$ry $hrough an o'en #oor &ons$i$u$e a 2brea1ing3> =ha$ is $he s&o'e o s( 30K )b*>
?eld#
A''eal #ismisse#( Bn$ry $hrough o'en #oor #oes &ons$i$u$e a 2brea1ing3(
(atio#
Page 3L o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- S( 30K has e9$en#e# &ons$ru&$i-e brea1ing $o in&lu#e en$ry by any $em'orary o'ening( +his
is an e9$ension o $he 're-ious 'ro-ision. whi&h reHuire# $ha$ su&h o'enings be 2le$ o'en or
any ne&essary 'ur'ose(3
- +he resul$ in Regina -( Aewell sugges$s $ha$ a 'ar$ly o'ene# #oor woul# be an o'ening bu$ a
ully o'en #oor woul# no$ be so regar#e#( 7$ woul# res$ri&$ 2brea1ing3 $o $hose si$ua$ions in
whi&h $he in$ru#er oun# a #oor or win#ow 'ar$ly a,ar an# o'ene# i$ ur$her in or#er $o gain
en$ry( +his woul# #is$inguish be$ween a$ burglars an# $hin ones )woul# be easier $o be
a&Hui$$e# i $hin*( +he Cour$ #isagrees wi$h $his ra$io8 i$ is an in$er're$a$ion o S( 30K whi&h
rele&$s $he earlier s$a$e o $he law(
- Parliamen$ has e9$en#e# $he limi$s o &ons$ru&$i-e brea1ing( Parliamen$. or $he 'ur'ose o
$he Criminal Co#e. has gi-en $he wor# 2brea13 an ar$ii&ial &ons$ru&$ion $ha$ woul# no$
o$herwise 're-ail(
- +he wor#s use# in s( 30K )b* mus$ be gi-en ee&$ a&&or#ing $o $heir or#inary meaning(
- Always s$ar$ wi$h $he Co#e an# no$ $he 're-ious s$a$e o $he law(
- Bn$ry $hrough an o'en #oor &ons$i$u$es brea1ing an# $hus $he a&&use# is guil$y o brea1ing
an# en$ering 'ursuan$ $o S( 30K )b*
-ommentary#
- (ole of the -ommon law# Common law is a$ $he basis<oun#a$ion o our Criminal Code(
@is$in&$ion be$ween a&$ual an# &ons$ru&$i-e e9is$e# a$ Common law an# subseHuen$ly oun#
i$s way in$o $he irs$ Cana#ian Criminal code( 2B-eryone who ob$ains en$ran&e in$o any
buil#ing by any $hrea$ or ar$ii&e use# or $ha$ 'ur'ose. or by &ollusion wi$h any 'erson in $he
buil#ing. or who en$ers any &himney or o$her a'er$ure o $he buil#ing. 'ermanen$ly le$ o'en
or any ne&essary 'ur'ose. shall be #eeme# $o ha-e bro1en an# en$ere# $ha$ buil#ing(3
- Common law is a$ basis o &riminal law ? Parl &an #o wha$e-er i$ li1es $o &hange i$( +he only
limi$ is $he Char$er
- 'eal lanuae# @ieren&e be$ween legal an# or#inary meanings( 6r#inary meaning o
brea1 is mu&h #ieren$ $han legal meaning )2&ons$ru&$i-e brea1ing3* whi&h in&lu#es )1*
ob$aining en$ran&e by $hrea$ or ar$ii&e or &ollusion w a 'erson an# )2* en$ering $hrough a
'ermanen$ or $em'orary o'ening( 5ei$her o $hese in-ol-e 2brea1ing3 'er se( 2Bn$ering3
'u$$ing any 'ar$ o bo#y in$o buil#ingD=or#s in law #on:$ always means $he same as wor#s
on $he s$ree$(
- See also Li&hus )reasonable #oub$ is no$ $o be un#ers$oo# a&&or#ing $o i$s or#inary
meaning*
- See also>>>
(ule#
+he wor#s 2by a 'ermanen$ an# $em'orary o'ening3 in S( 3L0 )b* embra&e an en$ry no$ only
$hrough $he ur$her o'ening o a $em'orary o'ening. bu$ any en$ry $hrough any $em'orary
o'ening(
[5] The Unlawful Act of Causing a Public Disturbance
-A+5# (. ". 'ohnes
R. v. *ohnes , <6::B> +.-.-., pae B;8
Page 3M o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
,acts#
- Mr( Por$er an# Mr( Lohnes were neighbours( Lou# noises 'ro#u&e# by Mr( Por$er:s
eHui'men$ #is$urbe# Lohnes(
- Lohnes wen$ ou$ on -eran#a an# shou$e# obs&en$ies a$ Mr( Por$er( Mr( Por$er ile# a
&om'lain$(
- +rial ,u#ge &on-i&$e# Lohnes on basis $ha$ his &on#u&$ 2#is$urbe# Mr( Por$er3 an# $hus
&ons$i$u$e# a #is$urban&e w<in s( 1PL)1*)a*
&ssue#
=ha$ &ons$i$u$es a #is$urban&e un#er s( 1PL)1*)a* o $he Criminal Code> @oes oreseeable
emo$ional u'se$ sui&e. or mus$ $here be an e9$ernally manies$e# #is$urban&e o a 'ubli& na$ure>
?eld#
A''eal allowe#( Con-i&$ion Huashe#(
(atio#
- Un#erlying issue here is $ha$ $here are $wo &om'e$ing -alues% in#i-i#ual righ$ o e9'ression
an# $he &olle&$i-e righ$ $o 'ea&e an# $ranHuili$y( 7ssue is where $he line is $o be #rawn(
Au$hori$y ? su&&orts distur#ance as interference "ith ordinar% and customar% use #% &u#lic of the &lace
- =eigh$ o au$hori$y sugges$s $ha$ $he &on#u&$ mus$ &ause an o-er$ly manies$e# #is$urban&e
whi&h &ons$i$u$es an in$ereren&e wi$h $he or#inary an# &us$omary use by $he 'ubli& o $he
'la&e in Hues$ion( +he #is$urban&e may be $he a&$ i$sel or a se&on#ary #is$urban&e(
- Prin&i'le o legali$y sugges$s $ha$ only &on#u&$ whi&h may reasonably be e9'e&$e# $o &ause
su&h a #is$urban&e in $he 'ar$i&ular &ir&ums$an&es o $he &ase alls w<in s( 1PL)1*)a*(
S$a$u$ory Cons$ru&$ion ? su&&orts distur#ance as #eing more than mere mental or emotional anno%ance
- 2@is$urban&e3 is &a'able o many meanings( Mus$ &hoose $he one $ha$ a&&or#s wi$h in$en$ion
o Parliamen$(
- Ordinary usae% 2#is$urban&e3 sugges$s in$ereren&e wi$h an or#inary an# &us$omary
&on#u&$ or use
- -onteEt# Parliamen$:s reHuiremen$ $ha$ $he #is$urban&e be in a 'ubli& 'la&e in#i&a$es $ha$ i$s
ob,e&$ was no$ $o 'ro$e&$ in#i-i#uals rom emo$ional #is$urban&e bu$ $o 'ro$e&$ so&ie$y rom
#isru'$ions o normal a&$i-i$ies(
- ?eadins and 0reambles% 'ro-ision is in $he se&$ion 2@isor#erly Con#u&$3( +his su''or$s
-iew $ha$ Parl ha# in min# 'ubli& #isor#er. no$ emo$ional #is$urban&e(
- ,rench teEt% wor# use# or #isor#er in Fren&h -ersion is 2$a'age3 whi&h &onno$es an
e9$ernally manies$e# #is$urban&e(
- +. 6@;(B) sugges$s $ha$ Parliamen$ was &on&erne# wi$h how members o $he 'ubli& o$her $han
$he a&&use# may ha-e been ae&$e# by $he im'ugne# a&$(
Poli&y ? su&&orts narro"er 0&u#lic distur#ance1 inter&retation over #roader 0emotional
distur#ance1 standard
- 0rinciple of 'eality# e-eryone shoul# 1now wha$ &on#u&$ is 'rohibi$e#(
- Jalance of interests# 5arrower in$er' 'ermi$s a more sensi$i-e balan&ing b$wn
&oun$er-ailing in$eres$s a$ s$a1e
- 0roper Foals and limits of the -riminal 'aw# no$ a''ro'ria$e or &riminal law $o e9$en# $o minor
#is$urban&es $ha$ so&ie$y has his$ori&ally $olera$e#( "i-en 'ossibili$y o in$rusion on liber$y an# un&er$ain$y o
&riminal law ? a-our narrow in$er' Mus$ be some e9$ernal manies$a$ion o #isor#er in $he sense o
in$ereren&e wi$h $he normal use o $he ae&$e# 'la&e(
Hol#ing
Page 3P o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- @is$urban&e in s( 1PL)1*)a* is more $han emo$ional u'se$( Mus$ be an e9$ernally manies$e# #is$urban&e o $he
'ubli& 'ea&e. in $he sense o in$ereren&e wi$h $he or#inary an# &us$omary usage o $he 'la&e by $he 'ubli&(
@is$urban&e may &onsis$ o $he a&$ i$sel or may low as a &onseHuen&e o $he a&$(
-ommentary#
- Prin&i'le o legali$y use# as ,us$ii&a$ion here( +hings $ha$ all un#er 1PL. i(e( Hualiy as a 2'ubli& #is$urban&e3
mus$ be a&$s whi&h 'eo'le woul# reasonably e9'e&$ $o all un#er i$(
- Un#erlying &on&ern is balan&e b$wn ree s'ee&h an# righ$ $o li-e in 'ea&e( Con&ern wi$h $his balan&e is rele&$e#
in Parl:s reHuiremen$ $ha$ #is$urban&e be in a 'ubli& 'la&e( Cour$ a-ours narrow in$er're$a$ion b<& is &onsis$en$
wi$h $his balan&e(
- 2Publi& 'la&e3 ? Cour$:s #e:n o 'ubli& 'la&e may be #ieren$ or #ieren$ s$a$u$es(
(ule#
S( 1PL)1*)a* reHuires an e9$ernally manies$e# #is$urban&e in or near a 'ubli& 'la&e. &onsis$ing
ei$her in $he a&$ i$sel or in a se&on#ary #is$urban&e( B9$ernally manies$e# #is$urban&e is an
in$ereren&e w< $he or#inary an# &us$omary usage o $he 'la&e by $he 'ubli&. howe-er small an
in$ereren&e(
&nterpretin a +tatute
/14 Loo1 a$ @i&$ionary #e:n o wor#<e9'ression ? i &lear ? #one ? i no$ &lear )more $han one
'ossible meaning* go $o [2(
/24 =ha$ was 'arliamen$:s in$en$>
- Ordinary usae o $he wor#
- 0ractical conteEt o $he 'ro-ision ? e(g( in Lohnes b<& o reHuiremen$ o 'ubli& 'la&e in
s$a$u$e. sugges$s reHuiremen$ o 'ubli&ly manies$e# #is$urban&e
- %eEtual conteEt ? surroun#ing 'ro-isions )uniying $heme as in Hu$$ an# ParR*8 Hea#ings
an# Preambles
- ,rench teEt ? Fren&h wor# may ha-e &lear. unambiguous meaning whi&h will illumina$e
meaning o Bnglish
- (ationality and -ommon sense ? e(g in ParR. woul# no$ be ra$ional $o ma1e mur#er 1 hinge
on a #ieren&e o minu$es an# se&on#s( Parliamen$ will no$ ha-e an irra$ional
/34 Au$hori$y
- How ha-e &our$s in$er're$e# $his 'ro-ision )e(g( Ma& 2a&$s o in#e&en&y3 was no$ -ague
b<& has been in$er're$e# by &our$s*>
/F4 Poli&y Consi#era$ions
- Sli''ery Slo'e
- Prin&i'le o Legali$y ? 'eo'le shoul# be able $o 1now wha$ &on#u&$ is 'rohibi$e#(
- Calan&ing in$eres$s
- Pro'er s&o'e o $he &riminal law ? is $his an a&$ $o whi&h $he &riminal law shoul# e9$en#>
)Lohnes% so&ie$y has $y'i&ally $olera$e# ou$war# e9'ressions $ha$ ha-e &ause# mere
emo$ional u'se$ or #is$urban&e*(
B Omissions
Page 3K o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
-A+5# ,aan ". -ommissioner of 9etropolitan 0olice
Fa'an v. Commissioner o- Metro%olitan Police" <6:7G> -.A., pae B7:
,acts#
- 6i&er #ire&$e# a&&use# $o 'ar1 ne9$ $o &urb( He 'ar1e# $oo ar an# oi&er as1e# him $o
'ar1 &loser(
- A&&use# #ro-e $owar#s oi&er an# s$o''e# wi$h $he wheel on his oo$(
- 6i&er sai# 2ge$ o my oo$(3 A&&use# sai# 2u&1 you. you &an wai$(3 7gni$ion wen$ o
- +rial ,u#ge oun# $ha$ moun$ing o wheel on oi&er:s oo$ was a&&i#en$al )or a$ leas$ ha#
reasonable #oub$ as $o whe$her i$ was #elibera$e*( +hey oun# $ha$ ailure $o ge$ o oo$ was
#elibera$e(
&ssue#
@o a&&use#:s a&$ions amoun$ $o an assaul$>
?eld#
Yes( A''eal #ismisse#(
(atio#
- An assaul$ reHuires $he 'erorman&e o an in$en$ional a&$(
- Here. moun$ing wheel on oi&er:s oo$ &oul# no$ be assaul$ be&ause i$ was a&&i#en$al an#
$hus $he mens rea )in$en$* was no$ 'resen$( 5ei$her &oul# $he reusal $o #ismoun$ $he oi&er:s
oo$ be an assaul$ be&ause a mere omission $o a&$ &anno$ amoun$ $o assaul$(
- An assaul$ reHuires bo$h $he elemen$s o a&$us reus an# mens rea( Mens rea nee# no$ be
'resen$ a$ $he in&e'$ion o $he a&$us reus8 i$ &anno$ be su'erim'ose# u'on an e9is$ing a&$(
- +he omission o $he a&&use# $o ge$ o $he oi&er:s oo$ orms 'ar$ o a &on$inuous a&$ $ha$
began when $he a&&use# moun$e# $he wheel on$o his oo$( +he mens rea )in$en$* was no$
'resen$ a$ $he s$ar$ o $he a&$ bu$ was su'erim'ose# u'on i$ when he hel# $he wheel on $he
oo$ an# reuse# $o remo-e i$(
- +his is $o be #is$inguishe# rom a &ase in whi&h $he a&$ an# $he omission are #is$in&$ )e(g( hi$
someone unin$en$ionally wi$h &ar8 in$en$ionally ail $o res&ue $hem*(
<.issent>#
- 5o mere omission $o a&$ &an amoun$ $o an assaul$(
- Co$h $he elemen$s o a&$us reus an# mens rea mus$ be 'resen$ a$ $he same $ime. bu$ one may
be su'erim'ose# on $he o$her(
- A''li&a$ion o $hese 'rin&i'les $o $his &ase sugges$s $ha$ a&&use# merely omi$$e# $o $a1e $he
wheel o $he oo$( +his &anno$ be an assaul$(
-ommentary#
-A+5# (. ". 9iller
R. v. Miller , <6:G8> ?ouse of 'ords, pae B@B A accidental fire and failure to &ut it one "hen
#ecome a"are
,acts#
- A&&use# a&&i#en$ally se$ ire when he ell aslee' while smo1ing a &igare$$e(
Page 3! o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- He wo1e u' $o in# $he ma$$ress on ire( He go$ u' an# wen$ in$o $he ne9$ room an# wen$
ba&1 $o slee'( He &laims $ha$ he 2ha#n:$ go$ any$hing $o 'u$ $he ire ou$ so he ,us$ le$ i$3(
- He was &harge# wi$h arson &on$rary $o $he Criminal @amage A&$(
- He was oun# guil$y a$ $rial an# $he C o A(
&ssue#
7s $he actus reus o $he oen&e o arson 'resen$ when one a&&i#en$ally s$ar$s a ire an# $hen ails
$o $a1e s$e's $o e9$inguish i$ or 're-en$ 'ro'er$y #amage>
?eld#
Yes( A''eal #ismisse#(
(atio#
- Au#ge #oesn:$ li1e $he $erm actus reus be&ause i$ sugge$s $ha$ a 'osi$i-e a&$ is nee#e# $o ma1e
a 'erson guil$y o a &rime an# $ha$ a ailure or omission is insui&ien$( He 'reers $he
e9'ression 2&on#u&$ o $he a&&use#3(
- +rial &our$ 2@u$y +heory3% when a&&use# be&ame aware o $he ire $ha$ he s$ar$e# by his
own a&$. he be&ame un#er a #u$y $o $a1e some a&$ion $o 'u$ i$ ou$(
- C o A 2Con$inuous A&$ +heory3% A&&use#:s whole &ourse o &on#u&$. rom momen$ o
#ro''ing &igare$$e un$il $ime when #amage by ire was &om'le$e. was a C65+75U6US AC+
o $he a&&use#( +his a&$ is sui&ien$ $o &ons$i$u$e arson i a$ any s$age in $ha$ &on#u&$. $he
s$a$e o min# o $he a&&use#. when he ails $o 're-en$ or minimise $he #amage whi&h will
resul$ rom his ini$ial a&$. al$hough i$ lies wi$hin his 'ower $o #o so. is $ha$ o being re&1less
whe$her 'ro'er$y belonging $o ano$her woul# be #amage#(
- H o L a-ours $he #u$y $heory )bu$ 'reer 2res'onsibili$y $heory3* b<& i$ is easy $o e9'lain $o
a ,ury(
- =here a&&use# a&&i#en$ally #oes a&$ $ha$ se$s in $rain e-en$s whi&h. by $he $ime $he a&&use#
be&omes aware. woul# ma1e i$ ob-ious $ha$ 'ro'er$y belong $o ano$her woul# be #amage#.
he is guil$y o arson 7F. when he #oes be&ome aware $ha$ $he e-en$s are a resul$ o his a&$. he
#oesn:$ $ry $o 're-en$ or re#u&e ris1 or #amage be&ause ei$her he has no$ gi-en $hough$ $o $he
'ossibili$y o su&h ris1 6R ha-ing re&ogni;e# $he ris1. he #e&i#e# no$ $o 're-en$ i$(
-ommentary#
SH% 6nly a''lies $o #amage $o 'ro'er$y> =ha$ abou$ in,uries $o 'ersons>
-A+5# 9oore ". (.
Moore v. R." <6:@:> +.-.-., pae B@M
,acts#
- A&&use# wen$ $hrough a re# ligh$ on his bi1e(
- Cons$able Su$herlan# se$ abou$ $o 2$i&1e$3 Moore an# &hase# him on his mo$or&y&le
reHues$ing him $o 2'ull o-er an# s$o'3( Moore la$ly reuse# $o s$o'(
- Moore was &harge# wi$h obs$ru&$ing a 'ea&e oi&er in $he 'erorman&e o his #u$y on $he
basis $ha$ he aile# $o gi-e his name when reHues$e# $o #o so by $he &ons$able(
- S( LK o $he Mo$or Jehi&le A&$ 'ro-i#es $ha$ 'ersons in a mo$or -ehi&le will be guil$y o an
oen&e i $hey ail $o s$o' or &orre&$ly s$a$e $heir name an# a##ress when reHues$e# by a
'ea&e oi&er( +he #e:n o 2mo$or -ehi&le3 in&lu#es only 2sel0'ro'elle#3 -ehi&les(
- A&&use# was a&Hui$$e# a$ $rial bu$ &on-i&$e# by $he Cour$ o A''eal(
&ssue#
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Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
@oes a&&use# ha-e #u$y $o gi-e name $o &ons$able when reHues$e#>
?eld#
Yes( A''eal #ismisse#( Con-i&$ion u'hel#(
(atio#
- Res'on#en$ was no$ in brea&h o S( LK o $he Mo$or Jehi&le A&$(
- +he &ons$able on #u$y obser-e# $he a''ellan$ in $he a&$ o &ommi$$ing an inra&$ion o $he
s$a$u$e an# $ha$ &ons$able ha# no 'ower $o arres$ $he a&&use# or su&h oen&e unless an# un$il
he ha# a$$em'$e# $o i#en$iy $he a&&use# so $ha$ he migh$ be $he sub,e&$ o summary
&on-i&$ion 'ro&ee#ings(
- +he oi&er was un#er a #u$y $o a$$em'$ $o i#en$iy $he wrong#oer an# $he ailure $o i#en$iy
himsel by $he wrong#oer #i# &ons$i$u$e an obs$ru&$ion o $he 'oli&e oi&er in $he
'erorman&e o his #u$ies( /re&i'ro&al #u$y>>4 /sh% no$e 'age 2PP ? limi$s $he hol#ing $o
res'on#ing $o Os abou$ your i#en$i$y4
<.issent>#
- Cour$ is being bas1e# $o im'ose a #u$y u'on a 'erson $o i#en$iy himsel $o 'oli&e in $he
absen&e o e9'li&i$ s$a$u$ory 'ro-isions $ha$ im'ose su&h a #u$y(
- A #u$y $o i#en$iy onesel mus$ be oun# in ei$her &ommon law or s$a$u$e. Hui$e a'ar$ rom
$he #u$ies o 'oli&e( 6mission $o a&$ in a 'ar$i&ular way will gi-e rise $o &riminal liabili$y
only where a #u$y $o a&$ arises a$ &ommon law or is im'ose# by s$a$u$e(
- +here is no s$a$u$ory #u$y on a &y&lis$ &augh$ ri#ing $hrough a re# ligh$ $o i#en$iy himsel )s(
LK e9&lu#es &y&lis$s*
- +here is no #u$y a$ &ommon law $o i#en$iy onesel $o 'oli&e( )no$e $ha$ $here is a #ieren&e
b$wn #elibera$ely $elling a alse s$ory an# reusing $o answer*
- Re&i'ro&al @u$y>%
- Has been &on$en#e# $ha$ $here was #u$y on 'oli&e oi&er $o enHuire an# $hus re&i'ro&al #u$y
u'on allege# &ul'ri$ $o res'on#(
- A limi$e# obliga$ion $o res'on# )i(e( only when oi&er is an eyewi$ness* is a Hualii&a$ion $ha$
is unsoun# in 'rin&i'le an# unwor1able in 'ra&$i&e( Ba&h #u$y is en$irely in#e'en#en$(
- +he legisla$ure mus$ be $a1en $o ha-e in$en#e# $o relie-e bi&y&le ri#ers o $he #u$y $o s$a$e
$heir names( +o reHuire $he ri#ers $o #o so woul# be $an$amoun$ $o amen#ing $he Mo$or
Jehi&le A&$(
- +he &riminal law is no 'la&e w<in whi&h $o in$ro#u&e im'lie# #u$ies. un1nown $o s$a$u$e an#
&ommon law. brea&h o whi&h sub,e&$s a 'erson $o arres$ an# im'risonmen$(
- )5o$e "lan-ille ar$i&le i ailure $o gi-e name an# a##ress was an obs$ru&$ionDall s$a$u$es
ma1ing i$ an oen&e $o reuse $o gi-e name an# a##ress in s'e&ii& si$ua$ions woul# ha-e
been unne&essary*(
-ommentary#
C Causation

-(&9&)A' 'AW 2 ,&)A' +$99A(C
Sarah Huggins
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Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
PART IV - THE ACTUS REUS REQUIREMENT FOR CRIM L IABILITY ....................... 2
B - OMISSIONS.............................................................................................................................................................2
The Law.............................................................................................................................................................................. 2
CASE: Fagan v. Commissioner of Metropolitan Police.....................................................................................................3
CASE: R. v. Miller............................................................................................................................................................ 4
CASE: Moore v. R............................................................................................................................................................. 5
CASE: R. v. Thornton........................................................................................................................................................ 6
CASE: R v. Browne........................................................................................................................................................... 7
CASE: People v. Beardsley................................................................................................................................................ 8
C - CAUSATION...........................................................................................................................................................8
Introductory Note................................................................................................................................................................ 8
Overview............................................................................................................................................................................ 9
The Law.............................................................................................................................................................................. 9
CASE: Smithers v. R....................................................................................................................................................... 11
CASE: R. v. Blaue........................................................................................................................................................... 12
CASE: R. v. Nette............................................................................................................................................................ 14
R. v. Shanks...................................................................................................................................................................... 16
PART V - THE MENS REA (MENTAL STATE) REQUIREMENT FOR CRIM
LIABILITY .................................................................................................................................. 16
A - INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................................................16
B - THE BASIC SUBJECTIVE/OBJECTIVE DISTINCTION..............................................................................................17
The Law............................................................................................................................................................................ 17
The Cases.......................................................................................................................................................................... 17
C - MENS REA OFFENSES VERSUS PUBLIC WELFARE/REGULATORY OFFENCES......................................................20
The Law............................................................................................................................................................................ 20
The Cases.......................................................................................................................................................................... 20
CASE: Beaver v. R.......................................................................................................................................................... 20
CASE: R. v. Pierce Fisheries........................................................................................................................................... 21
CASE: R. v. City of Sault Ste. Marie............................................................................................................................... 21
CASE: R. v. Chapin......................................................................................................................................................... 23
Charter Limitations..............................................................................................................................................24
D - INTENTION (KNOWLEDGE AND DESIRE).............................................................................................................25
CASE: R v. Steane........................................................................................................................................................... 25
CASE: R. v. Hibbert........................................................................................................................................................ 30
E - THE MENS REA FOR THE SEVERAL FORMS OF MURDER....................................................................................31
CASE: Simpson v. R........................................................................................................................................................ 32
CASE: Vaillancourt v. R.................................................................................................................................................. 32
CASE: R. v. Martineau.................................................................................................................................................... 34
First Degree Murder............................................................................................................................................35
CASE: R v. Smith............................................................................................................................................................ 35
CASE: R. v. Nygaard....................................................................................................................................................... 36
F - RECKLESSNESS AND WILFUL BLINDNESS............................................................................................................37
CASE: Sansregret v. R...................................................................................................................................................... 37
CASE: R. v. Jorgensen..................................................................................................................................................... 38
CASE: R. v. Currie.......................................................................................................................................................... 38
CASE: R. v. Blondin........................................................................................................................................................ 39
CASE: R. v. Sandhu......................................................................................................................................................... 40
CASE: R. v. Vinokurov................................................................................................................................................... 41
CASE: R. v. Harding....................................................................................................................................................... 41
CASE: R v. Duong........................................................................................................................................................... 42
G - THE CHARTER IMPACT ON SUBSTANTIVE CRIMINAL LAW.................................................................................43
Murder..................................................................................................................................................................43
Introduction: The M/R for Predicate Offences....................................................................................................43
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Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
Unlawfully Causing Bodily Harm........................................................................................................................43
CASE: R. v. Desousa....................................................................................................................................................... 43
Unlawful Act Manslaughter.................................................................................................................................45
Aggravated Assault...............................................................................................................................................45
H - CRIMINAL NEGLIGENCE......................................................................................................................................45
PART VI - THE OFFENCE OF SEXUAL ASSAULT ............................................................ 45
PART IV - THE ACTUS REUS REQUIREMENT FOR CRIM L IABILITY
B - Omissions
Feneral common law principle# Criminal res'onsibili$y or omissions is limi$e# $o &ases
where $here is a legal an# no$ merely moral #u$y $o a&$( A 'erson is no$ 'unishe# or omissions
unless he ha# a legal #u$y $o a&$(
Har# Hues$ion is in a 'ar$i&ular si$ua$ion 7S +HBRB A LB"AL @U+Y +6 AC+>
-(&9&)A' (5+0O)+&J&'&%C ,O( O9&++&O)+#
=hen see a&$s where one omi$s $o #o some$hing 6R s$a$u$e whi&h &rea$es &rim res'onsibili$y
or omission $o ulill a #u$y Tim'ose# by lawT )s( 21!* or a Tlegal #u$yT )s( 1K0* Mus$ in# a
#u$y%
- /14 A &on$ra&$ )an un#er$a1ing in S( 21P> 0 be&ause a bin#ing &ommi$$men$*
- /24 S( 21L 0 #u$y $o 'ro-i#e ne&essaries o lie )base# on rela$ionshi'* /Co%ne, Po&&im )'age
2K3*. /eardsle%>4
- /34 S( 21M 0 #u$y o 'ersons un#er$a1ing a&$s #angerous $o lie /!hornton4
- /F4 S( 21P 0 un#er$a1ing //ro"ne4
- /F4 Common Law 0 $or$ 'rin&i'les /!hornton )C(A(*
- /L4 Re&i'ro&al #u$y 0 )limi$e# $o #u$y $o re-eal your i#en$i$y $o a 'oli&e oi&er who
wi$nesses you &ommi$ a &rime 0 /Moore4*
- /M4 6$her s$a$u$e )e(g( o&&u'ierXs liabili$y a&$*
7 $here is no #u$y. may $ry $o &hara&$eri;e $he omission as an AC+(
- /14 Con$inuous A&$ +heory /2agan4
- /24 A&&use# se$ a&$s in mo$ion an# re&ogni;es $ha$ $hey will #o #amage $o PR6PBR+Y G
#u$y $o $a1e s$e's $o 're-en$ or minimi;e $he #amage
%he 'aw
-riminal -ode#
+. B6;. Legal #u$y $o 'ro-i#e ne&essaries o lie $o &hil# un#er 1M. s'ouse or &ommon law
'ar$ner. 'erson un#er his &harge(
II 5o$e $ha$ $he &our$s ha-e been liberal in in$er're$ing $he Tne&essaries o lieT
Page F3 o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
+. B67. B-ery 'erson who un#er$a1es $o a#minis$er surgi&al or me#i&al $rea$men$ $o ano$her
'erson or $o #o any o$her lawul a&$ $ha$ may en#anger $he lie o ano$her 'erson is. e9&e'$ in
&ases o ne&essi$y. un#er a legal #u$y $o ha-e an# $o use reasonable 1nowle#ge. s1ill an# &are in
so #oing(
+. B6@. B-ery one who un#er$a1es $o #o an a&$ is un#er a legal #u$y $o #o i$ i $he omission $o #o
$he a&$ is or may be #angerous $o lie(
OO S( 21M an# S( 21P are no$ oen&es on $heir own( +hey are ,us$ #u$y #eini$ions an# mus$
be &ombine# wi$h some o$her oen&e in $he &o#e 0 e(g( S( 21! or S( 1K0 )&ommon
nuisan&e*
OO S( 21M generally limi$e# $o #o&$ors bu$ e9$en#e# in +horn$on &ase
OO 5BCBSS7+Y% S( 21M in&lu#es Te9&e'$ in &ases o ne&essi$yT 0 you #onX$ ha-e $o &on$inue
$he a&$ i i$ may &ause harm $o you( Assume reeren&e $o ne&essi$y in S( 21M $o a''ly $o
S( 21P(
+here are also some o$her &riminal oen&es base# on #u$y +. B78 )saeguar#ing o'ening on
i&e* an# +. @: )#u$y $o $a1e reasonable &are when #ealing wi$h e9'losi-es*
-ases#
Fagan
Miller
Moore
+horn$on
Crown
Cear#sley
SNLAR% How #o #u$ies arise>
=e 1now $ha$ our &our$s &anno$ &rea$e &rimes )only Parliamen$ &an* bu$ i$ seems $ha$ $hey &an
&rea$e &rimes un#er $he guise o &rea$ing a legal #u$y )see +horn$on*
-A+5# ,aan ". -ommissioner of 9etropolitan 0olice
Fa'an v. Commissioner o- Metro%olitan Police" <6:7G> -.A., pae B7:
,acts#
- 6i&er #ire&$e# a&&use# $o 'ar1 ne9$ $o &urb( He 'ar1e# $oo ar an# oi&er as1e# him $o
'ar1 &loser(
- A&&use# #ro-e $owar#s oi&er an# s$o''e# wi$h $he wheel on his oo$(
- 6i&er sai# 2ge$ o my oo$(3 A&&use# sai# 2u&1 you. you &an wai$(3 7gni$ion wen$ o
- +rial ,u#ge oun# $ha$ moun$ing o wheel on oi&er:s oo$ was a&&i#en$al )or a$ leas$ ha#
reasonable #oub$ as $o whe$her i$ was #elibera$e*( +hey oun# $ha$ ailure $o ge$ o oo$ was
#elibera$e(
&ssue#
@o a&&use#:s a&$ions amoun$ $o an assaul$>
Page FF o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
?eld#
Yes( A''eal #ismisse#(
(atio#
- An assaul$ reHuires $he 'erorman&e o an in$en$ional a&$(
- Here. moun$ing wheel on oi&er:s oo$ &oul# no$ be assaul$ be&ause i$ was a&&i#en$al an#
$hus $he mens rea )in$en$* was no$ 'resen$( 5ei$her &oul# $he reusal $o #ismoun$ $he oi&er:s
oo$ be an assaul$ be&ause a mere omission $o a&$ &anno$ amoun$ $o assaul$(
- An assaul$ reHuires bo$h $he elemen$s o actus reus an# mens rea( Mens rea nee# no$ be
'resen$ a$ $he in&e'$ion o $he actus reus8 i$ &an be su'erim'ose# u'on an e9is$ing a&$(
- +he omission o $he a&&use# $o ge$ o $he oi&er:s oo$ orms 'ar$ o a &on$inuous a&$ $ha$
began when $he a&&use# moun$e# $he wheel on$o his oo$( +he mens rea )in$en$* was no$
'resen$ a$ $he s$ar$ o $he a&$ bu$ was su'erim'ose# u'on i$ when he hel# $he wheel on $he
oo$ an# reuse# $o remo-e i$(
- +his is $o be #is$inguishe# rom a &ase in whi&h $he a&$ an# $he omission are #is$in&$ )e(g( hi$
someone unin$en$ionally wi$h &ar8 in$en$ionally ail $o res&ue $hem*(
<.issent>#
- 5o mere omission $o a&$ &an amoun$ $o an assaul$(
- Co$h $he elemen$s o a&$us reus an# mens rea mus$ be 'resen$ a$ $he same $ime. bu$ one may
be su'erim'ose# on $he o$her(
- A''li&a$ion o $hese 'rin&i'les $o $his &ase sugges$s $ha$ a&&use# merely omi$$e# $o $a1e $he
wheel o $he oo$( +his &anno$ be an assaul$(
(ule#
A<R an# M<R mus$ e9is$ a$ $he same $ime )'rin&i'le o &on&urren&y* CU+ M<R #oes no$ ha-e $o
be 'resen$ a$ $he s$ar$ o $he a&$ 0 i$ &an be su'erim'ose# )&on$inuous a&$ $heory*( =ha$ loo1s
li1e an omission &an gi-e rise $o &riminal liabili$y i &an be &hara&$eri;e# as 'ar$ o a &on$inuous
a&$(
-ommentary#
- Problem only arises b<& $rial ,u#ge oun# as a&$ $ha$ moun$ing oo$ was a&&i#en$al an# no$
#elibera$e( Ha# i$ been an in$en$ional a''li&a$ion o or&e. i$ woul# ha-e been ASSAUL+(
- 7 a&$ was &om'le$e#. subseHuen$ arising M<R woul# no$ ma1e $his an assaul$ )e9am'le o
guy hi$$ing someone unin$en$ionally an# $hen in$en$ionally ailing $o res&ue him*( Seems $ha$
$o use &on$inuous a&$ $heory. nee# $o in# some 'hysi&al &on$inui$y in $he a&$(
- =oul# Miller rule a''ly here> 5o$ li1ely b<& hol#ing in Miller is limi$e# $o #amage $o
PR6PBR+Y\
-A+5# (. ". 9iller
R. v. Miller , <6:G8> ?ouse of 'ords, pae B@B A accidental fire and failure to &ut it one "hen
#ecome a"are
,acts#
- A&&use# a&&i#en$ally se$ ire when he ell aslee' while smo1ing a &igare$$e(
- He wo1e u' $o in# $he ma$$ress on ire( He go$ u' an# wen$ in$o $he ne9$ room an# wen$
ba&1 $o slee'( He &laims $ha$ he 2ha#n:$ go$ any$hing $o 'u$ $he ire ou$ so he ,us$ le$ i$3(
Page FL o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- He was &harge# wi$h arson &on$rary $o $he Criminal @amage A&$(
- He was oun# guil$y a$ $rial an# $he C o A(
&ssue#
7s $he actus reus o $he oen&e o arson 'resen$ when one a&&i#en$ally s$ar$s a ire an# $hen ails
$o $a1e s$e's $o e9$inguish i$ or 're-en$ 'ro'er$y #amage>
?eld#
Yes( A''eal #ismisse#(
(atio#
- Au#ge #oesn:$ li1e $he $erm actus reus be&ause i$ sugge$s $ha$ a 'osi$i-e a&$ is nee#e# $o ma1e
a 'erson guil$y o a &rime an# $ha$ a ailure or omission is insui&ien$( He 'reers $he
e9'ression 2&on#u&$ o $he a&&use#3(
- +rial &our$ 2@u$y +heory3% when a&&use# be&ame aware o $he ire $ha$ he s$ar$e# by his
own a&$. he be&ame un#er a #u$y $o $a1e some a&$ion $o 'u$ i$ ou$(
- C o A 2Con$inuous A&$ +heory3% A&&use#:s whole &ourse o &on#u&$. rom momen$ o
#ro''ing &igare$$e un$il $ime when #amage by ire was &om'le$e. was a C65+75U6US AC+
o $he a&&use#( +his a&$ is sui&ien$ $o &ons$i$u$e arson i a$ any s$age in $ha$ &on#u&$. $he
s$a$e o min# o $he a&&use#. when he ails $o 're-en$ or minimise $he #amage whi&h will
resul$ rom his ini$ial a&$. al$hough i$ lies wi$hin his 'ower $o #o so. is $ha$ o being re&1less
whe$her 'ro'er$y belonging $o ano$her woul# be #amage#(
- H o L a-ours $he #u$y $heory )bu$ 'reer 2res'onsibili$y $heory3* b<& i$ is easy $o e9'lain $o
a ,ury(
- =here a&&use# a&&i#en$ally #oes a&$ $ha$ se$s in $rain e-en$s whi&h. by $he $ime $he a&&use#
be&omes aware. woul# ma1e i$ ob-ious $ha$ 'ro'er$y belong $o ano$her woul# be #amage#.
