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Emona Emona Emona Emona FO FO FO FOTEx TEx TEx TEx

Lab Lab Lab Lab M MM Manual anual anual anual











Experiments in Modern
Fiber Optic Communications Systems
For NI ELVIS I & II






Barry Duncan
























.








Emona Emona Emona Emona FO FO FO FOTEx TEx TEx TEx


Lab Lab Lab Lab Manual Manual Manual Manual









Experiments in Modern
Fiber Optic Communications Systems
For NI ELVIS I & II






Barry Duncan

























Emona FOTEx Lab Manual for NI ELVIS I & II

Experiments in Modern Fiber Optic Communications Systems.

Author: Barry Duncan
Technical editor: Carlo Manfredini

Issue Number: 1.0


Published by:

Emona Instruments Pty Ltd,
86 Parramatta Road
Camperdown NSW 2050
AUSTRALIA.


web: www.tims.com.au
telephone: +61-2-9519-3933
fax: +61-2-9550-1378


Copyright 2009 Emona Instruments Pty Ltd and its related entities. All rights
reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any
form or by any means, including any network or Web distribution or broadcast
for distance learning, or stored in any database or in any network retrieval
system, without the prior written consent of Emona Instruments Pty Ltd.

For licensing information, please contact Emona Instruments Pty Ltd.
FOTEx is a trademark of Emona TIMS Pty Ltd.

LabVIEW, National Instruments, NI, NI ELVIS, and NI-DAQ are
trademarks of National Instruments Corporation. Product and company names
mentioned herein are trademarks or trade names of their respective companies.



Printed in Australia


Contents


Introduction........................................................................................................ i - iv
1 - An introduction to the NI ELVIS II test equipment ............................. Expt 1 - 1
2 - An introduction to the FOTEx experimental add-in module................ Expt 2 - 1
3 - PCM - encoding.................................................................................................... Expt 3 - 1
4 - PCM - decoding.................................................................................................... Expt 4 - 1
5 Sampling and Nyquist in PCM.......................................................................... Expt 5 - 1
6 Time division multiple access (TDMA)......................................................... Expt 6 - 1
7 - Line coding and bit-clock regeneration....................................................... Expt 7 - 1
8 - Fibre optic transmission................................................................................... Expt 8 - 1
9 - PCM-TDM 'T1' implementation...................................................................... Expt 9 - 1
10 - Optical signal filtering, splitting & combining......................................... Expt 10 - 1
11 - Fiber optic bi-directional communication.................................................. Expt 11 1
12 - Wave division multiplexing (WDM) ............................................................. Expt 11 1
13 - Optical losses .................................................................................................... Expt 12 - 1










WARNING

Do NOT look directly into the
RED or GREEN light sources.

Do NOT look directly into an optical fiber
which is connected to the
RED or GREEN light sources.

Infroducfion Emono Insfrumenfs Pfy Lfd i
Introduction
The ETT-Z11 FOTE " Lub MunuuI Overview
The ETT-ZII Lob MonuoI provides o compIefe Iob progrom in fhe key concepfs of fhe fronsmission
ond monipuIofion of opficoI signoIs in o modern fiber opfic communicofions sysfem. The inifioI
chopfers infroduce sfudenfs fo fhe MI ELVIS unif ond FOTEx odd-in moduIe. Subsequenf
chopfers provide sfudenfs wifh o bockground in fhe imporfonf digifoI communicofions fopics of
digifi;ofion, encoding ond muIfipIexing.

Eoch experimenf is corefuIIy poced, inferspersed wifh fhoughf provoking quesfions which
consoIidofe fhe concepfs being invesfigofed. Emphosis hos been pIoced on ensuring fhof eoch
FOTEx experimenf presenfs on inferesfing, honds-on Ieorning experience for fhe sfudenf. The
sfudenf is choIIenged fo buiId, meosure ond consider: fhere ore no "insfonf" or "cookbook-sfyIe"
experimenfs. FOTEx is ocfuoIIy o frue engineering modeIing sysfem where sfudenfs see fhof fhe
bIock diogroms so common in fheir fexfbooks represenf reoI funcfioning sysfems.



Equipmenf Pequired
Experimenfs moke use of fhe Emono FOTEx fiber opfics froiner kif fogefher wifh fhe MI ELVIS I
or II pIofform ond MI LobVIEW running on o PC. The funcfionoIify ond ronge of fhe virfuoI
insfrumenfofion ovoiIobIe depends on fhe MI DAQ fhof is coupIed wifh MI ELVIS I pIofform.
ELVIS II hos oII necessory inferfocing circuifry buiIf info if.

Pefer fo fhe ETT-ZII FOTEx USEP MAMUAL for furfher defoiIs, os weII os informofion on fhe
insfoIIofion ond use of fhe FOTEx/MI ELVIS experimenf sysfem.

Sfudenf Acodemic LeveI
Experimenfs in fhis voIume hove been prepored for sfudenfs wifh onIy o bosic knowIedge of
mofhemofics ond o Iimifed bockground in physics ond eIecfricify.

Sfudenfs wifh o higher IeveI of compefence in mofhemofics wiII oIso goin o deeper undersfonding
of fiber opfics communicofions fheory by using fhe FOTEx sysfem. Due fo fhe engineering
"modeIing" nofure of fhe FOTEx froiner, fhey wiII be obIe fo invesfigofe more compIex issues,
corry ouf oddifionoI meosuremenfs ond fhen confrosf fheir findings fo fheir fheoreficoI
undersfonding ond mofhemoficoI onoIysis.
The Emono FOTEx Add-in ModuIe
hos o coIIecfion of bIocks (coIIed
moduIes) fhof ore pofched fogefher
fo impIemenf o do;en digifoI ond
fiber opfics communicofions
sysfems experimenfs.

ii Emono Insfrumenfs Pfy Lfd Infroducfion
Diductic phiIosophy behind the ETT-Z11 FOTE" System
- Emonu TIMS" und the "Iock Diugrum" upprouch


The Emono FOTEx fiber opfics communicofions froiner drows on o weII esfobIished experimenfoI
mefhodoIogy fhof brings fo Iife fhe "universoI Ionguoge" of feIecommunicofions, fhe 8LOCI
DIA0PAM. OriginoIIy deveIoped in fhe I970's by Tim Hooper, o senior Iecfurer in
feIecommunicofions of The Universify of Mew Soufh WoIes, AusfroIio, ond furfher deveIoped by
Emono Insfrumenfs, Emono TIMS", or "TeIecommunicofions InsfrucfionoI ModeIing Sysfem", is
used by fhousonds of sfudenfs oround fhe worId, to impIement pructicuIIy uny form of
moduIution or coding.

8Iock Diogroms
8Iock diogroms ore used fo expIoin fhe principIe of
operofion of eIecfronic sysfems (Iike o rodio fronsmiffer
for exompIe) wifhouf worrying obouf how fhe circuif
works. Eoch bIock represenfs o porf of fhe circuif fhof
performs o seporofe fosk ond is nomed occording fo whof
if does. ExompIes of common bIocks in communicofions
equipmenf incIude fhe odder, muIfipIier, osciIIofor, ond so
on.

The TIMS" ond hence FOTEx" opprooch fo impIemenfing feIecommunicofions experimenfs
fhrough reoIi;ing 8LOCI DIA0PAMS hos fhe foIIowing benefifs in fhe educofionoI environmenf:

Sfudenfs goin procficoI experience wifh frue mofhemoficoI modeIing hordwore, designed
specificoIIy for impIemenfing feIecommunicofions fheory.
Sfudenfs ocfuoIIy buiId eoch experimenf sfoge-by-sfoge, in on engineering monner, by
foIIowing fhe 8LOCI DIA0PAM.
Sfudenfs ore free fo fry "whof-if" scenorios fo voIidofe fheir undersfonding of fhe fheory
being invesfigofed, by viewing reoI, reoI-fime eIecfricoI signoIs.
FOTEx is designed fo oIIow sfudenfs fo moke misfokes, hence sfudenfs wiII Ieorn from
fheir honds-on experiences os fhey invesfigofe fheir findings.

One-fo-One PeIofionship
The figure on fhe righf iIIusfrofes fhe one-fo-one
reIofionship befween eoch bIock of fhe 8LOCI DIA0PAM
ond fhe independenf funcfionoI circuif bIocks of fhe
FOTEx froiner boord.

The funcfionoI bIocks of fhe FOTEx boord ore used ond
re-used in experimenfs, jusf os bIocks of fhe bIock
diogrom reoppeor in mony differenf impIemenfofions.





A typicuI teIecom's LOCk DIASPAM

EumpIes of FOTE " functionuI bIocks

Infroducfion Emono Insfrumenfs Pfy Lfd iii
MI LobVIEW" ond FOTEx"
The Emono FOTEx odd-in moduIe is fuIIy infegrofed wifh fhe MI ELVIS pIofform ond MI LobVIEW
environmenf. AII FOTEx" onoIog ond digifoI I/O con be confroIIed fhough MI LobVIEW VIs.

SuideIines for Using the Lub MunuuI

The experimenfs in fhis voIume hove been prepored for sfudenfs wifh onIy o bosic knowIedge of
mofhemofics. However, due fo fhe engineering "modeIing" nofure of fhe FOTEx odd-in moduIe,
sfudenfs wifh o higher IeveI of compefence in mofhemofics wiII equoIIy goin o deeper
undersfonding of fiber opfics communicofions fheory by corrying ouf fhese experimenfs.

The IZ chopfers cover o brood ronge of concepfs, from infroducfion fo using MI ELVIS ond
FOTEx, fhe bosics of digifoI bosebond communicofions, simpIe fiber opfic fronsmission of on
eIecfricoI signoI fhrough fo woveIengfh division muIfipIex ond bidirecfionoI communicofions oIong o
sigIe fiber. In eoch experimenf, fhe core fechnoIogy is reveoIed fo fhe sfudenf, of ifs mosf
fundomenfoI IeveI.

Chopfers con be covered in ony order, however, if is recommended fhof oII sfudenfs compIefe fhe
firsf seven chopfers before proceeding fo fhe Iofer chopfers.

Chopfer I infroduces fhe MI ELVIS fesf equipmenf.
Chopfer Z infroduces fhe Emono FOTEx experimenfoI odd-in moduIe.
Chopfer 3 fo o infroduces bosic digifoI communicofions concepfs, ond
Chopfer 7 fo IZ focus on vorious fiber opfic concepfs.

In order fo moke fhe sfudenfs Ieorning experience more memorobIe, fhe sfudenf is usuoIIy obIe fo
bofh view signoIs on fhe MI ELVIS osciIIoscope ond fhen Iisfen fo fheir own voice undergoing fhe
opficoI fronsmission mefhod being invesfigofed.