he is guil$y o arson 7F. when he #oes be&ome aware $ha$ $he e-en$s are a resul$ o his a&$. he
#oesn:$ $ry $o 're-en$ or re#u&e ris1 or #amage be&ause ei$her he has no$ gi-en $hough$ $o $he
'ossibili$y o su&h ris1 6R ha-ing re&ogni;e# $he ris1. he #e&i#e# no$ $o 're-en$ i$(
(ule#
=hen a&&use# a&&i#en$ally se$s in $rain e-en$s whi&h. when a&&use# be&omes aware o $hem.
will ob-iously &ause property damae. he has a #u$y $o $ry $o 're-en$ or re#u&e ris1 or #amage(
)e-en i he 'ersonally has no$ gi-en $hough$ $o $he 'ossibili$y o su&h a ris1*( /5lements# mus$
be ob-ious $ha$ $here is ris1 o #amage $o 'ro'er$y. he mus$ 1now $ha$ $he e-en$s are resul$ o his
a&$. he mus$ ei$her ha-e re&ogni;e# $he ris1 an# aile# $o 're-en$ i$ 6R ha-e no$ gi-en $hough$ $o
$he 'ossibili$y o $he ris1. he mus$ $ry $o 're-en$ or re#u&e ris1 or #amage4
-ommentary#
- 2agan &rea$e# a s$ir 0 shoul# i$ ha-e been sol-e# using #u$y $heory )as $his &ase was* or
&on$inuous a&$ $heory> H o L go$ in$o $he s$ir in Miller 0 &hose #u$y $heory b<& easier $o
e9'lain $o $he ,ury(
- )ote the limitations on the holdin# )1* #onX$ ha-e $o elimina$e $he ris1 0 bu$ mus$ #o
some$hing )e(g( &all $he ire #e'X$*8 )2* limi$e# $o PR6PBR+Y @AMA"B. #oesnX$ in&lu#e
PBRS65AL 75AURY )$hus &oul# no$ a''ly $o hy'o$he$i&al a$ en# o Fagan*
- &s Miller ood law in -anada? =eXre no$ sure( Bnglan# #oesnX$ ha-e a &o#e so &our$s &an
&rea$e &ommon law &rimes( 7n Cana#a. i$ is no$ as &lear $ha$ $he &our$s are em'owere# $o
&rea$e a legal #u$y8 su&h &rea$ion may be $an$amoun$ $o &rea$ing a &riminal oen&e 0 S( !)a*
'rohibi$s $his )see !hornton or ur$her #is&ussion*
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Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- (ec4lessness# &our$ 'ro-i#es #eXn o re&1lessness The #oesnX$ $a1e s$e's $o 're-en$ $he
ris1 b<& ei$her he has no$ gi-en $hough$ $o $he 'ossibili$y o su&h ris1 6R ha-ing re&ogni;e#
$he ris1. he #e&i#e# no$ $o 're-en$ i$T 0 $his is $he #eXn in Bnglan#( 7n Cana#a. only $he 'ar$
a$er $he T6RT is legi$ 0 $he a&&use# mus$ himsel )sub,e&$i-ely* ha-e re&ogni;e# $he ris1(
-A+5# 9oore ". (.
Moore v. R." <6:@:> +.-.-., pae B@M
,acts#
- A&&use# wen$ $hrough a re# ligh$ on his bi1e(
- Cons$able Su$herlan# se$ abou$ $o 2$i&1e$3 Moore an# &hase# him on his mo$or&y&le
reHues$ing him $o 2'ull o-er an# s$o'3( Moore la$ly reuse# $o s$o'(
- Moore was &harge# wi$h obs$ru&$ing a 'ea&e oi&er in $he 'erorman&e o his #u$y on $he
basis $ha$ he aile# $o gi-e his name when reHues$e# $o #o so by $he &ons$able(
- S( LK o $he Mo$or Jehi&le A&$ 'ro-i#es $ha$ 'ersons in a mo$or -ehi&le will be guil$y o an
oen&e i $hey ail $o s$o' or &orre&$ly s$a$e $heir name an# a##ress when reHues$e# by a
'ea&e oi&er( +he #e:n o 2mo$or -ehi&le3 in&lu#es only 2sel0'ro'elle#3 -ehi&les(
- A&&use# was a&Hui$$e# a$ $rial bu$ &on-i&$e# by $he Cour$ o A''eal(
&ssue#
@oes a&&use# ha-e #u$y $o gi-e name $o &ons$able when reHues$e#>
?eld#
Yes( A''eal #ismisse#( Con-i&$ion u'hel#(
(atio#
- Res'on#en$ was no$ in brea&h o S( LK o $he Mo$or Jehi&le A&$(
- +he &ons$able on #u$y obser-e# $he a''ellan$ in $he a&$ o &ommi$$ing an inra&$ion o $he
s$a$u$e an# $ha$ &ons$able ha# no 'ower $o arres$ $he a&&use# or su&h oen&e unless an# un$il
he ha# a$$em'$e# $o i#en$iy $he a&&use# so $ha$ he migh$ be $he sub,e&$ o summary
&on-i&$ion 'ro&ee#ings(
- +he oi&er was un#er a #u$y $o a$$em'$ $o i#en$iy $he wrong#oer an# $he ailure $o i#en$iy
himsel by $he wrong#oer #i# &ons$i$u$e an obs$ru&$ion o $he 'oli&e oi&er in $he
'erorman&e o his #u$ies( /re&i'ro&al #u$y>>4 /sh% no$e 'age 2PP ? limi$s $he hol#ing $o
res'on#ing $o Os abou$ your i#en$i$y4
<.issent>#
- Cour$ is being bas1e# $o im'ose a #u$y u'on a 'erson $o i#en$iy himsel $o 'oli&e in $he
absen&e o e9'li&i$ s$a$u$ory 'ro-isions $ha$ im'ose su&h a #u$y(
- A #u$y $o i#en$iy onesel mus$ be oun# in ei$her &ommon law or s$a$u$e. Hui$e a'ar$ rom
$he #u$ies o 'oli&e( 6mission $o a&$ in a 'ar$i&ular way will gi-e rise $o &riminal liabili$y
only where a #u$y $o a&$ arises a$ &ommon law or is im'ose# by s$a$u$e(
- +here is no s$a$u$ory #u$y on a &y&lis$ &augh$ ri#ing $hrough a re# ligh$ $o i#en$iy himsel )s(
LK e9&lu#es &y&lis$s*
- +here is no #u$y a$ &ommon law $o i#en$iy onesel $o 'oli&e( )no$e $ha$ $here is a #ieren&e
b$wn #elibera$ely $elling a alse s$ory an# reusing $o answer*
- Re&i'ro&al @u$y>%
Page FP o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- Has been &on$en#e# $ha$ $here was #u$y on 'oli&e oi&er $o enHuire an# $hus re&i'ro&al #u$y
u'on allege# &ul'ri$ $o res'on#(
- A limi$e# obliga$ion $o res'on# )i(e( only when oi&er is an eyewi$ness* is a Hualii&a$ion $ha$
is unsoun# in 'rin&i'le an# unwor1able in 'ra&$i&e( Ba&h #u$y is en$irely in#e'en#en$(
- +he legisla$ure mus$ be $a1en $o ha-e in$en#e# $o relie-e bi&y&le ri#ers o $he #u$y $o s$a$e
$heir names( +o reHuire $he ri#ers $o #o so woul# be $an$amoun$ $o amen#ing $he Mo$or
Jehi&le A&$(
- +he &riminal law is no 'la&e w<in whi&h $o in$ro#u&e im'lie# #u$ies. un1nown $o s$a$u$e an#
&ommon law. brea&h o whi&h sub,e&$s a 'erson $o arres$ an# im'risonmen$(
- )5o$e "lan-ille ar$i&le i ailure $o gi-e name an# a##ress was an obs$ru&$ionDall s$a$u$es
ma1ing i$ an oen&e $o reuse $o gi-e name an# a##ress in s'e&ii& si$ua$ions woul# ha-e
been unne&essary*(
(ule#
+here is a #u$y $o answer a 'oli&e oi&erXs Hues$ions as $o your i#en$i$y( +his #u$y $o answer
Hues$ions #oes no$ e9$en# $o Hues$ions whi&h may be in&rimina$ing( /Jiola$ion o $his #u$y G
&on-i&$ion un#er S( 12! Criminal Co#e4
- /5o$e $ha$ $his rule was la$er &ir&ums&ribe# $o 1ee' i$ on#er &on$rol% 3uthrie 0 $his #u$y only
e9is$s where $he oi&er ha# e-i#en&e $ha$ $he 'erson &ommi$$e# an oen&e( Laven 0 ailure
$o han# o-er ra#ar gun #oesnX$ -iola$e #u$y b<& woul# be in&rimina$ing<a#mission o aul$4(
-ommentary#
- SBB SBC+765 12! 6F +HB CRM75AL C6@B F6R +HB CR7MB(
- So'in1aXs #e&ision is no$ base# on any 'rin&i'les8 i$ is merely base# on 'oli&y 0 $his #e&ision
is base# on his eeling $ha$ $he #u$y &ons$i$u$es a minimal in-asion on $he righ$s o $he &i$i;en
while reusal $o answer &ons$i$u$es a ma,or obs$ru&$ion $o 'oli&e( @e&ision is su''or$e# by
$he 'ubli& in$eres$
- %wo major problems with the majorityPs holdin# )1* 7s $here any$hing in S( 12! $ha$
sugges$s a 'erson &oul# be &on-i&$e# base# on a ailure $o ulill a legal #u$y>8 )2* So'in1a
'ulls $his T#u$yT ou$ o $hin air8 i$ may be base# on $he no$ion o a Tre&i'ro&al #u$yT CU+
@i9on s$a$es &learly $ha$ $here mus$ be ei$her a s$a$u$ory #u$y or a &ommon law #u$y(
- Rice v. Connell%. a lea#ing &ase in Cri$ain. hel# $ha$ a 'erson has a righ$ $o remain silen$
when Os are 'u$ $o him by a 'oli&e oi&er( So'in1a #is$inguishes Rice on $he basis $ha$ $he
'ea&e oi&er in $ha$ &ase #i# no$ see $he 'erson in $he a&$ o &ommi$$ing $he oen&e( /+his
is 're$$y &ra;y( @i9on says Ri&e -( Connelly ar$i&ula$es a un#amen$al &ommon law
'rin&i'le4(
-A+5# (. ". %hornton
R v. Thornton , <6::6> Ont. -.A., pae BGB
,acts#
- A&&use# #ona$e# bloo# $o $he Re# Cross when he N5B= he was ine&$e# wi$h H7J(
- +he Re# Cross s&reening #e$e&$e# $he bloo# an# he was &harge# wi$h &ommi$$ing a &ommon
nuisan&e &on$rary $o s( 1K0 o $he Criminal Co#e
- S( 1K0 'ro-i#es &ommon nuisan&e &ommi$$e# when one #oes an unlawul a&$ or ails $o
#is&harge a legal #u$y an# $hereby en#angers $he li-es . sae$y. or heal$h o $he 'ubli&(
Page FK o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- /+rial ,u#ge &on-i&$e# on basis o #u$y in s( 21M by #ona$ing bloo#. $he a&&use# was
in-ol-e# in a me#i&al 'ro&e#ure4
&ssue#
Can a legal #u$y wi$hin $he meaning o S( 1K0)2* be one whi&h arises a$ &ommon law. or mus$ i$
be one oun# in a s$a$u$e>
?eld#
Yes( A''eal #ismisse#(
(atio#
- Unlawul a&$ G &on#u&$ s'e&ii&ally 'ros&ribe# by legisla$ion )&riminal &o#e or o$her s$a$u$e*(
+here is no unlawul a&$ whi&h &oul# be $he basis or $he &ommon nuisan&e )Co#e #oesnX$
ma1e i$ an oen&e $o #ona$e &on$amina$e# bloo#*( +hus. mus$ in# LB"AL @U+Y(
- T@u$y im'ose# by lawT in S( 21! )&riminal negligen&e* has been in$er're$e# as ei$her a #u$y
im'ose# by s$a$u$e or a #u$y arising a$ &ommon law( /&our$ &i$es Coyne an# Po'en in su''or$
o $his &on&lusion 0 bu$ $hese &ases &rea$e JBRY SPBC7F7C @U+7BS 0 no$hing as swee'ing
as wha$ he 'ro'oses la$er\4
- TLegal #u$yT has $he same meaning as T#u$y im'ose# by lawT( +hus. $he #u$y reerre# $o in
s( 1K0)2* is a #u$y whi&h is im'ose# by s$a$u$e or whi&h arises a$ &ommon law(
7s $here a #u$y a$ NL whi&h woul# 'rohibi$ #ona$ion o bloo# 1nown $o be H7J &on$amina$e#>
- +here is $he un#amen$al #u$y ar$i&ula$e# in @onoghue -( S$e-enson 0 neighbour 'rin&i'le(
- +he &ommon law #u$y $o rerain rom &on#u&$ whi&h i$ is reasonably oreseeable &oul# &ause
serious harm $o o$her 'ersons is a Tlegal #u$yT wi$hin $he meaning o $ha$ $erm in s( 1K0)2*
/SH% no$e Tserious harmT an# limi$s $o $he wor#s Tlegal #u$yT4(
- @ona$ing bloo# whi&h one 1nows $o be H7J0&on$amina$e# $o an organi;a$ion whose 'ur'ose
is $o gi-e bloo# $o o$hers. &learly &ons$i$u$es a brea&h o $his &ommon law #u$y(
- +he a''ellan$ ha# 'ersonal 1nowle#ge $ha$ he shoul# no$ #ona$e his bloo#. $ha$ i$ was
'ossible or i$ $o ge$ $hrough $he s&reening. an# $ha$ i$ &oul# &ause serious #amage $o $he lie
an# heal$h o members o $he 'ubli&( He CLBARLY HA@ MB5S RBA(
(ule#
+he &ommon law #u$y $o rerain rom &on#u&$ whi&h i$ is reasonably oreseeable &oul# &ause
serious harm $o o$her 'ersons is a Tlegal #u$yT w<in $he meaning o $ha$ $erm in S( 1K0)2*( /an#
elsewhere in $he &o#e>4
5o$e $ha$ $he &ase wen$ $o S(C(C( an# i$ #e&i#e# $ha$ $he a''ellan$ brea&he# $he #u$y im'ose# by
Se&$ion 21M /S1lar 0 mus$ ha-e base# i$ on $he wor#s Tany o$her lawul a&$DT4( +he &our$
unor$una$ely @7@ 56+ a##ress $he issue o whe$her a &riminal omission &an be base# on a
&ommon0law #u$y )in a''aren$ -iola$ion o s( !)a* o $he Co#e*(
-ommentary on %hornton#
- S( 1K0 Criminal &o#e 0 C6MM65 5U7SA5CB Blemen$s $o 1ee' in min#
- 1K0)1* has $wo al$erna$i-e reHuiremen$s 0 endaner life, injure 0 in $his &ase. no one ha# $o
be ine&$e# wi$h H7J in or#er or him $o be &harge#( Bn#anger lie G a$ $he $ime o $he
&on#u&$ in O. was $here an en#angermen$>
- Mus$ en#anger $he lie o $he PUCL7C 0 &anno$ be ,us$ one 'erson )or e-en $hree*
- What if someone was infected with ?&1 and died? Common nuisan&e woul# be unlawul
a&$ an# +horn$on &oul# be &on-i&$e# o mur#er(
Page F! o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- %he line between acts and omissions# &on#u&$ in +horn$on &oul# be &hara&$eri;e# as a&$
)#ona$ion o &on$amina$e# bloo#* or omission )ailure $o inorm Re# Cross $ha$ he has H7J*(
CU+Dmu&h easier $o &on-i&$ i &hara&$eri;e as omission b<& an a&$ is only unlawul i a
s$a$u$e says so 0 no s$a$u$e 'rohibi$s $he #ona$ion o &on$amina$e# bloo#(
-?A(A-%5(&Q5 A+ O99&++&O) R ,'5N&J&'&%C J!- -A) 0$'' .$%&5+ ,(O9
-O99O) 'AW.
=ha$ is 'roblema$i& abou$ $his &ase>
- -reation of broad duty R uncertainty( Cour$ ,us$iies &rea$ing &ommon law #u$y using
Co%ne an# Po&&im 0 bu$ $he NL #u$ies s'elle# ou$ in $hose &ases were JBRY SPBC7F7C\
)embra&e -ery s'e&ii& $y'es o &on#u&$*( +he #u$y ar$i&ula$e# by $he C(A( in !hornton is
JBRY CR6A@ 0 almos$ im'ossible $o #e$ermine wha$ &on#u&$ i$ migh$ embra&e 0
PR6CLBM 6F U5CBR+A75+Y(
- $sin tort principles to sol"e criminal case. +he #u$y ar$i&ula$e# has a sour&e )unli1e in
Moore* CU+ $he sour&e is $or$( +or$ law is abou$ &om'ensa$ing or harm( Criminal law
sen#s 'eo'le $o ,ail( Seems 'roblema$i& $o use &om'ensa$ory 'rin&i'les when liber$y is a$
s$a1e(
- Was +. :(a) "iolated by the reasonin of the court?
- C5+# ar$i&ula$e# #u$y is so broa# as $o ma1e a bun&h o new oen&es(
- )O# =hen S( 1K0 was ena&$e#. i$ was ena&$e# agains$ $he ba&1groun# o $he &ommon law
)whi&h in&lu#e# @ -( S*( +he &our$ is ,us$ using $he &ommon law $o Tillumina$eT )as in
-o#idon*. $o Tgi-e meaningT $o Tlegal #u$yT in S( 1K0( )Re&all $he #eba$e b$wn "on$hier an#
So'in1a in -o#idon*
- +D'A(# 7$Xs really bor#erline( 5o$ &lear whe$her &our$ is illumina$ing or ma1ing new
&rimes(
+hree Cour$s. +hree A''roa&hes 0 =hi&h is 'reerable> =hi&h bes$ &arries ou$ $he 'oli&y un#er
S( 1K0>
- +rial 0 #u$y un#er S( 21M 0 a&&use# was in-ol-e# in me#i&al 'ro&e#ure
- C(A( 0 #u$y arises rom NL )@ -( S*
- S(C(C( 0 #u$y un#er S( 21M 0 'erha's $he wor#s Tany o$her lawul a&$T 7s $his ,us$ as broa#
as $he C(A( hol#ing>
+he C(A( #e&ision in !hornton is no$ "66@ LA= bu$ i$ is #eini$ely AJA7LACLB LA= b<& i$
has ne-er been #isa''ro-e# or o-er$urne#(
-A+5# ( ". Jrowne
R. v. ,rowne , <6::@> Ont. -.A., pae BG7 2 de-0n o- undertakin' in S. 2!$
,acts#
- A&&use# an# #e&ease# were #rug #ealers( @e&ease# swallowe# some &ra&1 &o&aine $o a-oi#
#e$e&$ion by 'oli&e(
- She $rie# $o -omi$ i$ u' an# &oul#nX$(
- La$er $ha$ nigh$. a&&use# oun# her sha1ing an# swea$ing( He sai# T7Xm going $o $a1e you $o
$he hos'i$alT(
Page L0 o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- He &alle# a &ab whi&h $oo1 $en minu$es $o arri-e an# 1L minu$es $o ge$ $o $he hos'i$al( She
was #ea# on arri-al(
- A&&use# was &harge# wi$h -iola$ing s( 21! )&ausing #ea$h by &riminal negligen&e* whi&h &an
be base# on a T#u$y im'ose# by lawT
&ssue#
@i# a&&use# brea&h a T#u$y im'ose# by lawT>
?eld#
Yes(
(atio#
- +rial ,u#ge &on&lu#e# $ha$ $he s$a$emen$ T7Xm going $o $a1e you $o $he hos'i$alT was an
Tun#er$a1ingT wi$hin $he meaning o s( 21P o $he Criminal Co#e( +ha$ un#er$a1ing reHuire#
$a1ing her $o $he hos'i$al imme#ia$ely( Using a $a9i ins$ea# o &alling !11 showe# a Twan$on
an# re&1less #isregar#T or her lie )&on$rary $o s( 21!*(
- S( 21P reHuires $ha$ $here be an Tun#er$a1ingT in or#er $o in# a legal #u$y( +he na$ure o $he
rela$ionshi' or &on$e9$ is no$ rele-an$ $o #e$ermine whe$her $here was an un#er$a1ing(
- =ha$ &ons$i$u$es an un#er$a1ing> @eXn o un#er$a1ing ranges &on$inuum rom asser$ion $o
'romise( CU+D#eXn o un#er$a1ing mus$ be in$er're$e# in $he &on$e9$ o $he 'unishmen$
)in $his &ase. &on-i&$ion or &riminal negligen&e &ausing #ea$h &arries ma9 'enal$y o lie in
,ail*( /SH% #oes $his limi$ her #eXn $o &rimes w< serious 'enal$ies>4
- Mere e9'ression o wor#s in#i&a$ing a willingness $o #o an a&$ #oesnX$ $rigger $he #u$y(
+here mus$ be some$hing in $he na$ure o a &ommi$men$. generally $hough no$ ne&essarily
u'on whi&h relian&e &an reasonably be sai# $o ha-e been 'la&e#( +he un#er$a1ing mus$ ha-e
been &learly ma#e an# wi$h bin#ing in$en$( 5o$hing shor$ o a bin#ing &ommi$men$ &an gi-e
rise $o $he legal #u$y in s( 21P(
- 7n $his &ase. $here was no$ un#er$a1ing o a bin#ing na$ure(
- /Se&on# issue &ausa$ion )mus$ be &riminal negligen&e CAUS75" #ea$h*% e-en i his
wor#s were in$er're$e# as an un#er$a1ing an# $hus $ha$ he ha# a res'onsibili$y $o &all !11
no e-i#en&e $ha$ a !11 &all woul# ha-e resul$e# in earlier arri-al a$ hos'i$al 6R $ha$ earlier
arri-al woul# ha-e sa-e# her lie4 0 no$e $his is a&$ual &ausa$ion issue(
(ule#
@eXn o Tun#er$a1ingT in S( 21P )as i$ a''lies $o &riminal negligen&e &ausing #ea$h*% Mere
e9'ression o wor#s in#i&a$ing a willingness $o #o an a&$ #oesnX$ $rigger $he #u$y( +here mus$ be
some$hing in $he na$ure o a &ommi$men$. generally $hough no$ ne&essarily. u'on whi&h relian&e
&an reasonably be sai# $o ha-e been 'la&e#( +he un#er$a1ing mus$ ha-e been &learly ma#e an#
wi$h bin#ing in$en$( 5o$hing shor$ o a bin#ing &ommi$men$ &an gi-e rise $o $he legal #u$y in s(
21P(
-ommentary#
- &s judePs defPn of Sunderta4inS limited to manslauhter? Au#ge in $his &ase ,us$iies a
s$ri&$ in$er' o Tun#er$a1ingT base# on gra-i$y o 'unishmen$( )'ossibili$y o lie
im'risonmen$*( S6D7s ,u#geXs #eXn o Tun#er$a1ingT limi$e# $o manslaugh$er> A &our$
migh$ #eine Tun#er$a1ingT less s$ri&$ly in $he &on$e9$ o ano$her less serious oen&e(
-A+5# 0eople ". Jeardsley
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Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
Peo%le ". ,eardslery <6:=@>, 9ichian -ourt, p. BM; ? man "ith mor&hine mistress
,acts#
- Cear#sley in-i$e# a woman ba&1 $o his 'la&e where he s'en$ a lo$ o $ime #rin1ing wi$h her(
- +he woman $oo1 some mor'hine( She basi&ally o-er#ose# an# Cear#sley was $oo #run1 $o $a1e
sui&ien$ &are o her. so as1e# one o $he guys $here $o #o so(
- She en#e# u' #ying(
&ssue#
@i# Cear#sley brea&h a legal #u$y $o $a1e &are o her> Shoul# he be &harge# wi$h manslaugh$er>
?eld#
S(C(% yes. &harge# wi$h manslaugh$er(
C(A(% #e&ision is o-er$urne# ? no legal #u$y(
(atio#
2(elational proEimity# &psen -ase refered to.
- 5o$es $ha$ $he #u$y negle&$e# mus$ be a le'al duty no$ a moral duty( +he #u$y mus$ be im'ose#
by law or &on$ra&$. an# $he omission $o 'erorm $he #u$y mus$ be $he imme#ia$e an# #ire&$
&ause o $he #ea$h(
- 7 a 'ersonal has a le'al relation o 'ro$e&$or an# ails $o $a1e $he reasonable an# 'ro'er eor$s
$o res&ue him he is a$ leas$ guil$y o manslaugh$er(
- 5o legal #u$y e9is$e#. ,us$ be&ause she was in $he house. in a##i$ion. $here seeme# $o be no
im'li&a$ion o &are or &on$rol o-er her(
- /analogy% 2 men un#er li1e &ir&ums$an&es. one &ommi$$e# sui&i#e. woul# $he o$her male be
res'onsible> +he a&$ $ha$ she is a woman shoul# no$ &hange any$hing4(
0O&)%# %here must be a leal duty that eEists for you to be uilty for this type of omission.
&n addition, note that a moral duty is not necessarily a leal one.
F. ?uhes, -riminal Omissions
Says $ha$ $his ,u#gmen$ ignores any im'ulse o &hari$y an# &om'assion( 27n &i-ili;e# so&ie$y a
man who in#s himsel wi$h a hel'lessly ill 'erson who has no o$her sour&e o ai# shoul# be
un#er a #u$y $o summon hel'. whe$her $he 'erson is his wie. his mis$ress. a 'ros$i$u$e or a Chie
Aus$i&e(3
?ow would Jeardsley be decided under current -anadian 'aw?
- Maybe un#er s. B6@ e-eryone who un#er$a1es $o #o an a&$ is un#er a legal #u$y $o #o i$ i an
omission $o #o $he a&$ is or may be #angerous $o lie(
- Maybe un#er S( 2LL)1*)&*)i* 0 'erson un#er his &harge
- Maybe base# on &i-il law #u$y 0 #u$y $o $a1e &are o gues$s who you in-i$e in$o your house(
C - Causation
Page L2 o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
&ntroductory )ote
- For some bu$ no$ all oen&es ? $he actus reus reHuires $he &ausing o &er$ain &onseHuen&es )a T'rohibi$e#
resul$T* 0 CUR@B5 65 CR6=5 +6 PR6JB CAUSB CR@(
- +hese in&lu#e all homi&i#es (s. BBB), wilul #amage $o 'ro'er$y (s. M8=), arson (s. M88), an# &ausing bo#ily
harm (s. BB6) or #ea$h (s. BB=) by &riminal negligen&e(
- Co#e &on$ains no general 'rin&i'les &on&erning &ausa$ion. bu$ only a number o s'e&ial rules &on&erning
homi&i#e ? see ss( 222 an# 22F022K(
- +HBRB 7S A CAUSA+765 7SSUB =HB5BJBR A S+A+U+B RBOU7RBS +HA+ A5 BJB5+ CB -A$+5.
Pro9ima$e an# Remo$e Cause
- B-ery e-en$ has a SB+ o an$e&e#en$s( +he +RUB &ause is $he whole se$ o an$e&e#en$s $a1en $oge$her(
- CU+Dwhen a &ause is $o be in-es$iga$e# or any 'ra&$i&al 'ur'ose single ou$ $he an$e&e#en$ $ha$ is w<in $he
s&o'e o $ha$ 'ur'ose $his is $he CAUSB $he o$her an$e&e#en$s in $he se$ are C65@7+765S(
- =hi&h an$e&e#en$ we single ou$ #e'en#s on $he 'ur'ose ? e(g( man #rowns ? #o&$or migh$ say $ha$ &ause o
#ea$h was suo&a$ion8 &om'ara$i-e ana$omis$ migh$ say $ha$ &ause was la&1 o gills( From e-ery 'oin$ o -iew
rom whi&h we loo1 a$ $he a&$s. a new &ause a''ears(
- S1lar% $here &an be. or any e-en$. a whole bun&h o &on$ribu$ing &auses( +here are many a#,e&$i-es use# or
$he O o &ausa$ion )imme#ia$e. #ire&$. e$&(*( Mi&hael &ase is a goo# e9am'le o wha$ $his ar$i&le is $al1ing abou$
0 $here are a bun&h o &on$ribu$ing &auses )Mrs( S$e-ens lea-ing $he house8 el#er #augh$er wen$ away or a ew
minu$es8 small &hil# ga-e baby $he bo$$le o lau#anum* in $his &ase CU+ $he legal )or Tei&ien$T* &ase is $he
mo$her gi-ing $he 'oison $o $he babysi$$er( B-en $he #ruggis$ who su''lie# $he 'oison &oul# be a &on$ribu$ing
&ause( 7 we &hange $he 'erson who is being 'rose&u$e#. $he TlegalT or Tei&ien$T &ause may &hange( )B("(
Mrs( S$e-ens being $rie# or &riminal negligen&e*( TRemo$eT &ause is ano$her way $o label a T&on$ribu$ingT
&ause(
O"er"iew
-A$+A%&O) 0 reHuire a&$ual an# legal &ausa$ion )mithers*8 Crown mus$ 'ro-e bo$h CR@
)4ette>*
+tep 6# ,actual -ausation
- See #eXn in 4ette: inHuiry abou$ how $he -i&$im &ame $o his or her #ea$h in a me#i&al. me&hani&al or 'hysi&al
sense(
-
- CU+0F6R $he a&$ions o $he a&&use#. woul# $he 'rohibi$e# &onseHuen&e ha-e o&&urre#>
Yes<Reasonable @oub$ au$oma$i& a&Hui$$al( 56 )br#* Mo-e $o s$e' 2(
- +he Hues$ion is a ma$$er o BJ7@B5CB 0 e9'er$ me#i&al e-i#en&e an# eye0wi$ness e-i#en&e(
- Loo1 a$ $em'oral &onne&$ion )#i# 'rohibi$e# &onseHuen&e ollow righ$ a$er a&$ or was $here a
ga'>*. s&ien$ii& 'ossibili$y o lin1. o$her 'ossible )no$ merely &on$ribu$ing* &auses )mithers
0 #i# s$ress<ear lea# $o -omi$ing>* )Cuerrier 0 #i# #ea$h0&ausing H7J &ome rom o$her
sour&e su&h as #rugs or ano$her 'ar$ner>*
- ALS6. loo1 a$ statutory causation /e(g( 222)L*)&* or )#*4 0 may be an issue
+tep B# 'eal -ausation
- 7 $he &ause is a &on$ribu$ing &ause 0 is i$s &on$ribu$ion signii&an$ enough> )mithers,
Har#ottle, 4ette*
- B-en i $he &ause was sui&ien$ly &on$ribu$ory. was $here an in$er-ening &ause su&h as
negligen$ me#i&al $rea$men$ $ha$ migh$ brea1 $he &hain o &ausa$ion> )s( 22L. mith*
- =as $here an inno&en$ or guil$y agen$> )Michael*
- +hin S1ull Rule )/laue, mithers*
Page L3 o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- +HB U5@BRLY75" O% 7s i$ air $o hol# $his 'erson res'onsible or $he ou$&ome> )+his is
why legal &ausa$ion is an issue in $he irs$ 'la&e*( Cour$s #onX$ use $his language bu$ i$ is
behin# $al1 o reasonableness. oreseeabili$y. e9$en$ o &on$ribu$ion. e$&(
%he 'aw
-riminal -ode# (+tatutory -ausation (ules)
+. BBB(;). A 'erson &ommi$s &ul'able homi&i#e when he &auses $he #ea$h o a human being.
<c> by &ausing $ha$ human being. by $hrea$s or ear o -iolen&e or by #e&e'$ion. $o #o any$hing
$ha$ &auses his #ea$h
<d> by wilully righ$ening $ha$ human being. in $he &ase o a &hil# or si&1 'erson(
.5A%? %?A% 9&F?% ?A15 J55) 0(515)%5.
+. BBM. =here a 'erson. by an a&$ or omission. #oes any $hing $ha$ resul$s in $he #ea$h o a
human being. he &auses $he #ea$h o $ha$ human being no$wi$hs$an#ing $ha$ #ea$h rom $ha$ &ause
migh$ ha-e been 're-en$e# by resor$ing $o 'ro'er means(
.5A%? ,(O9 %(5A%95)% O, &)*$(C
+. BB;. =here a 'erson &auses $o a human being a bo#ily in,ury $ha$ is o i$sel o a #angerous
na$ure an# rom whi&h #ea$h resul$s. he &auses $he #ea$h o $ha$ human being no$wi$hs$an#ing
$ha$ $he imme#ia$e &ause o #ea$h is 'ro'er or im'ro'er $rea$men$ $ha$ is a''lie# in goo# ai$h(
A--5'5(A%&O) O, .5A%?
+. BB7. =here a 'erson &auses $o a human being a bo#ily in,ury $ha$ resul$s in #ea$h. he &auses
$he #ea$h o $ha$ human being no$wi$hs$an#ing $ha$ ee&$ o $he bo#ily in,ury is only $o a&elera$e
his #ea$h rom a #isease or #isor#er arising rom some o$her &ause(
C5A( A). A .AC ($'5
+. BB@ ((epealed). Year an# a #ay rule(
'eal -ausation 0rinciples
-A+5# ( ". 9ichael
R v. Michael , <6GM=> -J pae 8=G
,acts#
- Prisoner was single mo$her o a ! mon$h ol# baby(
- +he baby was $a1en &are o by a woman name# S$e-ens
- Prisoner ga-e S$e-ens a bo$$le o 'oison an# $ol# her $ha$ i$ was me#i&ine $o be gi-en $o $he baby )one
$eas'oonul e-ery nigh$*( Mrs( S$e-ens #i#n:$ gi-e i$ $o $he baby8 she le$ $he bo$$le on $he man$el0'ie&e(
- 6ne #ay. while Mrs( S$e-ens was ou$. her L0year ol# &hil# ga-e $he baby abou$ hal $he &on$en$s o $he bo$$le(
- +he baby #ie# w<in a ew hours(
&ssue#
=as $he 'risoner:s a&$ion $he &ause o $he baby:s #ea$h>
Page LF o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
?eld#
Yes( Mur#er &on-i&$ion u'hel#(
(atio#
- 7 $he 'risoner #eli-ere# $he 'oison $o Mrs( S$e-ens wi$h $he in$en$ion $ha$ i$ shoul# be a#minis$ere# $o $he &hil#
an# 1ill i$. an# $he Huan$i$y #ire&$e# $o be a#minis$ere# was sui&ien$ $o &ause #ea$h. an# while $he 'risoner:s
original in$en$ion &on$inue#. $he 'oison was a#minis$ere# by an un&ons&ious agen$. $he #ea$h o $he &hil# woul#
sus$ain $he &harge o mur#er agains$ $he 'risoner(
- A#minis$ering o $he 'oison by $he &hil# o Mrs( S$e-ens. was. un#er $he &ir&ums$an&es o $he &ase. as mu&h. in
'oin$ o law. an a#minis$ering by $he 'risoner as i $he 'risoner ha# a&$ually a#minis$ere# i$ wi$h her own han#(

(ule#
Chain o &ausa$ion is no$ bro1en by $he in$er-ening a&$ions o an inno&en$ agen$ e-en $hough $hese a&$ions migh$ be
$he imme#ia$e &ause o $he 'rohibi$e# resul$(
-ommentary#
- 5ditors I# =oul# i$ ha-e ma#e any #ieren&e i $he 'oison ha# been a#minis$ere# by a
&ons&ious agen$ who a&$e# or his own 'ur'oses>
- +D'A(# Probably( =here $he agen$ is guil$y. $he &ausa$ion issue migh$ be #e&i#e#
#ieren$ly )$hough $he original wrong#oer woul# s$ill be guil$y o some$hing 0 a$$em'$e#
mur#er 'erha's*( 7llus$ra$e# wi$h e9am'le o 'ar$y hos$ sli''ing arseni& in$o a 'ersonXs glass(
LB"AL CAUSA+765 ALL C6MBS @6=5 +6 A OUBS+765 6F
RBSP65S7C7L7+Y<FA7R5BSS )"lan-ille =illiams ma1es $his 'oin$*( As1% is i$ air $o hol#
$his 'erson res'onsible or wha$ has ha''ene#>
-A+5# +mithers ". (.
Smithers v. R , <6:@G> +.-.-., -J pae 86=
,acts#
- A&&use# an# #e&ease# were lea#ing 'layers on o''osing ri-al ho&1ey $eams
- +he a&&use# was sub,e&$e# $o ra&ial insul$s by $he #e&ease# an# o$her members o $he $eam(
- Co$h 'layers were e,e&$e# rom $he game( +he a&&use# re'ea$e#ly $hrea$ene# $he a&&use#(
- Following $he game. $he a&&use# 'un&he# $he #e&ease#( Se&on#s la$er. he #eli-ere# a har#. as$ 1i&1 $o $he
#e&ease#:s s$oma&h area( =i$hin i-e minu$es. $he #e&ease# ha# &ease# brea$hing( He was #ea# u'on arri-al a$
hos'i$al(
- +he #ea$h was #ue $o $he as'ira$ion o oreign ma$erials 'resen$ rom -omi$ing( @e&ease# ha# aul$y e'iglo$$is
whi&h aile# $o 're-en$ -omi$ rom ge$$ing in$o lungs(
- A''ellan$ is a''ealing on $wo groun#s% )1* $rial ,u#ge #i# no$ ma1e i$ &lear $o $he ,ury $ha$ $he a&$ o assaul$
mus$ &ause $he #ea$h8 )2* $he ,ury was ne-er ins$ru&$e# $ha$ as a ma$$er o law one o $he issues on whi&h $hey
ha# $o be sa$isie# beyon# a reasonable #oub$ was $ha$ $he 1i&1 &ause# $he -omi$ing(
&ssue#
@i# $he 1i&1 &ause -omi$ing whi&h &ause# $he #ea$h>
?eld#
Con-i&$ion u'hel#( A''eal #ismisse#(
(atio#
- Mus$ #is$inguish be$ween &ausa$ion as a O o a&$ an# &ausa$ion as a Hues$ion o law( +he answer $o $he a&$ual
O has no$hing $o #o wi$h in$en$ion. oresigh$ or ris1(
- +he issue o &ausa$ion is or $he ,ury an# no$ $he e9'er$s( 7n $he sear&h or $ru$h. $he ,ury was en$i$le# $o
&onsi#er all o $he e-i#en&e. e9'er$ an# lay )i(e( #o&$ors an# eye0wi$nesses* an# a&&e'$ or re,e&$ any 'ar$ o i$(
/+rier o a&$ @6BS 56+ ha-e $o &onsi#er $he me#i&al e-i#en&e\4
Was there e"idence on the basis of which the jury was entitled to find that it had been established J(. that
the 4ic4 caused the death? 2 issue o- de'ree1e2tent o- contri/utin' cause
Page LL o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- Crown nee# only es$ablish $ha$ $he 1i&1 was a$ leas$ a &on$ribu$ing &ause o #ea$h. ou$si#e $he de minimis range(
- 7$ is imma$erial $ha$ $he #ea$h was in 'ar$ &ause# by $he malun&$ioning e'iglo$$is $o whi&h malun&$ion $he
a''ellan$ may or may no$ ha-e &on$ribu$e#( 5o O o remo$eness or o in&orre&$ $rea$men$ arises in $his &ase(
)see &ommen$ 'age320*
- +he Crown was un#er no bur#en o 'ro-ing in$en$ion $o &ause #ea$h or in,ury ),us$ in$en$ion $o #eli-er $he 1i&1*(
- 7n $his &ase. $here was subs$an$ial e-i#en&e. bo$h lay an# e9'er$. $o show $ha$ 1i&1 was a &on$ribu$ing &ause o
#ea$h ou$si#e $he de minimis range
Was there e"idence from which the jury was entitled to find that it had been established J(. that the 4ic4
caused both the "omitin and the aspiration? 2 thin s+ull rule
- Crown #oes no$ ha-e bur#en o 'ro-ing $ha$ $he 1i&1 &ause# bo$h $he -omi$ing an# $he aggra-a$e# &on#i$ion o
as'ira$ion(
- So long as $here is a rela$ionshi' be$ween $he 1i&1 an# $he -omi$ing. $he &on$ribu$ing &on#i$ion o a
malun&$ioning e'iglo$$is woul# no$ 're-en$ $he manslaugh$er &on-i&$ion( +he a&$ $ha$ #ea$h may ha-e been
une9'e&$e# an# $he 'hysi&al rea&$ions o $he -i&$im #oes no$ relie-e $he a''ellan$(
- 7$ is a well0re&ogni;e# 'rin&i'le $ha$ one who assaul$s ano$her mus$ $a1e his -i&$im as he in#s him(
(ule#
Sui&ien$ &ausa$ion e9is$s )or manslaugh$er* where $he a&$ions o $he a&&use# were a &on$ribu$ing &ause o #ea$h.
ou$si#e $he de minimis range or )in o$her wor#s* Tmore $han a $ri-ial &auseT( Also. thin s4ull rule mus$ $a1e
-i&$im as he in#s him( CU+D&hain o &ausa$ion MAY be bro1en where $here is a Hues$ion o in&orre&$ $rea$men$ or
remo$eness( /no$e $ha$ $he $rial ,u#ge in 4ette sai# Tmore $han insignii&an$T G Tmore $han $ri-ialT4
-ommentary#
- La&1 o Causa$ion @6BS 56+ MBA5 $ha$ a&&use# will no$ be guil$y o S6MB+H75" 0 in $his &ase. e-en i no
&ausal lin1 b$wn 1i&1 an# #ea$h. Smi$hers woul# s$ill be guil$y o assaul$(
- Why did the defense emphasiTe the tauntin and fear and stress induced by that? on issue o a&$ual
&ausa$ion 2 'ossibili$ies% )1* wan$e# $o show $ha$ i$ was $he s$ress an# emo$ional s$a$e $ha$ &ause# $he
-omi$ing )no$ $he 1i&1 0 or a$ leas$ R@ whe$her i$ was $he 1i&1*8 )2* wan$e# $o $a1e a#-an$age o 222)L*)&*
/whi&h &oul# only be use# i $he -omi$ing &oul# be &hara&$eri;e# as some$hing $ha$ Cobby T#i#T4 0 i show
ei$her o $hese $hings. R@ $ha$ Smi$hers is $he guil$y 'ar$y( Cobby was $aun$e# an# ri#i&ule# by se-eral 'layers
A5@ ha# sel0in#u&e# s$ress an# rage(
- -ould +mithers ha"e been uilty of manslauhter based on +. B7;(b) 2 (attempt by act or esture to apply
force)? 56( S( 222)L*)#* 'ro-i#es $ha$ ear &ausing #ea$h is only G mur#er when $he -i&$im is a small &hil# or
si&1 'erson( 7n ligh$ o $his ambigui$y. use rule o s$ri&$ &ons$ru&$ion $hus no manslaugh$er &an be oun# on
basis o S( 2ML)b* 0 mithers sor$ o s$an#s or $his(
Remo$eness an# 7n&orre&$ +rea$men$
- 5ditors# $hough mithers is a wi#e0rea&hing ruling on &ausa$ion. i$ e9'ressly lea-es o'en Os o 2remo$eness or
o in&orre&$ $rea$men$3( =ha$ ha''ens when a&&use# was a &on$ribu$ing &ause ou$si#e $he de minimis range bu$
where $he &onseHuen&e seems more a$$ribu$able $o a la$er in$er-ening &ause>
- +4lar# #e&ision sugges$s $ha$ remo$eness or in&orre&$ $rea$men$ C6UL@ brea1 $he &hain o &ausa$ion on $he
a&$s o mithers )i(e( where $hin s1ull rule is a''lie#*(
- B9am'le% same a&$s as Smi$hers CU+ Cobby #i#nX$ #ie a$ s&ene8 $a1en $o hos'i$al an# a#minis$ere#
$rea$men$ or sho&1( Cobby #ie#( Me#i&al e-i#en&e showe# $ha$ ha# #o&$or #ire&$ly #iagnose# $he
'roblem. woul# ha-e been a sim'le $rea$men$ $o sa-e his lie(
- Coul# use $he Tno Hues$ion o in&orre&$ $rea$men$ or remo$enessT line $o a&Hui$ Smi$hers
- CU+Dwr$ 75C6RRBC+ +RBA+MB5+. #i# @i&1son ignore S( 22L> )&ausa$ion is no$ bro1en i imme#ia$e
&ause o #ea$h is 'ro'er or im'ro'er $rea$men$ a''lie# in goo# ai$h*
- Possible $ha$ )1* 1i&1 in $he s$oma&h is no$ To i$sel o a #angerous na$ureT8 or )2* in&orre&$ $rea$men$ migh$
brea1 $he &hain o &ausa$ion on $he e9a&$ a&$s o mithers( /$his is wea1D&learly woul# ha-e $o be a
harshness<airness<res'onsibili$y argumen$4
- /SH% 7 S( 22L is a &o#ii&a$ion o Smi$h as S1lar sugges$s $hen 'erha's S( 22L #oesnX$ a''ly where $hin
s1ull rule is a''lie#(4
7s $he $hin s1ull rule harsh>
Page LM o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- Criminal law is su''ose# $o be 're#i&$able an# &er$ain( +hin0s1ull rule lea#s $o mu&h un&er$ain$y 0 i$ seems
un,us$ $o &on-i&$ a guy o manslaugh$er when he 1i&1e# a guy in $he s$oma&h( +he a&$ $ha$ $he guy #ie#
#oesn:$ in&rease $he moral &ul'abili$y o $he a&&use# )a RB+R7CU+7JB AR"UMB5+*(
- Cu$D@B+BRRB5CB AR"UMB5+ 0 Re&all -o#idon 0 so&ial inu$ili$y o igh$ing( 7n or#er $o #e$er igh$ing.
ma1e 'eo'le aware $ha$ $here &oul# be -ery serious &onseHuen&es i $he o''onen$ has a T$hin s1ullT( Coun$er $o
$his% $he a&&use# woul# be &on-i&$e# o assaul$ anyway( @oesnX$ 'ossibili$y o assaul$ &on-i&$ion #e$er
igh$ing>
-A+5# (. ". Jlaue
R. v. ,laue , <6:@;> -.A. (Jritain), pae 86@
,acts#
- @$ is a''ealing a &on-i&$ion o manslaugh$er )w< #iminishe# res'onsibili$y*
- Ji&$im was 1K0year ol# Aeho-ah:s =i$ness( @$ a$$a&1e# -i&$im wi$h 1nie an# ran away( Ji&$im was $a1en $o
$he hos'i$al8 she nee#e# surgery an# a bloo# $ransusion an# was $ol# $ha$ i she #i# no$ ha-e $he $ransusion she
woul# #ie( She reuse# $he bloo# $ransusion an# #ie# $he ne9$ #ay(
- +he 'rose&u$ion a#mi$$e# a$ $rial $ha$ ha# she ha# a bloo# $ransusion when a#-ise# $o she woul# no$ ha-e #ie#(
)i(e( $ha$ reusal $o ha-e a $ransusion was a &ause o #ea$h*
- @$ argue# $ha$ reusal $o ha-e a $ransusion ha# bro1en $he &hain o &ausa$ion b$wn $he s$abbing an# her #ea$h(
He also argue# $ha$ ,u#ge ins$ru&$e# ,ury $ha$ &ausa$ion ha# been 'ro-e#. when he shoul# ha-e le$ $he issue
o'en or $he ,ury $o #e&i#e(
&ssue%
/14 7s $here a &asual lin1 b$wn $he s$abbing an# $he #ea$h>
/24 @i# $he ,u#ge mis0ins$ru&$ $he ,ury>
?eld#
/14 YBS( /24 56( A''eal #ismisse#(
(atio#
/14%
- Common law o $he 1K00s% He who inli&$e# an in,ury whi&h resul$e# in #ea$h &oul# no$ e9&use himsel by
'lea#ing $ha$ his -i&$im &oul# ha-e a-oi#e# #ea$h by $a1ing grea$er &are o himsel( A man who #i# a wrongul
a&$ was #eeme# morally res'onsible or $he na$ural an# 'robable &onseHuen&es o $ha$ a&$( +hough $he rigour o
$he law rela$ing $o homi&i#e has been ease# in a-our o $he a&&use#. $his has &ome abou$ $hrough $he #-l'$ o
$he &on&e'$ o in$en$. no$ by reason o a #ieren$ -iew o &ausa$ion(
- A &hain o &ausa$ion &anno$ be bro1en on $he basis $ha$ a &er$ain #e&ision )e(g( $he reusal $o ha-e a bloo#
$ransusion* was 2unreasonable3( 7$ is #ii&ul$ $o ma1e sense o $he no$ion o 2reasonableness3 in $he &on$e9$ o
religious belies(
- +hose who use -iolen&e on o$her 'eo'le mus$ $a1e $heir -i&$ims as $hey in# $hem( +his means $he whole man.
no$ ,us$ $he 'hysi&al man(
- 7n $his &ase. $he Hues$ion is wha$ &ause# her #ea$h( +he answer is $he s$ab woun#( +he a&$ $ha$ $he -i&$im
reuse# $o s$o' $his #ea$h rom &oming #i#n:$ brea1 $he &ausal &onne&$ion. e-en i some woul# regar# su&h a
reusal as 2unreasonable3
- 7n $or$ law. wrong#oer is en$i$le# $o e9'e&$ -i&$im $o mi$iga$e his #amages( Criminal law is &on&erne# wi$h
main$enan&e o law an# or#er an# $he 'ro$e&$ion o $he 'ubli&( A 'rin&i'le o $or$ious liabili$y may no$ be
a''ro'ria$e or $he &riminal law(
($'5#
+hin s1ull rule a''lies $o 'hysi&al A5@ non0'hysi&al &on#i$ions )e(g( religious belies*( +hose who use -iolen&e on
o$her 'eo'le mus$ $a1e $heir -i&$ims as $hey in# $hem( +his means $he whole man. no$ ,us$ $he 'hysi&al man(
-ommentary#
- 6b-ious a''li&a$ion o $he $hin0s1ull rule( 56 O o in&orre&$ $rea$men$ )same as in
mithers*(
- Would the same situation be decided this way in -anada? Possibly no$( 7n mithers.
@i&1son reers $o $he Claue as an Te9$reme e9am'leT o $he a''li&a$ion o $he $hin s1ull rule(
Page LP o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
6ne &oul# ma1e $he argumen$ $ha$ sin&e i$ is an Te9$reme e9am'leT. we shoul# no$ ollow i$(
TB9$remeT has nega$i-e &onno$a$ions(
-A+5# (. ". ?arbottle
R. v. .ar/ottle" <6::8> +.-.-., -J pae 8BM 2 test o- causation -or a''ravated o--ence o- murder one
,acts#
- A&&use# an# his &om'anion or&ibly &onine# a woman8 a&&use# wa$&he# while &om'anion se9ually abuse#
her(
- A&&use# an# &om'anion #is&usse# ways $o 1ill her( A&&use# hel# her legs while &om'anion s$rangle# her $o
#ea$h(
- Con-i&$e# o irs$0#egree mur#er a$ $rial( Con-i&$ion u'hel# a$ C(A(
&ssue#
=as a&&use#:s 'ar$i&i'a$ion su&h $ha$ he &oul# be oun# guil$y o 1
s$
#egree mur#er 'ursuan$ $o S( 231)L*> )a$ $ime
o &ase was S( 21F)L**(
?eld#
+rial% &on-i&$e#
C(A( &on-i&$ion u'hel#
S(C(C(% A''eal #ismisse#( Con-i&$ion u'hel#(
(atio#
- Firs$ #egree mur#er is an aggra-a$e# orm o mur#er an# no$ a #is$in&$ subs$an$i-e oen&e(
- "ra-i$y o &rime an# se-eri$y o sen$en&e in#i&a$e $ha$ a subs$an$ial an# high #egree o blamewor$hiness mus$
be es$ablishe# $o &on-i&$ someone o irs$0#egree mur#er(
- "i-en $he gra-i$y o &rime an# se-eri$y o sen$en&e. $he $es$ o &ausa$ion or irs$ #egree mur#er mus$ be s$ri&$
)&ausa$ion as $ool $o ensure subs$an$ial an# high #egree o blamewor$hiness* 2Subs$an$ial Causa$ion $es$3
- +ubstantial causation test for s. B86(;)# a&$ions o a&&use# mus$ orm an essen$ial. subs$an$ial an# in$egral
'ar$ o $he 1illing o $he -i&$im( +es$ reHuires $ha$ a&&use# 'lay a -ery a&$i-e role ? usually a 'hysi&al role ? in
$he 1illing( Usually. a&$ o a&&use# mus$ 'hysi&ally resul$ in #ea$h CU+ $here will be ins$an&es )su&h as $his
&ase* where a&&use# &oul# well be $he subs$an$ial &ause o $he #ea$h w<o 'hysi&ally &ausing i$(
+hereore. a&&use# may be oun# guil$y o irs$0#egree mur#er 'ursuan$ $o s( 231)L* i $he Crown has es$ablishe#
CR@ $ha$%
- /14 a&&use# was guil$y o un#erlying &rime o #omina$ion
- /24 a&&use# was guil$y o $he mur#er o $he -i&$im
- /34 a&&use# 'ar$i&i'a$e# in $he mur#er in su&h a manner $ha$ he was a subs$an$ial &ause o #ea$h
- /F4 was no in$er-ening a&$ whi&h resul$e# in a&&use# no longer being subs$an$ially &onne&$e# $o #ea$h
- /L4 &rimes o #omina$ion an# mur#er were 'ar$ o same $ransa&$ion )2while &ommi$$ing3*
(ule#
@egree<e9$en$ o &on$ribu$ing &ause reHuire# or irs$ #egree mur#er is #e$ermine# a&&or#ing $o $he T+ubstantial
-ausation %estT% a&$ions o a&&use# mus$ orm an essen$ial. subs$an$ial an# in$egral 'ar$ o $he 1illing o $he -i&$im(
Usually. bu$ no$ always. a&&use# mus$ 'lay active &h%sical role ( )Physi&al role no$ always reHuire#*
/no$e $ha$ e-en i &on$ribu$ion is subs$an$ial. &ausa$ion may be bro1en i $here was an in$er-ening a&$4
-ommentary#
- 5o$e $ha$ $his $es$ is mu&h s$ri&$er $han $he $es$ in mithers #emons$ra$es $he #is$in&$ions in
$he #egree o &ausa$ion reHuire# or $he #ieren$ homi&i#e oen&es(
- =hile rule reHuires $ha$ a&&use# 'lay essen$ial. subs$an$ial an# in$egral 'ar$ in $he 1illing. he
or she nee# no$ ma1e a 'hysi&al &on$ribu$ion $o $he #ea$h )as in $his &ase*( Howe-er. $here
mus$ be mens rea or mur#er. i(e( in $his &ase Harbo$$le ha# $o ha-e himsel 1nown $ha$ his
&om'anion was going $o 1ill $he woman( 7 he $hough$ $ha$ he was going $o ra'e her. $here
woul# be 56 mur#er. no ma$$er how subs$an$ially his a&$ions &on$ribu$e# $o her #ea$h(
Page LK o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
-A+5# (. ". )ette
R. v. 3ette , <B==6> +.-.-. (from 52reser"es)
,acts#
- A&&use# an# &om'anion en$ere# $he house o a !L year0ol# woman. $ie# her u' on her be# an# s$ole her money(
- A$er $hey le$. $he woman ell o her be#( Her #en$ures be&ame loose an# $he &lo$hing $ie# aroun# her
$igh$ene#(
- She #ie# o as'hy9ia$ion 2F0FK hours la$er(
- A&&use# was &harge# wi$h irs$ #egree mur#er an# &on-i&$e# o se&on# #egree mur#er(
- A$ $rial. ,u#ge &harge# ,ury $ha$ s$an#ar# o &ausa$ion or 2
n#
#gr mur#er an# manslaugh$er was one o
&on$ribu$ing $o $he &auses o #ea$h in a manner $ha$ was more $han merely $ri-ial or insignii&an$. bu$ $ha$
&on-i&$ion or irs$ #egree mur#er reHuire# Crown $o es$ablish $ha$ a&&use#Xs a&$ions were a subs$an$ial an#
in$egral &ause o #ea$h(
&ssue#
@i# $he $rial ,u#ge err in his ins$ru&$ions on &ausa$ion>
?eld#
5o( A''eal #ismisse#(
(atio#
- Causa$ion has a a&$ual an# legal &om'onen$(
- Fa&$ual &ausa$ion% inHuiry abou$ how $he -i&$im &ame $o his or her #ea$h in a me#i&al. me&hani&al or 'hysi&al
sense(
- Legal &ausa$ion% &on&erne# wi$h whe$her 'erson shoul# be hel# res'onsible in law or $he #ea$h8 inorme# by
legal &onsi#era$ions su&h as $he wor#ing o $he se&$ion an# 'rin&i'les o in$er're$a$ion( Legal &onsi#era$ions
rele&$ 'rin&i'les o &riminal res'onsibili$y su&h as $he 'rin&i'le $ha$ $he morally inno&en$ shoul# no$ be
'unishe# /FA7R5BSS<RBSP65S7C7L7+Y4
- Manslaugh$er% a''li&able s$an#ar# o &ausa$ion is a &on$ribu$ing &ause ou$si#e $he de minimis range or Tmore
$han a $ri-ial &auseT( )mithers*
- Firs$ #egree mur#er% s$an#ar# a&&use# mus$ be a Tsubs$an$ial an# in$egral 'ar$ o $he 1illingT8 s$resses
in&rease# #egree o 'ar$i&i'a$ion 0 higher s$# reers $o legal &ausa$ion an# rele&$s $he in&rease# #egree o moral
&ul'abili$y $ha$ is reHuire#(
- TSubs$an$ial &auseT shoul# no$ be use# $o #es&ribe $he reHuisi$e #gr o &ausa$ion or all homi&i#e oen&es(
+here is one s$an#ar# o &ausa$ion or all homi&i#e oen&es(
- +erminology $ha$ shoul# be use# when &harging ,ury wr$ rele-an$ s$an#ar# o &ausa$ion% remo-e La$in
e9'ressions an# ormula$ions $ha$ are nega$i-e )i(e( Tno$ a $ri-ial &auseT*(
- +his &ase% +here was no e-i#en&e $ha$ $he a&&use# woul# ha-e #ie# wi$hou$ $he a&$ions o $he a&&use# an# his
a&&om'li&e( A#-ising $he ,ury o a #ieren$ s$# o &ausa$ion woul# no$ ha-e al$ere# $he resul$(
<-oncurrence in the result>#
- Remo-ing $he #ouble nega$i-e ormula$ion rom $he &lassi& $es$ woul# ee&$ a ra#i&al &hange in $he law an#
raise $he $hreshol# o &ausa$ion or &ul'able homi&i#e or no goo# reason( )i(e( &hanging rom Ta &on$ribu$ing
&ause $ha$ is no$ $ri-ial or insignii&an$T $o Ta signii&an$ &on$ribu$ing &auseT
(ule#
@egree<B9$en$ o &on$ribu$ing &ase reHuire# or se&on# #egree mur#er is $he same as $ha$ or manslaugh$er( +he $es$
shoul# no$ be ar$i&ula$e# in La$in or #ouble nega$i-es )Tno$ insignii&an$T. Tou$si#e de minimis rangeT. Tno$ $ri-ialT
or Tmore $han $ri-ialT*( +he &on$ribu$ing &ause mus$ be a sinificant contributin cause( +he ,u#ge howe-er is no$
boun# $o use $his language $o &harge $he ,ury(
-ommentary#
- See $ha$ $he &our$ $al1s o airness an# morali$y( Mos$ o $he $es$s #onX$ use $he language o
TairnessT bu$ $heoris$s ra$ionali;e $he $es$s o legal &ausa$ion un#er $he rubri& o &ausa$ion(
+he un#erlying Hues$ion is% Can $he resul$ airly be im'u$e# $o $he #een#an$> 0
Page L! o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- Au#ge no$ boun# $o &harge Tsignii&an$ &on$ribu$ing &auseT 0 $his is ,us$ $he 'reerable $erm(
CU+D$his &oul# &ause a lo$ o 'roblems( +he $es$ shoul# be $he same or all manslaugh$er
$rials(
A s$ri&$er $es$ or manslaugh$er>
- +es$ or manslaugh$er is 56= Tsignii&an$T( +his is arguably s$ri&$er $han Tmore $han
$ri-ialT. Tno$ insignii&an$T or Tou$si#e $he de minimis rangeT an# will ma1e i$ more #ii&ul$
$o ge$ a manslaugh$er &on-i&$ion(
- Many $heoris$s are ha''y abou$ $his b<& i$ is a &oun$er0balan&e $o $he a&$ $ha$ manslaugh$er
reHuires no sub,e&$i-e in$en$ 0 i$ reHuires only ob,e&$i-e oreseeabili$y o bo#ily harm(
Unan$i&i'a$e# ou$&ome in subseHuen$ &ases>
- Coul# argue $ha$ Tsignii&an$T is s$ri&$er $han Tsubs$an$ialT 0 $his &oul# resul$ in unan$i&i'a$e#
ou$&omes in u$ure &ases 0 $he &our$ in 5e$$e &learly wan$e# $he s$an#ar# or mur#er 1 $o be
higher $han $he one or mur#er 2 an# manslaugh$er\ /wa$&h or o$her &ases as $hey &ome
along4
=oul# Shan1s ha-e been #e&i#e# #ieren$ly un#er rule in 4ette >
- Con$ribu$ing Cause% 'ush an# sho-e( Resul$% hear$ a$$a&1 an# #ea$h( 6$her &on$ribu$ing
&auses>% ear. s$ress>
- Push an# sho-e #eini$ely Tmore $han $ri-ialT bu$ li1ely no$ Tsignii&an$T(
-A+5# (. ". +mith
R v. Smith , <6:;:> 5nlish -.A., pae 888
,acts#
- A'l$ was a sol#ier sharing barra&1s wi$h some o$her sol#iers
- 6ne nigh$. a igh$ bro1e ou$ in $he barra&1s( As a resul$ o $he igh$. 3 sol#iers were s$abbe# wi$h a bayone$8 1
o $he 3 #ie#( +he a''ellan$ was &on-i&$e# o his mur#er(
- @e&ease# re&ei-e# $wo bayone$ woun#s. one in $he arm an# one in $he ba&1
- His ellow sol#iers $rie# $o &arry him $o ge$ hel' an# #ro''e# him $wi&e
- U'on arri-al a$ $he hos'i$al. he was gi-en ina''ro'ria$e an# harmul $rea$men$( 7 he ha# been gi-en $he &orre&$
$rea$men$. his &han&es o re&o-ery were as high as PLV(
&ssue#
=as $he original woun# inli&$e# by $he a''ellan$ $he &ause o $he #e&ease#:s #ea$h>
?eld#
YBS( Con-i&$ion u'hel#(
(atio#
- 7 a$ $he $ime o #ea$h $he original woun# is s$ill an o'era$ing &ause an# a subs$an$ial &ause. $hen $he #ea$h &an
'ro'erly be sai# $o be $he resul$ o $he woun#. albei$ $ha$ some o$her &ause o #ea$h is also o'era$ing(
- 6nly i i$ &an be sai# $ha$ $he original woun# is merely $he se$$ing in whi&h ano$her &ause o'era$es &an i$ be sai#
$ha$ $he #ea$h #oes no$ resul$ rom $he woun#( +ha$ is. only i $he se&on# &ause is so o-erwhelming as $o ma1e
$he original woun# merely 'ar$ o $he his$ory &an i$ be sai# $ha$ $he #ea$h #oes no$ low rom $he woun#(
- 7n $his &ase. no reasonable ,ury or Cour$ &oul#. 'ro'erly #ire&$e#. 'ossibly &ome $o any o$her &on&lusion $han
$ha$ $he #ea$h resul$e# rom $he original woun#(
(ule#
An in$er-ening &ause $ha$ is reasonably oreseeable will no$ brea1 $he &hain o &ausa$ion( Ca# me#i&al $rea$men$ is
no$ ou$ o $he or#inary )Cana#a see s( 22L or ba# me#i&al $rea$men$*
As1 0 a$ $he $ime o #ea$h. was $he original harm &ase# Tan o'era$ing an# subs$an$ial &auseT> 7s $he se&on# &ause Tso
o-erwhelmingT as $o ma1e $he original woun# merely 'ar$ o $he his$ory>
-ommentary#
Page M0 o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- Re&all mithers 0 @i&1son sai# an in$er-ening &ause migh$ ha-e &hange# $he ou$&ome 0 su&h
&auses Ts$re$&h ou$ $he &hainT
- S( 22L woul# ha-e been use# $o resol-e $his &ase in Cana#a see $he language Trom whi&h
#ea$h resul$sT $his a##resses $he issue o remo$eness 0 e(g( Aor#an &ase 0 guy is in hos'i$al
b<& o woun# inli&$e# )G a&$ual &ausa$ion*8 when almos$ be$$er. re&ei-es abnormal $rea$men$
whi&h 1ills him )Gabsen&e o legal &ausa$ion 0 original woun# merely $he se$$ing*(
- Ano$her e9am'le o &ase where &hain o &ausa$ion bro1en 0 guy in hos'i$al b<& o woun# #ies
rom s&arle$ e-er &on$ra&$e# $here( Cour$ hel# $ha$ $he s&arle$ e-er o-erwhelme# $he
original &ause $hus no legal &ausa$ion(
- Py$hon &ase 0 reasonably oreseeable $ha$ 'y$hon woul# &ome an# bi$e G &hain o &ausa$ion
no$ bro1en(
(. ". +han4s
PART V - THE MENS REA (MENTAL STATE) REQUIREMENT FOR
CRIM LIABILITY
A - Introduction
)otes, pae 8M;28M:
A(F( S$e'hen )1KK3*
- 5ctus non facit reum nisi mens sit rea un#amen$al ma9im o $he whole &riminal law 0 sugges$s alla&ies
whi&h i$ #oesnX$ 're&isely s$a$e%
- /14 @oesnX$ mean $ha$ T$here is no legal guil$ wi$hou$ moral guil$T 0 always a 'ossibili$y o &onli&$ b$wn
law an# morals
- /24 +here is no one s$a$e o min# &alle# Tmens reaT #ieren$ &rimes ha-e #ieren$ s$a$es o min#(
- +ru$h abou$ $he ma9im% $he #eXn o mos$ &rimes &on$ains no$ only an ou$war# an# -isible elemen$ bu$ a men$al
elemen$ whi&h -aries a&&or#ing $o $he #ieren$ na$ure o #ieren$ &rimes( B9'ression i$sel is gi-en meaning
by $he #eXn o a 'ar$i&ular &rime( 7$sel i$ has no meaning(
"( Muller. )1!LP01!LK*
- False $o &on&lu#e $ha$ $here is no singular or uniying &on&e'$ o mens rea(
- All &rimes ha-e a #ieren$ mens rea CU+ $he &on&e'$ o mens rea is a uniying &on&e'$ o -arious 'ossible
rames o min#(
- Mens rea% no$ $he mere 'sy&hi& rela$ion b$wn( $he a&$ an# a&$or8 $he e$hi&o0legal nega$i-e -alue o $he #ee#8 i(e(
$he &ommuni$y -alue o whi&h $he 'er'e$ra$or a$ $he $ime o $he #ee# 1nows $he e9is$en&e an# $ha$ i$ will
ma$eriali;e when $he #ee# be&omes 1nown(
=illiams. )1!M1*
- Any $heory o &riminal 'unishmen$ lea#s $o a reHuiremen$ o some 1in#s o mens rea )#e$erren$ $heory.
re$ribu$i-e $heory. in&a'a&i$a$ion. reorma$i-e aim*
- Cu$. $he reHuiremen$ o mens rea as i$ is in law #oes no$ harmonise 'ere&$ly wi$h any o $hese $heories(
- Legal mens rea reers $o $he men$al elemen$ ne&essary or $he &rime%
- 7n$en$ion $o #o $he imme#ia$e a&$ or bring abou$ $he &onseHuen&e 6R
- Re&1lessness as $o su&h a&$ or &onseHuen&e
- Some &rimes #o no$ reHuire a 'ar$i&ular s$a$e o min# bu$ reHuire 5B"L7"B5CB
Page M1 o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- Regar# $hese &rimes as no$ reHuiring mens rea $hough sin&e negligen&e is a 1in# o legal aul$. $hese &rimes
are a1in $o &rimes reHuiring mens rea(
- Crimes o s$ri&$ or -i&arious res'onsibili$y 0 no mens rea or negligen&e reHuire#(
"or#on )1!PK*
- Mens rea is $he basi& &ommon law 'rin&i'le( Ser-es as a remin#er o $he moral na$ure o $he &riminal law(
- Presum'$ion $ha$ &riminal guil$ in-ol-es moral blame(
- S$a$u$ory oen&es% &onsis$ o mul$i'le elemen$s8 mens rea mus$ be &onsi#ere# wr$ ea&h elemen$ se'ara$ely(
6$en sai# $ha$ a 'ar$i&ular oen&e #oes reHuire mens rea an# $ha$ $he reHuiremen$ is sa$isie# by Tan in$en$ion
$o #o $he a&$ 'rohibi$e#T( =ha$ is mean$ $here is a mens rea reHuiremen$ wr$ wha$ is $a1en $o be $he &en$ral
elemen$ o $he oen&e(
- 5o$ enough or oen#er $o a&$ in$en$ionally )e(g( sell s$o&1ings*8 mus$ ha-e in$en$ion wr$ $he 'ar$i&ular elemen$
whi&h ren#ere# $he a&$ illegal )sell sil1 s$o&1ings*
Peo&le v. 3orshen . 1!L!