Moking Misfokes ond Mis-wiring
An imporfonf focfor which mokes fhe Ieorning experience more voIuobIe for fhe sfudenf is fhof
fhe sfudenf is oIIowed fo moke wiring misfokes. FOTEx inpufs ond oufpufs con be connecfed in ony
combinofion, wifhouf cousing domoge. As fhe sfudenf buiIds fhe experimenf, fhey need fo moke
consfonf observofions, odjusfmenfs ond correcfions. If signoIs ore nof os expecfed fhen fhe
sfudenf needs fo moke o decision os fo whefher fhe correcfion required is on odjusfmenf or on
incorrecfIy pIoced pofching wire.

Sfrucfure of fhe Experimenfs ond Topics
Eoch experimenf in fhe FOTEx Lob MonuoI provides o bosic infroducfion fo fhe fopic under
invesfigofion, foIIowed by o series of corefuIIy groded honds-on ocfivifies. Af fhe concIusion of
eoch sub secfion fhe sfudenf is osked fo onswer quesfions fo confirm fheir undersfonding of fhe
work before proceeding.

FinoIIy, since fhe ETT-ZII Troiner is o frue modeIing sysfem, fhe insfrucfor hos fhe freedom fo
modify exisfing experimenfs or even creofe compIefeIy new experimenfs fo convey new ond course
specific concepfs fo sfudenfs.




iv Emono Insfrumenfs Pfy Lfd Infroducfion










WAPNINS
As u mutter of good pructice:
Do NOT Iook directIy into the
PED or SPEEN Iight LED sources,

Do NOT Iook directIy into un opticuI fiber which
is connected to the
PED or SPEEN Iight sources,
FOTE uses opticuI LEDs: Iuser sources ure NOT used


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Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf I - An infroducfion fo fhe MI ELVIS II fesf equipmenf I-Z

Eperiment 1 - An introduction to the NI ELVIS II test equipment
PreIiminury discussion
The digifoI muIfimefer ond osciIIoscope ore probobIy fhe
fwo mosf used pieces of fesf equipmenf in fhe
eIecfronics indusfry. The buIk of meosuremenfs needed
fo fesf ond/or repoir eIecfronics sysfems con be
performed wifh jusf fhese fwo devices.

Af fhe some fime, fhere wouId be very few eIecfronics
Ioborofories or workshops fhof don'f oIso hove o DC
Power SuppIy ond Funcfion 0enerofor. As weII os
generofing DC fesf voIfoges, fhe power suppIy con be
used fo power fhe equipmenf under fesf. The funcfion
generofor is used fo provide o voriefy of AC fesf signoIs.

ImporfonfIy, fhe MI ELVIS II hos fhese four essenfioI pieces of Ioborofory equipmenf in one
unif (ond ofhers). However, insfeod of eoch hoving ifs own digifoI reodouf or dispIoy (Iike fhe
equipmenf picfured), fhe MI ELVIS II sends fhe informofion vio US8 fo o personoI compufer
where fhe meosuremenfs ore dispIoyed on one screen.

On fhe compufer, fhe MI ELVIS II devices ore coIIed "virfuoI insfrumenfs". However, don'f Ief
fhe ferm misIeod you. The digifoI muIfimefer ond scope ore reoI meosuring devices, nof
soffwore simuIofions. SimiIorIy, fhe DC power suppIy ond funcfion generofor oufpuf reoI
voIfoges.

The experimenfs in fhis monuoI moke use of oII four MI ELVIS II devices ond ofhers so if's
imporfonf fhof you're fomiIior wifh fheir operofion.


The eperiment
This experimenf infroduces you fo fhe MI ELVIS II digifoI muIfimefer, voriobIe DC power
suppIies (fhere ore fwo of fhem), osciIIoscope ond funcfion generofor. ImporfonfIy, fhe
osciIIoscope con be o fricky device fo use if you don'f do so offen. So, fhis experimenf oIso
gives you o procedure fhof'II sef if up reody fo dispIoy o sfobIe ZkH; 4Vp-p signoI every fime.
ImporfonfIy, if's recommended fhof you use fhis procedure os o sforfing poinf for fhe ofher
experimenfs in fhis monuoI.

If shouId foke you obouf b0 minufes fo compIefe fhis experimenf.


Experimenf I - An infroducfion fo fhe MI ELVIS II fesf equipmenf Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs I-3

Equipment

PersonoI compufer wifh oppropriofe soffwore insfoIIed
MI ELVIS II pIus US8 cobIe ond power pock
Emono FOTEx experimenfoI odd-in moduIe
Two 8MC fo Zmm bonono-pIug Ieods
Assorfed Zmm bonono-pIug pofch Ieods





Some things you need to know for the eperiment
This box confoins definifions for some eIecfricoI ferms used in fhis experimenf.
AIfhough you've probobIy seen fhem before, if's worfh foking o minufe fo reod fhem fo
check your undersfonding.

The umpIitude of o signoI is ifs physicoI si;e ond is meosured in voIfs (V). If is usuoIIy
meosured eifher from fhe middIe of fhe woveform fo fhe fop (coIIed fhe peok voIfoge)
or from fhe boffom fo fhe fop (coIIed fhe peok-fo-peok voIfoge).

The period of o signoI is fhe fime foken fo compIefe one cycIe ond is meosured in
seconds (s). When fhe period is smoII, if is expressed in miIIi seconds (ms) ond even
micro seconds (ps).

The frequency of o signoI is fhe number of cycIes every second ond is meosured in
herf; (H;). When fhere ore mony cycIes per second, fhe frequency is expressed in kiIo
herf; (kH;) ond even mego herf; (MH;).


A sinewuve is o repefifive signoI wifh fhe shope
shown in Figure I.





Figure 1



A squurewuve is o repefifive signoI wifh fhe shope
shown in Figure Z.






Figure Z




Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf I - An infroducfion fo fhe MI ELVIS II fesf equipmenf I-4

Procedure

Purt A - Setting sturted

I. Ensure fhof fhe MI ELVIS II power swifch of fhe bock of fhe unif is off.

Z. CorefuIIy pIug fhe Emono FOTEx experimenfoI odd-in moduIe info fhe MI ELVIS II.

3. Inserf fhe hoIding screws fo secure fhe FOTEx moduIe fo fhe MI ELVIS II.

Note I: This moy oIreody be done for you. If nof, fhe screws ore suppIied wifh fhe MI
ELVIS II ond ore inserfed fhrough hoIes in fhe fop Ieff ond righf corners of fhe FOTEx.

Note Z: This musf be done wifh fhe power off fo ovoid domoging fhe FOTEx.

4. Sef fhe ConfroI Mode swifch on fhe FOTEx moduIe (fop righf corner) fo MonuoI.

b. Connecf fhe MI ELVIS II fo fhe PC using fhe US8 cobIe.

Note: This moy oIreody hove been done for you.

o. Turn on fhe MI ELVIS II power swifch of fhe reor of fhe unif fhen furn on ifs
Profofyping 8oord Power swifch of fhe fop righf corner neor fhe power indicofor.

7. Turn on fhe PC ond Ief if boof-up.

8. Lounch fhe MI ELVISmx soffwore per fhe insfrucfor's direcfions.

Note: If fhe MI ELVISmx soffwore hos Iounched successfuIIy, fhe window coIIed
"ELVISmx Insfrumenf Louncher" wiII be visibIe (see Figure 3).





Figure 3





Experimenf I - An infroducfion fo fhe MI ELVIS II fesf equipmenf Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs I-b

Purt - The NI ELVIS II DigituI MuItimeter
The MI ELVIS II DigifoI MuIfimefer (DMM) is on insfrumenf fhof con meosure fhe foIIowing
eIecfricoI properfies: DC & AC voIfoges, DC & AC currenfs, resisfonce, copocifonce ond
inducfonce. Ifs operofion is briefIy infroduced nexf.













Figure 4

9. Use fhe mouse fo cIick on fhe "DMM" buffon on fhe
MI ELVISmx Insfrumenf Louncher.

Note: If fhe digifoI muIfimefer virfuoI insfrumenf hos
Iounched successfuIIy, fhe insfrumenf's window wiII be
visibIe (see Figure 4).


The digifoI muIfimefer's mode of operofion is seIecfed using "soff" confroIs on fhe virfuoI
insfrumenf insfeod of physicoI buffons on fhe MI ELVIS II. Thof is, you feII fhe mefer whof fo
meosure by pressing fhe oppropriofe buffons under fhe heoding Meosuremenf ond Seffings
neor fhe mouse-poinfer in Figure 4.


I0. Move fhe mouse-poinfer over fhese confroIs buf don'f cIick on ony of fhem yef.

Note: As you do fhis, you'II nofice fhof o pop-up oppeors fo feII you by nome whof
meosuremenf mode fhe confroIs ocfivofe.

II. CIick bock ond forfh befween one of fhe VoIfoge confroIs (morked V) ond one of fhe
Currenf confroIs (morked A).

Note 1: As you do, nofice fhof fhe buffons on fhe virfuoI insfrumenf ore onimofed. The
seIecfed confroI fodes os fhough if hos been physicoIIy pressed in.

Note Z: Mofice oIso fhof fhe 8onono Jock Connecfions window updofes fo feII you which
of fhe DMM's bonono jocks fo use on fhe Ieff side of fhe MI ELIVS II for fhof
porficuIor meosuremenf.


Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf I - An infroducfion fo fhe MI ELVIS II fesf equipmenf I-o

ImporfonfIy, simpIy Iounching fhe DMM virfuoI insfrumenf doesn'f ocfivofe fhe insfrumenf's
hordwore. To do so, you musf press fhe soff Pun confroI (fhe buffon wifh fhe green orrow) ond
fhis musf be done every fime you Iounch fhe DMM virfuoI insfrumenf.

IZ. CIick on fhe DMM's Pun confroI.

I3. CIick on eoch of fhe Meosuremenf ond Seffings confroIs in furn whiIe wofching fhe
DMM's reodouf.

Note: As you do, nofice fhof fhe reodouf updofes fo feII you fhe unif of meosuremenf
(eg V for voIfs, A for omps, efc). The reodouf oIso indicofes fhe reIofive si;e of fhe
meosuremenf (for exompIe, m for miIIi, M for mego, efc). See fhe insfrucfor for more
informofion if you're nof fomiIior wifh fhe mefric sysfem of muIfipIes ond sub-muIfipIes.


Question 1
0iven you've nof been osked fo connecf fhe digifoI muIfimefer's inpufs fo onyfhing yef,
why does fhe DMM reod very smoII voIues of voIfoge insfeod of ;ero7
The mefer is meosuring fhe smoII omounfs of eIecfricoI noise fhof ifs inpufs ore
picking up.


If you exomine fhe DMM virfuoI insfrumenf cIoseIy you'II nofice fhof fhere ore ofher confroIs
fhof con be odjusfed incIuding fhe Mode, MuII Offsef ond Acquisifion Mode. These confroIs
defouIf fo oppropriofe seffings for reguIor use so we'II nof discuss fhem furfher here. Where
odjusfmenf of fhese confroIs is necessory, fhey'II be expIoined of fhe oppropriofe pIoce in fhe
experimenfs.




Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

Experimenf I - An infroducfion fo fhe MI ELVIS II fesf equipmenf Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs I-7

Purt C - The NI ELVIS II VuriubIe Power SuppIies
The MI ELVIS II VoriobIe Power SuppIies (VPS) is on insfrumenf fhof con simuIfoneousIy
oufpuf fwo DC voIfoges (one posifive ond one negofive) fo ferminoIs on fhe Emono FOTEx. Ifs
operofion is briefIy discussed nexf.

I4. Use fhe mouse fo cIick on fhe "VPS" buffon on fhe MI
ELVISmx Insfrumenf Louncher.

Note: If fhe VoriobIe Power SuppIies virfuoI insfrumenf
hos Iounched successfuIIy, fhe insfrumenf's window wiII be
visibIe (see Figure b).


A coupIe of fhe VoriobIe Power SuppIies seffings con be odjusfed
by "hord" confroIs on fhe MI ELVIS II (on fhe righf-hond sond of
fhe unif). However, oII of fhe VPS's seffings con be odjusfed using
ifs soff confroIs on ifs virfuoI insfrumenf. This is fhe preferred
mefhod of operofion fhroughouf fhis monuoI.


Figure

Ib. CIick on fhe DMM's confroI fo puf if info DC voIfoge meosuring mode.

Io. Connecf fhe sef-up shown in Figure o beIow.

Tip: Use fhe 4mm bonono pIug fo Zmm bonono pIug pofch Ieods.




Figure

VARIABLEDC
FUNCTION
GENERATOR
+
ANALOGI/ O
ACH1 DAC1
ACH0 DAC0
GND
V
COM
DMM

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf I - An infroducfion fo fhe MI ELVIS II fesf equipmenf I-8
I7. Acfivofe fhe VoriobIe Power SuppIies' VI by cIicking on ifs Pun confroI.

I8. Vory fhe VoriobIe Power SuppIies' posifive oufpuf voIfoge by using fhe
mouse fo "grob ond furn" fhe VoIfoge confroI shown in Figure 7.

Note: Mofice fhof, os you do fhis, o mefer obove fhe confroI chonges.

I9. Compore fhe mefer's voIue wifh oufpuf voIfoge indicofed by fhe DMM.
The fwo reodings shouId be cIose buf fhey'II probobIy nof be exocfIy fhe
some.
Figure 7


Z0. Sef fhe VoriobIe Power SuppIies posifive oufpuf voIfoge fo exocfIy 7.b9V
by fyping fhof number info fhe V window os shown in Figure 8 fhen press
fhe Enfer key.

ZI. Compore fhe voIue you fyped-in wifh fhe oufpuf voIfoge indicofed by fhe
DMM.

Figure

ZZ. Presef fhe PESET buffon beIow fhe V window ond observe fhe effecf.

Z3. Connecf fhe DMM fo fhe VoriobIe Power SuppIies' negofive VoriobIe DC oufpuf.

Z4. Pepeof Sfeps I8 fo Z3 fo offecf fhe VoriobIe Power SuppIies' negofive oufpuf.







Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

Experimenf I - An infroducfion fo fhe MI ELVIS II fesf equipmenf Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs I-9

Purt D - The NI ELVIS II OsciIIoscope
The MI ELVIS II OsciIIoscope (or jusf "scope") is o fuIIy funcfionoI duoI chonneI osciIIoscope
fhof oIIows engineers ond fechnicions fo meosure AC woveforms ond view fheir shope. Ifs
operofion is briefIy discussed nexf.

Zb. CIose fhe virfuoI insfrumenfs for fhe digifoI muIfimefer ond VoriobIe Power SuppIies.

Zo. Use fhe mouse fo cIick on fhe "Scope" buffon on fhe MI ELVISmx Insfrumenf Louncher.

Note: If fhe scope virfuoI insfrumenf hos Iounched successfuIIy, fhe insfrumenf's
window wiII be visibIe (see Figure 9).





Figure 9


The MI ELVIS II OsciIIoscope is operofed using fhe confroIs on ifs virfuoI insfrumenf.
AIfhough operofing fhe MI ELVIS II OsciIIoscope is much eosier fhon operofing ofher fypes of
scopes, if con sfiII be o IiffIe fricky fo use when you're new fo fhis piece of fesf equipmenf. The
procedure on fhe nexf poge is one fhof you con use fo sef if up reody fo reIiobIy view
woveforms ond foke meosuremenfs when underfoking FOTEx experimenfs.


Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf I - An infroducfion fo fhe MI ELVIS II fesf equipmenf I-I0

Procedure for setting up the NI ELVIS II OsciIIoscope

Z7. FoIIow fhe procedure beIow. CoII fhe insfrucfor for ossisfonce if you con'f find o
porficuIor confroI.

Note: Much of fhis procedure simpIy invoIves checking fhof confroI seffings ore in fhe
defouIf posifions used of fhe fime of wrifing fhis monuoI.

SeneruI

i) Check fhof fhe Cursors On box doesn'f hove o fick in if.

VerticuI

i) Check fhof fhe ChonneI 0 Source confroI is sef fo SCOPE CH 0 ond fhe ChonneI I
Source confroI is sef fo SCOPE CH I.

ii) Check fhof fhe Probe confroI for bofh chonneIs is sef fo I.

iii
)
Sef fhe CoupIing confroI for bofh chonneIs fo AC.

iv) Check fhof fhe ScoIe VoIfs/Div confroI for bofh chonneIs is sef fo IV/div.

v) Check fhof fhe VerficoI Posifion confroI for bofh chonneIs is in fhe middIe of fheir
froveI.

Timebuse

i) Sef fhe Time/Div (or Timebose) confroI fo fhe b00ps/div posifion.

Trigger

i) Sef fhe Type confroI fo Edge.

ii) Sef fhe Source confroI fo CH 0 Source.

iii) Check fhof fhe LeveI confroI is sef fo 0.

iii) Check fhof fhe SIope confroI is sef fo fhe posifion.

Z8. Acfivofe fhe scope's VI by cIicking on ifs Pun confroI.


Experimenf I - An infroducfion fo fhe MI ELVIS II fesf equipmenf Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs I-II



The nexf porf of fhis experimenf Iefs you fomiIiori;e yourseIf wifh MI ELVIS II OsciIIoscope
by observing ond meosuring o FOTEx signoI.

Z9. Connecf fhe sef-up shown in Figure I0 beIow.

Note 1: As you wiII see, fhe scope's ChonneI 0 froce is green so use fhe 8MC-fo-bonono-
pIug Ieod wifh fhe green beod on if. You'II find fhis procfice very heIpfuI when using fhe
scope's fwo chonneIs of once.

Note Z: Mofice fhof fhe connecfion fo fhe Mosfer SignoIs' ZkH; SIME oufpuf musf be
mode wifh fhe red bonono pIug. The bIock bonono pIug shouId be connecfed fo ony one of
fhe ground (0MD) sockefs on fhe Emono FOTEx.





Figure 10






Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.
GND
BLK
CH 0
CH 1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrms max
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
RED

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf I - An infroducfion fo fhe MI ELVIS II fesf equipmenf I-IZ

Peak-
to-peak
The period of one cycle




When meosuring fhe ompIifude of on AC
woveform using o scope, if's common fo
meosure ifs peok-fo-peok voIfoge. Thof is,
fhe difference befween ifs Iowesf poinf
ond ifs highesf poinf. This is shown in
Figure II. ImporfonfIy, knowing fhe
woveform's peok-fo-peok voIfoge oIIows us
fo coIcuIofe ifs PMS voIfoge where
required.

The ofher dimension of on AC woveform
fhof's imporfonf fo meosure is ifs period.
The period is fhe fime if fokes fo
compIefe

Figure 11
one cycIe ond fhis is oIso shown in Figure II. WhiIe knowing fhe woveform's period moy be
usefuI in ifs own righf, if oIso oIIows us fo coIcuIofe fhe signoI's frequency using fhe equofion:

Period
f
I
=


Meosuring fhe ompIifude of signoIs ond defermining fheir frequency using convenfionoI scopes
is o IiffIe more invoIved fhof using o digifoI muIfimefer. As such, if con be eosy for fhe novice
fo moke misfokes. HeIpfuIIy, fhe MI ELVIS II OsciIIoscope incIudes mefers fhof meosure
voIfoge ond frequency for you ond reodouf fhe informofion on fhe dispIoy. The Iocofion of fhis
informofion on fhe virfuoI insfrumenf is beIow fhe groficuIe os shown in Figure IZ beIow.




Figure 1Z


Experimenf I - An infroducfion fo fhe MI ELVIS II fesf equipmenf Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs I-I3

30. Pecord fhe scope's meosured voIue of voIfoge (PMS ond peok-fo-peok) ond frequency in
TobIe I beIow.

3I. Use fhe signoI's frequency fo work bockwords fo coIcuIofe ond record ifs period.

Tip: You'II hove fo fronspose fhe equofion on fhe previous poge fo moke period (P) fhe
subjecf.


TubIe 1
PMS voItuge

Frequency

Pk-Pk voItuge

Period






Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf I - An infroducfion fo fhe MI ELVIS II fesf equipmenf I-I4

Purt E - The NI ELVIS II Function Senerutor
The MI ELVIS II Funcfion 0enerofor (F0EM) is on insfrumenf fhof con oufpuf AC signoIs of
vorious shopes, si;es ond frequencies fo ferminoIs on fhe Emono FOTEx. Ifs operofion is
briefIy discussed nexf.

3Z. Use fhe mouse fo cIick on fhe "F0EM"
buffon on fhe MI ELVISmx Insfrumenf
Louncher.

Note 1: Don'f cIose fhe MI ELVISmx
Scope virfuoI insfrumenf becouse you'II be
using if fo verify fhe operofion of fhe
funcfion generofor.

Note Z: If fhe funcfion generofor virfuoI
insfrumenf hos Iounched successfuIIy, fhe
insfrumenf's window wiII be visibIe (see
Figure I3).


Figure 13


33. Acfivofe fhe funcfion generofor's VI by cIicking on ifs Pun confroI.

34. To observe fhe funcfion generofor's oufpuf, connecf fhe sef-up shown in Figure I4 beIow.

Note: Agoin, fhe connecfion fo fhe funcfion generofor's oufpuf musf be mode using fhe
Ieod's red bonono pIug.




Figure 14
BLK
RED
VARIABLEDC
FUNCTION
GENERATOR
+
ANALOGI/ O
ACH1 DAC1
ACH0 DAC0
GND
CH 0
CH 1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrms max

Experimenf I - An infroducfion fo fhe MI ELVIS II fesf equipmenf Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs I-Ib

3b. Sef fhe scope's Timebose confroI fo fhe Zms/div posifion.

Note: Once fhis sfep hos been performed, you shouId see fwo compIefe cycIes of o
sinewove.