- Free will -s( #e$erminism% &riminal law woul# no$ e9is$ i no$ or $he 'osi$ $ha$ ea&h normal 'erson in$en#s $o
#o $he a&$ whi&h he #oes #o an# $ha$ su&h in$en$ion is base# u'on $he e9er&ise o ree will( Free will is a$ basis
o &riminal law(
- CU+Dwe #onX$ ha-e a sui&ien$ basis o s&ien$ii& 1nowle#ge $o -eriy $ha$ 'eo'le #o a&$ rom s$an#'oin$ o
ree will(
B - The Basic Subjective/Objective Distinction
%he 'aw
!herou): +es$ or M<R is sub,e&$i-e
Mulligan % Can 'ro-e in$en$ion by #rawing ineren&es rom a&$ions. u$$eran&es. $es$imony an# o$her &ir&ums$an&es
)any$hing rele-an$ $o $he s$a$e o min#*
Hundal % Sub,e&$i-e $es$ 0 -i$al $ha$ $he a&&use# a&$ually in$en#e#. 1new or oresaw $he &onseHuen&e an#<or
&ir&ums$an&e( Crown mus$ 'ro-e CR@ $ha$ a&&use# Tmus$ ha-e $hough$T in $he 'enali;e# way(
Ortt % Reasonable $o iner $ha$ a man in$en#s or is aware o $he na$ural &onseHuen&es o his a&$( @raw ineren&e as a
ma$$er o &ommon sense( 7$ is an ineren&e an# 56+ a 'resum'$ion(
%he -ases
B#i$ors 5o$e%
- Cana#a 0 &ons$i$u$ional reHuiremen$ o FAUL+ or any oen&e $hrea$ening liber$y in$eres$ )Mo$or Jehi&le
Reeren&e*
- Cig O is% wha$ #oes $he reHuiremen$ o aul$ en$ail>
- Cen$ral issue 7s $he a''roa&h $o aul$ sub,e&$i-e or ob,e&$i-e>
- S(C(C( a&&e'$s $ha$ $here mus$ be &lear #is$in&$ion b$wn sub,e&$i-e an# ob,e&$i-e s$an#ar#(
- Sub,e&$i-e s$an#ar#% whe$her $he a&&use# was actually aware of the ris48 all in#i-i#ual a&$ors $a1en in$o a&&$
- 6b,e&$i-e s$an#ar#% whe$her a&&use# failed to measure up to eEternal standard of reasonable person.
irres'e&$i-e o his own awareness
- R. v Creighton ma1es ob,e&$i-e s$# +6U"H% no 'ersonal a&$ors )age. ra&e. gen#er. 'o-er$y. e9'erien&e* &an be
$a1en in$o a&&$ e9&e'$ where $hey rela$e $o in&a'a&i$y(
R. v .undal , <6::8> +.-.-. pae 8;=
- Cour$ #e$ermining aul$ reHuiremen$ or &rime o #angerous #ri-ing(
%ruly +ubjecti"e test#
- @e$ermine wha$ was a&$ually in min# o 'ar$i&ular a&&use# a$ $ime oen&e &ommi$$e#(
Page M2 o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- Ji$al $ha$ $he a&&use#. gi-en his 'ersonali$y. si$ua$ion. &ir&ums$an&es a&$ually in$en#e#. 1new or oresaw $he
&onseHuen&e an#<or &ir&ums$an&e(
- 7n or#er $o as&er$ain wha$ was on his min# #raw reasonable ineren&es rom a&&use#Xs a&$ions or wor#s a$
$ime o his a&$ or in $he wi$ness bo9( Crown mus$ 'ro-e CR@ $ha$ a&&use# Tmus$ ha-e $hough$T in $he 'enali;e#
way(
Objecti"e test test for nelience
- ReHuires a mar1e# #e'ar$ure rom $he s$# o &are o a reasonable 'erson(
- Cen$ral O wha$ $he a&&use# shoul# ha-e 1nown
- Harshness o $es$ &an be mi$iga$e# by &onsi#ering some 'ersonal a&$ors(
- 9ain distinction one who was aware )'ure sub,e&$i-e in$en$* an# one who shoul# ha-e $a1en &are
irres'e&$i-e o awareness )'ure ob,e&$i-e in$en$*
($'5#
- Sub,e&$i-e $es$ 0 -i$al $ha$ $he a&&use# a&$ually in$en#e#. 1new or oresaw $he &onseHuen&e an#<or &ir&ums$an&e(
- +o #e$ermine s$a$e o min#. &an #raw ineren&es rom a&&use#Xs a&$ions. wor#s or $es$imony( Crown mus$ 'ro-e
CR@ $ha$ a&&use# Tmus$ ha-e $hough$T in $he 'enali;e# way(
- Objecti"e "s. +ubjecti"e# one who was aware JS one who shoul# ha-e $a1en &are irres'e&$i-e o awareness
R. v. Throu2 , <6::8> +.-.-. pae 8;6
- Cour$ #is&ussing aul$ reHuiremen$ or &rime o rau#(
- Men$al elemen$s o a &rime -s( mens rea % mens rea #oesnX$ en&om'ass all men$al elemen$s o a &rime 6 actus
reus has i$s own men$al elemen$ )i(e( $ha$ a&$ mus$ be -olun$ary*
- Mens rea% reers $o guil$y min#. wrongul in$en$ion o $he a&&use#( Fun&$ion 0 're-en$ &on-i&$ion o morally
inno&en$( +y'i&ally &on&erne# wi$h &onseHuen&es o $he 'rohibi$e# a&$( )e(g( in$en$ion $ha$ a&$ will resul$ in
&onseHuen&e 6R re&1less an# willul blin# 'ersis$en&e $ha$ one 1nows will resul$ in $he &onseHuen&e*
- +es$ or mens rea Sub,e&$i-e( B9&e'$ions $o $his oen&es where a&$us reus is negligen&e or ina#-er$en&e.
oen&es o absolu$e liabili$y(
- Sub,e&$i-e $es$% whe$her $he a&&use# sub,e&$i-ely a''re&ia$e# $he &onseHuen&es o $he 'rohibi$e# a&$ a$ leas$ as
a 'ossibili$y(
- A''lying $he $es$% loo1 $o a&&use#Xs in$en$ion an# $he a&$s as a&&use# belie-e# $hem $o be
- +wo &olla$eral 'oin$s%
- /14 7nHuiry has no$hing $o #o w< $he a&&use#Xs sys$ems o -alues 0 #oesnX$ ma$$er i he<she $hough$ $here was
no$hing wrong wi$h wha$ he was #oing
- /24 Crown &an iner sub,e&$i-e awareness o &onseHuen&es rom $he a&$ i$sel( )#onX$ a&$ually ha-e $o go in$o
min# o a&&use#*
($'5#
- +he $es$ or mens rea is SUCABC+7JB( 7$ is $y'i&ally &on&erne# wi$h $he &onseHuen&es o $he 'rohibi$e# a&$
)i(e( in$en$ion $ha$ a&$ will resul$ in $he &onseHuen&e 6R re&1less or wilull blin# 'ersis$en&e $ha$ one 1nows will
resul$ in $he &onseHuen&e*(
- +he un&$ion o M<R is $o 're-en$ &on-i&$ion o $he morally inno&en$(
R. v. Mulli'an , <6:@7> Ont. -.A. pae 8;B
- 7n$en$ion o a&&use# is a FAC+ in issue
+o 'ro-e e9is$en&e o $his a&$%
- Consi#er his a&$s. u$$eran&es. an# o$her &ir&ums$an&es 0 may iner in$en$ rom $hese
- Consi#er his $es$imony 0 ,ury #oesnX$ ha-e $o belie-e i$(
- A&$ion is o$en $he bes$ e-i#en&e o 'ur'ose CU+ a&$ions are no more $han BJ7@B5CB o in$en$( +hus i$ is
mislea#ing $o s'ea1 o a man being 'resume# always $o in$en# $he na$ural an# 'robable &onseHuen&es o his
a&$s( /s'ea1 ins$ea# o ineren&es4
- A manXs in$en$ion is or him a sub,e&$i-e s$a$e( Cu$ $he s$a$e o ano$her manXs min# is an ob,e&$i-e a&$
Page M3 o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- +es$ is always a sub,e&$i-e $es$ )wha$ #i# +HB ACCUSB@ 1now. oresee. e9'e&$. in$en#* CU+ $his #oesnX$ mean
$ha$ $he a&&use#Xs $es$imony as $o in$en$ is more &re#ible $han e-i#en&e o o$her ma$$ers(
($'5#
- 7n$en$ion is a a&$ $ha$ mus$ be 'ro-e# by $he Crown CR@ )7 a&&use# raises reasonable #oub$ wi$h his rebu$$al G
,ury migh$ a&Hui$ him*(
- Can 'ro-e in$en$ion by #rawing ineren&es rom a&$ions. u$$eran&es. $es$imony an# o$her &ir&ums$an&es
)any$hing rele-an$ $o $he s$a$e o min#*
R v. )rtt , <6:7:> +.-.-. pae 8;:
- A''eal o mur#er &on-i&$ion on groun# $ha$ $rial ,u#ge mis&harge# ,ury( Au#ge sugges$e# $ha$ $here was an
onus on $he a&&use# $o 'ro-e his in&a'a&i$y $o ha-e $he s'e&ii& in$en$ ne&essary% T7n our law a 'erson is
'resume# $o ha-e in$en#e# $he na$ural &onseHuen&es o his a&$T
- C(A( #ismisse# a''eal on basis $ha$ &harge ma#e i$ &lear $ha$ Crown ha# onus o 'roo on issue o in$en$( Cu$
&our$ no$e#%
- 7$ is an error in law $o $ell a ,ury $ha$ i$ is a 'resum'$ion o law $ha$ a 'erson in$en#s $he na$ural &onseHuen&es o
his a&$s( TPresum'$ionT sugges$s onus on a&&use#(
- 0resumption "s. &nference# Presum'$ion reHuires $ha$ &er$ain &on&lusion MUS+ be #rawn8 7neren&e in#i&a$es
$ha$ a &er$ain &on&lusion MAY be #rawn(
- TAs a man is usually able $o oresee wha$ are $he na$ural &onseHuen&es o his a&$s. i$ is. as a rule reasonable $o
iner $ha$ he #i# oresee $hem an# in$en# $hem(T
- Au#ges shoul# a-oi# using $he wor# T'resum'$ionT when &harging ,uries ,ury shoul# be $ol# $ha$ i$ is a
reasonable ineren&e $ha$ a man in$en#s $he na$ural &onseHuen&es o his a&$s(
($'5#
As a man is usually able $o oresee wha$ are $he na$ural &onseHuen&es o his a&$. i$ is. as a rule reasonable $o iner
$ha$ he #i# oresee $hem an# in$en# $hem( 7$ is in&orre&$ $o T'resumeT in$en$ rom $he a&$s o $he a&&use#( )S1lar
#rawing an ineren&e is a ma$$er o &ommon sense*(
+4lar on +ubjecti"e!Objecti"e .istinction and drawin inferences#
- @raw ineren&e as a ma$$er o &ommon sense 0 $he a&&use# Tmus$ ha-e 1nownT8 anyone in su&h a si$ua$ion
woul# ha-e been aware o $he ris1( 5o$e% saying The mus$ ha-e been awareT )sub,e&$i-e* is mu&h #ieren$ $han
saying $ha$ The mus$ ha-e been aware i he $hough$ abou$ i$T( )ob,e&$i-e*
- +he more ob-ious a ris1 is )$he higher a ris1* 0 $he ob-ious i$ is $o iner $ha$ he was aware o i$(
- +he $e&hniHue o #rawing ineren&es loo1s a bi$ ob,e&$i-e bu$ is no$ 0 Crown ,us$ mus$ be &areul no$ $o use
ob,e&$i-e language )e(g( he ough$ $o ha-e 1nown*( Au#ge &anno$ &harge ,ury in su&h a way $ha$ o'ens i$ $o ,ury
$o &onsi#er $he s$# o $he reasonable 'erson(
- A&&use# &an RBCU+ +HB 75FBRB5CBS 0 i(e( in$ro#u&e reasonable #oub$
- 5Eamples 2
- @ri-er #ri-ing Hui&1ly #own a &row#e# s$ree$( 7neren&e 0 &ommon sense $ells us $ha$ #ri-ing #own a &row#e#
s$ree$ &rea$es a ris1 $ha$ 'eo'le will be harme# A&&use# &oul# rebu$ 0 T7 wasnX$ aware b<& was #is$ra&$e# by
baseball game on ra#ioT(
- Woolmington 0 &anno$ ge$ in$o his min# CU+ his a&$ions are e-i#en&e o in$en$ )he ga-e aun$ a har# s$are8 he
le$8 where bulle$ en$ere# $he hea#8 $he u$$eran&es8 $he a&$ i$sel*
C - Mens Rea Ofenses versus Public Welfare/Regulatory Ofences
%he 'aw
7 s$a$u$e is silen$ or ambiguous as $o M<R reHuiremen$%
/14 @e$ermine i 'ubli& welare oen&e 6R $rue &rime
Page MF o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- Ca$egories o 'ubli& welare oen&es% +rai& inra&$ions. highway regula$ions. sales o
im'ure oo#s. -iola$ions o liHuor laws. 'ubli& heal$h )in&lu#es 'ollu$ion*. &onser-a$ion.
labour s$a$u$es. sae$y )ault te. Marie7 Pierce 2isheries* 0 loo1 a$ 're0amble(
- Com'rehensi-e regula$ory s$ru&$ure
- Pro-in&ial> )i 'ro-in&ial. &anno$ be a $rue &rime*
/24 &f public welfare offence Presum'$ion o s$ri&$ liabili$y )ault te. Marie*
- Mus$ show $ha$ 56+ absolu$e liabili$y )i(e( mere &ommission o A<R is sui&ien$* &anno$
be ab liabili$y i possibility of imprisonment as 'unishmen$ )Motor 8ehicle Reference*(
Language mus$ be &lear an# e9'li&i$ in or#er $o e9&lu#e aul$ )ault te. Marie*
- Mus$ show $ha$ 56+ M<R oen&e )no M<R wor#s8 may be M<R wor#s in o$her 'ar$ o $he
s$a$u$e bu$ no$ here*
- S$ri&$ liabili$y G @BFB5SB 6F @UB @7L7"B5CB )ault te. Marie*
- +oo1 reasonable s$e's $o a-oi# $he $he oen&e 6R hones$ bu$ mis$a1en belie in s$a$e o a&$s
whi&h i $rue woul# ren#er $he a&$ or omission inno&en$(
- A&&use# mus$ 'ro-e $his on CALA5CB 6F PR6CAC7L7+7BS(
/34 &f true crime Presum'$ion o ull sub,e&$i-e M<R )ault te. Marie* 56+B )SH*%
some &rimes may be reHuire only ob,e&$i-e awareness )Tob,e&$i-e mens reaT 0 an o9ymoron*
- M<R G Crown mus$ es$ablish men$al elemen$ a&&use# who &ommi$$e# $he a&$ #i# so
in$en$ionally. re&1lessly or wi$h wilull blin#ness( Pro-e by ineren&e or o$her e-i#en&e(
- Crown &an #is'la&e M<R reHuiremen$ in s$a$u$e )e9'li&i$ly*
%he -ases
- 5ditorPs note# &onsi#era$ion o law on aul$ will show low le-el ob,e&$i-e s$# or 'ubli&
welare oen&es8 sub,e&$i-e a''roa&h s$ill reHuire# or many &rimes CU+ or a signii&an$
number o &rimes $here are now less #eman#ing s$an#ar#s o aul$(
- 5ditorPs note# Ceore 'i-o$al #e&ision in Saul$ S$e( Marie oen&es $ha$ were no$ $ruly &riminal 0 &hoi&e or
&our$s was b$wn reHuiring Crown $o es$ ull sub,e&$i-e mens rea 6R absolu$e liabili$y )merely 'roo o a&$. no
reHuiremen$ o aul$*
-A+5# Jea"er ". (
,eaver v. R ., <6:;@> +.-.-. pae 87=
,acts#
- A&&use# a''ealing &on-i&$ions on &oun$s o selling an# 'ossessing #ia&e$ylmor'hine(
- +rial ,u#ge &harge# ,ury $ha$ i $he a&&use# ha# a 'a&1age an# sol# i$ an# $ha$ $ha$ 'a&1age &on$aine# $he #rug.
a&&use# was guil$y8 irrele-an$ whe$her he 1new wha$ $he subs$an&e was or whe$her he hones$ly bu$ mis$a1enly
belie-e# i$ was a harmless subs$an&e(
&ssue#
7s a 'erson guil$y o #rug 'ossession when he #oes no$ 1now $ha$ wha$ he is 'ossessing is a #rug>
?eld#
5o( A''eal rom &on-i&$ion o 'ossession allowe#(
(atio#
- Problem is one o &ons$ru&$ion o $he O&ium and 4arcotic Drug 5ct. whi&h 'rohibi$s $he 'ossession an# sale o
any #rug w<o a li&ense( Punishmen$ is man#a$ory im'risonmen$(
- Common law 0 mens rea is an essen$ial elemen$ in &ommission o any &riminal oen&e( S$au$e may e9&lu#e a
reHuiremen$ o mens rea. $hough $here is 'resum'$ion $ha$ i$ reHuires i$(
Page ML o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- Feneral (ule (for mens rea ?)# $he essen$ial Hues$ion is whe$her $he belie en$er$aine# by $he a&&use# is an
hones$ one( +he e9is$en&e or non0e9is$en&e o reasonable groun#s or su&h belie is merely rele-an$ e-i#en&e $o
be weighe# in #e$ermining $his( )Sub,e&$i-e $es$>*( =r$ #rugs. in law $here is no 'ossession o $he orbi##en
subs$an&e wi$hou$ 1nowle#ge o $he &hara&$er o $ha$ subs$an&e(
- +o as&er$ain whe$her mens rea is a reHuiremen$. mus$ loo1 a$ $he language o $he s$a$u$e an# i$s sub,e&$ ma$$er(
- +ubject 9atter# Publi& welare s$a$u$e 0 no mens rea reHuiremen$ 0 bu$ A&$ here in O is no$ su&h a s$a$u$e(
Cour$ shows #ieren&e be$ween heal$h regula$ion )unsoun# mea$* an# $his A&$(
- 'anuae# 7n or#er $o e9&lu#e mens rea reHuiremen$. wor#s o $he s$a$ue mus$ be &lear an# a#mi$ o no o$her
in$er're$a$ion(
- =r$ $his a&$. $here is o$her su''or$ or $he &on&lusion $ha$ Parliamen$ #i# no$ in$en# $o e9&lu#e a mens rea
reHuiremen$ 0 $he 'unishmen$ )man#a$ory im'risonmen$*( 5o o$her s$a$u$ory 'ro-ision whi&h e9&lu#es mens
rea has a man#a$ory sen$en&e(
<.issent>#
- +here is a 'resum'$ion $ha$ mens rea is an ingre#ien$ $o an oen&e )an# $ha$ $here is a #een&e lowing rom an
hones$ belie as $o $he e9is$en&e o a s$a$e o a&$s*( +his 'resum'$ion may be o-erri##en by reason o $he
sub,e&$ ma$$er or language o $he A&$(
- 6b,e&$ o $his A&$ is $o 're-en$ #anger $o 'ubli& heal$h an# $he so&ial e-ils genera$e# by #rugs( Prin&i'le
un#erlying $he A&$ is $ha$ 'ossession o all #rugs &o-ere# by i$ is unlawul( )Publi& =elare S$a$u$e*
- Plain. li$eral an# gramma$i&al meaning o $he wor#s 0 absolu$e 'rohibi$ion $o be in 'ossession o #rugs
($'5#
+here is a 'resum'$ion or all &riminal oen&es $ha$ $hey reHuire mens rea( )+herou9 $es$ or m<r is sub,e&$i-e*(
+his 'resum'$ion &an be #is'la&e# by $he wor#s o $he s$a$u$e or $he sub,e&$ ma$$er wi$h whi&h i$ #eals(
O&ium and 4arcotic Drug 5ct is no$ a 'ubli& welare s$a$u$e(
M<R or #rug $rai&1ing<'ossession is N56=LB@"B 0 $here is no 'ossession o $he orbi##en subs$an&e w<o
sub,e&$i-e 1nowle#ge o $he &hara&$er o $ha$ subs$an&e )5o$e Duong 0 1nowle#ge #oesnX$ in&lu#e re&1lessness*
-ommentary#
- 5o$e% mus$ 'ro-e $ha$ a&&use# has sub,e&$i-e 1nowle#ge $ha$ he is 'ossessing a #rug 0
e9is$en&e or non0e9is$en&e o reasonable groun#s or su&h a belie is no$ sui&ien$ $o
&on-i&$Dbu$ i$ is rele-an$ e-i#en&e $o be weighe#(
- +ilent +tatutes 0 we ge$ $o $his in$er're$a$ion 'roblem only when $he s$a$u$e is silen$ 0 s$a$u$e
&oul# ha-e sai# N56=LB@"B or 75+B5+Dbu$ i$ #i#nX$8 $hus. we mus$ in$er're$ base# on
$he sub,e&$ ma$$er o s$a$u$e(
- 5o$e ma,ori$yXs ,us$ii&a$ion or in$er're$ing i$ as M<R oen&e 0 serious 'enal$y
)im'risonmen$*( +his shows $ha$ moral culpability and 9!( o hand in hand( )M<R
ensures $ha$ only $hose who are morally &ul'able are &on-i&$e#*(
- Why was con"iction for sellin upheld? )i(e( when &on-i&$ion or $rai&1ing was no$*(
S+A+U+B% Tmanua&$ures. sells. or ma1es any oer in res'e&$ o any #rug. or any subs$an&e
re'resen$e# or hel# ou$ by su&h 'erson $o be a #rugT a&&use# &an be &on-i&$e# i he
re'resen$s some$hing as a #rug )e-en i he 1nows or belie-es $ha$ i$ is no$ a #rug*( Ra$ionale
or $his eases bur#en on $he Crown o$en #rug is #es$roye# by $rial8 woul# be #ii&ul$
or Crown $o 'ro-e CR@ $ha$ wha$ a&&use# was selling was in a&$ a #rug(
-A+5# (. ". 0ierce ,isheries
see '( M1 o $he SUMMARY(
Page MM o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
-A+5# (. ". -ity of +ault +te. 9arie
R. v. City o- Sault Ste. Marie , <6:@G> +.-.-., pae 8G=
,acts#
- Ci$y en$ere# in$o N wi$h #is'osal &o $o #is'ose o all Ci$y reuse( +he #is'osal &o &hose a si$e $ha$ bor#ere# a
&ree1( +he high moun# o garbage #e'osi$e# on $he si$e slo'e# $owar#s $he &ree1 an# resul$e# in 'ollu$ion o
$he &ree1(
- Ci$y was &harge# un#er S( 32)1* o $he 6n$ario =a$er Resour&es A&$. whi&h ma1es i$ an oen&e $o #is&harge
any ma$erials in$o $he &ree1 $ha$ migh$ im'air $he wa$er Huali$y(
&ssue#
7s $he Ci$y guil$y o an oen&e un#er S( 32)1*> @oes s( 32)1* ha-e a mens rea reHuiremen$>
?eld#
5o(
(atio#
- +here are $rue &rimes an# T'ubli& welareT or regula$ory &rimes(
- +rue &rimes 0 'resum'$ion $ha$ a 'erson shoul#nX$ be hel# liable or wrongulness o a&$ i $ha$ a&$ is w<o mens
rea( Crown mus$ es$ablish men$al elemen$ 0 a&&use# who &ommi$$e# a&$ #i# so in$en$ionally or re&1lessly or
wi$h willul blin#ness( )Mere negligen&e is e9&lu#e#*(
- Con$ras$ $o absolu$e liabili$y 0 &on-i&$ion on 'roo o actus reus(
=r$ 'ubli& welare oen&es. $here are argumen$s agains$ an# in a-our o absolu$e liabili$y%
- &n fa"our# )1* in&en$i-e or 're&au$ionary measures )'ro$e&$s 'ubli&* 0 will resul$ in higher s$# o &are8 )2*
a#min inei&ien&y woul# resul$ i &our$s ha# $o #eal wi$h men$al elemen$ 0 woul# be #ii&ul$ or go-X$ $o
enor&e im'$ 'ubli& welare laws8 )3* sligh$ 'enal$ies G no s$igma )or less* a$$a&he# $o &on-i&$ion(
- Aainst# )1* -iola$es un#amen$al 'rin&i'les o 'enal liabili$y8 )2* no e-i#en&e $ha$ higher s$# o &are will
resul$8 )3* s$igma @6BS a$$a&h8 )F* a#min argumen$ has li$$le or&e b<& e-i#en&e o #ue #iligen&e is a#missible
in sen$en&ing(
- Unor$una$e $en#en&y $o or&e &hoi&e b$wn ull mens rea an# ab liabili$y 0 many &our$s an# &ommen$a$ors
a-our a Tmi##le 'osi$ionT or Thalway houseT or 'ubli& welare oen&es(
- @i9on re-iews au$hori$y orm Aus$ralia. 5ew ]ealan# an# 'ro-in&ial Cs o A 0 many &ases ha-e allowe#
#een&es o reasonable mis$a1e o a&$ an# #ue #iligen&e(
- @i9on also reerre# $o $he Law Reorm Commission. whi&h re&ommen#e# $ha$ negligen&e shoul# be $he min s$#
o liabili$y in reg oen&es(
- Blemen$ o &on$rol is -i$al )'age 3K!*
- @e&ision in Pierce 2isheries no$ in&onsis$en$ wi$h $he &on&e'$ o a Thalway houseT as i$ #i# no$ ore&lose $he
'ossibili$y o a #een&e o reasonable &are(
- Summary o au$hori$ies% many C#n &our$s #ealing wi$h 'ubli& welare oen&es a-our )1* no$ reHuiring Crown
$o 'ro-e mens rea8 )2* re,e&$ing absolu$e liabili$y. e9&lu#ing any 'ossible #een&e(
- Corre&$ a''roa&h $o 'ubli& welare oen&es% relie-e Crown o bur#en o 'ro-ing mens rea8 a#mi$ #een&e o
reasonable &are8 'u$ bur#en on #$ )a&&use#* $o 'ro-e $ha$ #ue &are has been $a1en ),us$iie# b<& he has $he
means o 'roo*
+hree Ca$egories o 6en&es%
- /14 FULL MB5S RBA% 6en&es in whi&h Crown mus$ 'ro-e mens rea )by ineren&e or o$her e-i#en&e*
- /24 S+R7C+ L7AC7L7+Y% Presum'$ion o liabili$y8 a&&use# &an a-oi# liabili$y by 'ro-ing $ha$ he $oo1
reasonable &are( @een&e a-ailable i )1* a&&use# reasonably belie-e# in a mis$a1en se$ o a&$ whi&h. i $rue.
woul# ren#er $he a&$ or omission inno&en$8 )2* he $oo1 all reasonable s$e's $o a-oi# $he 'ar$i&ular oen&e( /SH%
@een&e o #ue #iligen&e>4
- /34 ACS6LU+B L7AC7L7+Y% a&&use# &anno$ e9&ul'a$e himsel by showing he was no$ a$ aul$(
- +rue &riminal oen&es all in$o /14( Publi& welare oen&es% 'rima a&ie all in$o /24. all in$o /14 i mens rea
language is use# )Twilully. 1nowinglyT e$&(*. all in$o /34 i s$a$u$e ma1es i$ &lear 0 &onsi#er regula$ory 'a$$ern.
sub,e&$ ma$$er o $he leg. im'or$an&e o $he 'enal$y. 're&ision o $he language use#(
S( 32)1* o $he Water Resources 5ct
- 7s a 'ubli& welare oen&e =hy> C<& #eals wi$h 'ollu$ion oen&e )in $he in$eres$ o 'ubli& heal$h*( Also.
&anno$ be $ruly &riminal b<& i$ is 'ro-in&ial leg(
Page MP o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- Sin&e s( 32)1* &rea$es a 'ubli& welare oen&e wi$hou$ a &lear in#i&a$ion $ha$ liabili$y is absolu$e an# wi$hou$
mens rea language. a''li&a$ion o $he abo-e &ri$eria G $he oen&e is in &a$egory /24(
- +he Presen$ Case 0 new $rial or#ere# b<& no e-i#en&e wr$ #ue #iligen&e o &i$y was raise#(
($'5%
- +hree &a$egories o oen&es 0 ull mens rea. s$ri&$ liabili$y. absolu$e liabili$y( +rue &rimes 0 M<R 'resum'$ion(
Publi& =elare oen&es 0 'resum'$ion o S$ri&$ liabili$y unless &lear $ha$ absolu$e liabili$y )loo1 a$ seriousness
o 'enal$y. language. regula$ory 'a$$ern. e$&(* or M<R )wor#s su&h as in$en$ionally or wilully*(
- TCauseT is no$ M<R language( TPermi$sT is no$ M<R language(
-ommentary#
- What would -rown ha"e to pro"e if statute reKuired 9!(? +ha$ $he &i$y 1new $ha$
$he a&$ions o $he N0or woul# &ause was$e $o see' in$o $he wa$er /SH% woul# Ci$y ha-e $o
1now $ha$ subs$an&e was a 'ollu$ing subs$an&e> =ha$ i i$ $hough$ $ha$ i$ was a harmless
subs$an&e>4
- SH% loo1 a$ $he language o $he s$a$u$e &ause wha$> Cause $he ou$&ome( M<R G mus$
in$en# or be aware o $he ris1 o $he ou$&ome o&&urring(
- How woul# Ci$y 'ro-e #ue #iligen&e> Show $ha$ i$ $oo1 reasonable s$e's $o ensure $ha$ $he
N0or was no$ &ausing was$e $o see' in$o $he wa$er( )>*
- @i&1son hol#s $ha$ $here is a 0(5+$90%&O) O, +%(&-% '&AJ&'&%C or 'ubli& welare
oen&es( Unless i$ is &lear $ha$ i$ is absolu$e liabili$y or ull M<R. i$ is 'resume# $o be s$ri&$
liabili$y( Any $ime $here is a 'resum'$ion. $he o$her si#e &an rebu$ )an# $ry $o show $ha$ i$ is
absolu$e or mens rea*(
-A+5# (. ". -hapin
R. v. Cha%in , <6:@:> +.-.-., pae M=8
,acts#
- Cha'in was #u&10hun$ing( She was arres$e# by a &onser-a$ion oi&er or hun$ing w<in 1<F mile o any 'la&e
where bai$ has been #e'osi$e# in &on$ra-en$ion o S( 1F)1* o $he Migrator% /irds Regulations(
- She was hun$ing w<in 1<F mile o a 'ile o grain( She was unaware o $he 'resen&e o $his grain un$il $he oi&er
'oin$e# i$ ou$(
- Persons in -iola$ion o S( 1F may be ine# an#<or im'risone#(
&ssue#
7s Cha'in guil$y o $he oen&e in S( 1F)1* o $he A&$> =ha$ $y'e o oen&e is i$>
?eld#
5o$ guil$y( 6en&e is s$ri&$ liabili$y 'ubli& welare oen&e(
(atio#
5o$ a Mens Rea oen&e )T$rue &rimeT*
- Punishable on summary &on-i&$ion )no$ in#i&$men$*8 no mens rea language )TwillullyT. Tin$en$ionallyT*8 o$her
ss o $he A&$ @6 use su&h language8 a&$ has &om'rehensi-e regula$ory s$ru&$ure( S( 1F &rea$es a PUCL7C
=BLFARB 6FFB5CB(
5o$ an Absolu$e Liabili$y 6en&e
- ault te. Marie 0 loo1 a$ o-erall regula$ory 'a$$ern. sub,e&$ ma$$er o leg. im'or$an&e o 'enal$y. 're&ision o
language(
- Crown argues $ha$ is AL b<& o Tsummary &on-i&$ionT na$ure o $he 'enal$y(
- +he 'enal$ies. howe-er. are no$ minimal 0 rela$i-e seriousness o $he 'enal$ies su&&orts &rima facie
&lassii&a$ion o s$ri&$ liabili$y(
- Cir&ums$an&e su''or$s a #een&e o reasonable measures $a1en 0 b<& o #ii&ul$y o sear&hing a 1<2 mile area
or bai$(
- +he Regula$ions #o no$ see1 $o im'ose an absolu$e ob u'on a hun$er who inno&en$ly hun$s in an un'os$e# area
w<in 1<F mile o bai$ whi&h has been 'la&e# illegally by a 'erson un1nown(
Page MK o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
S$ri&$ Liabili$y 6en&e
- 6en&e &rea$e# by s( 1F)1* is one o s$ri&$ liabili$y(
- A&&use# may absol-e himsel by showing he $oo1 all reasonable s$e's in $he &ir&ums$an&es )i(e( show $ha$ he
was no$ negligen$*
Con&lusion%
- B9amine &ir&ums$an&es $o see i reasonable measures were $a1en(
- Here i$ was no$ unreasonable $ha$ a&&use# #i#nX$ see $he bai$ 0 win#y #ay. small 'ile o bai$. har# $o see. no
signs. 'ri-a$e hun$ing &lub whi&h ha# ne-er bai$e# $he 'on#s( 7$ woul# unreasonable $o e9'e&$ a 'erson $o s&our
a 1<2 mile area $o loo1 or bai$(
-ommentary#
- +he @ue @iligen&e #eense #i# $he a&&use# $a1e reasonable s$e's in $he &ir&ums$an&es>
=as her &on#u&$ unreasonable>
- 5o$e $ha$ S(C( a&Hui$s a&&use# 0 $his is unusual usually will sen# ba&1 $o $rial $o 'ro-e #ue
#iligen&e(
Charter Limitations
-A+5# (eference re 9otor 1ehicle Act
Com'romise ar$i&ula$e# in ault te. Marie )allowing #ue #iligen&e #een&e or regula$ory oen&es wi$h a re-erse
onus* be&ame a min &ons$i$u$ional s$# o aul$ or any oen&e whi&h $hrea$ens $he liber$y in$eres$(
Re-erence Re S. 45627 o- the Motor 8ehicle 9ct 6,.C.7 , <6:G7> +.-.-., pae M=:
,acts#
- S( !F)1* o $he Mo$or Jehi&le A&$ ma1es i$ an oen&e $o #ri-e when li&ense has been re-o1e# or sus'en#e# 0
'unishmen$ is im'risonmen$ an# <or ines on a irs$ &on-i&$ion an# mandatory imprisonment or a subseHuen$
&on-i&$ion
- S( !F)2* o $he A&$ ma1es $he oen&e in )1* an absolu$e liabili$y oen&e 0 guil$ is es$ablishe# by 'roo o
#ri-ing. whe$her or no$ $he #$ 1new o $he 'rohibi$ion or sus'ension( /$his is res'onse $o Saul$ S$e( Marie 0
absolu$e liabili$y na$ure is s'elle# ou$ $o a-oi# 'resum'$ion o s$ri&$ liabili$y4
- S( P o $he Char$er% B-eryone has $he righ$ $o lie. liber$y an# se&uri$y o $he 'erson an# $he righ$ no$ $o be
#e'ri-e# $hereo e9&e'$ in a&&or#an&e wi$h $he 'rin&i'les o un#amen$al ,us$i&e(
&ssue#
7s S( !F)2* o $he Mo$or Jehi&le A&$ &onsis$en$ wi$h $he Char$er>
?eld#
56(
(atio#
- Some 'eo'le in$er're$ T'rin&i'les o un#amen$al ,us$i&eT as reerring only $o 'ro&e#ural )an# no$ subs$an$i-e*
reHuiremen$s o airness
- TFun#amen$al ,us$i&eT is no$ sim'ly synonymous wi$h na$ural ,us$i&e( +ha$ is. 'rin&i'les o un#amen$al ,us$i&e
are no$ limi$e# solely $o 'ro&e#ural guaran$ees(
- +o #e$ermine o a gi-en 'rin&i'le is one o Tun#amen$al ,us$i&eT w<in $he meaning o S( P analysis o $he
na$ure. sour&es. ra$ionale an# essen$ial role o $he 'rin&i'le w<in our legal sys$em(
- 7m'$ 'rin&i'le in our legal sys$em $he inno&en$ mus$ no$ be 'unishe#( ReHuiremen$ o guil$y min# 'ro$e&$s
liber$y
- Absolu$e liabili$y in 'enal law oen#s $he 'rin&i'les o un#amen$al ,us$i&e( +his is no$ $o say $ha$ absolu$e
liabili$y 'er0se oen#s S( PDCU+
- A law ena&$ing an absolu$e liabili$y oen&e will -iola$e s( P o $he Char$er only i an# $o $he e9$en$ $ha$ i$ has $he
'o$en$ial o #e'ri-ing o lie. liber$y or se&uri$y o $he 'erson( Su&h 'o$en$ial arises when i$ is o'en $o $he ,u#ge
$o im'ose im'risonmen$ )nee# no$ be man#a$ory im'risonmen$(
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Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- 5o im'risonmen$ may be im'ose# or an absolu$e liabili$y oen&e( An oen&e 'unishable by im'risonmen$
&anno$ be an absolu$e liabili$y oen&e(
- A#min e9'e#ien&y may be in-o1e# un#er s( 1 bu$ shoul# only su&&ee# in e9&e'$ional &ases(
- Con&ern wi$h &or'ora$e oen&es% &our$ lea-es i$ o'en $o subseHuen$ &ases $o #e&i#e $ha$ S( P e9$en#s only $o
human )an# no$ &or'ora$e* 'ersons(
- Has C(C( go-X$ #emons$ra$e# as ,us$iiable $ha$ $he ris1 o im'risonmen$ o a ew inno&en$ is a reasonable limi$
gi-en $he ob,e&$i-e o ri##ing $he roa#s o ba# #ri-ers> 5o( "o-X$ has no$ ,us$iie# inringemen$ o S( P(
($'5#
Char$er S( P reHuires $ha$ oen&e &anno$ be absolu$e liabili$y where im'risonmen$ is a 'ossible 'unishmen$( 5ee#
no$ be man#a$ory. merely 'ossible( Minimum s$an#ar# or oen&es whi&h $hrea$en liber$y in$eres$ is s$ri&$ liabili$y
)i(e( wi$h #ue #iligen&e #eense*
-ommentary#
- Mos$ im'$ &ons$i$u$ional &riminal law &ase $ha$ &our$ has e-er #e&i#e# 0 irs$ $ime $ha$ a &riminal s$a$u$e was
sub,e&$ $o &ons$i$u$ional re-iew(
- 7m'$ b<& &our$ hel# $ha$ S( P #oesnX$ only gi-e 'ower $o &our$s $o &onsi#er 'ro&e#ural ,us$i&e 0 &an also &onsi#er
subs$an$i-e ,us$i&e(
- Case re'resen$s huge shi$ o 'ower rom legisla$ure $o &our$s b<& gi-es 'ower $o &our$s $o re-iew $he subs$an&e
o &riminal legisla$ion8 'ower $o s$ri1e #own $he A&$ o $he legisla$ure(
D - Intention (Knowledge and Desire)
-A+5# ( ". +teane
R . ". Steane <6:M@>, $.D. p. M6:
,acts#
- S$eane is &harge# wi$h #oing a&$s li1ely $o assis$ $he enemy wi$h $he in$en$ $o assis$ $he
enemy(
- He was broa#&as$ing 'ro'agan#a $o Bnglish s'ea1ing sol#iers in "ermany. un#er $he $hrea$
$ha$ $hey woul# sen# his wie an# &hil#ren $o &on&en$ra$ion &am's i he #i# no$ &om'ly(
- +his &rime )$reason* #oes no$ allow $he #een&e o #uress(
&ssue#
@i# $he $rial ,u#ge err in $he #ire&$ion gi-en $o $he ,ury wi$h regar#s $o in$en$ion $o assis$ $he
enemy( +he $rial ,u#ge sai# $ha$ where $here was 'roo o &on#u&$ $here was in$en$(
?eld#
5o in$en$ 'ro-en be&ause he $rie# $o sa-e his lie(
(atio#
A( 7n$en$ion is limi$e# $o &ons&ious 'ur'ose( S$eane 1new his a&$s woul# bring abou$ $he
'rohibi$e# resul$. bu$ he #i# no$ #esire i$. so he #i# no$ ha-e in$en$ion )mo$i-e*
C( 56+B% $his in$er're$a$ion o M<R is no$ &onsis$en$ wi$h &riminal law( As long as he 1new $ha$
his a&$ions woul# bring abou$ $he 'rohibi$e# resul$. he has $he ne&essary M<R(
0O&)%#
Page P0 o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
Cour$ a''lies wrong 'rin&i'le $ha$ a 'erson has $o wan$ $he resul$ in or#er $o or $here $o be sub,e&$i-e in$en$( 56+B
+HA+ HB C65FUSBS M6+7JB =7+H 75+B5+\ )7n$en$ $o #o a&$s $ha$ he 1new assis$e# $he enemy JS mo$i-e $o
sa-e his amily*
-ommentary#
A( %he crime# @oing a&$s li1ely $o assis$ $he enemy w< in$en$ $o assis$ $he enemy( A<R G a&$s
li1ely $o assis$ $he enemy( M<R G sub,e&$i-e in$en$ $o assis$ $he enemy(
C( Cour$ hel# $ha$ 1nowing $ha$ you will assis$ $he enemy #oes no$ es$ablish in$en$ 0 mus$ #esire
$o hel' $he enemy( 75+B5+765 RBOU7RBS @BS7RB( +his is wrong\ 7$ is $he wrong #eXn
o in$en$ion see C - @(
C( @e&ision was base# on #uress he #i# no$ #esire b<& he was un#er #uress $hus. he
#e&i#e# $o go on $he air b<& he #esire# $o sa-e his amily( CU+D#uress is a M6+7JB $ha$
&omes in a$ $he #eense s$age )i$ is &onsi#ere# a morally a&&e'$able reason $o &ommi$ &er$ain
&rimes*( =hy #i#nX$ ,u#ge &onsi#er #uress> C<& #uress is no$ a #een&e $o $he &rime o
$reason\
@( Many o $he #een&es in S( 1M o $he Co#e are mo$i-es whi&h are ,us$ii&a$ions or $he
&ommission o an oen&e( )i(e( M<R an# A<R*
B( -orrect resolution of this case 'ro-e $ha$ S$eane #i# $he a&$ wi$h $he 1nowle#ge $ha$ he
was going $o assis$ $he enemy as a resul$( Can iner 1nowle#ge rom a&$s in 'ar$i&ular. he
ini$ially reuse# $o go on $he air( +his is e-i#en&e $ha$ he 1new $ha$ by going on $he air. he
woul# be assis$ing $he enemy( /7 he 1new $ha$ $he enemy woul# be assis$e# he in$en#e#
$o assis$ $he enemy4
F( Flan"ille Williams# i reasoning in S$eane is &orre&$. shoul#nX$ ma$$er i S$eane ha# in$en$ $o
ai# amily or in$en$ $o ge$ a 'a&1 o &igare$$es he woul# ge$ o in bo$h si$ua$ions b<& o $he
la&1 o Tin$en$T(
"( +4lar# Maybe teane is a &ase $ha$ only a''lies $o $he &rime o $reason )or whi&h #eense o
#uress is no$ a-ailable*( "o##ar# #i#nX$ limi$ $he hol#ing in $his wayDbu$ 'ossible $ha$ i$
&oul# s$ill be use# $o a&Hui$ someone o a $reason &harge(
*ewis v. R." <6:@:> +.-.-., p. M@:
,acts#
- A&&use# an# +a$lay were &harge# wi$h mur#er o +a$layXs #augh$er an# son0in0law
- A&&use# maile# 'a&1age $o $he -i&$ims on behal o +a$lay bu$ #enie# any 1nowle#ge $ha$ $he 'a&1age
&on$aine# a bomb
- /Ne$$le bomb 0 goes o when i$ is 'lugge# in$o $he wall( =hen you sen# a 1e$$le bomb 0 you 1now )'re$$y &lose
$o &er$ain$y* $ha$ a 'erson is li1ely $o #ie )22! says Tbo#ily in,ury $ha$ is li1ely $o &ause #ea$hT4
&ssue#
A$ $ime Lewis maile# '1g. #i# he 1now i$ &on$aine# a bomb>
?eld#
A''eal #ismisse#(
(atio#
- 7n $he &riminal law. $he wor#s Tin$en$T an# Tmo$i-eT are #is$in&$(
- 7n$en$% e9er&ise o ree will $o use 'ar$i&ular means $o 'ro#u&e a 'ar$i&ular resul$( Mo$i-e% $ha$ whi&h 're&e#es
an# in#u&es $he e9er&ise o $he will )ul$erior in$en$ion*(
- 7n mos$ &rimes $he mens rea rela$es $o $he Tin$en$T ra$her $han $he Tmo$i-eT
- A&&use# woul# be guil$y i he ma#e an# maile# $he bomb or i he maile# a 'a&1age whi&h he 1new $o &on$ain a
bomb )an# 1new how $he bomb wor1e#Dan# $hus $ha$ i$ is li1ely $o &ause #ea$h*( /SH% M<R wr$ $he a&$ A5@
M<R wr$ $he resul$*(
Page P1 o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- 5e&essary men$al elemen$ 0 1nowle#ge $ha$ $he 'a&1age &on$aine# a bomb( From su&h 1nowle#ge. $he reHuisi$e
s'e&ii& in$en$ ollows as a ma$$er o ineren&e( /b<& #ea$h is a -ery li1ely &onseHuen&e o a bomb>4
-ommentary#
Au#ge ma1es 'ro'osi$ions abou$ Tmo$i-eT in $he &riminal law sense%
- /14 As e-i#en&e. mo$i-e is rele-an$ an# a#missible(
- /24 Mo$i-e is no 'ar$ o $he &rime an# is legally irrele-an$ $o &riminal res'onsibili$y
- /34 Pro-e# absen&e o mo$i-e is always an im'$ a&$ in a-our o $he a&&use# )an# or#inarily wor$hy o no$e in a
&harge $o $he ,ury*
- /F4 Con-ersely. 'ro-e# 'resen&e o mo$i-e may be an im'$ a&$ual ingre#ien$ in $he CrownXs &ase. no$ably on
issues o i#en$i$y an# in$en$ion. when $he e-i#en&e is 'urely &ir&ums$an$ial(
- /L4 Ba&h &ase will $urn on i$s own uniHue se$ o &ir&ums$an&es( +he issue o mo$i-e is always a ma$$er o
#egree(
(ule#
9oti"e is not a part of mens rea . (thouh it may be part of 51&.5)-5 employed by -rown to pro"e intent).
-ommentary (+D'A()#
- %wo thins the court doesnPt tell us# )1* +a$lay owne# a mine an# Lewis wor1e# in i$ 0 he was hea# o
e9'losi-es &ir&ums$an$ial e-i#en&e $ha$ Lewis 1new how bombs un&$ion8 )2* Lewis was in nee# o money
)$his goes $o mo$i-e*(
- Mo$i-e isnX$ 'ar$ o mens rea bu$ $he 'resen&e o mo$i-e is &ir&ums$an$ial e-i#en&e $ha$ $he
a&&use# &ommi$$e# $he a&$ an# wi$h $he reHuisi$e in$en$ )or #i# no$ ha-e $he reHuisi$e in$en$*(
)O%5# Why must moti"e be eEcluded from the element of 9!(?
- 7n or#er $o ma1e $he &riminal law Smorally neutralS
- +he &riminal law mus$ s$ay ou$ o moral ,u#gemen$s 0 $he issue o mo$i-e &oul# gi-e rise $o
some really #ii&ul$ ,u#gemen$s e(g( shoul# eu$hanasia e9&use $he &rime o mur#er>
- S6Di you in$en# $o 1ill someone. i$Xs going $o be mur#erDunless you all in$o a &er$ain
e9&use &a$egory )a #een&e*( =e lea-e i$ u' $o $he legisla$ure $o #e&i#e wha$ e9&uses will be
-ali# )i(e( le$ $hem ma1e $he moral ,u#gemen$s*(
R. v. ,u::an'a and (urocher , <6:@:> Ont. -.A., pae M:8
,acts#
- A&&use# were a&$i-e in 'romo$ing &ons$ru&$ion o a Fren&h language high s&hool in Bsse9 Coun$y )65*
- @uro&her el$ $ha$ ran&o &ommuni$y was ge$$ing a'a$he$i& wi$h res'e&$ $o $he buil#ing o $he s&hool( He
&laime# $ha$ $he reason i$ wasnX$ being buil$ was 're,u#i&e(
- A&&use# 'rin$e# an# &ir&ula$e# 'am'hle$ whi&h #es&ribe# $he Fran&o'hone minori$y as Tsub-ersi-eT. e$&(
/a''eare# $o in&i$e ha$re#4
- A&&use# $es$iie# $ha$ $hey $hough$ $he 'am'hle$ woul# ge$ $he a$$en$ion o $he go-X$ an# $hus 'u$ 'ressure on
$he s&hool boar# $o buil# $he s&hool(
- +he 'air was &harge# or Twillully 'romo$ing ha$re#T 'ursuan$ $o s( 2K1(2)2* /now s( 31!)2*4 o $he Criminal
Co#e( +hey were &on-i&$e# a$ $rial(
&ssue#
=ha$ is $he meaning o TwillullyT in $he &on$e9$ o s( 2K1(2)2* /Twillully 'romo$e ha$re#4>
?eld#
A''eal allowe#( 5ew $rial or#ere#(
(atio#
- Meaning o TwillullyT has no$ been in$er're$e# uniormly8 #e'en#s $o some e9$en$ on &on$e9$
- Meanings 'ro'ose#% Tin$en$ionallyT8 Tre&1lesslyT )'erson who oresees $ha$ &on#u&$ may &ause 'rohibi$e# ris1
bu$ $a1es a #elib an# un,us$iiable ris1 o bringing i$ abou$*8 Ta&$ #one in$en$ionally an# no$ a&&i#en$allyT8
Tin$en$ion $o bring abou$ a 'ros&ribe# &onseHuen&eT8 Tin$en$ion $o #o a 'ar$i&ular a&$T
Page P2 o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- Counsel or #$s argue# $ha$ in some &ases TwillulnessT may in&lu#e Tre&1lessnessT bu$ $ha$ in s( 2K1(2)2* i$
means wi$h $he in$en$ion o 'romo$ing ha$re#( Argue $ha$ where Parliamen$ in$en#s $o e9$en# $he meaning o
wilully $o in&lu#e Tre&1lessnessT. i$ #oes so e9'ressly(
- 7n $he &on$e9$ o s( 2K1(2)2*. willully means wi$h $he in$en$ion o 'romo$ing ha$re#. an# #oes no$ in&lu#e
re&1lessness( +his is su''or$e# by $he arrangemen$ o leg 'ros&ribing $he in&i$emen$ o ha$re#(
- "eneral mens rea reHuire# or &rimes where no men$al elemen$ is men$ione# )i(e( su&h as TwillullyT* is ei$her
$he in$en$ional or re&1less bringing abou$ o $he resul$ $ha$ law see1s $o 're-en$( S( 2K1(2)1* #eals wi$h
e9'ressions o ha$re# $ha$ brea&h 'ubli& 'ea&e an# $he general mens rea is reHuire# 0 s( #oesnX$ in&lu#e
TwillullyT( 6en&e in sub )2* #oesnX$ 'ose $hrea$ $o 'ubli& or#er $hus reasonable $o assume $ha$ Parliamen$
in$en#e# $o reHuire 75+B5+765(
- Ha-ing shown $ha$ 'roo o in$en$ion $o 'romo$e ha$re# is essen$ial =ha$ is $he men$al a$$i$u#e whi&h
&ons$i$u$es an in$en$ion $o 'romo$e ha$re#> )=ha$ is Tin$en$ionT>*
- /,u#ge re-iews au$hori$ies on meaning o Tin$en$ionT4
- Feneral rule# a 'erson who oresees $ha$ a &onseHuen&e is &er$ain or subs$an$ially &er$ain $o resul$ rom an a&$
whi&h he #oes in or#er $o a&hie-e some o$her 'ur'ose. in$en#s $ha$ &onseHuen&e( /no$e im'$&e o T&er$ainT or
Tsubs$an$ially &er$ainT 0 a&$ $ha$ a &onseHuen&e is T'robableT is no$ enough or in$en$ion4 An a&$orXs in$en$ion
en&om'asses $he means as well as his ul$ima$e ob,e&$i-e( /sh% wha$ #oes $he las$ line mean>4
- /7n$en$ G ei$her )1* a&$or has &ons&ious 'ur'ose $o bring abou$ &onseHuen&es o a&$. or )2* a&$or oresees $ha$ a
&onseHuen&e is &er$ain or subs$an$ially &er$ain $o resul$ rom $he a&$4
- +hus. a'l$s TwillullyT )in$en$ionally* 'romo$e# ha$re# agains$ $he Fr( C#n &ommuni$y only i )a* $heir &ons&ious
'ur'ose was $o 'romo$e ha$re# agains$ $ha$ grou'. or )b* $hey oresaw $ha$ $he 'romo$ion o ha$re# was &er$ain
or morally &er$ain $o resul$ rom $he #is$ribu$ion o $he 'am'hle$. bu$ #is$ribu$e# i$ as a means o a&hie-ing $heir
'ur'ose o ob$aining $he high0s&hool(
- +BS+ 7S SUCABC+7JB 0 mus$ loo1 a$ wha$ was in min# o $he 'ar$i&ular a&&use#(
- CU+D&an #raw ineren&e 0 Peo'le are usually able $o oresee $he &onseHuen&es o $heir a&$s so i 'erson
#oes an a&$ L7NBLY $o 'ro#u&e &er$ain &onseHuen&es 0 reasonable $o assume $ha$ $he a&&use# oresaw $hose
&onseHuen&es. an# i he. ne-er$heless. a&$e# so as $o 'ro#u&e $hose &onseHuen&es. $ha$ he in$en#e# $hem(
"RBA+BR +HB L7NBL7H66@ 6F +HB C65SBOUB5CBS G BAS7BR +6 @RA= 75FBRB5CB( @o no$
use ob,e&$i-e $es$ 0 i(e( reasonable 'erson shoul# ha-e oreseen &onseHuen&es(
A&&use#Xs $es$imony is $he bes$ e-i#en&e 0 all $ha$ ma$$ers 0 #oes ,ury $hin1 he is $elling $he $ru$h> )Au#ge in $his
a''eal sai# $ha$ $here seeme# $o be no goo# reason no$ $o belie-e $he a&&use# in $his &ase( R. v. ,u::an'a and
(urocher , <6:@:> Ont. -.A., pae M:8
,acts#
- A&&use# were a&$i-e in 'romo$ing &ons$ru&$ion o a Fren&h language high s&hool in Bsse9 Coun$y )65*
- @uro&her el$ $ha$ ran&o &ommuni$y was ge$$ing a'a$he$i& wi$h res'e&$ $o $he buil#ing o $he s&hool( He
&laime# $ha$ $he reason i$ wasnX$ being buil$ was 're,u#i&e(
- A&&use# 'rin$e# an# &ir&ula$e# 'am'hle$ whi&h #es&ribe# $he Fran&o'hone minori$y as Tsub-ersi-eT. e$&(
/a''eare# $o in&i$e ha$re#4
- A&&use# $es$iie# $ha$ $hey $hough$ $he 'am'hle$ woul# ge$ $he a$$en$ion o $he go-X$ an# $hus 'u$ 'ressure on
$he s&hool boar# $o buil# $he s&hool(
- +he 'air was &harge# or Twillully 'romo$ing ha$re#T 'ursuan$ $o s( 2K1(2)2* /now s( 31!)2*4 o $he Criminal
Co#e( +hey were &on-i&$e# a$ $rial(
&ssue#
=ha$ is $he meaning o TwillullyT in $he &on$e9$ o s( 2K1(2)2* /Twillully 'romo$e ha$re#4>
?eld#
A''eal allowe#( 5ew $rial or#ere#(
(atio#
- Meaning o TwillullyT has no$ been in$er're$e# uniormly8 #e'en#s $o some e9$en$ on &on$e9$
- Meanings 'ro'ose#% Tin$en$ionallyT8 Tre&1lesslyT )'erson who oresees $ha$ &on#u&$ may &ause 'rohibi$e# ris1
bu$ $a1es a #elib an# un,us$iiable ris1 o bringing i$ abou$*8 Ta&$ #one in$en$ionally an# no$ a&&i#en$allyT8
Tin$en$ion $o bring abou$ a 'ros&ribe# &onseHuen&eT8 Tin$en$ion $o #o a 'ar$i&ular a&$T
Page P3 o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- Counsel or #$s argue# $ha$ in some &ases TwillulnessT may in&lu#e Tre&1lessnessT bu$ $ha$ in s( 2K1(2)2* i$
means wi$h $he in$en$ion o 'romo$ing ha$re#( Argue $ha$ where Parliamen$ in$en#s $o e9$en# $he meaning o
wilully $o in&lu#e Tre&1lessnessT. i$ #oes so e9'ressly(
- 7n $he &on$e9$ o s( 2K1(2)2*. willully means wi$h $he in$en$ion o 'romo$ing ha$re#. an# #oes no$ in&lu#e
re&1lessness( +his is su''or$e# by $he arrangemen$ o leg 'ros&ribing $he in&i$emen$ o ha$re#(
- "eneral mens rea reHuire# or &rimes where no men$al elemen$ is men$ione# )i(e( su&h as TwillullyT* is ei$her
$he in$en$ional or re&1less bringing abou$ o $he resul$ $ha$ law see1s $o 're-en$( S( 2K1(2)1* #eals wi$h
e9'ressions o ha$re# $ha$ brea&h 'ubli& 'ea&e an# $he general mens rea is reHuire# 0 s( #oesnX$ in&lu#e
TwillullyT( 6en&e in sub )2* #oesnX$ 'ose $hrea$ $o 'ubli& or#er $hus reasonable $o assume $ha$ Parliamen$
in$en#e# $o reHuire 75+B5+765(
- Ha-ing shown $ha$ 'roo o in$en$ion $o 'romo$e ha$re# is essen$ial =ha$ is $he men$al a$$i$u#e whi&h
&ons$i$u$es an in$en$ion $o 'romo$e ha$re#> )=ha$ is Tin$en$ionT>*
- /,u#ge re-iews au$hori$ies on meaning o Tin$en$ionT4
- Feneral rule# a 'erson who oresees $ha$ a &onseHuen&e is &er$ain or subs$an$ially &er$ain $o resul$ rom an a&$
whi&h he #oes in or#er $o a&hie-e some o$her 'ur'ose. in$en#s $ha$ &onseHuen&e( /no$e im'$&e o T&er$ainT or
Tsubs$an$ially &er$ainT 0 a&$ $ha$ a &onseHuen&e is T'robableT is no$ enough or in$en$ion4 An a&$orXs in$en$ion
en&om'asses $he means as well as his ul$ima$e ob,e&$i-e( /sh% wha$ #oes $he las$ line mean>4
- /7n$en$ G ei$her )1* a&$or has &ons&ious 'ur'ose $o bring abou$ &onseHuen&es o a&$. or )2* a&$or oresees $ha$ a
&onseHuen&e is &er$ain or subs$an$ially &er$ain $o resul$ rom $he a&$4
- +hus. a'l$s TwillullyT )in$en$ionally* 'romo$e# ha$re# agains$ $he Fr( C#n &ommuni$y only i )a* $heir &ons&ious
'ur'ose was $o 'romo$e ha$re# agains$ $ha$ grou'. or )b* $hey oresaw $ha$ $he 'romo$ion o ha$re# was &er$ain
or morally &er$ain $o resul$ rom $he #is$ribu$ion o $he 'am'hle$. bu$ #is$ribu$e# i$ as a means o a&hie-ing $heir
'ur'ose o ob$aining $he high0s&hool(
- +BS+ 7S SUCABC+7JB 0 mus$ loo1 a$ wha$ was in min# o $he 'ar$i&ular a&&use#(
- CU+D&an #raw ineren&e 0 Peo'le are usually able $o oresee $he &onseHuen&es o $heir a&$s so i 'erson
#oes an a&$ L7NBLY $o 'ro#u&e &er$ain &onseHuen&es 0 reasonable $o assume $ha$ $he a&&use# oresaw $hose
&onseHuen&es. an# i he. ne-er$heless. a&$e# so as $o 'ro#u&e $hose &onseHuen&es. $ha$ he in$en#e# $hem(
"RBA+BR +HB L7NBL7H66@ 6F +HB C65SBOUB5CBS G BAS7BR +6 @RA= 75FBRB5CB( @o no$
use ob,e&$i-e $es$ 0 i(e( reasonable 'erson shoul# ha-e oreseen &onseHuen&es(
- A&&use#Xs $es$imony is $he bes$ e-i#en&e 0 all $ha$ ma$$ers 0 #oes ,ury $hin1 he is $elling $he $ru$h> )Au#ge in $his
a''eal sai# $ha$ $here seeme# $o be no goo# reason no$ $o belie-e $he a&&use# in $his &ase(
($'5+#
- .efPn of wilfull# =ilully means Tin$en$ionallyT( 7n some &on$en$s. i$ may in&lu#e Tre&1lesslyT bu$ $his is no$
$he normal #eini$ion(
- .efPn of intention# Bi$her )1* a&$or has &ons&ious 'ur'ose $o bring abou$ $he &onseHuen&es o $he a&$. 6R )2*
$he a&$or oresees $ha$ a &onseHuen&e is &er$ain or subs$an$ially &er$ain $o resul$ rom $he a&$( 7(B( 7n$en$ reHuires
.5+&(5 or D)OW'5.F5 )#gr o 1nowle#ge G &er$ain$y or subs$an$ial &er$ain$y*( /SH% $he T&onseHuen&eT
$o be &onsi#ere# is $he one 'rohibi$e# by $he a&$. e(g( #ea$h4( /5o$e Har#ing =C G 1nowle#ge4
- %o determine if he desired or 4new #raw ineren&es rom a&$ions( 7 'erson #oes an a&$ li1ely $o 'ro#u&e
&er$ain &onseHuen&es 0 reasonable $o assume $ha$ $he a&&use# oresaw $he &onseHuen&es( "rea$er $he li1elihoo#
o $he &onseHuen&es G easier $o #raw ineren&e( Ces$ e-i#en&e is a&&use#Xs $es$imony 0 are $hey $elling $ru$h>
- "eneral rule is $ha$ $he men$al elemen$ a''lies $o all as'e&$s o $he A<R 0 $he a&$ an# $he &ausing o $he resul$(
/5o$e $ha$ $here are e9&e'$ions 0 see Deousa4
-ommentary#
- What is Ssubstantial certaintyS? a&&use# was !LV 0 100V &er$ain $ha$ $he 'rohibi$e#
resul$ woul# o&&ur( +his mus$ be SUCABC+7JB CBR+A75+YDbu$ i &an show $ha$ i$ is
ob-ious $o anyone $ha$ 'robabili$y $ha$ a&$ G resul$ is a$ leas$ !LV. &an #raw ineren&e(
S1lar% Probable &onseHuen&es G some$hing $ha$ woul# be ob-ious $o anyone\ B-ery$hing
b$wn 0(1 an# !LV G re&1lessness( @6 56+ USB 6CABC+7JB LA5"UA"B )i(e( A
reasonable 'erson woul# ha-e 1nown8 he shoul# ha-e 1nown*
Page PF o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- M<R issue in $his &ase is $he same as in teane(
- +rial ,u#ge in $his &ase ma#e error by eHua$ing in$en$ionally 'romo$ing &on$ro-ersy wi$h
in$en$ionally 'romo$ing ha$re#( A&&use# woul# 56+ be guil$y i $hey only in$en#e# $o
'romo$e &on$ro-ersy( CU+Di $hey in$en#e# $o 'romo$e ha$re# as a 'sy&hologi&al means o
ge$$ing $he s&hool buil$ 0 $hey are guil$y(
- 5"idence that can be used to establish intent $he a&&use# a&$ions8 $he a&&use#Xs
$es$imony )is he $elling $he $ru$h>*( =ha$ is rele-an$ $o #e$ermining &re#ibili$y 0 $he
ba&1groun# o $he a&&use# 0 in $his &ase. $hey ha# a &ommi$men$ $o $he Fren&h language an#
&ul$ure 0 $his su''or$e# $heir #enial o in$en$ $o 'romo$e ha$re#( Some$imes. $he ineren&e
#rawn will be so s$rong as $o &om'el re,e&$ion o $he a&&use#Xs $es$imony( )&ase s$a$es $his*(
- (ec4lessness# #eine# in &ase as T'erson who oresees $ha$ &on#u&$ may &ause $he
'rohibi$e# resul$ bu$ ne-er$heless $a1es a #elibera$e an# un,us$iiable ris1 o bringing i$
abou$(T Con$ras$ re&1lessness $o se&on# orm o in$en$ )1nowle#ge* 0 i$ #oes no$ reHuire
&er$ain$y or subs$an$ial &er$ain$y( 7$ merely reHuires $ha$ $he a&&use# oresaw $he ris1(
0roceed e"en thouh foresaw ris4 (=.62:;U) that somethin will occur "s. 0roceed e"en
thouh foresaw certainty (:;26==U) that somethin would occur( Higher $he ris1 G
easier $o iner $ha$ a&&use# oresaw i$(
Hy'o$he$i&al%
A #isgrun$le# Air Cana#a em'loyee 'lays wi$h $he lan#ing gear on one o $he 'lanes be&ause he
wan$s $o gi-e $he &om'any a ba# re'u$a$ion( As $he 'lane lan#s. $hey &rash an# one o $he
'assengers #ie( He ha# no in$en$ion o 1illing anyone( For $he Crown $o &on-i&$ $his guy. $hey
nee# $o 'ro-e $ha$ when lan#ing gear is 'laye# wi$h. someone will #ie )wi$h grea$er $han !L
'er&en$ &er$ain$y*(
- +he #ieren&e b<w in$en$ion an# re&1lessness is $he #egree o 'robabili$y o harm o&&urring(
- Any oresigh$ less $han !LV is re&1lessness(
AUS+ L66N A+ +HB PR6CAC7L7+Y 6F +HB HARM 6CCURR75"\\ )6b,e&$i-e 'robabili$y
&an be use# $o iner sub,e&$i-e oresigh$*( )/ v. D*

Feneral note about SwilfullS
- Case hel# $ha$ wilul G in$en$ional )in mos$ &ases*
- +here is a #is$in&$ion b$wn in$en$ion $o bring abou$ $he a&$ an# in$en$ion $o a&hie-e $he resul$(
Au#ge in C -( @( says $ha$ wilull G mus$ be in$en$ $o 'erorm $he a&$ )i(e( #elibera$e. no$
a&&i#en$al* A5@ in$en$ $o a&hie-e $he resul$(
- +he general rule is $ha$ MB5+AL BLBMB5+ APPL7BS +6 ALL ASPBC+S 6F +HB A<R
U5LBSS S+A+U+B BSPL7C7+LY MANBS 7+ 65LY APPLY +6 +HB AC+(
- How woul# Parliamen$ e9&lu#e $he &onseHuen&es> Twilully &ommi$ an a&$ whi&h &ausesT
0 a&&use# nee# only wilully &ommi$ $he a&$8 nee# no$ wilully &ause i$(
-A+5# (. ". ?ibbert
R. v. .i//ert , <6::;> +.-.-., -J pae MG: 0 dude "as coerced into calling gu% do"n to lo##% so another gu% could
+ill him7 def9n of :"ith the &ur&ose:
,acts#
- Hibber$ was &oer&e# in$o &alling a guy #own $o $he lobby so ano$her guy &oul# 1ill him(
- +he guy &ame #own an# $he o$her guy sho$ him )bu$ #i#nX$ 1ill him 0 a$$em'$e# mur#er*(
Page PL o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- Hibber$ was &harge# wi$h ai#ing an# abe$$ing )being an a&&om'li&e $o* $he man who wan$e# $he 1ill $he guy(
- S( 21)1*)b* im'oses &riminal liabili$y on someone who #oes or omi$s $o #o some$hing Twi$h $he 'ur'oseT o
ai#ing any 'erson $o &ommi$ i$ )i(e( $he oen&e*(
&ssue#
=ha$ is $he meaning o T'ur'oseT in s( 21)1*)b* o $he Criminal Co#e>
?oldin!(atio#
- Pur'ose has $wo 'lain meanings )#i&$ionary*% Pur'ose as #esire )#esiring some$hing*. Pur'ose as in$en$ion
)#esiring $o #o some$hing $o a&hie-e some o$her 'ur'ose*(
- /#een&e wan$s 'ur'ose $o be #eine# as $he &ons&ious goal o $he in#i-i#ual 0 $he guy #i#nX$ wan$ $o hel' ou$
&ause he a&$e# un#er #uress( 7 we #eine in$en$ion in $he se&on# way abo-e )1nowle#ge* he woul# be guil$y
he 1new $his woul# be $he &onseHuen&e o ai#ing $he a&&use#4
- =r$ i$s #eXn in $he &riminal &on$e9$ 0 &ommen$a$ors ha-e &ome $o #ieren$ &on&lusions /limi$ 'ur'ose $o
&ons&ious #esire o $he in#i-i#ual 0 s1lar agrees wi$h $his8 he $hin1s $ha$ 'ur'ose is #ieren$ $han in$en$( +his is
no$ wha$ $he &our$ #e&i#es4(
- Pur'ose as #esire% an a&$orXs 'ur'ose was $o a&&om'lish some$hing i $he 'ros'e&$ o i$s o&&urren&e 'laye# a
&ausal role in his #e&ision $o #o wha$ he #i#8 a&$orXs 1nowle#ge $ha$ his a&$ions will resul$ in $he o&&urren&e is
no$ #e$ermina$i-e
- Pur'ose as in$en$ion /in&lu#es 1nowle#ge an# #esire4% 'erson who &ons&iously 'erorms an a&$ N56=75"
$he &onseHuen&es $ha$ will )w< some #gr o &er$ain$y* low rom i$ Tin$en#sT $hese &onseHuen&es or &auses $hem
Ton 'ur'oseT regar#less o whe$her he or she #esire# $hem(
- Sin&e 'ur'ose is &a'able o bearing 2 #is$in&$ meanings 0 mus$ #e$ermine whi&h bes$ a&&or#s wi$h Parliamen$Xs
in$en$ion(
- Pur'ose use# $hroughou$ Co#e bu$ in many #ieren$ &on$e9$s )G#ieren$ meanings*
- Pur'ose as in$en$ion bes$ rele&$s $he leg in$en$ un#erlying $he se&$ion a$ issue( =HY>D
- BHua$ing Pur'ose wi$h #esire woul# ha-e absur# &onseHuen&es 0 e9am'le% robber oers rien# Q100 $o #ri-e a
ge$away &ar8 rien# &oul# argue $ha$ i$ was no$ his 'ur'ose $o ai# in robbery bu$ $o ma1e Q100Dan# he woul#
be a&Hui$$e#(
- Absur#i$y $ha$ woul# resul$ &anno$ be legi$ima$ely as&ribe# $o Parliamen$Xs in$en$ion(
- +his in$er're$a$ion will no$ resul$ in un,us$ &on-i&$ions in &ases in-ol-ing &oer&ion or $hrea$s b<& $he &ommon
law #een&e o #uress will remain a-ailable $o $he a&&use#(
- SH% ,u#ge #es&ribes why T'ur'ose as #esireT an# $he #een&e o #uress are so in&om'a$ible )wr$ ins$ru&$ing ,ury
es'* 7 #on:$ un#ers$an#(
($'5#
Meaning o Twi$h $he 'ur'ose o 9y;T is in$en$ion( 7n$en$ion in&lu#es 1nowle#ge an# #esire( +hus. a&&use# mus$
#esire $o bring abou$ 9y; or be in$en$ionally 'erorm $he a&$ wi$h $he 1nowle#ge $ha$ 9y; will )w< some #egree o
&er$ain$y* resul$( Merely eHua$ing 'ur'ose wi$h #esire woul# ha-e absur# &onseHuen&es )ge$away &ar e9am'le*
-ommentary (+4lar)#
- +he e9am'le o ge$0away &ar an# Q100 0 remin#s us o =illiamsX e9am'le wr$ teane )ai#ing
$he enemy in or#er $o ge$ &igare$$es*( =illiamsX sai# $ha$ i teane was &orre&$ly #e&i#e#. i$
woul#nX$ ma$$er i his #esire was $o sa-e his amily or $o ge$ a 'a&1 o &igare$$es 0 he woul#
be a&Hui$$e# ei$her way(
E - The Mens Rea for the Several Forms of Murder
S( 222. 22!. 230. 231. 23L
?O9&-&.5 (+. BBB)
Se& 222 /14 A 'erson &ommi$s homi&i#e when. #ire&$ly or in#ire&$ly. by any means. he causes $he #ea$h o
a human being(
Page PM o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
/24 Homi&i#e is &ul'able or no$ &ul'able
/34 Homi&i#e $ha$ is no$ &ul'able is no$ an oen&e
/F4 Cul'able homi&i#e is mur#er or manslaugh$er or inan$i&i#e(
/L4 A 'erson &ommi$s &ul'able homi&i#e when he &auses $he #ea$h o a human being.