3o. Vory fhe funcfion generofor's soff AmpIifude confroI Ieff ond righf ond observe fhe
effecf on fhe funcfion generofor's oufpuf.

37. Sef fhe funcfion generofor's ompIifude fo exocfIy Z.8V by fyping fhof number info fhe
Vpp window beIow fhe soff AmpIifude confroI fhen pressing fhe Enfer key.

38. Vory fhe funcfion generofor's soff Frequency confroI Ieff ond righf ond observe fhe
effecf on fhe funcfion generofor's oufpuf.

39. Sef fhe funcfion generofor's frequency fo exocfIy I3bH; by fyping fhof number info fhe
H; window beIow fhe soff Frequency confroI fhen pressing fhe Enfer key.










Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before finishing.

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf I - An infroducfion fo fhe MI ELVIS II fesf equipmenf I-Io






M
o
m
e
:

C
I
o
s
s
:


Z

-

A
n

i
n
f
r
o
d
u
c
f
i
o
n

f
o

f
h
e

F
O
T
E
x

e
x
p
e
r
i
m
e
n
f
o
I

o
d
d
-
i
n

m
o
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u
I
e

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf Z - An infroducfion fo fhe FOTEx experimenfoI odd-in moduIe Z-Z

Eperiment Z - An introduction to the FOTE eperimentuI
udd-in moduIe
PreIiminury discussion
The Emono FOTEx experimenfoI odd-in moduIe for fhe MI ELVIS II is used fo heIp peopIe
Ieorn obouf key feIecommunicofions principIes generoIIy ond opficoI fiber feIecoms specificoIIy.
As you wiII see, fhe Emono FOTEx Iefs you impIemenf wideIy used feIecommunicofion digifoI
dofo fechniques in bofh copper ond opficoI environmenfs os weII os Ieffing you invesfigofe reoI
worId opficoI fiber performonce issues.

8efore you expIore fhese inferesfing fechniques ond issues, fhere ore o number of FOTEx
moduIes fhof ore used fo heIp impIemenf fhe experimenfs. If's heIpfuI fo know o IiffIe obouf
fhese moduIes before using fhem.


The eperiment
This experimenf infroduces you fo severoI of fhe FOTEx's (non-opficoI) moduIes fhof ore
required by mosf of fhe experimenfs in fhis monuoI.

If shouId foke you obouf I hour fo compIefe fhis experimenf.


Pre-requisites:
Experimenfs I: An infroducfion fo fhe MI ELVIS II fesf equipmenf (or previous experience in
operofing fhe MI ELVIS II fesf equipmenf).


Equipment

PersonoI compufer wifh oppropriofe soffwore insfoIIed
MI ELVIS II pIus US8 cobIe ond power pock
Emono FOTEx experimenfoI odd-in moduIe
Two 8MC fo Zmm bonono-pIug Ieods
Assorfed Zmm bonono-pIug pofch Ieods
One sef of heodphones (sfereo)






Experimenf Z - An infroducfion fo fhe FOTEx experimenfoI odd-in moduIe Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Z-3
Purt A - The Muster SignuIs Speech und AmpIifier moduIes

The Muster SignuIs moduIe
The Mosfer SignoIs moduIe is on AC signoI generofor or osciIIofor. The moduIe hos five oufpufs
providing fhe foIIowing:

ZkH; sinewove (onoIog)
b00H; squorewove (digifoI)
ZkH; squorewove (digifoI)
I0kH; squorewove (digifoI)
I00kH; squorewove (digifoI)

Eoch signoI is ovoiIobIe on o sockef on fhe moduIe's focepIofe fhof is IobeIed occordingIy.
ImporfonfIy, oII signoIs ore synchroni;ed. The nexf porf of fhe experimenf gefs you fo
invesfigofe fhese signoIs using fhe MI ELVIS II OsciIIoscope.


Procedure

I. Ensure fhof fhe MI ELVIS II power swifch of fhe bock of fhe unif is off.

Z. CorefuIIy pIug fhe Emono FOTEx experimenfoI odd-in moduIe info fhe MI ELVIS II.

3. Inserf fhe hoIding screws fo secure fhe FOTEx moduIe fo fhe MI ELVIS II.

Note I: This moy oIreody be done for you. If nof, fhe screws ore suppIied wifh fhe MI
ELVIS II ond ore inserfed fhrough hoIes in fhe fop Ieff ond righf corners of fhe FOTEx.

Note Z: This musf be done wifh fhe power off fo ovoid domoging fhe FOTEx.

4. Connecf fhe MI ELVIS II fo fhe PC using fhe US8 cobIe.

Note: This moy oIreody hove been done for you.

b. Turn on fhe MI ELVIS II power swifch of fhe reor of fhe unif fhen furn on ifs
Profofyping 8oord Power swifch of fhe fop righf corner neor fhe power indicofor.

o. Turn on fhe PC ond Ief if boof-up.

7. Lounch fhe MI ELVISmx soffwore per fhe insfrucfor's direcfions.

Note: If fhe MI ELVISmx soffwore hos Iounched successfuIIy, fhe window coIIed
"ELVISmx Insfrumenf Louncher" wiII be visibIe.

Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf Z - An infroducfion fo fhe FOTEx experimenfoI odd-in moduIe Z-4

I. Connecf fhe sef-up shown in Figure I beIow.

Tip: Use fhe 8MC-fo-bonono-pIug Ieod wifh fhe green beod on if becouse fhis mofches
fhe coIor of fhe ChonneI 0 froce.





Figure 1


This sef-up con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure Z beIow.





Figure Z


Z. Lounch ond run fhe MI ELVIS II OsciIIoscope ond sef if up per fhe procedure in
Experimenf I (poge I-IZ) wifh fhe foIIowing chonge:

Inpuf coupIing confroI fo DC insfeod of AC

3. Adjusf fhe scope's Timebose confroI fo view onIy fwo or so cycIes of fhe Mosfer SignoIs
moduIe's ZkH; SIME oufpuf.
Mosfer SignoIs
ZkH;
To CH 0
GND
BLK
CH 0
CH 1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrms max
RED
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE

Experimenf Z - An infroducfion fo fhe FOTEx experimenfoI odd-in moduIe Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Z-b

4. Use fhe scope's meosuring funcfion fo find fhe ompIifude (fhe peok-fo-peok voIfoge) of
fhe Mosfer SignoIs moduIe's ZkH; SIME oufpuf. Pecord fhis in TobIe I beIow.

b. Meosure ond record fhe frequency of fhe Mosfer SignoIs moduIe's ZkH; SIME oufpuf.

o. Defermine whefher fhe signoI is unipoIor or bipoIor.

Note: To do fhis, Iook cIoseIy of fhe scope's 0V reference ocross fhe middIe of fhe
screen. If fhe signoI's peoks swing obove und beIow fhis Iine, fhe signoI is bipoIor. If fhe
peoks don'f do fhis, fhe signoI is unipoIor.

7. Sef fhe scope's Trigger LeveI confroI fo Z.bV insfeod of 0V.

8. Pepeof Sfeps b fo 7 for fhe Mosfer SignoIs moduIe's ofher four oufpufs.

Note: You'II need fo odjusf fhe scope's Timebose confroI fo on oppropriofe seffing for
eoch oufpuf.


TubIe 1 AmpIitude Frequency Uni- or bipoIur?
ZkHz SINE

00Hz DISITAL

ZkHz DISITAL

10kHz DISITAL

100kHz DISITAL








Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf Z - An infroducfion fo fhe FOTEx experimenfoI odd-in moduIe Z-o

Purt - The Speech moduIe
One of fhe moin funcfions of feIecommunicofions is fo oIIow peopIe fo foIk fo eoch ofher. As
such, if's imporfonf when modeIing opficoI fiber feIecommunicofions fo use speech signoIs. The
Emono FOTEx oIIows you fo generofe speech signoIs using fhe Speech moduIe ond fhe nexf porf
of fhe experimenf gefs you fo do so.

9. Disconnecf fhe scope from fhe Mosfer SignoIs moduIe.

I0. Sef fhe scope's Timebose confroI fo fhe Zms/div posifion.

II. Pefurn fhe scope's Trigger LeveI confroI fo 0V.

IZ. Connecf fhe sef-up shown in Figure 3 beIow.

Note: Inserf fhe osciIIoscope Ieod's bIock pIug info o ground (0MD) sockef.





Figure 3


I3. ToIk ond hum info fhe microphone whiIe wofching fhe scope's dispIoy. 8e sure fo soy
"one" ond "fwo" severoI fimes.





CH0
CH1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrmsmax
SPEECH
Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

Experimenf Z - An infroducfion fo fhe FOTEx experimenfoI odd-in moduIe Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Z-7

Purt C - The AmpIifier moduIe
AmpIifiers ore used exfensiveIy in feIecommunicofions equipmenf. They're offen used fo moke
signoIs bigger. They're oIso used os on inferfoce befween devices ond circuifs fhof con'f
normoIIy be connecfed. The AmpIifier moduIe on fhe Emono FOTEx con do bofh. The nexf porf
of fhe experimenf gefs you fo invesfigofe fhe AmpIifier moduIe's performonce ond use if fo
Iisfen fo signoIs on fhe heodphones.

I4. Disconnecf fhe scope from fhe Speech moduIe.

Ib. Locofe fhe AmpIifier moduIe ond sef ifs 0oin confroI fo obouf o fhird of ifs froveI.

Io. Connecf fhe sef-up shown in Figure 4 beIow.

Tip: Use fhe 8MC-fo-bonono-pIug Ieod wifh fhe bIue beod on if for fhe ChonneI I inpuf
becouse fhis mofches fhe coIor of fhe ChonneI I froce.

Note: Inserf fhe bIock pIugs of fhe osciIIoscope Ieods info o ground (0MD) sockef.





Figure 4

CH 0
CH 1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrmsmax
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
AMPLIFIER
GAIN OUT IN
GND GND

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf Z - An infroducfion fo fhe FOTEx experimenfoI odd-in moduIe Z-8

The sef-up in Figure 4 con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure b beIow.





Figure


I7. Adjusf fhe scope's Timebose confroI fo view fwo or so cycIes of fhe AmpIifier moduIe's
inpuf.

I8. Acfivofe fhe scope's ChonneI I inpuf by checking (fhof is, puffing o fick in) fhe ChonneI I
EnobIed box os shown in Figure o beIow.

Note: You moy need fo odjusf fhe scope's ChonneI I ScoIe confroI fo see fhe enfire
signoI.




Figure

Mosfer SignoIs
To CH 0
To CH I
ZkH;
AmpIifier

Experimenf Z - An infroducfion fo fhe FOTEx experimenfoI odd-in moduIe Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Z-9

I9. Meosure fhe ompIifude (fhe peok-fo-peok voIfoge) of fhe AmpIifier moduIe's inpuf.
Pecord your meosuremenf in TobIe Z beIow.

Z0. Meosure ond record fhe ompIifude of fhe AmpIifier moduIe's oufpuf.


TubIe Z
Input voItuge Output voItuge





The meosure of how much bigger on ompIifier's oufpuf voIfoge is compored fo ifs inpuf voIfoge
is coIIed voIfoge goin (A
V
). An ompIifier's voIfoge goin con be expressed os o simpIe rofio
coIcuIofed using fhe equofion:

Vin
Vouf
A
V
=



ImporfonfIy, if fhe ompIifier's oufpuf signoI is upside-down (or inverfed) compored fo ifs inpuf
fhen o negofive sign is puf in fronf of fhe goin figure fo highIighf fhis focf.


Question 1
CoIcuIofe fhe AmpIifier moduIe's goin (on ifs presenf goin seffing).
Assuming fhe AmpIifier moduIe's 0oin confroI is sef fo obouf o fhird of ifs froveI, if'II
be obouf -3.


An ompIifier's voIfoge goin con oIso be expressed in decibeIs ond is coIcuIofed using fhe
equofion:

=
Vin
Vouf
Log A
d8 V
Z0
) (



ImporfonfIy, fhe minus sign is nof used fo denofe inversion for goins expressed in decibeIs.
This is becouse fhe negofive sign in fronf of o decibeI denofes offenuofion. (You'II see fhis for
yourseIf Iofer.)


Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf Z - An infroducfion fo fhe FOTEx experimenfoI odd-in moduIe Z-I0

Question Z
CoIcuIofe fhe AmpIifier moduIe's goin in decibeIs.
A goin of -3 converfs 9.bd8 (nof -9.bd8).







The AmpIifier moduIe's goin is voriobIe. UsefuIIy, if con be sef so fhof fhe oufpuf voIfoge is
smoIIer fhon fhe inpuf voIfoge. This is nof ompIificofion of oII. Insfeod if's o Ioss or offenuofion.
The nexf porf of fhe experimenf shows how offenuofion offecfs fhe goin figure.

ZI. Sef fhe scope's ChonneI I ScoIe confroI fo fhe I00mV/div posifion.

ZZ. Turn fhe AmpIifier moduIe's 0oin confroI fuIIy counfer-cIockwise fhen furn if cIockwise
jusf o IiffIe unfiI you con jusf see o sinewove.

Z3. Meosure ond record fhe ompIifude of fhe AmpIifier moduIe's new oufpuf.

Z4. CoIcuIofe fhe ompIifier's new goin os bofh o rofio ond in decibeIs.


TubIe 3
Input voItuge Output voItuge
VoItuge guin
{rutio}
VoItuge guin
{in decibeIs}
See TobIe Z




Question 3
In ferms of fhe goin figure os o rofio, whof's fhe difference befween goin ond Ioss
(offenuofion)7
The goin figure for ompIificofion is greofer fhon I. The goin figure for offenuofion
is Iess fhon I.

Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

Experimenf Z - An infroducfion fo fhe FOTEx experimenfoI odd-in moduIe Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Z-II

Question 4
In ferms of fhe goin figure os o decibeI, whof's fhe difference befween goin ond
offenuofion7
The goin figure for ompIificofion is o posifive number. The goin figure for offenuofion
is o negofive number.






AmpIifiers work by foking fhe DC power suppIy voIfoge ond using if fo moke o copy of fhe
ompIifier's inpuf signoI. ObviousIy fhen, fhe DC power suppIy Iimifs fhe si;e of fhe ompIifier's
oufpuf. If fhe ompIifier is forced fo fry fo oufpuf o signoI fhof is bigger fhon fhe DC power
suppIy voIfoges, fhe fops ond boffoms of fhe signoI ore chopped off. This fype of signoI
disforfion is coIIed cIipping.

CIipping usuoIIy occurs when fhe ompIifier's inpuf signoI is foo big for fhe ompIifier's goin. When
fhis hoppens, fhe ompIifier is soid fo be overdriven. If con oIso occur if fhe ompIifier's goin is
foo big for fhe inpuf signoI. To demonsfrofe cIipping:


Zb. Turn fhe AmpIifier moduIe's 0oin confroI fuIIy cIockwise.

Zo. Pesi;e fhe AmpIifier moduIe's oufpuf signoI on fhe dispIoy by odjusfing ChonneI I's ScoIe
confroI fo on oppropriofe seffing.


Question
Whof do you fhink fhe oufpuf signoI wouId Iook Iike if fhe ompIifier's goin wos
sufficienfIy Iorge7
A squorewove.



Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.
Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf Z - An infroducfion fo fhe FOTEx experimenfoI odd-in moduIe Z-IZ

Z7. Turn the AmpIifier moduIe's Suin controI fuIIy counter-cIockwise.


Heodphones ore fypicoIIy Iow impedonce devices - usuoIIy oround b0. Mosf eIecfronic circuifs
ore nof designed fo hove such Iow impedonces connecfed fo fheir oufpuf. For fhis reoson,
heodphones shouId nof be direcfIy connecfed fo fhe oufpuf of mosf of fhe moduIes on fhe
Emono FOTEx.

However, fhe AmpIifier moduIe hos been specificoIIy designed fo hondIe Iow impedonces. So, if
con ocf os o buffer befween fhe moduIes' oufpufs ond fhe heodphones fo Ief you Iisfen fo
signoIs. The nexf porf of fhe experimenf shows how fhis is done.


Z8. Ensure fhof fhe AmpIifier moduIe's 0oin confroI is furned fuIIy counfer-cIockwise.

Z9. Wifhouf weoring fhe heodphones, pIug fhem info fhe AmpIifier moduIe's heodphone
sockef.

30. Puf fhe heodphones on.

3I. Turn fhe AmpIifier moduIe's 0oin confroI cIockwise ond Iisfen fo fhe signoI.

3Z. Disconnecf fhe pIugs from fhe Mosfer SignoIs moduIe's ZkH; SIME oufpuf ond connecf
fhem fo fhe Speech moduIe's oufpuf.

33. Speok info fhe microphone ond Iisfen fo fhe signoI.











Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

Experimenf Z - An infroducfion fo fhe FOTEx experimenfoI odd-in moduIe Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Z-I3

Purt D - The 1kHz und 3kHz Iow-puss fiIters
FiIfers ore oIso used exfensiveIy in feIecommunicofions equipmenf. As fheir nome impIies fhey
poss ond rejecf sinewoves discriminofing befween fhem by frequency. Thof is, fiIfers ore
designed fo Ief sinewoves of cerfoin frequencies poss from inpuf fo oufpuf reIofiveIy
unoffecfed whiIe offenuofing sinewoves of ofher frequencies.

The Emono FOTEx hos fwo dedicofed Iow-poss fiIfers (LPFs) which poss reIofiveIy Iow
frequency sinewoves down fo DC whiIe rejecfing reIofiveIy high frequency sinewoves. The
fhreshoId poinf where rejecfion is soid fo begin is coIIed fhe cuf-off frequency ond is
defermined by design. One of fhe FOTEx LPFs hos o IkH; cuf-off frequency ond fhe ofher hos
o 3kH; cuf-off frequency. The nexf porf of fhe experimenf Iefs you compore fhe fwo fiIfers'
frequency performonce.

34. DismonfIe fhe currenf sef-up.

3b. Lounch ond run fhe MI ELVIS II Funcfion 0enerofor VI.

3o. Adjusf fhe funcfion generofor for on oufpuf wifh fhe foIIowing specificofions:

Woveshope: Sine
Frequency: b00H;
AmpIifude: 4Vpp
DC Offsef: 0V
ModuIofion Type: Mone

37. Connecf fhe sef-up in Figure 7 beIow.

Note: Inserf fhe bIock pIugs of fhe osciIIoscope Ieods info o ground (0MD) sockef.




Figure 7


VARIABLEDC
FUNCTION
GENERATOR
+
ANALOGI/ O
ACH1 DAC1
ACH0 DAC0
CH 0
CH 1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrms max

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf Z - An infroducfion fo fhe FOTEx experimenfoI odd-in moduIe Z-I4

38. Use fhe scope fo check fhof fhe funcfion generofor's oufpuf is fo specificofion.

Note: You'II probobIy need fo odjusf severoI of fhe scope's confroIs fo oppropriofe
seffings. If you're nof sure whof fo do, simpIy sef-up fhe scope per fhe procedure on
poge I-IZ.

39. Modify fhe sef-up os shown in Figure 8 beIow.

Tip: Use fhe 8MC-fo-bonono-pIug Ieod wifh fhe red beod on if for fhe scope's TPI0
inpuf.





Figure


This sef-up con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure 9 on fhe nexf poge. As you con
see, fhe funcfion generofor's oufpuf is connecfed fo fhe inpuf of bofh fiIfers. The scope's
ChonneI 0 is used fo view fhe IkH; LPF's oufpuf whiIe ChonneI I is used fo view fhe 3kH; LPF's
oufpuf. As fhe signoIs wiII uIfimofeIy become quife smoII, fhe scope wiII be unobIe fo use fhem
for reIiobIe friggering. So fhe funcfion generofor's SYMC oufpuf is used fo frigger fhe scope
ond ensure o sfobIe dispIoy.


VARIABLEDC
FUNCTION
GENERATOR
+
ANALOGI/ O
ACH1 DAC1
ACH0 DAC0
CH 0
CH 1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrmsmax
1kHz LPF
LOWPASS
FILTERS
3kHz LPF
5VTTL
TRIG
FGEN

Experimenf Z - An infroducfion fo fhe FOTEx experimenfoI odd-in moduIe Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Z-Ib




Figure 9


40. Check fhof fhe funcfion generofor's SignoI Poufe opfion (neor fhe boffom righf-hond
corner of fhe VI is sef fo Profofyping 8oord.

Importunt note: There is fhe pofenfioI for o hordwore confIicf when using fhe scope's
exfernoI friggering inpuf (TPI0) of fhe some fime os fhe funcfion generofor. This is
becouse fhe connecfor for fhe TPI0 inpuf doubIes os on oufpuf for fhe funcfion
generofor when ifs SignoI Poufe opfion is sef fo F0EM 8MC. To ovoid hordwore confIicfs
oIwoys sef fhe SignoI Poufe fo Profofyping 8oord.

4I. Sef fhe scope's Trigger Type fo DigifoI.





Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.
IkH; LPF
Oufpuf fo
CH I
Funcfion
0enerofor
b00H;
3kH; LPF
Oufpuf fo
CH 0
SYMC fo
TPI0

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf Z - An infroducfion fo fhe FOTEx experimenfoI odd-in moduIe Z-Io

4Z. Meosure fhe oufpuf voIfoge of fhe fwo fiIfers. Pecord your meosuremenfs in TobIe 4
beIow.

43. CoIcuIofe fhe goin (in decibeIs) of fhe fwo fiIfers.






44. Sef fhe funcfion generofor's oufpuf frequency fo IkH; fhen repeof Sfeps 4Z ond 43.

4b. Pepeof for fhe remoining frequencies in TobIe 4.