/a4 by means o an unlawul a&$.
/b4 by &riminal negligen&e.
/&4 by &ausing $ha$ human being. by $hrea$s or ear o -iolen&e or by #e&e'$ion. $o #o
any$hing $ha$ &auses his #ea$h. or
/#4 by wilully righ$ening $ha$ human being. in $he &ase o a &hil# or si&1 'erson(
IISe&$ion 222 reHuires $ha$ $he a&&use# CAUSB $he #ea$h o a human being(
9$(.5( (+. BB: 2 +. BM=)
Se& 22! Cul'able homi&i#e is murder
/a4 where $he 'erson who &auses $he #ea$h o a human being
/i4 means to cause his death. or
/ii4 means to cause him bodily harm that he 4nows is li4ely to cause his death. an# is
rec4less whe$her #ea$h ensues or no$8
/b4 where a 'erson. meaning $o &ause #ea$h $o a human being or meaning $o &ause him bo#ily
harm $ha$ he 1nows is li1ely $o &ause his #ea$h. an# being re&1less whe$her #ea$h ensues or no$. by
a&&i#en$ or mis$a1e &auses #ea$h $o ano$her human being. no$wi$hs$an#ing $ha$ he #oes no$ mean
$o &ause #ea$h or bo#ily harm $o $ha$ human being8 or
/&4 where a 'erson. or an unlawul ob,e&$. #oes any$hing $ha$ he 4nows or ouht to 4now is
li4ely to cause death. an# thereby causes death to a human bein. no$wi$hs$an#ing $ha$ he
#esires $o ee&$ his ob,e&$ w<o &ausing #ea$h or bo#ily harm $o any human being(
+ection 9ens (ea (eKuired (8aillancourt)
S( 22!)a*)i* A&&use# mus$ ha-e a&$ual sub,e&$i-e oresigh$ o $he li1elihoo# o &ausing #ea$h A5@ $he
in$en$ion $o &ause $ha$ #ea$h(
S( 22!)a*)ii* A&&use# mus$ again ha-e a&$ual sub,e&$i-e oresigh$ o li1elihoo# o &ausing #ea$h CU+ no
longer reHuire in$en$ 0 only $ha$ he was re&1eless whe$her #ea$h ensue# or no$( Mus$ ha-e
in$en$ $o &ause bo#ily harm(
S( 22! )&* 5o reHuiremen$ o sub,e&$i-e oreseeabili$y o #ea$h 0 only ob,e&$i-e oresigh$( Mus$ #o an
unlawul a&$(
S( 230 Mere 'roo $ha$ a&&use# 'erorme# one o $he a&$s in ss( )a* $o )#* 0 nee# no 'roo o
ob,e&$i-e or sub,e&$i-e oreseeabili$y o #ea$h(
S( 222)L*)a* Creighton% 6b,e&$i-e oreseeabili$y o bo#ily harm $ha$ is no$ $ri-ial or $ransien$ &ou'le#
wi$h M<R or un#erlying oen&e )un#erlying oen&e mus$ be e#eral or 'ro-in&ial oen&e
an# &anno$ be absolu$e liabili$y*( 56 F6RBS7"H+ 6F @BA+H\
9urder in -ommission of Offences (+. B8=)
Cour$ in 8aillancourt s$ru&1 #own S( 230)#*. bu$ hol#ing in $ha$ &ase ren#ers $he whole se&$ion un&ons$i$u$ional(

-lassification of 9urder (+. B86)
5.&%O(P+ )O%5 (pae M8;)# S(C( #e&i#e# in Motor 8ehicle Ref $ha$ #ue #iligen&e #een&e was min reHuire# s$#
o aul$ reHuire# by $he Char$er or any $y'e o oen&e $hrea$ening $he liber$y in$eres$( 7n 8aillancourt &ase 0 S(C(
ha# $o #e&i#e whe$her $ha$ s$#( or ano$her was sui&ien$ or Criminal Co#e oen&es(
SNLAR% on&e $he Cour$s ga-e $he 'ower $o $hemsel-es $o re-iew s$a$$ues un#er s( P. we 1new $ha$ #eXns o &rimes
woul# be &hallenge# un#er s( P( +he irs$ &hallenge# #eXn was $ha$ o MUR@BR )in 8aillancourt*
-A+5# +impson ". (.
Sim%son v. R ., <6:G6> +.-.-., p. M8;
Page PP o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- Case #eal$ wi$h a$$em'$e# mur#er 'ursuan$ $o s( 212 o $he Criminal Co#e )now S( 22!*
- S( 22!)a*)ii* reHuires an in$en$ion $o &ause bo#ily harm $ha$ $he oen#er N56=S is li1ely $o &ause #ea$h( 7$ is
in&orre&$ $o say Tough$ $o 1nowT(
- Liabili$y un#er $his se&$ion is SUCABC+7JB( ReHuisi$e 1nowle#ge $ha$ in$en#e# in,ury is li1ely $o &ause #ea$h
mus$ be brough$ home $o $he a&&use# sub,e&$i-ely(
- An in$en$ion $o &ause harm $ha$ $he oen#er 6U"H+ +6 HAJB N56=5 was li1ely $o &ause #ea$h is merely
e-i#en&e rom whi&h. along wi$h $he o$her &ir&ums$an&es. $he ,ury may infer $ha$ $he a&&use# a&$ually ha# $he
reHuisi$e in$en$ion an# 1nowle#ge(
- 7$ is also in&orre&$ $o re'la&e T1nows is li+el% $o &ause #ea$hT wi$h T1nowing $ha$ i$ might resul$ in #ea$hT(
-ommentary#
SNLAR% +he shoul# ha-e or Tough$ $o 1nowT language is ob,e&$i-e an# $hus use o i$ is in error 0 mur#er reHuires
sub,e&$i-e in$en$(
($'5#
+he wor#s Tshoul# ha-e 1nownT or Tough$ $o ha-e 1nownT are ob,e&$i-e an# shoul# no$ be use# wr$ S( 22!)a*)7* an#
)ii*( +ha$ $he oen#er Tough$ $o ha-e 1nownT is merely e-i#en&e rom whi&h. along wi$h o$her &ir&ums$an&es ,ury
may iner $ha$ a&&use# ha# reHuisi$e in$en$ an# 1nowle#ge(

-A+5# 1aillancourt ". (.
8aillancourt v. R ., <6:G@> +.-.-., p. M8@
,acts#
- A'l$ an# his a&&om'li&e &ommi$$e# arme# robbery in 'ool hall( A'l$ ha# 1nie8 a&&om'li&e ha# gun
- A&&om'li&e ha# s$ruggle wi$h one o $he &lien$s an# sho$ an# 1ille# him(
- A'l$ sai# $ha$ he an# $he a&&om'li&e ha# agree# $o &ommi$ $he robbery only wi$h 1ni-es( A&&om'li&e ha#
arri-e# wi$h a gun whi&h a'l$ ha# insis$e# be unloa#e#( A&&om'li&e unloa#e# 3 bulle$s an# ga-e $hem $o a'l$(
A$ $ime o robbery. a'l$ was &er$ain $ha$ gun was unloa#e#(
- A'l$ was &on-i&$e# o se&on# #gr mur#er
- He &hallenge# $he &on-i&$ion on $he basis $ha$ S( 230)#* o $he Co#e was un&ons$i$u$ional(
&ssue#
7s s( 230)#* in&onsis$en$ wi$h ss( P an#<or 11)#* o $he Char$er>
?eld#
Yes( A''eal allowe#( )M%1*
(atio#
<'amer>#
- A'l$ argue# $ha$ $o im'ose &riminal liabili$y. mus$ always be some #egree o sub,e&$i-e mens rea
- Lamer limi$s his analysis $o S( 213)#* 0 #oes no$ &onsi#er s( 22!)&* or e9am'le
- @es&ribes 'rogression o mur#er in $he Co#e )gra#ual rela9a$ion o M<R*% 22!)a*)i* reHuires $ha$ $he a&&use#
ha-e a&$ual sub,e&$i-e oresigh$ o $he li1elihoo# o &ausing #ea$h A5@ $he in$en$ion $o &ause $ha$ #ea$h8 22!)a*
)ii* reHuires re&1lessness ra$her $han in$en$ion )bu$ in$en$ $o &ause bo#ily harm*8 22!)a*)iii* reHuires $ha$ 'erson
#oes some a&$ or an unlawul ob,e&$ 0 $ha$ he N56=S 6R 6U"H+ +6 N56= is li1ely $o &ause #ea$h
)ob,e&$i-e oreseeabili$y*8 S( 230 reHuires merely $ha$ a&&use# &ause -i&$imXs #ea$h while &ommi$$ing or
a$$em'$ing $o &ommi$ some a&$ 0 no reHuiremen$ o sub,e&$i-e or ob,e&$i-e oreseeabili$y o #ea$h(
- His$ori&al #e-elo'men$ o S( 230 in#i&a$es $ha$ i$s legi$ima&y is O0able 0 origin is &ommon law elony mur#er
rule whi&h is sub,e&$ o mu&h &ri$i&ism( )illogi&al $ha$ unin$en$ional 1illing is &hara&$eri;e# as mur#er*( Similar
rules ha-e been abolishe# in o$her ,uris#i&$ions(
Se&$ion P 0 Fun#amen$al Aus$i&e
- S( 230 0 no reHuiremen$ o M<R wr$ oreseeabili$y o #ea$h(
- Mo$or Jehi&le Reeren&e raise# mens rea rom a 'resume# elemen$ )ault te. Marie* $o a &ons$i$u$ionally
reHuire# elemen$ where $he liber$y in$eres$ is $hrea$ene#( )a$ leas$ negligen&e*
- Cer$ain &rimes. b<& o s$igma an# 'unishmen$ a$$a&he# reHuire M<R $ha$ rele&$s $he na$ure o $he &rime( Mur#er
is one o $hese 0 mus$ be some s'e&ial men$al elemen$(
Page PK o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- 7$ is a 'rin&i'les o un# ,us$i&e $ha$ a &on-i&$ion or mur#er reHuires no$hing less $han 'roo CR@ o sub,e&$i-e
oresigh$( CU+D/Lamer res$ri&$s his hol#ing so as no$ $o s$ri1e #own o$her 'ro-isions4 i$ reHuires a$ leas$ 'roo
CR@ o ob,e&$i-e oreseeabili$y(
- S( 230 #oes no$ reHuire e-en ob,e&$i-e oreseeabili$y an# $hus is un&ons$i$u$ional(
S( 11)#* an# $he Cur#en o Persuasion
- S( 11)#* reHuires 'roo CR@ o all elemen$s o $he oen&e $hose in $he 'ro-ision A5@ $hose reHuire# by
Char$er S(P(
- S( 230)#* inringes S( 11)#* b<& #oes no$ reHuire 'roo CR@ o ob,e&$i-e oreseeabili$y o #ea$h )whi&h is an
essen$ial elemen$ o $he mur#er oen&e 'ursuan$ $o s( P*
A''li&a$ion o $he Prin&i'les $o S( 230
- S( 230 has subs$i$u$e# or 'roo CR@ o ob,e&$i-e oreseeabili$y 'ro CR@ #oub$ o &er$ain orms o in$en$ional
#angerous &on#u&$ &ausing #ea$h(
- 7n mos$ si$ua$ions. 'roo CR@ o $his in$en$ional #angerous &on#u&$ will sa$isy a ,ury CR@ $ha$ $he a&&use#
ough$ $o ha-e 1nown $ha$ #ea$h was li1ely $o be &ause# )CU+Dno$ in all si$ua$ions 0 #run1enness. a&&i#en$al
#ea$h*( +hus. woul# be 'ossible $o ge$ &on-i&$ion where #ea$h no$ ob,e&$i-ely oreseeable(
- S( 230 #oesnX$ mee$ minimum reHuiremen$ o ob,e&$i-e oreseeabili$y o #ea$h an# is $hus un&ons$i$u$ional(
S( 1 Analysis%
- 6b,e&$i-e is sui&ien$ly im'or$an$
- Measures a#o'$e# un#uly im'air $he righ$ 0'ossible $o a&&om'lish ob,e&$i-e w< lesser inringemen$
- S$igma$i;ing $he &rime as mur#er unne&essarily im'airs $he Char$er righ$ )&oul# ,us$ ma1e -ery s$i sen$en&e
or manslaugh$er w< wea'on*
<.issent 2 9c&ntyre *>#
- He #oes no$ agree $ha$ s( 230)#* a#mi$s o mur#er &on-i&$ion w<o 'roo o ob,e&$i-e oreseeabili$y o #ea$h or
li1elihoo# o #ea$h(
- Prin&i'al &om'lain$ is no$ $ha$ a&&use# shoul# no$ ha-e been &on-i&$e# o a serious &rime bu$ $ha$ i$ shoul# no$
ha-e been &alle# Tmur#erT( =hile i$ migh$ be illogi&al $o &hara&$eri;e unin$en$ional 1illing as Tmur#erT. no
'rin&i'les o un#amen$al ,us$i&e are -iola$e# by &alling i$ Tmur#erT an# no$ some$hing else( )ma$$er or
Parliamen$*
($'5#
+he minimum &ons$i$u$ional s$an#ar# or mur#er is objecti"e foreseeability of death( S( 230)#* #oesnX$ mee$ $his
minimum s$an#ar# an# $hus is un&ons$i$u$ional( +he reasons or $his minimum s$an#ar#% mur#er has high s$igma8
mur#er has high 'enal$y8 mur#er has highes$ #egree o moral blamewor$hiness(
-ommentary#
- ault te. Marie 0 &our$ hel# $ha$ M<R was reHuire# or T$rue &rimesT bu$ $ha$ leg &oul# #is'la&e $his
'resum'$ion using &lear language( S( 230 uses &lear language an# obli$era$es $he nee# or M<R )no reHuiremen$
o ob,e&$i-e or sub,e&$i-e oreseeabili$y o #ea$h*( CU+D&our$ in $his &ase hel# $ha$ ob,e&$i-e oreseeabili$y o
#ea$h is minimum &ons$i$u$ional s$# or mur#er
- Lamer $hin1s $ha$ sub,e&$i-e oreseeabili$y o #ea$h shoul# be reHuire# bu$ #oesnX$ go $ha$ ar( 5o$e $ha$ &ounsel
or $he a'l$ sai# $ha$ $here shoul# be sub,e&$i-e M<R reHuiremen$ or all &riminal liabili$y $his woul# be a
JBRY subs$an$ial &hange in $he &riminal law 0 woul# elimina$e manslaugh$er\
- +his &ase was an 5A(%?I$AD5( =HY> b<& elimina$e# a -ery im'$ $y'e o mur#er wi$h long his$ory
- FBL65Y MUR@BR )in $he USA*8 $ra&e# ba&1 $o Co1e in 1K00s
- +wo $y'es o unlawul a&$ 1illings mur#er )Telonies #angerous $o lieT* an# M<S )all o$her unlawul a&$s*(
- Poli&y behin# S( 230)#* )1* ease bur#en on Crown )#ii&ul$ $o 'ro-e in$en$* 0 wi#ens groun#s on whi&h a
'erson who 1ills wi$h a wea'on &an be oun# guil$y )22!)a*)7* an# )ii* A5@ 230)#*8 )2* #e$erren&e o &rimes
&ommi$$e# wi$h guns( 5o$e $ha$ $hese 'oli&y reasons &a$&h Jaillan&our$ in $his &ase 0 $here was absolu$ely 56
e-i#en&e o in$en$ on his 'ar$. $hus he &oul# no$ be &augh$ by s( 22!
- Problem wi$h S( 230 &an &a$&h a&&i#en$al #ea$hs )e(g( R v. Ro"e /1!L14 #u#e who sli''e# while &arrying
gun. guy #ie#( Cour$ hel# $ha$ he was guil$y o mur#er b<& $he 1illing o&&urre# while he was Tin ligh$T rom
&ommi$$ing arme# robbery*( +his was one reason $he &our$ s$ru&1 $he se&$ion #own(
- Cour$ hol#s S( 230)#* $o be un&ons$i$u$ional e-en $hough $here &oul# be &on-i&$ions un#er S( 230)#* whi&h
woul# ha-e a$ leas$ ob,e&$i-e oreseeabili$y o #ea$h(
Page P! o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
-A+5# (. ". 9artineau
R. v. Martineau , <6::=> +.-.-. p. M;8
,acts#
- A&&use# an# &om'anion se$ ou$ wi$h guns $o &ommi$ a &rime( A&&use# $hough$ i$ woul# only be a brea1 an#
en$er(
- A$er $hey robbe# a &ou'leXs home. $he &om'anion sho$ an# 1ille# $hem(
- Com'anion $ol# a&&use# $ha$ he sho$ $hem b<& $hey saw $heir a&es( A&&use# res'on#e# $ha$ T$hey &oul#nX$ see
me &ause 7 ha# a mas1 onT
- A&&use# was &on-i&$e# o 2
n#
#egree mur#er(
- Challenge# &on-i&$ion on basis $ha$ S( 230)a* &on$ra-enes S( P an# S( 11)#* o Char$er(
&ssue#
7s S( 230)a* un&ons$i$u$ional> =ha$ is $he minimum mens rea reHuiremen$ or mur#er>
?eld#
Un&ons$i$u$ional( Min mens rea reHuiremen$ or mur#er is sub,e&$i-e oreseeabili$y o #ea$h or li1elihoo# o #ea$h
(atio#
- A s'e&ial men$al elemen$ wr$ #ea$h is ne&essary beore a &ul'able homi&i#e &an be $rea$e# as mur#er( +ha$
s'e&ial men$al elemen$ gi-es rise $o $he moral blamewor$hiness $ha$ ,us$iies $he s$igma an# 'unishmen$
a$$a&hing $o mur#er(
- 7$ is $hus a 'rin&i'le o un#amen$al ,us$i&e $ha$ sub,e&$i-e oresigh$ o #ea$h is reHuire# beore a &on-i&$ion or
mur#er &an be sus$aine#(
- 7 sub,e&$i-e oresigh$ o #ea$h is reHuire# 0 &as$s #oub$ on &ons$i$u$ional -ali#i$y o S( 22!)&*
<.issent 2 'P?.>#
- Sub,e&$i-e oresigh$ is no$ $he only a''ro'ria$e s$an#ar# $ha$ &an be a''lie# $o &onorm wi$h s( P an# 11)#* o
$he &har$er( Reasons% )1* $es$ o ob, oreseeabili$y o #ea$h or mur#er #oes no$ oen# $he 'rin&i'les o
un#amen$al ,us$i&e8 )2* e9&lusi-e s$# o sub,e&$i-e oresigh$ o #ea$h or $he &rime o mur#er has no 'arallel in
o$her NL ,uris#i&$ions8 )3* signii&an$ 'oli&y &onsi#era$ions in a-our o u'hol#ing e9is$ing legisla$ion(
- +es$s o sub,e&$i-e oresigh$ an# ob,e&$i-e oreseeabili$y &anno$ be seen as s$a$i& or #is$in&$ &on&e'$s( 7n mos$
&ir&ums$an&es #elinea$e# by s( 213)a*. #ea$h will be bo$h ob,e&$i-ely an# sub,e&$i-ely oreseeabl(e +hey are no$
mu$ually e9&lusi-e( LXH@ re,e&$s a Tas$i#ious a#heren&eT $o 'res&ribe# labels(
- S( 213)a* has an amalgama$ion o 'rereHuisi$es )see '( FLK* whi&h es$ablish $ha$ $he &rime is $an$amoun$ $o one
whi&h has ob oreseeabili$y as an essen$ial elemen$ )'roo o all elemen$s lea#s $o ineEorable conclusion $ha$
resul$ing #ea$h is ob,e&$i-ely oreseeable*
- Com'ara$i-e 0 su##en in$ro#u&$ion o a sub,e&$i-e oresigh$ s$# or &rime o mur#er is 56JBL )no$ obser-e# in
o$her NL ,uris#i&$ions*
- Poli&y &onsi#era$ions% MA5Y homi&i#e oen&es o&&urre# #uring $he &ommission o ano$her &riminal a&$ 0 i$ is
a ma$$er o &ri$i&al 'ubli& &on&ern
- Prin&i'les in $he s( ha-e e9is$e# or o-er 300 years
ParlXs legisla$i-e ob,e&$i-e 0 $o #e$er $hose who &ommi$ &rime rom in$en$ionally inli&$ing harm( Parl el$ $ha$
$his was $he righ$ way $o ensure law was in a&&or#an&e wi$h so&ial -alues as $o $he gra-i$y o su&h 1illings(
Person has alrea#y a&$e# wi$h in$en$ $o &ommi$ $wo serious &rimes(
- LamerXs &on&en$ra$ion on S6C7AL S+7"MA is o-erem'hasi;e#( Bgregious e9am'le o mis'la&e# &om'assion(
Manslaugh$erer is no be$$er $han mur#erer\
- 6b,e&$i-e oreseeabili$y o #ea$h $es$ or &rime o mur#er is &ons$i$u$ionally -ali#(
- +he Char$er #oes no$ gi-e &our$s $he 'ower $o #e&lare leg in-ali# on $he basis $ha$ $hey belie-e i$ is un#esirable
as &riminal law 'oli&y(
($'5#
Minimum &ons$i$u$ional s$an#ar# or mur#er is now sub,e&$i-e oreseeabili$y o #ea$h( 7$ is no$ sui&ien$ $ha$
a&&use# Tough$ $o 1nowT $ha$ #ea$h is li1ely resul$ o his a&$ions( Main reasons or $his reHuiremen$ 0 s$igma. moral
blamewor$hiness. high 'unishmen$ #eman# s'e&ial men$al elemen$(
-ommentary#
Page K0 o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- Why didnPt 'P?. li4e this standard? )1* no 'arallel in any NL ,uris#i&$ion8 )2* $ime0$es$e# 'rin&i'les8 )3*
many elemen$s in s( 230)a* G $an$amoun$ $o ob,e&$i-e or sub,e&$i-e oreseeabili$y o #ea$h8 )F* Oe# so&ial
s$igma argumen$ )#oes 'ubli& 1now #ieren&e b$wn mur#er an# manslaugh$er>* )L* issue o how a&$i-e &our$s
shoul# be wr$ o-erri#ing $he 'oli&y wis#om o $he legisla$or(
- A$er $his &ase &an only in# mur#er base# on S( 22! )no longer S( 230*

)O%5 (pae M7B2M78) +.
- R. v. it /1!!14 0 &our$ ma#e i$ &lear $ha$ S( 230)&* was also un&ons$i$u$ional sin&e i$ has a $es$ o ob,e&$i-e
oresigh$ o #ea$h an# $hus #oes no$ in-ol-e 'roo CR@ $ha$ $he a&&use# ha# sub,e&$i-e oresigh$ o $he #ea$h o
$he -i&$im )as reHuire# by Martineau*
- =ha$ abou$ S( 22!)&*>
- Meiler /1!!!4 65 C(A( hel# $ha$ ,ury &oul# &on-i&$ on $he basis o s( 22!)&* i i$ oun# $ha$ $he a&&use# or an
unlawul ob,e&$ #i# any$hing 1nowing i$ was li1ely $o &ause S6MB65BXS #ea$h( B#i$or 0 &an &ri$i&i;e $his
#e&ision or no$ a#o'$ing a narrower in$er're$a$ion limi$ing s( 22!)&* $o a 'erson who ha# a sub,e&$i-e
awareness o $he li1elihoo# o $he a&$ual -i&$imXs #ea$h( Case a''ears $o resurre&$ a $y'e o &ons$ru&$i-e mur#er
$ha$ $he S(C( ha# #e&lare# un&ons$i$u$ional(
First Degree Murder
- 5o$e $ha$ S( 231 #oesnX$ &rea$e a se'ara$e subs$an$i-e oen&e o irs$ #egree mur#er( Ra$her.
i$ &ons$i$u$es a &hara&$eri;a$ion. or sen$en&ing 'ur'oses. o $he subs$an$i-e oen&e o mur#er
in ss( 22! an# 230( )$hus mus$ in# all elemen$s or mur#er in S( 22!*
- R. v. 4%gaard% &our$ hel# $ha$ $he men$al s$a$e #es&ribe# in s( 22!)a*)ii* is 56+ in&om'a$ible
wi$h 'lanne# an# #elibera$e in S( 231)2*( /A&&use# mus$ 'lan an# #elibera$e $o &ause $errible
bo#ily harm $ha$ he 1nows is li1ely $o resul$ in #ea$h4(
- Re( S( 231)L* Twhile &ommi$$ing or a$$em'$ing $o &ommi$T Re&all Pare% 5ee# no$ be
an e9a&$ &oin&i#en&e b$wn $he a&$ &ausing $he #ea$h an# $he a&$s &ons$i$u$ing $he un#erlying
oen&e( 7$ is sui&ien$ $ha$ $hey orm 'ar$ o one &on$inuous seHuen&e o e-en$s orming a
single $ransa&$ion(
-A+5# ( ". +mith
R. v. Smith , <6:@:> +as4. -.A., pae M78
,acts#
- Smi$h. Swar&hu1 an# Massier were rien#s( )$hey were weir#os who engage# in a lo$ o #rugs an# #es$ru&$ion*
- 6ne #ay $he $hree o $hem wen$ in$o a rural area $o #o some hun$ing( +hey $oo1 some guns(
- =hile #ri-ing $here. Smi$h an# Swar&hu1 were $a1ing -alium 'ills an# Smi$h &onsume# almos$ an en$ire
mi&1ey o rye(
- Swar&hu1 an# Smi$h go$ in$o an argumen$( +hey were 'oin$ing guns a$ ea&h o$her( Smi$h sho$ Swar&hu1 in $he
arm an# Swar&hu1 s$ar$e# running( Massier began as1ing Smi$h Hues$ions( 103 minu$es la$er. Smi$h reloa#e#
$he sho$0gun( Swar&hu1 $urne# an# ran( Smi$h sho$ a$ him rom long range an# Swar&hu1 ell $o $he groun#(
- Smi$h $hen wal1e# u' $o Swar&hu1 an# sho$ him in $he ba&1 o $he hea#( Swar&hu1 ell ba&1 )#ea#*(
- A$ $rial. Smi$h was &harge# an# &on-i&$e# o irs$0#egree mur#er un#er s( 231(
&ssue#
=as $here e-i#en&e o 'lanning an# #elibera$ion u'on whi&h ,ury &oul# 'ossibly in# a&&use# guil$y o 1
s$
#egree
mur#er>
?eld#
5o( Con-i&$ion re#u&e# $o 2
n#
#egree mur#er(
(atio#
- Mus$ be 'ro-e# CR@ $ha$ $he mur#er was 'lanne# an# #elibera$e(
Page K1 o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- Planne# means Tarrange# beorehan#T( Means a &al&ula$e# s&heme or #esign whi&h has been &areully $hough
ou$8 na$ure an# &onseHuen&es ha-e been &onsi#ere# an# weighe#( +he 1illing mus$ be an im'lemen$a$ion o
$ha$ 'lan( Planning &anno$ be &onuse# wi$h in$en$ion 0 $he 'lanning woul# only o&&ur a$er $he in$en$ $o mur#er
ha# been orme#(
- @elibera$e means T&onsi#ere#. no$ im'ulsi-eT( 7$ #oes no$ ,us$ mean Tin$en$ionalT(
- 7n #e&i#ing i 'lanne# an# #elibera$e. ,ury shoul# &onsi#er% e-i#en&e o a&&use#Xs a&$ions. e-i#en&e o a&&use#Xs
&on#i$ion )i(e( his s$a$e o min# as ae&$e# by ei$her real or imagine# insul$s. 'ro-o1ing a&$ions an#
&onsum'$ion o al&ohol*
- 7$ is 'ossible $o imagine a mur#er $o some #egree 'lanne# an# ye$ no$ #elibera$e(
- 7n $his &ase. ,u#ge erre# in #e&i#ing $ha$ $here was sui&ien$ e-i#en&e $ha$ $he mur#er was 'lanne#( +here was
no e-i#en&e $ha$ a&$ions o Smi$h were $he im'lemen$a$ion o a 're-iously #e$ermine# #esign( His a&$ions were
a resul$ o a su##en im'ulse( T7$ woul# be 'ure s'e&ula$ion $o $ry an# #e$ermine wha$ $riggere# $ha$ im'ulseT(
T7$ may well be $ha$ $he 1illing was #elibera$eT(
($'5#
Planne# means Tarrange# beorehan#T 0 $here mus$ be a &al&ula$e# s&heme or #esign whi&h has been &areully
$hough$ ou$8 $he 1illing mus$ be an im'lemen$a$ion o $ha$ 'lan( @elibera$e means T&onsi#ere#. no$ im'ulsi-eT(
Co$h 'lanne# an# #elibera$e mus$ mean some$hing more $han in$en$ional )b<& alrea#y ha-e in$en$ wr$ S( 22!*(
-ommentary#
- 9ust consider the %&95 factor 0 in $his &ase. $he $ime b$wn sho$s shows #elibera$eness bu$
no$ a PLA5( How long #oes i$ $a1e $o 'lan> Anno$a$ions% ConseHuen&es mus$ be weighe#
an# &onsi#ere# bu$ 'lan nee# no$ be &om'li&a$e#( +ime in-ol-e# in #e-elo'ing $he 'lan is an
im'$ elemen$ )bu$ no$ $ime b$wn #e-elo'men$ o 'lan an# &arrying ou$ o 'lan*(
- -onsidered and not impulsi"e Anno$a$ions% Tslow in #e&i#ingT. T&au$iousT. a&&use#
mus$ $a1e $ime $o weigh$ $he a#-an$ages an# #isa#-an$ages o $he in$en#e# a&$ion(
- SH )S1lar*% You &an be #elibera$e in a ma$$er o mins<se&on#s CU+ &anno$ 'lan in su&h a
shor$ $ime( +here was a &ons&ious #e&ision when he wen$ $o shoo$ him in $he hea#Dbu$ no
'lan(
- 'ine btwn 6
st
and B
nd
deree murder would be "ery thin if this was considered 6
st
deree
murder( Smi$h was &learly -iolen$ 0 bu$ $he mur#er was #eini$ely no$ 'lanne#( =oul# no$
be a''ro'ria$e $o ha-e su&h a $hin line =HY> C<& $he 'enal$y or 1
s$
#egree mur#er is
-ery H7"H )higher $han in mos$ ,uris#i&$ions*8 moral &ul'abili$y is s$resse# in many &ases8
Mur#er 1 is a -ery heinous &rime(
-A+5# (. ". )yaard
R. v. 3y'aard ; Schimmens , <6:G:> +.-.-., pae M7G
,acts#
- M bough$ &ar s$ereo rom 5( CheHue )signe# by + an# H* boun&e#(
- 5 $ol# M $ha$ i ma$$er no$ &leare# u' $ha$ #ay. &oul# e9'e&$ $rouble( La$er $ha$ #ay 5. S an# ano$her wen$ $o
MXs a'ar$men$( S s$ru&1 M on orehea# w< baseball ba$( Also a$$a&1e# H wi$h $he ba$( S #ie#(
- S an# 5 were &harge# wi$h 1
s$
#egree mur#er an# &on-i&$e# a$ $rial
&ssue#
Can &harge o irs$ #egree mur#er be base# ss( 22!)a*)ii* an# 231)2*>
?eld#
Yes( A''eal #ismisse#(
(atio#
- Blemen$ o 'lanning an# #elibera$ion ma1es 1
s$
#egree mur#er more &ul'able an# ,us$iies $he harsher sen$en&e(
- Mens rea reHuire# by s( 22!)a*)ii*> 7n$en$ $o &ause bo#ily harm whi&h he 1nows is li1ely $o &ause #ea$h
&ombine# wi$h re&1lessness )'ersis$s in &on#u&$ #es'i$e $he 1nowle#ge o ris1 o #ea$h*( )no nee# $o in$en# $o
&ause #ea$h>*
Page K2 o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- Ji$al elemen$ o $he reHuisi$e in$en$% &ausing su&h bo#ily harm $ha$ $he 'er'e$ra$or 1nows is li1ely $o &ause
#ea$h an# ye$ 'ersis$s in $he assaul$(
- 7$ is 'ossible $o &ou'le T'lanning an# #elibera$ionT in S( 231)2* wi$h $his mens rea( +he a&&use# mus$ 'lan an#
#elibera$e $o &ause $he bo#ily harm whi&h is li1ely $o be a$al( +his ne&essarily in&lu#es $he 'lanning an#
#elibera$ing $o 'ersis$ in $ha$ &on#u&$ #es'i$e $he 1nowle#ge o $he ris1( /SH% $his is &ra;yD&ause i you are
'lanning an# #elibera$ing $o 'ersis$ in some$hing you 1now will &ause #ea$hD(i$ #oesnX$ sugges$ $ha$ you 'lan
$o &ause $he #ea$h>4( /SH% how woul# $his reHuiremen$ #ier wr$ 22!)a*)i*
- +he mur#er in 22!)a*)i* -aries li$$le in #egree o &ul'abili$y $han $he mur#er in S( 22!)a*)ii*( ),u#ge &i$es
Jaillan&our$ or $his 0 $al1ing abou$ #egrees o rela9a$ion in $he mur#er s$a$u$es*
- /SH% #ieren&e b$wn re&1lessness an# mur#er wi$h in$en$ $y'e 2 )where 1nowle#geGin$en$*4
($'5#
7$ is 'ossible $o &ou'le T'lanning an# #elibera$ionT in S( 231)2* wi$h $he mens rea in S( 22!)a*)ii* /i(e( &ausing bo#ily
harm $ha$ he 1nows is li1ely $o &ause #ea$h an# ye$ 'ersis$ing4( +he a&&use# mus$ 'lan an# #elibera$e $o &ause $he
bo#ily harm whi&h is li1ely $o be a$al( +his ne&essarily in&lu#es $he 'lanning an# #elibera$ing $o 'ersis$ in $ha$
&on#u&$ #es'i$e $he 1nowle#ge o $he ris1(
F - Recklessness and Wilful Blindness
-A+5# +ansreret ". (
Sansre'ret v. R , <6:G;> +.-.-., pae ;=G
- Re&1lessness an# negligen&e are $wo #is$in&$ &on&e'$s(
- )elience 0 $es$e# by ob,e&$i-e s$# o $he reasonable man8 #e'ar$ure rom s$# o &are o or#inary reasonable
'erson( /regular negligen&e is no$ $he basis or &riminal 'enal$ies4
- (ec4lessness 0 mus$ ha-e an elemen$ o $he sub,e&$i-e $he a$$i$u#e o one who. aware $ha$ $here is a #anger
$ha$ his &on#u&$ &oul# bring abou$ $he resul$ 'rohibi$e# by $he &riminal law. ne-er$heless 'ersis$s #es'i$e $he
ris1( 6ne who SBBS +HB R7SN A5@ +ANBS +HB CHA5CB( /Mar$in in C -( @ ris1 mus$ be
Tun,us$iiableT4
- =illul blin#ness is an as'e&$ o re&1lessness bu$ $he $wo mus$ be 1e'$ se'ara$e b<& $hey resul$ rom #ieren$
men$al a$$i$u#es an# lea# $o #ieren$ legal resul$s(
- (ec4lessness ". Willful blindness# while R in-ol-es 1nowle#ge o a #anger or ris1 an# 'ersis$en&e in a &ourse
o &on#u&$ whi&h &rea$es a ris1 $ha$ $he 'rohibi$e# resul$ will o&&ur. =C arises where a 'erson who has be&ome
aware o $he nee# or some inHuiry #e&lines $o ma1e $he inHuiry b<& he #oes no$ wish $o 1now $ru$h( He woul#
'reer $o remain ignoran$(
- Cul'abili$y in R ,us$iie# by &ons&iousness o ris1 an# 'ro&ee#ing in a&e o i$(
- Cul'abili$y in =C ,us$iie# by a&&use#Xs aul$ in #elibera$ely ailing $o inHuire when he 1nows $here is a reason
or inHuiry )i(e( his sus'i&ions are arouse#*(
- =hen 'ar$y is willully blin#. he is #eeme# $o ha-e N56=LB@"B( /SH% &om'are $o re&1lessness4( =7LFUL
CL75@5BSS 7S BOU7JALB5+ +6 N56=LB@"B(
- "lan-ille =illiams 0 =C G 1nowle#ge is an uns$able rule( 6nly in# =C where i$ &an almos$ be sai# $ha$ $he
#$ AC+UALLY N5B=( ReHuires a in#ing $ha$ $he #$ in$en#e# $o &hea$ $he a#minis$ra$ion o ,us$i&e(
(ule
WJ R Dnowlede. @eXn% 'erson who has be&ome aware o nee# or inHuiry )sus'i&ious* #elibera$ely #e&lines $o
ma1e inHuiry b<& #oes no$ wish $o 1now $he $ru$h( =illiams% A&&use# mus$ sus'e&$ $he a&$8 reali;e i$s 'robabili$y8
bu$ rerain rom ob$aining inal &onirma$ion b<& he wan$e# $o #eny 1nowle#ge( ReHuires $ha$ a&&use# in$en#e# $o
&hea$ $he a#minis$ra$ion o ,us$i&e(
(ec4lessness# 'erson is aware $ha$ $here is a ris1 $ha$ his &on#u&$ &oul# bring abou$ $he 'rohibi$e# resul$Dbu$
'ersis$s in his ris1y &on#u&$( /C -( @ a&&use# mus$ $a1e $he ris1 un,us$iiably4
Page K3 o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
-ommentary (+4lar)#
- Nnowle#ge o a ris1 $ha$ some$hing will ha''en an# 1nowle#ge $ha$ some$hing =7LL ha''en 0 $here are
#ieren$( +he ormer is re&1lessness( +he la$$er is in$en$ion( /#iering #egrees o &er$ain$y4
- =ha$ is an Sunjustifiable ris4S +here is a ris1 $o e-ery$hing( Pro&ee#ing in $he a&e o a ris1 may be
,us$iiable in some ins$an&es )e(g( man in s'ee#ing &ar rushing baby $o $he hos'i$al*(
- -ontrast to defPn in R. v. Miller (pae B@M)#
- "uil$y o oen&e when se$s in $rain e-en$s whi&h. when a&&use# be&omes aware o $hem.
woul# ma1e i$ ob-ious $o anyone who $rouble# $o gi-e his min# $o $hem $ha$ $hey 'resen$ a
ris1 $ha$ 'ro'er$y belonging $o ano$her woul# be #amage# )an# he $a1es no s$e's $o 're-en$
or re#u&e $ha$ ris1*(
-ompare )elience, (ec4lessness, and WJ
- 5egligen&e 0 no $hough$s going $hrough his hea# 0 Ta reasonable 'erson woul# ha-e been
aware o $he ris1T
- Re&1lessness 0 sub,e&$i-ely aware o $he R7SN bu$ 'ro&ee#s anyway )an# ris1 is
un,us$iiable*
- =ilul Clin#ness 0 sub,e&$i-ely aware o $he nee# or inHuiry )$he ris1>* bu$
@BL7CBRA+BLY FA7LS $o ma1e $he inHuiry b<& o ear o &onseHuen&es )mus$
&onseHuen&es be 'enal> =illiams $hin1s so 0 mus$ in$en# $o &hea$ $he a#min o ,us$i&e*
- Re&1lessness s$o's wi$h awareness( =C goes one s$e' ur$her $han awareness 0 reHuires
#elibera$e ailure $o ma1e inHuiry b<& o ear o &onseHuen&es(
- 5Eample# woman who reali;es $ha$ someone may ha-e sli''e# #rugs in$o her sui$&ase
bu$ she ails $o as1 or her sui$&ase ba&1 b<& she is worrie# $ha$ she will be Tsi&1 wi$h
ner-ousnessT on $he way home =ilul blin#ness> Maybe 0 seems $o i$ in$o $he #eXn(
CU+D#oesnX$ a''ear $ha$ she has $he in$en$ion $o &hea$ $he a#minis$ra$ion o ,us$i&e( /SH%
'erha's re&1lessness she is aware o a ris1 $ha$ she is 'ossessing #rugs bu$ 'ro&ee#s
anyway4
- May wan$ $o argue $ha$ in$en$ion $o &hea$ a#min o ,us$i&e is a reHuire# elemen$ b<& =C is a
higher s$a$e o min# an# $hus ough$ $o reHuire a grea$er #egree o moral &ul'abili$y(
-A+5# (. ". *orensen
R. v. Jor'ensen , <6::7> +.-.-., pae 6G8
,acts#
A owne# an# o'era$e# an a#ul$ -i#eo s$ore(
Un#er&o-er 'oli&e oi&ers bough$ K o his -i#eos an# &harge# him wi$h K &oun$s o 1nowingly selling obs&ene
ma$erial w<o lawul ,us$ii&a$ion or e9&use /&on$rary $o s( 1M3)2*)a*4(
Con-i&$e# a$ $rial8 &on-i&$ion u'hel# a$ C(A(
&ssue#
=ha$ is $he mens rea reHuire# by s( 1M3)2*)a* )$he wor# T1nowinglyT*>
?eld#
A''eal allowe# 0 subs$i$u$e# a&Hui$$al(
(atio#
- =ha$ #oes 'roo o 1nowle#ge en$ail> re$ailer a&$ually wa$&he# -i#eo 6R e-i#en&e o warnings. #ire&$ions
rom e9$ernal sour&es e$&(
- 7n a''ro'ria$e &ir&ums$an&es. $he Crown may rely on 'roo o willul blin#ness where $he O $o be #e$ermine#
rom all $he &ir&ums$an&es is T@i# $he a&&use# shu$ his eyes be&ause he 1new or s$rongly sus'e&$e# $ha$ loo1ing
woul# i9 him wi$h 1nowle#ge>T
(ule#
Page KF o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
Proo o =C G 'roo o 1nowle#ge )where mens rea reHuiremen$ is T1nowinglyT*( +o 'ro-e =C. as1 T@i# $he
a&&use# shu$ his eyes be&ause he 1new or s$rongly sus'e&$e# $ha$ loo1ing woul# i9 him wi$h 1nowle#ge>T
-A+5# (. ". -urrie
R. v. Currie , <6:@;> O) -.A., pae ;6=
Fa&$s%
- A #u#e a''roa&he# Currie an# oere# him QL $o &ash a &heHue or him( +he &heHue ha# a signa$ure o
en#orsemen$ on $he ba&1 /i$ was orge# by $he #u#e who ga-e him $he &heHue4(
- Currie $oo1 i$ $o $he ban1. &ashe# i$ an# ga-e $he &ash $o $he #u#e(
- +rial ,u#ge a&&e'$e# as e-i#en&e $he a&&use#Xs $es$imony $ha$ he ha# no sus'i&ion $ha$ $he &heHue #i# no$ belong
$o $he #u#e(
- He was &harge# an# &on-i&$e# wi$h unlawully an# 1nowingly u$$ering a orge# #o&umen$ on $he basis $ha$ he
was willully blin# as $o $he orge# na$ure o $he en#orsemen$(
&ssue#
@i# a&&use# 1now $ha$ $he en#orsemen$ on $he &heHue was orge#>
?eld#
5o( A''eal allowe#(
(atio#
<9artin>#
- 7$ is no$ enough $ha$ $he a&&use# shoul# ha-e been sus'i&ious( =illul blin#ness reHuires $ha$ $he a&&use# has a
sus'i&ion whi&h he #elibera$ely omi$s $o $urn in$o &er$ain 1nowle#ge /SH% b<& he $hin1s i$ is ba#4
- +he a&$ $ha$ a 'erson ough$ $o ha-e 1nown $ha$ &er$ain a&$s e9is$e# #oes 56+ &ons$i$u$e 1nowle#ge or $he
'ur'ose o &riminal liabili$y. an# #oes no$ by i$sel orm a basis or $he a''li&a$ion o $he #o&$rine o =C(
<.issent>#
C( +he a'l$ is guil$y on $he groun# o willul blin#ness b<& )as $rial ,u#ge oun#* he T#elibera$ely or 1nowinglyT
negle&$e# $o ma1e $he inHuiries whi&h he ough$ $o ha-e ma#e( +his in#ing sugges$s $ha$ he was in a&$
sus'i&ious o $he au$hen$i&i$y o $he &heHue. or o$herwise he &oul#nX$ ha-e T#elibera$elyT aile# $o ma1e $he
ne&essary inHuiries(
($'5#
=ilul blin#ness reHuires $ha$ a&&use# himsel #elibera$ely aile# $o inHuire in$o his sus'i&ions( +he a&$ $ha$ a
'erson 6U"H+ $o ha-e or SH6UL@ ha-e inHuire# #oes no$ &ons$i$u$e 1nowle#ge or wilul blin#ness(
-A+5# (. ". Jlondin
R. v. ,londin , <6:@6> J.-. -.A., pae ;68
,acts#
- Clon#in arri-e# a$ Jan&ou-er Air'or$ on ligh$ rom Aa'an( He wen$ $o $he airline #es1 $o &olle&$ $he s&uba
ou$i$ he ha# shi''e#(
- +he weigh$ o $he s&uba $an1 arouse# sus'i&ion in $he &us$oms oi&ial an# a R(C(M(P( &ons$able( Clon#in $hus
a&&om'anie# $hem $o an AHua$i& sho' $o ha-e $he $an1 &he&1e# ou$(
- +he $an1 was oun# $o &on$ain 23 lbs o hashish( Clon#in e9'laine# $ha$ someone ha# 'ai# him $o bring $he
$an1 o-er an# $ha$ he 1new i$ &on$aine# some$hing illegal( Clon#in #i# no$ 1now $ha$ i$ &on$aine# hashish nor
#i# he e-en 1now wha$ hashish was(
- Clon#in was &harge# wi$h im'or$ing a nar&o$i& in$o Cana#a( He was a&Hui$$e# a$ $rial(
&ssue#
@i# $he $rial ,u#ge err when he ins$ru&$e# $he ,ury $ha$ i$ mus$ in# CR@ $ha$ Clon#in 1new $ha$ $he subs$an&e in $he
$an1 was hashish>
?eld#
Yes( A''eal allowe#
(atio#
<(obertson>#
Page KL o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- An essen$ial ingre#ien$ o $he oen&e is $he im'or$a$ion o a nar&o$i& 0 woul# $hus no$ be sui&ien$ $o in# $ha$
Clon#in 1new $ha$ $he subs$an&e in $he $an1 was illegal an# #i# no$ 1now i$ was a nar&o$i&( /Mus$ show
1nowle#ge $ha$ subs$an&e is a nar&o$i&4
- CU+Dmens rea reHuiremen$ )1nowle#ge* woul# be sa$isie# by in#ing $ha$ Clon#in 1new $ha$ i$ was an illegal
subs$an&e A5@ ei$her )1* 1new $ha$ i$ was a nar&o$i&8 )2* was re&1less abou$ i$s na$ure8 )3* willully shu$ his
eyes $o wha$ i$ was )G iner $ha$ he sus'e&$e# $ha$ i$ migh$ be a nar&o$i&*(
<9c,arlane>#
- Aury shoul# ha-e been ins$ru&$e# $ha$ onus on $he Crown was $o 'ro-e CR@ $ha$ Clon#in 1new $he subs$an&e
was a nar&o$i&. al$hough no$ ne&essarily hashish(
- Proo o 1nowle#ge% $he e9is$en&e o 1nowle#ge may be inerre# as a a&$. w< #ue regar# $o all $he
&ir&ums$an&es. i $he ,ury in#s $ha$ $he a&&use# has re&1lessly or wilully shu$ his eyes or reraine# rom inHuiry
as $o $he na$ure o $he subs$an&e he im'or$s(
/SH% i he 1nows i$ is an illegal subs$an&e 0 're$$y easy $o iner $ha$ he 1new $ha$ i$ was a nar&o$i&>D#o you nee# $o
show any$hing else>4
(ule#
=here a &rime reHuires N56=LB@"B. a&$ual 1nowle#ge. R an# =C is ea&h sui&ien$( 7n $he &ase o #rug
$rai&1ing or 'ossession. $he Crown mus$ 'ro-e CR@ $ha$ a&&use# 1new i$ was a #rug. was aware $ha$ $here was a
ris1 i$ was a #rug bu$ 'ro&ee#e# anyway 6R was sus'i&ious $ha$ i$ migh$ be a #rug bu$ #elibera$ely aile# $o ma1e
ur$her inHuiry(
-ommentary (+D'A()#
- /londin was u'hel# in $he S(C( bu$ &our$ #i# no$ #is&uss $he issue o whe$her re&1lessness sui&es or
1nowle#ge(
- andhu o-er$urne# $his hol#ing8 andhu was u'hel# in 8ino+urov )AC C(A(*
- 5o$e $ha$ Clon#in ga-e his awareness away T7 guess 7Xm in or i$T( =oul# ha-e been mu&h more #ii&ul$ $o
'ro-e R i he ha# sai# no$hing CU+D&oul# ha-e inerre# awareness i Tanyone was aware $ha$ $here was
ris1 o subs$an&e in $an1 being a nar&o$i&T(
- Argumen$ F6R $he a''roa&h in Clon#in% Bases bur#en on Crown8 mu&h easier $o show CR@ $ha$ a&&use# was
aware o ris1( Showing $ha$ he #elibera$ely aile# $o ma1e inHuiry reHuires ano$her s$e'(
-A+5# (. ". +andhu
R. v. Sandhu , <6:G:> O) -.A., pae ;67
,acts#
- A'l$ re$urne# $o Pearson 7n$Xl Air'or$ rom $ri' $o 7n#ia(
- Cus$oms oi&ials sear&he# his bags an# oun# 1lb o heroin sewn in$o $he lining o $wo ,a&1e$s an# 2 g o
heroin in his walle$(
- A$ $rial he $es$iie# $ha$ while in 7n#ia he ha# an aair wi$h a wi#ow an# $ha$ he agree# $o be a &ourier or some
gi$s she wan$e# $o gi-e her rela$i-es( He also sai# $ha$ he was $o$ally ignoran$ o $he heroin he was &arrying(
- He was &on-i&$e# or im'or$ing heroin in$o Cana#a an# or 'ossession o heroin or 'ur'oses o $rai&1ing(
&ssue#
@i# $he $rial ,u#ge err by ins$ru&$ing $he ,ury $ha$ i$ ha# $hree bases on whi&h $o &on-i&$ )i(e( $o in# $ha$ a&&use# ha#
N56=LB@"B*% A&$ual 1nowle#ge 6R wilul blin#ness 6R re&1lessness>
?eld#
Yes( A''eal allowe#8 new $rial or#ere#(
(atio#
- Aury was $ol# $ha$ $here were $hree bases on whi&h $o &on-i&$ )a&$ual 1nowle#ge. =C. R*
- Aury was no$ $ol# $ha$ =C is $he eHui-alen$ o a&$ual 1nowle#ge. bu$ #ieren$ $han R( =C is im'u$e#
1nowle#ge while re&1lessness is Hui$e ano$her $hing(
- =here an oen&e reHuires N56=LB@"B on $he 'ar$ o $he a&&use#. i$ is im'ro'er $o ins$ru&$ $he ,ury $ha$ a
in#ing o re&1lessness sa$isies $ha$ reHuiremen$(
- =hen s$a$u$e says T1nowinglyT. R is insui&ien$8 =C is eHui-alen$ $o a&$ual 1nowle#ge(
- RBCNLBSS5BSS 7S LBSS +HA5 N56=LB@"B )i$ has an elemen$ o negligen&e*
(ule#
Page KM o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
=here a &rime reHuires 1nowle#ge. re&1lessness is no$ enough( =C will sui&e be&ause i$ is eHui-alen$ $o
1nowle#ge( Cu$ re&1lessness is 56+ 1nowle#ge 0 i$ is less $han 1nowle#ge(
/SH% Nnowle#ge> 7n$en$> Mus$ 'ro-ision say T1nowinglyT> 7s =C enough or in$en$>
=illull>*
-ommentary (5ditors)#
- =as $he &our$ wise $o e9&lu#e R as a sa$isa&$ory aul$ reHuiremen$ or im'or$ing nar&o$i&s> 7n /londin. R was
sui&ien$D(an# $he #e&ision was u'hel# by $he S(C(C(\
- 1!!M C(C( C(A( &ase ) R. v. Olu"a * #u#e on 'lane rom +o1yo $o Me9i&o Ci$y ha# swallowe# #rugs in or#er
$o smuggle $hem in$o Me9i&o( +here was a s&he#ule# bu$ announ&e# s$o'o-er in Jan&ou-er8 $he #rugs were
#is&o-ere#( He was &on-i&$e# o im'or$ing nar&o$i&s in$o Cana#a
- +he ,u#ges were #i-i#e#% one sai# $ha$ T$he a&&use# was. a$ $he -ery leas$. re&1less. in $ha$ he was aware o
a ris1 $ha$ $he 'lane woul# lan# in a 'la&e o$her $han his inal #es$ina$ion( +he o$her sai# $ha$ Ta&$ual
1nowle#ge o a &ons$i$uen$ a&$ o $he oen&e mus$ be shown or i$ &an be im'u$e# rom =C( R has no
a''li&a$ion(T
-ommentary (+D'A()#
- San#hu relie# on $he ]un#el &ase s$a$u$e was T1nowingly #issemina$ing alse inorma$ionT
Cour$ ha# sai# $ha$ R woul# no$ be enough(
- =e shoul#nX$ &ri$i&i;e /londin $oo mu&h R is a orm o M<R )i(e( i$ is sub,e&$i-e* 0 along
wi$h 1nowle#ge. #esire /in$en$4. an# =C(
- andhu has a be$$er legal argumen$ $he &our$ in Cea-er hel# $ha$ $his oen&e reHuires
N56=LB@"B( Re&1lessness is 56+ 1nowle#ge( S$uar$ )in $he $e9$* #isagrees wi$h $he
San#hu #e&ision on 'oli&y groun#s 0 seem $o be no 'oli&y reasons $o res$ri&$ M<R or
'ossession $o =C an# a&$ual 1nowle#ge an# e9&lu#e re&1lessness(
- S1lar is no$ ha''y wi$h $he #e&ision. bu$ or #ieren$ reasons( 7ssue o law enor&emen$ 0
$he Crown is en$i$le# $o a air $rialDbu$ mu&h more #ii&ul$ $o 'ro-e =C $han R( Ye$.
#egree o moral &ul'abili$y is roughly $he same( +hus. ease o enor&emen$ ou$weighs a
moral &ul'abili$y argumen$(
-A+5# (. ". 1ino4uro"
R. v. 8inokurov , <B==6> AJ -.A., e2reser"es
,acts#
@u#e was in 'ossession o s$olen goo#s an# #enie# 1nowing $hey were s$olen(
&ssue#
@oes re&1lessness sui&e or 1nowle#ge>
?eld#
5o(
(atio#
- +he oen&e in Hues$ion reHuires 'roo $ha$ $he a&&use# T1nowsT $ha$ 'ro'er$y ha# been
ob$aine# rom $he &ommission o an in#i&$able oen&e(
- 7$ is well es$ablishe# in &riminal law $ha$ wilul blin#ness will ulill $he mens rea
reHuiremen$( =ilul blin#ness is im'u$e# 1nowle#ge. whereas re&1lessness is some$hing less(
- =here a s$a$u$e reHuires a&$ual 1nowle#ge. wilul blin#ness will sui&e be&ause i$ is $he
eHui-alen$ o a&$ual 1nowle#ge. whereas re&1lessness is no$ an# is insui&ien$(
($'5#
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Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
Airme# andhu( =here 1nowle#ge is reHuire#. re&1lessness is insui&ien$(
-ommentary#
5o$e $ha$ $he issue in $he -as$ ma,ori$y o $hese &ases is 'ossession o some$hing &on$raban#(
=C no$ howe-er limi$e# $o su&h &ases 0 see Duong )a&&essory*. Harding )wilul 'romo$ion o
ha$re#*
-A+5# (. ". ?ardin
R. v. .ardin' , <B==6> +.-.-., on e2reser"es
,acts#
- A&&use# 'ublishe# 'am'hle$s $ha$ sai# $ha$ Muslim religion is ull o -iolen&e an# 'oses
$hrea$ $o our &hil#ren(
- He was &harge# wi$h $he wilul 'romo$ion o ha$re#
- He argue#. in his #een&e. $ha$ he #i#nX$ in$en# $o in&lu#e all Muslims8 $ha$ he was only
$al1ing abou$ Muslim $erroris$s an# ra#i&al un#amen$alis$s( He sai# $ha$ his 'ur'ose was $he
Twa1e u' Chris$ians $o $he nee# $o B-angeli;eT(
- +rial ,u#ge #i#nX$ belie-e him an# oun# $ha$ he 75+B5@B@ $o 'romo$e ha$re#(
&ssue#
@oes $he mens rea reHuiremen$ or wilul 'romo$ion o ha$re# in&lu#e wilul blin#ness>
?eld#
Yes(
(atio#
- Meaning o wilully in $he &on$e9$ o $his s$a$u$e was in$er're$e# in / v. D as reHuiring $ha$
$he a&&use# sub,e&$i-ely #esires $he 'romo$ion o ha$re# or oresees su&h a &onseHuen&e as
&er$ain or subs$an$ially &er$ain $o resul$ rom an a&$ #one in or#er $o a&hie-e some o$her
'ur'ose(
- =ilul blin#ness is ,us$ shor$ o a&$ual 1nowle#ge( A&$ual 1nowle#ge in&lu#es 'ersonal
1nowle#ge an# im'u$e# 1nowle#ge
- 7 a 'ar$y has sus'i&ion arouse# bu$ #elibera$ely omi$s $o ma1e ur$her inHuiries. b<& he
wishes $o remain in ignoran&e. he is #eeme# $o ha-e 1nowle#ge(
- +o sa$isy $he mens rea reHuiremen$ or wilul blin#ness as #eine# by M&7n$yre A( in
ansregret. $he a&$or mus$ irs$ ha-e 1* a sub,e&$i-e reali;a$ion 2* o $he li1ely resul$ o his
a&$ions an# 3* #elibera$ely a-oi# a&$ual 1nowle#ge while engaging in or 'ursuing $he a&$i-i$y
- =ilul blin#ness is more $han mere re&1lessness( Criminal law $rea$s wilul blin#ness as
eHui-alen$ $o a&$ual 1nowle#ge be&ause $he a&&use# T1new or s$rongly sus'e&$e#T $ha$
inHuiry on his 'ar$ res'e&$ing $he &onseHuen&es o his a&$s woul# i9 him wi$h $he a&$ual
1nowle#ge he wishe# $o a-oi#(
($'5#
=ilul blin#ness mus$ be seen in $he &on$e9$ o $he a''ro'ria$e M<R8 i$ mus$ be &onsis$en$ wi$h
$he le-el o 1nowle#ge or $ha$ M<R( =here $he oen&e reHuires a M<R o TwilullyT. $he
a&&use# was TwilulT i he was wilully blin# $o $he a&$ $ha$ $he 'rohibi$e# &onseHuen&e was
&er$ain or subs$an$ially &er$ain $o resul$( 7(B( He sus'e&$e# $ha$ i$ was a &er$ain resul$. bu$
#elibera$ely aile# $o ma1e inHuiry $ha$ woul# i9 him wi$h AC+UAL 1nowle#ge $ha$ he wishe#
$o a-oi#(
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Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
-A+5# ( ". .uon
R. v. (uon' , <6::G> O) -.A., pae ;B6
,acts#
- L &ommi$$e# mur#er( He &alle# u' a&&use#. in#i&a$e# $ha$ he was in $rouble or mur#er. an# as1e# $he a&&use# i
he &oul# s$ay in his a'$(
- +he a&&use# allowe# L $o hi#e in his a'$ or abou$ $wo wee1s8 $he 'oli&e rai#e# i$ an# oun# L hi#ing in $he
be#room(
+he a&&use# $ol# 'oli&e $ha$ L ha# $ol# him $ha$ he was in $rouble bu$ $ha$ $he a&&use# #i#nX$ wan$ $o 1now
any$hing more b<& he 1new he woul# be in $rouble or hel'ing him hi#e(
- +he a&&use# was &on-i&$e# o being an a&&essory a$er $he a&$ $o $he mur#er &ommi$$e# by L. 'ursuan$ $o S(
23)1* o $he Criminal Co#e(
&ssue#
?eld#
A''eal #ismisse#>
(atio#
- S( 23)1* 'ro-i#es $ha$ an Ta&&essoryT a$er $he a&$ $o an oen&e is one who. 1nowing $ha$ a 'erson has been a
'ar$y $o $he oen&e. re&ei-es. &omor$s or assis$s $ha$ 'erson or $he 'ur'ose o enabling $ha$ 'erson $o es&a'e(
- =r$ 1nowle#ge reHuiremen$. $he Crown mus$ 'ro-e $ha$ $he a&&essory a$er $he a&$ 1new o $he s'e&ii& oen&e
&ommi$$e# by $he 'erson assis$e#( +he Crown will mee$ i$s bur#en i i$ 'ro-es $ha$ $he a&&use# ha# a&$ual
1nowle#ge o $he oen&e &ommi$$e#(
- 7n $he &riminal law. =C is eHua$e# wi$h a&$ual 1nowle#ge( =here $he Crown 'ro-es $he e9is$en&e o a a&$
A5@ 1nowle#ge o $ha$ a&$ is a &om'onen$ o $he aul$ reHuiremen$ o $he &rime. =C as $o $he e9is$en&e o $ha$
a&$ is sui&ien$ $o es$ablish a &ul'able s$a$e o min#( Liabili$y base# on =C is sub,e&$i-e(
- A'l$ argues $ha$ =C &an only be relie# on i $he a&&use# whose sus'i&ions were arouse# a&$ually ha# $hee
means $o -eriy $he a&&ura&y o $hose sus'i&ions 0 a'l$ s'e&ula$e# $ha$ L woul# li1ely no$ ha-e $ol# him he ha#
&ommi$$e# mur#er( /&our$ re,e&$s $his% Liabili$y $urns on $he #e&ision no$ $o inHuire on&e real sus'i&ions arise
an# no$ on $he hy'o$he$i&al resul$ o inHuires whi&h were ne-er ma#e4(
- A'l$ also argues $ha$ e-en i =C blin#ness a''lies in $his &ase. $he ,u#ge erre# in in#ing $ha$ $he a'l$ was
wilully blin# $o $he a&$ $ha$ Lam was a 'ar$y $o mur#er( A'l$ says his sus'i&ions #i# no$ e9$en# $o mur#er
)ra$her merely $o some 'ossible in-ol-emen$ 0 e(g( wi$ness $o mur#er* /&our$ re,e&$s $his also% a&$ $ha$ $he a'l$
may ha-e &on$em'la$e# o$her 'ossible &onne&$ions b$wn L an# $he mur#ers aor#e# no bar $o in#ing $ha$ he
was =C $o $he a&$ $ha$ Lam was a 'ar$y $o mur#er4(
(ule#
=here Crown 'ro-es e9is$en&e o a a&$ an# 1nowle#ge o $ha$ a&$ is a &om'onen$ o $he aul$ reHuiremen$ o a
&rime. =C as $o $he e9is$en&e o $ha$ a&$ is sui&ien$ $o es$ablish a &ul'able s$a$e o min#(
-ommentary#
See $he wor#s s'o1en $o $he 'oli&e 0 $his is &lassi& =C\
G - The Charter Impact on Substantive Criminal Law
Murder
- See 8aillancourt an# Martineau abo-e
- Martineau% minimum &ons$i$u$ional s$an#ar# or mur#er is sub,e&$i-e oreseeabili$y o #ea$h(
Page K! o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- Following Martineau, $he 'roession wai$e# wi$h ba$e# brea$h =ha$ was $o be $he a$e o
S( 222)L*)a*> )unlawul a&$ manslaugh$er* whi&h has an ob,e&$i-e $es$ 0 mere ob,e&$i-e
oreseeabili$y o bo#ily harm )re&all mithers an# -o#idon*(
Introduction: The M/R for Predicate Ofences
Pre#i&a$e oen&es in-ol-e an un#erlying oen&e wi$h i$s own M<R reHuiremen$ an# a RBSUL+
)usually bo#ily harm or #ea$h*( Desousa an# Creighton #eal$ wi$h $he same issue% wha$ shoul#
$he M<R be or $he RBSUL+>
A$er Martineau an# 8aillancourt. $he 'roession $hough$ $ha$ S( P migh$ reHuire sub,e&$i-e
oresigh$ or all 're#i&a$e oen&es 0 bu$ $he S(C( re$rea$e# a bi$ a$er $hese &ases(
Unlawfully Causing Bodily Harm
-A+5# (. ". .esousa
R. v (esousa , <6::B> +.-.-., pae ;@6
,acts#
- A&&use# in-ol-e# in igh$ on 5ew YearXs B-e
- He $hrew a bo$$le agains$ a wall an# a glass ragmen$ s$ru&1 a bys$an#er an# in,ure# his arm )eye>*(
- A&&use# was &harge# wi$h unlawully &ausing bo#ily harm &on$rary $o s( 2M!(
- A&&use# &hallenge# s( 2M! on $he groun#s $ha$ i$ &on$ra-ene# S( P o $he Char$er(
&ssue#
How shoul# s( 2M! be in$er're$e# )wr$ i$s reHuire# men$al elemen$*> @oes su&h an in$er're$a$ion -iola$e Char$er s(
P>
?eld#
5o -iola$ion o s( P(
(atio#
- +here shoul# be no res'onsibili$y wi$hou$ 'ersonal aul$ )unless s$a$u$ory language man#a$es su&h absen&e in
&lear an# unambiguous $erms*( /SH% unless s$a$u$e says no aul$ G mus$ be sub,e&$i-e M<R or a$ leas$ one
elemen$ o $he A<R>4
- Men$al elemen$ in s( 2M! is &om'ose# o $wo elemen$s% )1* men$al elemen$ o un#erlying oen&e8 )2*
a##i$ional aul$ reHuiremen$ su''lie# by $he wor# TunlawullyT(
/14 Men$al Blemen$ o un#erlying oen&e%
- +he un#erlying TunlawulT oen&e mus$ be a e#eral or 'ro-in&ial oen&e an# &anno$ be one o absolu$e
liabili$y )i(e( mus$ HAJB a men$al elemen$*8 $he men$al elemen$ o $he un#erlying oen&e mus$ be
&ons$i$u$ional(
/24 +he meaning o TunlawulT in s( 2M!