Note: For eoch frequency, odjusf fhe scope's ScoIe confroIs os necessory fo ensure fhof
fhe signoIs ore nof foo smoII fo meosure.


TubIe 4
1kHz LPF 3kHz LPF
Input voItuge
Output
voItuge
VoItuge guin
{in d}
Output
voItuge
VoItuge guin
{in d}
00Hz

1kHz

ZkHz

3kHz

4kHz

kHz



4Vp-p



Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

Experimenf Z - An infroducfion fo fhe FOTEx experimenfoI odd-in moduIe Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Z-I7

Question
Whof hoppens fo fhe fiIfers' oufpuf signoIs os fhe inpuf frequency is increosed beyond
fheir cuf-off frequencies7
The oufpuf voIfoge gefs smoIIer. ImporfonfIy fhough, rejecfion isn'f insfonfoneous.
Insfeod, if roIIs-off.






Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before finishing.

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf Z - An infroducfion fo fhe FOTEx experimenfoI odd-in moduIe Z-I8







M
o
m
e
:

C
I
o
s
s
:


3

-

P
C
M

e
n
c
o
d
i
n
g

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf 3 - PCM encoding 3-Z

Eperiment 3 - PCM encoding
PreIiminury discussion
As you know, digifoI fronsmission sysfems ore sfeodiIy repIocing onoIog sysfems in commercioI
communicofions oppIicofions. This is especioIIy frue in feIecommunicofions. Thof being fhe cose,
on undersfonding of digifoI fronsmission sysfems is crucioI for fechnicoI peopIe in fhe
feIecommunicofions indusfry.

PuIse Code ModuIofion (PCM) is o wideIy used digifoI fronsmission sysfem for converfing onoIog
messoge signoIs (such os speech) fo o serioI sfreom of 0s ond Is. The conversion process is
coIIed encoding. Af ifs simpIesf, encoding invoIves:

SompIing fhe onoIog signoI's voIfoge of reguIor infervoIs using o sompIe-ond-hoId scheme

Comporing eoch sompIe fo o sef of reference voIfoges coIIed quonfi;ofion IeveIs

Deciding which quonfi;ofion IeveI fhe sompIed voIfoge is cIosesf fo

0enerofing fhe binory number for fhof quonfi;ofion IeveI

Oufpuffing fhe binory number one bif of o fime (fhof is, in serioI form)

Toking fhe nexf sompIe ond repeofing fhe process


An imporfonf PCM performonce issue reIofes fo fhe difference befween fhe sompIe voIfoge
ond fhe quonfi;ofion IeveIs fhof if is compored fo. To expIoin, mosf sompIed voIfoges wiII nof be
fhe some os ony of fhe quonfi;ofion IeveIs. As menfioned obove, fhe PCM Encoder ossigns fo
fhe sompIe fhe quonfi;ofion IeveI fhof is cIosesf fo if. However, in fhe process, fhe originoI
sompIe's voIue is Iosf ond fhe difference is known os quonfi;ofion error. ImporfonfIy, fhe error
is reproduced when fhe PCM dofo is decoded by fhe receiver becouse fhere is no woy for fhe
receiver fo know whof fhe originoI sompIe voIfoge wos. The si;e of fhe error is offecfed by fhe
number of quonfi;ofion IeveIs. The more quonfi;ofion IeveIs fhere ore (over o given ronge) fhe
cIoser fhey ore fogefher. This meons fhof fhe difference befween fhe quonfi;ofion IeveIs ond
fhe sompIes is smoIIer ond so fhe error is Iower.

Anofher issue fhof is crucioI fo fhe performonce of fhe PCM sysfem is fhe encoder's cIock
frequency. The cIock feIIs fhe PCM encoder when fo sompIe fhe inpuf. SompIing musf occur of
no-Iess fhon fwice fhe messoge frequency fo ovoid probIem coIIed oIiosing (or, if fhe messoge
confoins more fhon one sinewove, of Ieosf fwice ifs highesf frequency). As fhe effecf of
oIiosing is experienced of fhe oufpuf of fhe PCM sysfem, furfher discussion on fhis issue is Ieff
fo fhe PCM decoding experimenf.


Experimenf 3 - PCM encoding Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs 3-3

A IittIe informution ubout the PCM Encoder moduIe on the Emonu FOTE
The PCM Encoder moduIe uses o PCM encoding ond decoding chip (coIIed o codec) fo converf
onoIog voIfoges befween -Z.bV ond +Z.bV fo o 7-bif binory number. Wifh seven bifs, if's
possibIe fo produce IZ8 differenf numbers befween 0000000 ond IIIIIII incIusive. This in furn
meons fhof fhere ore IZ8 quonfi;ofion IeveIs (one for eoch number).

Eoch binory number is ovoiIobIe on fhe PCM Encoder moduIe's oufpuf in serioI form in 8-bif
fromes. The binory number's mosf significonf bif is senf firsf ond so is found on bif-7 of fhe
frome. The number's nexf mosf significonf bif is senf nexf ond so on fo fhe Ieosf significonf bif
(which is found on bif-I of fhe frome). 8if-0 of fhe frome is o frome synchroni;ofion bif used
by fhe PCM Decoder moduIe fo find fhe beginning of eoch frome. If simpIy oIfernofes befween
0 ond I on successive fromes. How fhis is used by fhe PCM Decoding moduIe for frome
synchroni;ofion is expIoin in fhe PCM Decoding experimenf.

The PCM Encoder moduIe oIso oufpufs o seporofe Frome Synchroni;ofion signoI (FS) fhof goes
high of fhe some fime os fhe frome's synchroni;ofion bif is oufpuffed. The FS oufpuf is nof
needed by fhe PCM Decoder moduIe ond hos been provided on fhe FOTEx pureIy for scope
friggering.

Figure I beIow shows on exompIe of fhree fromes of o PCM Encoder moduIe's oufpuf dofo
fogefher wifh ifs cIock inpuf ond ifs FS oufpuf. 8ifs 7 fo I ore shown os bofh o 0 ond o I
becouse fhey couId be eifher depending on fhe si;e of fhe onoIog inpuf.




Figure 1


The eperiment
For fhis experimenf you'II use fhe PCM Encoder moduIe on fhe Emono FOTEx fo converf fhe
foIIowing fo PCM: o fixed DC voIfoge, o voriobIe DC voIfoge ond o confinuousIy chonging signoI.
In fhe process, you'II verify fhe operofion of PCM encoding.

If shouId foke you obouf b0 minufes fo compIefe fhis experimenf.

CIock
PCM
FS
Frome I Frome Z Frome 3
7 o b 4 3 Z I 0 8if 7 o b 4 3 Z I 0 7 o b 4 3 Z I 0

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf 3 - PCM encoding 3-4

Pre-requisites:
Experimenf I: An infroducfion fo fhe MI ELVIS II fesf equipmenf
Experimenf Z: An infroducfion fo fhe Emono FOTEx


Equipment

PersonoI compufer wifh oppropriofe soffwore insfoIIed
MI ELVIS II pIus US8 cobIe ond power pock
Emono FOTEx experimenfoI odd-in moduIe
Two 8MC fo Zmm bonono-pIug Ieods
Assorfed Zmm bonono-pIug pofch Ieods


Procedure

Purt A - An introduction to PCM encoding using u stutic DC voItuge

I. Ensure fhof fhe MI ELVIS II power swifch of fhe bock of fhe unif is off.

Z. CorefuIIy pIug fhe Emono FOTEx experimenfoI odd-in moduIe info fhe MI ELVIS II.

3. Inserf fhe hoIding screws fo secure fhe FOTEx moduIe fo fhe MI ELVIS II.

Note I: This moy oIreody be done for you. If nof, fhe screws ore suppIied wifh fhe MI
ELVIS II ond ore inserfed fhrough hoIes in fhe fop Ieff ond righf corners of fhe FOTEx.

Note Z: This musf be done wifh fhe power off fo ovoid domoging fhe FOTEx.

4. Connecf fhe MI ELVIS II fo fhe PC using fhe US8 cobIe.

Note: This moy oIreody hove been done for you.

b. Turn on fhe MI ELVIS II power swifch of fhe reor of fhe unif fhen furn on ifs
Profofyping 8oord Power swifch of fhe fop righf corner neor fhe power indicofor.

o. Turn on fhe PC ond Ief if boof-up.

7. Lounch fhe MI ELVISmx soffwore.

8. Sef fhe PCM Encoder moduIe's Mode swifch fo fhe PCM posifion.


Experimenf 3 - PCM encoding Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs 3-b

9. Connecf fhe sef-up shown in Figure Z beIow.

Note 1: Inserf fhe bIock pIugs of fhe osciIIoscope Ieods info o ground (0MD) sockef.

Note Z: The PCM Encoder moduIe's IMPUT I con be connecfed fo ony ovoiIobIe ground
sockef.





Figure Z


This sef-up con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure 3 beIow. The PCM Encoder
moduIe is cIocked by fhe Mosfer SignoIs moduIe's I0kH; DI0ITAL oufpuf ond ifs onoIog inpuf
is connecfed fo 0V DC.





Figure 3

CH0
CH1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrmsmax
PCM
ENCODER
FS
CLK
PCM
DATA
TDM
INPUT 2
INPUT 1
PCM
GND
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
FS
To CH 0
Mosfer
SignoIs
IM
CLI
PCM dofo
PCM Encoder
I0kH;
OV
PCM cIock
To CH I

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf 3 - PCM encoding 3-o

I0. Lounch ond run fhe MI ELVIS II OsciIIoscope VI.

II. Sef up fhe scope per fhe procedure in Experimenf I (poge I-IZ) wifh fhe foIIowing
chonges:

ScoIe confroI for bofh chonneIs fo fhe ZV/div posifion insfeod of fhe IV/div posifion
CoupIing confroI for bofh chonneIs fo fhe DC posifion insfeod of fhe AC posifion
Trigger LeveI confroI fo ZV insfeod of 0V
Timebose confroI fo fhe Z00ps/div posifion insfeod of fhe b00ps/div posifion

IZ. Sef fhe scope's SIope confroI fo fhe posifion.


Seffing fhe SIope confroI fo fhe "-" posifion mokes fhe scope sforf ifs sweep ocross fhe screen
when fhe FS signoI goes from high fo Iow insfeod of Iow fo high. You con reoIIy nofice fhe
difference befween fhe fwo seffings if you fIip fhe scope's SIope confroI bock ond forfh. If
you do fhis, moke sure fhof fhe SIope confroI finishes on fhe "-" posifion.





I4. Acfivofe fhe scope's ChonneI I inpuf (by checking fhe ChonneI I EnobIed box) fo observe
fhe PCM Encoder moduIe's CLI inpuf os weII os ifs FS oufpuf.

Tip: To see fhe fwo woveforms cIeorIy, you moy need fo odjusf fhe scope so fhof fhe
fwo signoIs ore nof overIoyed. Do fhis by seffing fhe ChonneI 0 VerficoI Posifion confroI
fo ZV ond fhe ChonneI I VerficoI Posifion confroI fo -bV




Figure 4
I3. Sef fhe scope's Timebose confroI fo fhe
I00ps/div posifion.