- +he wor# TunlawulT im'or$s an a##i$ional men$al elemen$ in$o s( 2M!( +he $es$% ob,e&$i-e oreseeabili$y o
harm or all un#erlying oen&es8 $ha$ is $he TunlawulT a&$ mus$ be one $ha$ is li1ely $o sub,e&$ ano$her 'erson $o
@A5"BR or harm or in,ury( +his bo#ily harm mus$ be more $han merely $ri-ial or $ransi$ory an# will in most
cases in-ol-e an a&$ o -iolen&e #one #elibera$ely $o ano$her 'erson( +he a&$ mus$ be 6CABC+7JBLY
@A5"BR6US )G ob,e&$i-e oreseeabili$y o harm*( /=oul# a reasonable 'erson ine-i$ably reali;e $ha$ $he
un#erlying a&$ woul# sub,e&$ ano$her 'erson $o ris1 o bo#ily harm>4
Cons$i$u$ional Sui&ien&y%
- Fun#amen$al ,us$i&e only reHuires ob,e&$i-e aul$ reHuiremen$ )a$ minimum*( S$igma an# high 'enal$y woul# be
reason $o reHuire a sub,e&$i-e s$an#ar#8 S( 2M! has nei$her $he s$igma nor &riminal san&$ion $o reHuire a more
#eman#ing men$al elemen$(
Sub,e&$i-e Foresigh$>
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Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- A&&use# argue# $ha$ Char$er s( P reHuires sub,e&$i-e oresigh$ o all $he &onseHuen&es whi&h &om'rise $he A<R
)an# $hus s( 2M! reHuires in$en$ion $o &ause bo#ily harm*(
- Cour$% reHuiremen$ o sub,e&$i-e oreseeabili$y was no$ mean$ $o be se$ ou$ as an o-erri#ing 'rin&i'le o
&riminal law(
- S( P o $he Char$er #oes no$ man#a$e in$en$ion in regar# $o all o $he &onseHuen&es reHuire# by $he oen&e(
- +here mus$ be an elemen$ o 'ersonal aul$ in regar# $o a &ul'able as'e&$ o $he A<R bu$ no$ ne&essarily in
regar# $o ea&h an# e-ery elemen$ o $he A<R( 5o 'rin&i'le o un#amen$al ,us$i&e 're-en$s Parliamen$ orm
$rea$ing &rimes w< &er$ain &onseHuen&es as more serious $han &rimes whi&h la&1 $hose &onseHuen&es(
- 7$ is a&&e'$able $o #is$inguish b$wn &riminal res'onsibili$y or eHually re'rehensible a&$s on $he basis o $he
harm $ha$ is a&$ually &ause#(
Rule%
ReHuire# M<R or 're#i&a$e oen&es )unlawully &ausing bo#ily harm s'e&ii&ally )# $).5('C&)F O,,5)-5#
)1* e#eral or 'ro-in&ial oen&e8 )2* &anno$ be absolu$e liabili$y8 )3* #angerous a&$ )>*( (5+$'%# Mus$ be
ob,e&$i-e oreseeabili$y o bo#ily harm $ha$ is no$ $ri-ial or $ransien$( 7n mos$ &ases i$ will be an a&$ o -iolen&e CU+
in all &ases mus$ answer $he O =oul# a reasonable 'erson ine-i$ably reali;e $ha$ $he un#erlying a&$ woul# sub,e&$
ano$her 'erson $o ris1 o bo#ily harm> )Higher ris1 G more li1ely $ha$ reasonable 'erson woul# oresee*(
5o &ons$i$u$ional reHuiremen$ $ha$ in$en$ion be e9$en#e# $o all elemen$s o $he A<R )i(e( S( P #oes no$ reHuire $ha$
a&&use# mus$ in$en# all $he &onseHuen&es* 0 i$ is enough $ha$ $here is an elemen$ o 'ersonal aul$ in regar# $o 65B
&ul'able as'e&$ o $he A<R(
-ommentary#
Unlawful Act Manslaughter
-A+5# (. ". -reihton
R v. Crei'hton , <6::8> +.-.-., pae ;@:
,acts#
A&&use# in,e&$e# &o&aine in$o his rien#Xs -ein( She #ie#(
5o$e $ha$ T#rug $rai&1ingT in&lu#es #rug TuseT( +hus. $he unlawul a&$ in O here is #rug $rai&1ing )M<R G
1nowle#ge /Cea-er4. $hus mus$ show CR@ $ha$ a&&use# 1new $ha$ he was in,e&$ing a #rug )an# no$ some$hing else*
in$o her -eins*(
&ssue#
@oes a &ons$i$u$ionally -ali# $es$ or unlawul a&$ M<S reHuire reasonable oresigh$ o #ea$h or merely reasonable
oresigh$ o bo#ily harm>
?eld (;#M)#
ReHuires reasonable oresigh$ o bo#ily harm
(atio#
- s( 222)L*)a* #oes no$ e9'ressly reHuire oreseeabili$y o bo#ily harm( Sin&e @esousa i$ mus$ be in$er're$e# as
reHuiring su&h oreseeabili$y( +he $es$ o mens rea or unlawul a&$ manslaugh$er% mens rea o un#erlying
oen&e PLUS ob,e&$i-e oreseeabili$y o $he ris1 o bo#ily harm whi&h is nei$her $ri-ial nor $ransi$ory. in $he
&on$e9$ o a #angerous a&$( Foreseeabili$y o ris1 o #ea$h is no$ reHuire#(
- Lamer )wri$ing or minori$y* oun# $he $es$ $o be un&ons$i$u$ional or $wo 'rimary reasons% )1* gra-i$y o $he
oen&e an# s$igma $ha$ a$$a&hes8 )2* &onsi#era$ions o symme$ry b$wn $he elemen$ o aul$ an# $he
&onseHuen&es o $he oen&e( Ma,ori$y &hallenges bo$h o $hese(
"ra-i$y o $he 6en&e
- +tima 0 $he s$igma a$$a&he# $o M<S is an a''ro'ria$e one( S$igma is no$ one o in$en$ional 1iller( T+he mos$
im'$ ea$ure o $he s$igma o manslaugh$er is $he s$igma whi&h is no$ a$$a&he# $o i$T
- 0unishment 0 5o minimum sen$en&e or M<S $hereore 'unishmen$ &an be $ailore# $o $he #egree o aul$(
)le9ibili$y o 'unishmen$*
Symme$ry b$wn aul$ an# &onseHuen&es o oen&e
Page !1 o !!
Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- Criminal law has $ra#i$ionally aime# a$ symme$ry b$wn $he mens rea an# $he 'rohibi$e# &onseHuen&es o $he
oen&e(
- +he ma,ori$y argues $ha$ $he M<S oen&e &anno$ be #eeme# un&ons$i$u$ional on $his basis( "i-e $wo reasons or
$his%
- /14 Res$s on $he 'ro'osi$ion $ha$ $he ris1 o bo#ily harm is a''re&iably #ieren$ rom $he ris1 o #ea$h in $he
&on$e9$ o M<S 0 +o say $ha$ $hey are #ieren$ is $an$amoun$ $o abroga$ing $he $hin s1ull rule( ReHuiring only
oreseeabili$y o bo#ily harm is &onsis$en$ w< $his rule 0 $a1e your -i&$im as you in# him( =here-er $here is a
ris1 o harm. $here is also a 'ra&$i&al ris1 $ha$ some -i&$ims may #ie as a resul$ o $he harm( +his sugges$s $ha$
$he mens rea an# $he &onseHuen&e are no$ -ery #is'ara$e(
- /24 Res$s on $he 'ro'osi$ion $ha$ $he 'rin&i'le o absolu$e symme$ry is no$ ,us$ a general rule bu$ a 'rin&i'le o
un#amen$al ,us$i&e( CU+ &riminal law has e9&e'$ions $o $he i#eal o 'ere&$ symme$ry( 7m'$ $o #is$inguish
b$wn &riminal law $heory. whi&h see1s $he i#eal o absolu$e symme$ry. an# $he &ons$i$u$ional reHuiremen$s o
$he Char$er 0 T$he Cons$i$u$ion #oes no$ always guaran$ee $he i#ealT( +o sa$isy $he 'rin&i'les o un#amen$al
,us$i&e reHuires only $ha$ an elemen$ o moral &ul'abili$y is 'resen$ A5@ $ha$ i$ is 'ro'or$iona$e $o $he
seriousness an# &onseHuen&es o $he oen&e &harge#(
($'5#
+he $es$ o mens rea or unlawul a&$ manslaugh$er% mens rea o un#erlying oen&e PLUS ob,e&$i-e oreseeabili$y
o $he ris1 o bo#ily harm whi&h is nei$her $ri-ial nor $ransi$ory. in $he &on$e9$ o a #angerous a&$( Foreseeabili$y o
ris1 o #ea$h is no$ reHuire#( 6b,e&$i-e oreseeabili$y o bo#ily harm G =oul# a reasonable 'erson in $he 'osi$ion o
$he a&&use# ha-e been aware o $he ris1 o bo#ily harm> )Creighton ;<% #onX$ $ailor $he reasonable 'erson s$an#ar#*
-ommentary#
- 5o$e $ha$ Creighton in-ol-es a non0-iolen$ a&$ 0 $ha$ 'asses mus$er un#er Deousa b<& &our$
says $ha$ will in Tmos$ &asesT in-ol-e an a&$ o -iolen&eDbu$ no$ in all(
- 5o$e $ha$ @i&1son in mithers hel# $ha$ nee# no ob,e&$i-e oreseeabili$y o bo#ily harm )$ha$
mere $ri-ial harm woul# be enough*( +ri-ial harm is no longer enough\ han+s woul#
'robably be #e&i#e# #ieren$ly $o#ay 0 b<& no ob,e&$i-e oreseeabili$y o non0$ri-ial harm(
- Many 'eo'le $hough$ $ha$ oen&es wi$hou$ reHuiremen$ o sub,e&$i-e oreseeabili$y o harm
woul# be hel# $o be un&ons$i$u$ional 0 no'e\
- 5o$e $he general rule )i$ was in C -( @* normally. $he M<R o $he oen&e shoul# rela$e $o
$he &onseHuen&e o $he 'rohibi$e# A<R )#ea$h in $his &ase*( M<S was seen $o be an e9&e'$ion
$o $his general rule(
-A+5# ( ". Drushel
R. v. <rushel , <B===> Ont. -.A., pae ;G7
,acts#
- Nrushel &on-i&$e# o &riminal harassmen$ un#er s( 2MF(
- He &hallenge# $he &on-i&$ion on $he groun#s $ha$ s( 2MF inringe# S( P o $he Char$er( He
argue# $ha$ i$ aile# $o reHuire $ha$ $he a&&use# ha-e $he in$en$ion $o &ause $he -i&$im $o ear
or $heir sae$y or $he sae$y o anyone 1nown $o $hem( )i(e( $ha$ se&$ion la&1e# a mens rea
reHuiremen$ a$$a&hing $o $he &onseHuen&e o reasonable ear*
&ssue#
@oes s( 2MF inringe S( P o $he Char$er>
?eld#
5o(
(atio#
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Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- M&La&hlin in Creighton e9'li&i$ly re,e&$e# $ha$ s( P reHuires $ha$ $here be symme$ry b$wn
mens rea an# ea&h &onseHuen&e o an oen&e( Deousa% +here need only be a sufficiently
blameworthy element in the A!( to which the culpable mental state attaches(
- +here is in s( 2MF a sui&ien$ly blamewor$hy elemen$ in $he A<R $o whi&h $he &ul'able men$al
s$a$e a$$a&hes. $hus oresigh$ o $he 'rohibi$e# &onseHuen&e o &ausing a&$ual ear is no$
reHuire# in or#er $o hol# $he a&&use# res'onsible or $he resul$s o his or her unlawul
a&$i-i$y(
- /+here mus$ be 1nowle#ge or re&1lessness as $o whe$her $he 'erson is harasse#( Cu$ no M<R
wr$ &ausing $he ear( Mus$ merely be ob,e&$i-e oreseeabili$y $ha$ a&$ions will &ause ear(4
-ommentary#
- Hol#ing is &onsis$en$ wi$h @eSousa 0 ob,e&$i-e oreseeabili$y $ha$ a&$ions will &ause ear(
Mus$ be a$ leas$ ob,e&$i-e oreseeabili$y wi$h res'e&$ $o 'rohibi$e# &onseHuen&e( )so long as
$here is M<R or un#erlying oen&e*
Aggravated Assault
R . ". Godin <6::8>, +.-.-. p. ;=M
&ssue#
- =ha$ s$a$e o min# is nee#e# un#er s( 2MK)1* or $he maiming. woun#ing. #isiguringD>
- +he S(C(C s$oo# by (eSousa an# Crei'hton an# &hose in$en$ $o a''ly or&e wi$h objecti"e
foreseeability of the ris4 of bodily harm for s. B7G(6).
- 5ee# sub,e&$i-e M<R or $he #angerous a&$. an# ob,e&$i-e oresigh$ $ha$ bo#ily harm will resul$(
+. B7G B-eryone &ommi$s an aggra-a$e# assaul$ who woun#s. maims. #isigures or
en#angers $he lie o $he &om'lainan$(
- SNLAR% $his reHuires ob,e&$i-e oreseeabili$y o ris1 bo#ily harm an# in$en$ion $o a''ly or&e
)un#erlying oen&e is assaul$ 0 reHuires in$en$ion $o a''ly or&e*( +his ollows Desousa an#
Creighton(
- 5o$e $ha$ nowhere #oes i$ say 21nowingly &auses3 ? whi&h woul# be sub,e&$i-e(
- 5o$e $ha$ $he #eba$e was wha$ $he M<R nee#e# $o be or $he maiming. woun#ing. #isiguring
shoul# be( +hey &ame u' wi$h $ha$ $he $here mus$ be ob,e&$i-e oreseeabili$y or $he ris1 o
bo#ily harm( 6$hers wan$e# a higher s$an#ar# an# 'ushe# or an ob,e&$i-e oreseeabili$y $es$
or $he ris1 o woun#ing. maiming. #isiguringD
H - Criminal Negligence
Objecti"e -rimes# )ote p. M;M
- +here are many &rimes in $he &o#e $ha$ ha-e ob,e&$i-e s$an#ar#s 2ough$ $o3 2reasonable &are3
language use#(
- +he lis$ in&lu#es &ommon in$en$ or a&&essories s( 21)2*. #angerous #ri-ing 2F!)1*)a*. $reason
FM)2*)b*D((
- Manslaugh$er an# &riminal negligen&e all in$o $his iel#(
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Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
?.'.A. ?art, +ubjecti"e and Objecti"e p. ;=;
- =e all $hin1 $ha$ i$ is &ru&ial $ha$ whom we 'unish shoul# ha-e ha#. when $hey a&$e#. $he
normal &a'a&i$ies. 'hysi&al an# men$al. or #oing wha$ $he law reHuire an# abs$aining orm
wha$ i$ orbi#s. an# a air o''or$uni$y $o e9er&ise $hese &a'a&i$ies or $his reason we ha$e
s$ri&$ liabili$y oen&es(
- =hen $hese $hings are no$ 'resen$ )maybe be&ause o mis$a1e. a&&i#en$. in-olun$arinessD* we
say $ha$ i$ is morally wrong $o 'unish be&ause 2he &oul# no$ ha-e hel'e# i$(3
- 5o$es $ha$ $here is no reason always $o 'ro$es$ when someone 2,us$ #i#n:$ $hin13 is 'unishe#
or &arelessness )he says $his is 6(N(*(
- =hen negligen&e be&omes 'unishable. $his lea-es o'en $he Hues$ion whe$her. beore we
'unish. bo$h or only $he irs$ o $he ollowing 2 Hues$ions mus$ be answere# airma$i-ely%
)a* @i# $he a&&use# ail $o $a1e $hose 're&au$ions whi&h any reasonable man wi$h
normal &a'a&i$ies woul# in $he &ir&ums$an&es ha-e $a1en>
)b* Coul# $he a&&use#. gi-en his men$al an# 'hysi&al &a'a&i$ies. ha-e $a1en $hose
're&au$ions>
- 5o$e $ha$ i our &on#i$ions o liabili$y are no$ le9ible i(e( no$ a#,us$e# $o $he &a'a&i$ies o $he
a&&use#. $hen some in#i-i#uals will be hel# liable or negligen&e $hough $hey &oul# no$ ha-e
hel'e# $heir ailure $o &om'ly wi$h $he s$an#ar#(
- 7$ is 'ossible $o argue $ha$ no legal sys$em &oul# aor# $o in#i-i#uali;e $he &on#i$ions o
liabili$y $o e9&use all $hose who &oul# no$ a$$ain $he reasonable man s$an#ar#(
- 27 e-ery &hara&$eris$i& o $he in#i-i#ual is $a1en in$o a&&oun$. in&lu#ing his here#i$y $he
&on&lusion is $ha$ he &oul# no$ hel' #oing as he #i#(3
- Sugges$s $his $es$%
)a* =ha$ woul# $he reasonable man wi$h or#inary &a'a&i$ies ha-e #one in $hese
&ir&ums$an&es>
)b* Coul# $he a&&use# wi$h his &a'a&i$ies ha-e #one $ha$> )reeren&e $o a&$ors li1e
luna&y shoul# be ma#e in answering $his Hues$ion*(
0O&)%# wants to show that the belief that criminal responsibility for nelience is a form of
strict or absolute liability, rests on a confused conception of the subjecti"e element and its
relation to responsibility.
+D'A( %he Objecti"ist2+ubjecti"ist .ebate
- Sub,e&$i-is$s argue $ha$ #e$erren&e an# blamewor$hiness reHuire sub,e&$i-e awareness )a$
leas$ a re&1lessness $es$ or &riminal negligen&e*( B(g( =illiams argues $ha$ you &anno$ #e$er
'eo'le rom being &areless an# no$ $hin1ing8 &an only #e$er 'eo'le rom $a1ing 1nown ris1s(
- 6b,e&$i-is$s )li1e Har$* #isagree( An ob,e&$i-e $es$ woul# su''ly an a##i$ional mo$i-e $o $a1e
&are beore a&$ing(
- +he #eba$e in all $hese &ases )an# amongs$ &ommen$a$ors* Shoul# negligen&e by an
ob,e&$i-e s$an#ar# e-er be a &rime> Creigh$on se$$les i$ in Cana#a 0 ob,e&$i-e $es$(
s. B6: )1* Criminal 5egligen&e ? B-eryone is &riminally negligen$ who
)a* in #oing any$hing. or
)b* in omi$$ing $o #o any$hing $ha$ i$ is his #u$y $o #o.
shows wan$on or re&1less #isregar# or $he li-es or sae$y o o$her 'ersons(
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Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
)2* or $he 'ur'ose o $his se&$ion. 2#u$y3 means a #u$y im'ose# by law(
II5o$e $ha$ S( 21! is 56+ a &rime\ 7$ is merely a #eXn )or a Ts$a$e o min#T* u'on whi&h some
&rimes are base# )S( 222 #ea$h &ause# by &riminal negligen&e8 &riminal negligen&e &ausing
bo#ily harm. e$&(*
B9am'le%
- A 'erson is #ri-ing. a''roa&hes a &ur-e. he is in a rush so he 'asses $he &ar on $he &ur-e )a&ross
a #ouble line* an# has a hea# on &ollision. 1illing $he o$her #ri-er(
- Charge# wi$h &riminal negligen&e or manslaugh$er )same $hing*(
- A<R 1ille# someone(
- M<R wha$ is i$> Assume i$ o&&urs $o him $ha$ he was 'assing on a blin# &ur-e an# $ha$
ano$her &ar may be &oming )i(e( $urne# his min# $o $he ris1 o $he a&&i#en$. bu$ #i# i$ anyways*
G sub,e&$i-e an# re&1less(
B9am'le%
- Lis$ening $o ra#io. ge$s e9&i$e#. lis$ening $o baseball he is &on&en$ra$ing on $he game. no$
$hin1ing o $he 'ossibili$y $ha$ ano$her &ar may be &oming ? i we 'unish him or $his $hen i$
woul# be an objecti"e s$an#ar# M&7n$yre A( agrees wi$h $his a''roa&h(
- He is no$ re&1less here. an# $ha$ is why $o ge$ him. we:# nee# an ob,e&$i-e s$an#ar#(
- Creigh$on en#s u' es$ablishing $ha$ i$ is $he ob,e&$i-e s$an#ar# $ha$ we ollow(
B9am'le%
- @ri-er has men$al #isor#er &alle# im'ulsi-i$y whi&h #oes no$ allow him $o $hin1 li1e a
reasonable 'erson(
- H(L(A( Har$ says $ha$ on an ob,e&$i-e $es$. always $a1e &a'a&i$y in$o a&&oun$(
- @on:$ $a1e all a&$ors in$o a&&oun$ bu$ 'hysi&al an# men$al &a'a&i$y are $here(
- Shoul# an illi$era$e 'erson be hel# $o regular s$an#ar#> Probably $his goes $o e#u&a$ion(
- 7 he has me#i&ine an# $a1es i$ ? he is no$ negligen$. i he has me#i&ine an# #oesn:$ $a1e i$. he
is &riminally negligen$(
R . ". Tutton and Tutton <6::G>, +.-.-. p. M7B
,acts#
- Chil# is #iabe$i& an# nee#s insulin(
- Paren$s are members o a religious se&$. an# $hey belie-e $ha$ g0# gas $he 'ower $o &ure
$hings $ha$ are beyon# mo#ern me#i&ine(
- +he mo$her 'rays. an# belie-es $he &hil# is &ure#. s$o's $he insulin(
- +hen $he &hil# is $a1en $o $he hos'i$al. an# sa-e#. an# $he #o&$or $ells her she mus$ gi-e $he
&hil# insulin(
- She ge$s ano$her -ision rom g0#. an# $hin1s $ha$ $he &hil# is &ure#( S$o's insulin. an# $he
&hil# #ies(
- A&&use# o &ausing $he #ea$h )BBB* by &riminal negligen&e )B6:* by ailing $o 'ro-i#e $he
ne&essaries o lie( )21M*
&ssue#
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Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
7s $he $es$ or &riminal negligen&e objecti"e or subjecti"e> +ha$ is. &an she be le$ o i she
hones$ly bu$ unreasonably belie-e# $ha$ g0# &ure# her &hil# )sub,e&$i-e*. or #oes $ha$ belie ha-e
$o be reasonable )ob,e&$i-e*>
?eld% 303 s'li$
/M&7n$yre A )L:H0@ &on&urring*% 6b,e&$i-e a''roa&h4%
- 25egligen&e &onno$e# $he o''osi$e o $hough$0#ire&$e# a&$ion3
- 2+he $es$ is $ha$ of reasonableness, and proof of conduct which re"eals a mar4ed and
sinificant departure from the standard which could be eEpected of a reasonably
prudent person in $he &ir&ums$an&es will ,us$iy a &on-i&$ion o &riminal negligen&e(3
- Cir&ums$an&es will be $a1en in$o a&&oun$ in #e$ermining wha$ reasonable is(
- +he wor# 2re&1less3 here is no$ use# in $he same sense as re&1less in ansregret. meaning
sub,e&$i-e(
/Lamer A(4%
- Con&urs wi$h M&7n$yre. bu$ a##s $ha$ 2when a''lying $he ob,e&$i-e norm se$ ou$ by
Parliamen$ in s( 21! o $he &riminal &o#e. $here mus$ be ma#e Ua generous allowan&e: or
a&$ors whi&h are 'ar$i&ular $o $he a&&use#. su&h as you$h. men$al #e-elo'men$. an#
e#u&a$ion(3
/=ilson A )@i&1son an# Laores$ &on&urring* sub,e&$i-e $es$4%
- 27 #o no$Dagree wi$h my &olleagues $ha$ &riminal negligen&e un#er /s( 21!4 &onsis$s only o
a brea&h o an ob,e&$i-e s$an#ar# an# #oes no$ reHuire $he &rown $o 'ro-e $ha$ $he a&&use#
ha# any #egree o guil$y 1nowle#ge(3
- 2Cy &on&lu#ing $ha$ /s(21!4 'rohibi$s &on#u&$ an# $he &onseHuen&es o min#less a&$ion
absen$ any blamewor$hy s$a$e o min#. $hey ha-e. in ee&$. hel# $ha$ $he &rime o &riminal
negligen&e is an absolu$e liabili$y oen&e( Con-i&$ion ollows u'on 'roo o &on#u&$ whi&h
re-eals a mar1e# an# subs$an$ial #e'ar$ure rom $he s$an#ar# e9'e&$e# o a reasonably
'ru#en$ 'erson in $he &ir&ums$an&es regar#less o wha$ was a&$ually in $he a&&use#:s min# a$
$he $ime $he a&$ was &ommi$$e#(
- Saul$ S$e Marie sai# $here &anno$ be a &riminal san&$ion or an absolu$e liabili$y oen&e(
- 2+he wor#s Uwan$on or re&1less #isregar# or $he li-es an# sae$y o o$her 'eo'le: signiies
more $han gross negligen&e in $he ob,e&$i-e sense( 7$ reHuires some #egree o awareness or
a#-er$en&e $o $he $hrea$ $o $he li-es or sae$y o o$hers or al$erna$i-ely a wilul blin#ness $o
$ha$ $hrea$ whi&h is &ul'able in ligh$ o $he gra-i$y o $he ris1 $ha$ is 'rohibi$e#(
- it is my "iew that the jurisprudence of this -ourt to date establishes that the criminal
nelience under <s. B6:> is ad"ertent nelience.
- 2A#o'$ion o an ob,e&$i-e s$an#ar# &rea$esD$he 'ossibili$y o a Char$er -iola$ion3
- 2+o reHuire. as my &olleague #oes. $ha$ all mis'er&e'$ions be reasonable will. in my -iew. no$
e9&use many o $hose who. $hrough no aul$ o $heir own &anno$ be airly e9'e&$e# $o li-e u'
$o $he s$an#ar# o $he reasonable 'erson(
- Re% Lamer:s a''roa&h 27 am &au$iously sym'a$he$i& $o a$$em'$s $o in$egra$e elemen$s o
sub,e&$i-e 'er&e'$ion in$o &riminal law s$an#ar#s $ha$ are &learly ob,e&$i-eD7$ $ells $he ,ury
sim'ly $o lower $he s$an#ar# o &on#u&$ e9'e&$e# rom su&h 'eo'le regar#less o whe$her in
$he 'ar$i&ular &ase $he a&&use# a$$aine# $he #egree o 1nowle#ge $ha$ 7 ha-e se$ ou$ abo-e(
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Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
Also. $hese sub,e&$i-e elemen$s 2may be un#er in&lusi-e or $hose who ha-e i#iosyn&rasies
$ha$ &anno$ be ar$i&ula$e# e9 an$e in$o $he ne&essarily limi$e# lis$ o 'ersonal &hara&$eris$i&s
$ha$ &an be gra$e# on $o an ob,e&$i-e s$an#ar#3
0O&)%# 'oo4 at objecti"e or subjecti"e test, split 8#8 so don/t 4now answer A -reihton
settles it.
-ommentary#
- =ilson A( loo1s or re&1lessness ? an ob,e&$i-e s$a$e o min#(
- M&7n$yre '( FML uses $he wel#er e9am'le $o show $ha$ $he ob,e&$i-e $es$ &anno$ be ma#e in a
-a&uum( She says $ha$ i you loo1 a$ a wel#er who has been $ol# by $he owner $ha$ $here is no
lammable ma$erial aroun# him an# a s'ar1 hi$s some$hing an# &auses an e9'losion ? loo1 a$
$he reasonable 'erson guar#e# wi$h $his inorma$ion(
- 7 s$#( or &rim neg was ob,e&$i-e Crown woul# ha-e $o 'ro-e CR@ $ha$ $he 'aren$s were
aware )or 1new* o a R7SN $ha$ #ea$h woul# be &ause# )lea-e ou$ Tris1T G mur#er*( Mu&h
easier $o 'ro-e ob,e&$i-ely $ha$ $hey shoul# ha-e been aware o $he ris1(
9ar4ed .eparture %est p. M@G
- Creighton 'ro-i#es a new a''roa&h $o $he in$er're$a$ion o ob,e&$i-e &rimes(
- +he &our$ here is unanimous in reHuiring a mar4ed departure from the standard of care of
the reasonable person(
- 5o$e $he &our$ is #i-i#e# L%F on i 'ersonal a&$ors &oul# be &onsi#ere# in a''lying $hese
ob,e&$i-e s$an#ar#s( M&La&hlin A( or $he ma,ori$y #e&i#e# $ha$ no in#i-i#ual a&$ors shor$ o
in&a'a&i$y &oul# be &onsi#ere#(
R . ". Crei'hton <6::8>, +.-.-. p. M@G
&ssue#
Loo1e# a$ $he meaning o negligen&e in $he &riminal law(
(atio#
/M&La&hlin A(4%
- 6b,e&$i-e mens rea is no$ &on&erne# wi$h wha$ $he a&&use# in$en#e# or 1new( +he aul$ lies in
ailure $o #ire&$ $he min# $o a ris1 whi&h $he reasonable 'erson woul# ha-e a''re&ia$e#(
- A 're#i&a$e oen&e in-ol-ing &arelessness or negligen&e mus$ be rea# as reHuiring a Tmar1e#
#e'ar$ureT rom $he s$an#ar# o $he reasonable 'erson(
- +here is some #eba$e abou$ $he #egree $o whi&h 'ersonal &hara&$eris$i&s shoul# be rele&$e# in
$he ob,e&$i-e $es$ or aul$ in &riminal negligen&e( CU+. 'oli&y #i&$a$es $he main$enan&e o a
single. uniorm legal s$an#ar# o &are or su&h oen&es. sub,e&$ $o one e9&e'$ion% in&a'a&i$y $o
a''re&ia$e $he na$ure o $he ris1 whi&h $he a&$i-i$y in O en$ails @oes $he 'erson la&1 $he
&a'a&i$y $o a''re&ia$e $he &onseHuen&es o $heir &on#u&$>
- +his is no$ $o say $ha$ $he O o guil$ is #e$ermine# in a a&$ual -a&uum 0 mus$ $a1e in $o a&&oun$
all $he &ir&ums$an&es 0 =ha$ woul# a reasonable 'erson. in $he &ir&ums$an&es. 1nowing wha$
$he a&&use# 1new. ha-e #one>
/Lamer A(4%
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Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- Agrees. i$ is $he ob,e&$i-e s$an#ar# o $he reasonable 'erson $ha$ is $o be use# here(
- 2+he 'rose&u$ion mus$ #emons$ra$e a mar1e# #e'ar$ure rom $he s$an#ar# o a reasonable
'ersonD)u' $o here. same as M&La&hlin A(*Dra$her. i$ is in #e$ermina$ion o wha$ is
reasonable $ha$ $he s1ill an# e9'er$ise o $he a&&use# may be &onsi#ere#(3
- 7$ shoul# be em'hasi;e# $ha$ $he rele-an$ &hara&$eris$i&s mus$ be $rai$s whi&h $he a&&use# &oul#
no$ &on$rol or o$herwise manage )i(e( wea1 -ision no$ in$o9i&a$ion*(
- +he reasonable 'erson is e9'e&$e# $o &om'ensa$e or his or her rail$ies. $o $he e9$en$ he or she
is &ons&ious o $hem an# able $o #o so(
/LaFores$ A(4%
S$ill 'reers sub,e&$i-e M<R
($'5#
6b,e&$i-e $es$ or &riminal negligen&e( S$an#ar# is mar1e# #e'ar$ure rom $he s$an#ar# o
reasonable 'erson( A&&use# mus$ be 'hysi&ally or men$ally &a'able o a$$aining $ha$ s$an#ar#(
@o no$ &onsi#er 'ersonal &hara&$eris$i&s su&h as e9'erien&e an# ine9'erien&e CU+D#o &onsi#er
wha$ reasonable 'erson 75 +HB C7RCUMS+A5CBS )1nowing wha$ a&&use# 1nows* woul#
ha-e #one(
0O&)%# unanimous that it is objecti"e, but ;#M split on the idea of it personal
characteristics should be included in the reasonableness test A 9ajority says notin short of
capacity should be considered.
-ommentary#
- B(g( o in&a'a&i$y 'erson wi$h e'ile'sy has sei;ure while #ri-ing an# 1ills someone( 7
she #oesnX$ N56= $ha$ she has e'ile'sy. is in&a'able o a''re&ia$ing $he ris1 o #ri-ing(
- S1lar #oesnX$ agree wi$h $he ma,ori$yXs s$an#ar# 0 i$ is unrealis$i&( He belie-es $ha$ e9'erien&e
shoul# be &onsi#ere# 0 e(g( s$an#ar# o $he reasonable #o&$or. 'oli&e oi&er. e$&( 7n a me#i&al
negligen&e &ase. #oesnX$ ma1e sense $o as1 wha$ a reasonable 'erson woul# ha-e #one 0
reasonable 'eo'le are no$ #o&$ors an# 1now no$hing abou$ me#i&al &are( 7$ will be -ery
#ii&ul$ or ,uries $o ignore e9'erien&e an# $raining(
%hree %ypes of -rimes since Crei'hton
,A$'% ,O( -(&95+
Sub,e&$i-e mens rea 6b,e&$i-e 5egligen&e 6en&es base# on 're#i&a$e
oenses
- +ubjecti"e mens rea # aware o ris18 all in#i-i#ual a&$ors 0 e(g( mur#er. assaul$. brea1 an#
en$er. $he$. 'ossession oen&es(
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Criminal Law SUMMARY February 2003
- Objecti"e )elience# mar1e# #e'ar$ure rom ob,e&$i-e norm. no in#i-i#ual a&$ors shor$ o
in&a'a&i$y
- Offences based on predicate offences# ob,e&$i-e oresigh$ o harm. no in#i-i#ual a&$ors.
no mar1e# limi$ )e9&e'$ or 're#i&a$e oen&es o negligen&e* 0 e(g( unlawul a&$
manslaugh$er. unlawully &ausing bo#ily harm. aggra-a$e# assaul$
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