Note 1: The FS signoI's puIse shouId be one
division wide os shown in Figure 4. If if's
nof, odjusf fhe funcfion generofor's oufpuf
frequency unfiI if is.

Note Z: Seffing fhe funcfion generofor
fhis woy mokes eoch bif in fhe serioI dofo
sfreom one division wide on fhe groficuIe's
hori;onfoI oxis.

Experimenf 3 - PCM encoding Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs 3-7

Ib. Drow fhe fwo woveforms fo scoIe in fhe spoce provided beIow Ieoving enough room for o
fhird digifoI signoI.

Tip: Drow fhe cIock signoI in fhe upper fhird of fhe groph poper ond fhe FS signoI in fhe
middIe fhird.







Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.


Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf 3 - PCM encoding 3-8

Io. Connecf fhe scope's ChonneI I inpuf fo fhe PCM Encoder moduIe's oufpuf os shown in
Figure b beIow.

Pemember: Doffed Iines show Ieods oIreody in pIoce.




Figure


The chonge fo fhe scope's connecfion con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure o
beIow. ChonneI I shouId now dispIoy I0 bifs of fhe PCM Encoder moduIe's dofo oufpuf. Peoding
from fhe Ieff of fhe dispIoy, fhe firsf 8 bifs beIong fo one frome ond fhe Iosf fwo bifs beIong
fo fhe nexf frome.





Figure


FS
To CH 0
IM
CLI
PCM dofo
To CH I
OV
I0kH;
CH0
CH1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrms max
PCM
ENCODER
FS
CLK
PCM
DATA
TDM
INPUT 2
INPUT 1
PCM
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
GND

Experimenf 3 - PCM encoding Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs 3-9

I7. Drow fhis woveform fo scoIe in fhe spoce fhof you Ieff on fhe groph poper.


Question 1
Indicofe on your drowing fhe sforf ond end of fhe frome. Tip: If you're nof sure where
fhese poinfs ore, rereod fhe preIiminory discussion.


Question Z
Indicofe on your drowing fhe sforf ond end of eoch bif.


Question 3
Indicofe on your drowing which bif in fhe PCM dofo is fhe frome synchroni;ofion bif.
Tip: This bif occosionoIIy foggIes befween Iogic-0 ond Iogic-I.


Question 4
Indicofe on your drowing which bif in fhe PCM dofo is fhe binory number's mosf
significonf bif (MS8) ond ifs Ieosf significonf bif (LS8).


Question
Whof is fhe 7-bif binory number fhof fhe PCM Encoder moduIe is oufpuffing7
TheoreficoIIy fhe number shouId be I000000. However, in procfice, if wiII vory
obove ond beIow fhis number from unif fo unif due fo smoII omounfs of DC offsef.


Question
Why does fhe PCM Encoder moduIe oufpuf fhis code for 0V DC ond nof 00000007
To oIIow fhe PCM Encoder fo encode voIfoges obove ond beIow 0V (which is o properfy of
onoIog messoge signoIs such os speech ond music).



Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.


Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf 3 - PCM encoding 3-I0

Purt - PCM encoding of u vuriubIe DC voItuge
So for, you hove used fhe PCM Encoder moduIe fo converf o fixed DC voIfoge (0V) fo PCM. The
nexf porf of fhe experimenf Iefs you see whof hoppens when you vory fhe DC voIfoge.

I8. Lounch ond run fhe Emono VorDC VI.

Note: The Emono VorDC VI is on insfrumenf fhof uses fhe MI ELVIS II hordwore fo
oufpuf on odjusfobIe bi-poIor DC voIfoge fo fhe DAC0 oufpuf on fhe FOTEx.

I9. Check wifh fhe insfrucfor fhof fhe Emono VorDC VI's defouIf device number is
oppropriofe for fhe PC sef-up fhof you're using.

Z0. Sef fhe VorDC's oufpuf fo 0V.

ZI. UnpIug fhe pofch Ieod connecfed fo fhe ground sockef.

ZZ. Modify fhe sef-up os shown in Figure 7 beIow.





Figure 7


This sef-up con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure 8 on fhe nexf poge. The Emono
VorDC VI is used for fhe DC voIfoge on fhe PCM Encoder moduIe's inpuf.


CH0
CH1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrmsmax
PCM
ENCODER
FS
CLK
PCM
DATA
TDM
INPUT 2
INPUT 1
PCM
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
VARIABLEDC
FUNCTION
GENERATOR
+
ANALOGI/ O
ACH1 DAC1
ACH0 DAC0

Experimenf 3 - PCM encoding Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs 3-II




Figure


Z3. Defermine fhe 7-bif number on fhe PCM Encoder moduIe's oufpuf.

Tip 1: Pemember, fhe firsf eighf hori;onfoI divisions of fhe scope's groficuIe correspond
wifh one frome of fhe PCM Encoder moduIe's oufpuf.

Tip Z: Pemember fhof bif-0 is o frome synchroni;ofion bif.

Note: You shouId find fhof fhe PCM Encoder moduIe's oufpuf is reosonobIy cIose fo fhe
code you defermined eorIier when fhe moduIe's inpuf wos connecfed direcfIy fo ground.


Mumber:




Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

FS
To CH 0
IM
CLI
PCM dofo
To CH I
Emono
VorDC VI I0kH;

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf 3 - PCM encoding 3-IZ

Z4. Increose fhe VorDC VI's oufpuf voIfoge in smoII incremenfs in fhe negutive direcfion ond
nofe whof hoppens fo fhe binory number on fhe PCM Encoder moduIe's oufpuf.


Question 7
Whof hoppens fo fhe binory number os fhe inpuf voIfoge increoses in fhe negofive
direcfion7
The number gefs smoIIer.


Zb. Defermine fhe firsf insfonce of fhe chonging negofive voIfoge fhof produces fhe number
0000000 on fhe PCM Encoder moduIe's oufpuf.

Zo. Pecord fhis voIfoge in TobIe I beIow.


TubIe 1
PCM Encoder's
output number
PCM Encoder's
input voItuge
0000000







Z7. Pefurn fhe VorDC VI's oufpuf fo 0V.

Z8. Increose fhe VorDC VI's oufpuf voIfoge in smoII incremenfs in fhe positive direcfion ond
nofe whof hoppens fo fhe binory number on fhe PCM Encoder moduIe's oufpuf.


Question
Whof hoppens fo fhe binory number os fhe inpuf voIfoge increoses in fhe posifive
direcfion7
The number gefs bigger.

Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.


Experimenf 3 - PCM encoding Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs 3-I3

Z9. Defermine fhe Iowesf posifive voIfoge fhof produces fhe number IIIIIII on fhe PCM
Encoder moduIe's oufpuf.

30. Pecord fhis voIfoge in TobIe Z beIow.


TubIe Z
PCM Encoder's
output number
PCM Encoder's
input voItuge
1111111




Question 9
8osed on fhe informofion in TobIes I & Z, whof is fhe moximum oIIowobIe peok-fo-peok
voIfoge for on AC signoI on fhe PCM Encoder moduIe's IMPUT7
TypicoIIy bVp-p - The voIues in TobIes I & Z shouId be obouf Z.bV.


Question 10
CoIcuIofe fhe difference befween fhe PCM Encoder moduIe's quonfi;ofion IeveIs by
subfrocfing fhe voIues in TobIes I & Z ond dividing fhe number by IZ8 (fhe number of
possibIe numbers).
(+Z.bV - -Z.bV) - IZ8 ~ 0.039V or 39mV




Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.


Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf 3 - PCM encoding 3-I4

Purt C - PCM encoding of continuousIy chunging voItuges
Mow Ief's see whof hoppens when fhe PCM encoder is used fo converf confinuousIy chonging
signoIs Iike o sinewove.

3I. CIose fhe VorDC's VI.

3Z. Disconnecf fhe pIugs fo fhe DAC0 oufpuf.

33. Modify fhe sef-up os shown in Figure 9 beIow.





Figure 9


The chonges fo fhe sef-up shown in Figure 9 con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure
I0 on fhe nexf poge. The VorDC hos been repIoced by fhe Mosfer SignoIs moduIe's ZkH; SIME
oufpuf fo modeI o confinuousIy chonging messoge.

Mofice oIso fhof fhe bif-cIock frequency hos been increosed fo I00kH;. This hos been done fo
ovoid fhe probIem of oIiosing menfioned in fhe preIiminory discussion. Wifhouf going info foo
much defoiI of fhis sfoge, oIiosing occurs when fhe sompIe rofe is Iess fhon fwice fhe messoge
frequency. A I0kH; cIock gives o sompIe rofe of IZb0 sompIes per second (I.ZbkSo/s) which is
weII beIow fhe 4kSo/s minimum required for o ZkH; messoge. Using I00kH; cIock gives o
sompIe rofe of IZkSo/s which comforfobIy exceeds fhe minimum sompIing requiremenf.

Why is fhe sompIe rofe so much Iower fhon fhe bif-cIock frequency7 PecoII fhof fhe PCM
Encoder moduIe's oufpuf is serioI dofo. 8eing on 8-bif word, fhe PCM Encoder moduIe requires
eighf cIock puIses fo oufpuf eoch frome. Thof being fhe cose, fhere's no poinf in fhe PCM
Encoder moduIe sompIing fhe onoIog inpuf of o rofe greofer fhon one-eighfh of fhe cIock. Whof
wouId if do wifh fhe exfro informofion7

CH 0
CH 1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrmsmax
PCM
ENCODER
FS
CLK
PCM
DATA
TDM
INPUT 2
INPUT 1
PCM
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE

Experimenf 3 - PCM encoding Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs 3-Ib



Figure 10


34. Wofch fhe PCM Encoder moduIe's oufpuf on fhe scope's dispIoy.


Question 11
Why does fhe code on PCM Encoder moduIe's oufpuf chonge confinuousIy7
8ecouse every fime if sompIes fhe inpuf signoI, ifs voIfoge is differenf so fhis produces
o differenf number.








Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before finishing.

FS
To CH 0
IM
CLI
PCM dofo
To CH I
Mosfer
SignoIs
I00kH;
ZkH;

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf 3 - PCM encoding 3-Io










M
o
m
e
:

C
I
o
s
s
:


4

-

P
C
M

d
e
c
o
d
i
n
g

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf 4 - PCM decoding 4-Z

Eperiment 4 - PCM decoding
PreIiminury discussion
The previous experimenf infroduced you fo fhe bosics of puIse code moduIofion (PCM) which
you'II recoII is o sysfem for converfing onoIog messoge signoIs fo o confinuous serioI sfreom of
binory numbers (encoding). Pecovering fhe messoge from fhe serioI sfreom of binory numbers
is coIIed decoding.

Af ifs simpIesf, decoding invoIves:

Idenfifying eoch new frome in fhe dofo sfreom

Exfrocfing fhe binory number from eoch frome

0enerofing o voIfoge fhof is proporfionoI fo fhe binory number

HoIding fhe voIfoge on fhe oufpuf unfiI fhe nexf frome hos been decoded

Peconsfrucfing fhe messoge by possing fhe PAM signoI fhrough o Iow-poss fiIfer


8efore experimenfing wifh PCM encoding ond decoding fhere ore o few issues fhof shouId be
discussed firsf. Two ore crucioI fo fhe sysfem's reIiobIe operofion ond one is crucioI fo ifs
overoII performonce.

PeIiobIe PCM encoding ond decoding demonds fhof fhe PCM decoder's bif-cIock is synchroni;ed
fo fhe PCM dofo signoI's bif-cIock. Thof is, fhey musf be fhe some frequency ond phose-oIigned.
If nof, some of fhe fronsmiffed bifs ore reod fwice whiIe ofhers ore compIefeIy missed. This
resuIfs in some of fhe fronsmiffed numbers being incorrecfIy inferprefed, which in furn couses
fhe PCM decoder fo oufpuf on incorrecf voIfoge. The error con be oudibIe os noise ond/or
disforfion. Some PCM decoders (incIuding fhe FOTEx PCM Decoder moduIe) monoge bif-cIock
synchroni;ofion by regenerofing fhe originoI bif cIock from fhe PCM dofo ifseIf. Thof soid, fhis
experimenf wiII simpIy "sfeoI" fhe bif-cIock from fhe PCM Encoder moduIe ond Ieove bif-cIock
regenerofion fo onofher experimenf.

PeIiobIe PCM encoding ond decoding oIso demonds fhof fhe PCM decoder recogni;es fhe
correcf bif in fhe dofo os fhe beginning of eoch new frome. If if picks fhe wrong bif, every
number is inferprefed incorrecfIy. This is coIIed frome synchroni;ofion ond con be monoged in
one of o number of woys. The PCM encoder con generofe o seporofe frome synchroni;ofion
signoI fhof is senf fo fhe decoder buf fhis hos fhe disodvonfoge of requiring o second chonneI
(Ieoving Iess room for ofher users). AIfernofiveIy, frome synchroni;ofion informofion con be
embedded in fhe serioI dofo sfreom. This con be used by fhe decoder fo work ouf when fhe
frome sforfs. As you hove seen, fhe FOTEx PCM Decoder moduIe fokes fhis Ioffer opprooch by
odding o bif fo fhe fronf of eoch frome ond foggIing ifs Iogic IeveI for successive fromes. A
breok-ouf box Iofer in fhe experimenf wiII discuss fhis o IiffIe more buf fhe experimenf wiII
nof invesfigofe exocfIy how frome synchroni;ofion is ochieved.

Experimenf 4 - PCM decoding Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs 4-3

An imporfonf PCM sysfem performonce issue reIofes fo fhe probIem of quonfi;ofion error
infroduced in fhe PCM encoding experimenf. PecoII fhof quonfi;ofion error is fhe difference
befween fhe sompIed onoIog inpuf voIfoge ond fhe neoresf quonfi;ofion IeveI used by fhe PCM
encoder fo represenf if. ImporfonfIy, fhere is o for greofer chonce of o sompIed onoIog voIfoge
being differenf fo one of fhe quonfi;ofion IeveIs fhon fhe some. In ofher words, fhis error is
neorIy oIwoys presenf ond disforfs fhe reproducfion of fhe originoI signoI on fhe PCM decoder's
oufpuf. Provided fhe quonfi;ofion error isn'f foo Iorge, fhe disforfion if couses con be heord os
o hiss superimposed on fhe signoI. As such, quonfi;ofion error is soid fo couse quonfi;ofion
noise.


A IittIe informution ubout the FOTE PCM Decoder moduIe
Like fhe PCM Encoder moduIe on fhe Emono FOTEx, fhe PCM Decoder moduIe works wifh 8-bif
fromes. 8if-0 of every frome (fhe firsf bif senf) is used for frome synchroni;ofion ond fhe
ofher seven bifs form binory numbers. For 0000000 fhe PCM Decoder moduIe oufpufs -ZV ond
for IIIIIII if oufpufs +ZV. For numbers in befween, fhe oufpuf is o proporfionoI voIfoge
befween ZV. For exompIe, fhe number I000000 is hoIf woy befween 0000000 ond IIIIIII ond
so for fhis inpuf fhe moduIe oufpufs 0V (which is hoIf woy befween +ZV ond -ZV).


The eperiment
For fhis experimenf you'II use fhe Emono FOTEx fo converf o sinewove fo o PCM dofo sfreom
fhen converf if fo o fhe "sfepped" version of fhe messoge using fhe PCM Decoder moduIe. For
fhis fo work correcfIy, fhe decoder's bif-cIock is simpIy "sfoIen" from fhe PCM Encoder moduIe.
You'II fhen invesfigofe fhe specfroI composifion of fhe signoI on fhe PCM Decoder moduIe's
oufpuf fo undersfond why fiIfering con be used fo reconsfrucf fhe messoge. FinoIIy, you'II Iisfen
fo fhe reconsfrucfed messoge fo verify fhof if sounds Iike fhe originoI.

If shouId foke you obouf b0 minufes fo compIefe fhis experimenf.


Pre-requisites:
Experimenf I: An infroducfion fo fhe MI ELVIS II fesf equipmenf
Experimenf Z: An infroducfion fo fhe Emono FOTEx
Experimenf 3: PCM Encoding


Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf 4 - PCM decoding 4-4

Equipment

PersonoI compufer wifh oppropriofe soffwore insfoIIed
MI ELVIS II pIus US8 cobIe ond power pock
Emono FOTEx experimenfoI odd-in moduIe
Two 8MC fo Zmm bonono-pIug Ieods
Assorfed Zmm bonono-pIug pofch Ieods
One sef of heodphones (sfereo)


Procedure

Purt A - Setting up the PCM encoder
To experimenf wifh PCM decoding you need PCM dofo. The firsf porf of fhe experimenf gefs
you fo sef up o PCM encoder.

I. Ensure fhof fhe MI ELVIS II power swifch of fhe bock of fhe unif is off.

Z. CorefuIIy pIug fhe Emono FOTEx experimenfoI odd-in moduIe info fhe MI ELVIS II.

3. Inserf fhe hoIding screws fo secure fhe FOTEx moduIe fo fhe MI ELVIS II.

Note I: This moy oIreody be done for you. If nof, fhe screws ore suppIied wifh fhe MI
ELVIS II ond ore inserfed fhrough hoIes in fhe fop Ieff ond righf corners of fhe FOTEx.

Note Z: This musf be done wifh fhe power off fo ovoid domoging fhe FOTEx.

4. Connecf fhe MI ELVIS II fo fhe PC using fhe US8 cobIe.

Note: This moy oIreody hove been done for you.

b. Turn on fhe MI ELVIS II power swifch of fhe reor of fhe unif fhen furn on ifs
Profofyping 8oord Power swifch of fhe fop righf corner neor fhe power indicofor.

o. Turn on fhe PC ond Ief if boof-up.

7. Lounch fhe MI ELVISmx soffwore.

8. Lounch ond run fhe MI ELVIS II VoriobIe Power SuppIies VI.

9. Sef fhe VoriobIe Power SuppIies' posifive oufpuf fo 0V.

Experimenf 4 - PCM decoding Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs 4-b

I0. Sef fhe PCM Encoder moduIe's Mode swifch fo fhe PCM posifion.

II. Connecf fhe sef-up shown in Figure I beIow.

Note: Inserf fhe bIock pIugs of fhe osciIIoscope Ieods info o ground (0MD) sockef.




Figure 1


This sef-up con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure Z beIow. The PCM Encoder
moduIe is cIocked by fhe Mosfer SignoIs moduIe's I00kH; DI0ITAL oufpuf. Ifs onoIog inpuf is
fhe VoriobIe Power SuppIies' posifive oufpuf.





Figure Z

FS
To CH 0
IM
CLI
PCM dofo
To CH I
Mosfer
SignoIs
I00kH;
VoriobIe Power
SuppIies
CH0
CH1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrmsmax
PCM
ENCODER
FS
CLK
PCM
DATA
TDM
INPUT 2
INPUT 1
PCM
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
VARIABLEDC
FUNCTION
GENERATOR
+
ANALOGI/ O
ACH1 DAC1
ACH0 DAC0

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf 4 - PCM decoding 4-o

IZ. Lounch ond run fhe MI ELVIS II OsciIIoscope VI.

I3. Sef up fhe scope per fhe procedure in Experimenf I (poge I-IZ) wifh fhe foIIowing
chonges:

ScoIe confroI for bofh chonneIs fo fhe ZV/div posifion insfeod of fhe IV/div posifion
CoupIing confroI for bofh chonneIs fo fhe DC posifion insfeod of fhe AC posifion
Trigger LeveI confroI fo ZV insfeod of 0V
Timebose confroI fo fhe I0ps/div posifion insfeod of fhe b00ps/div posifion

I4. Sef fhe scope's SIope confroI fo fhe "-" posifion fo frigger fhe scope on fhe FS signoI's
froiIing edge.

Ib. Acfivofe fhe scope's ChonneI I inpuf (by checking fhe ChonneI I EnobIed box) fo observe
fhe PCM Encoder moduIe's PCM DATA oufpuf os weII os ifs FS oufpuf.

Note: You moy find if usefuI fo odjusf fhe scope's fwo VerficoI Posifion confroIs so fhof
fhe fwo signoIs ore nof overIoyed.

Io. Vory fhe VoriobIe Power SuppIies posifive oufpuf VoIfoge confroI Ieff ond righf (buf
don'f exceed Z.bV).

Note: If your sef-up is working correcfIy, fhis Iosf sfep shouId couse fhe number on PCM
Encoder moduIe's PCM DATA oufpuf fo go down ond up. If if does, corry on fo fhe nexf
sfep. If nof, check your wiring or osk fhe insfrucfor for heIp.

I7. CIose fhe VoriobIe Power SuppIies VI.

I8. Disconnecf fhe pIug fo fhe VoriobIe Power SuppIies' posifive oufpuf.

I9. Lounch ond run fhe MI ELVIS II Funcfion 0enerofor VI.

Z0. Adjusf fhe funcfion generofor using ifs soff confroIs for on oufpuf wifh fhe foIIowing
specificofions:

Woveshope: Sine
Frequency: b00H;
AmpIifude: 4Vpp
DC Offsef: 0V

ZI. Modify fhe sef-up os shown in Figure 3 on fhe nexf poge.

Pemember: Doffed Iines show Ieods oIreody in pIoce.



Experimenf 4 - PCM decoding Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs 4-7



Figure 3

This sef-up con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure 4 beIow. The PCM Encoder
moduIe's inpuf is now o b00H; sinewove from fhe funcfion generofor. As fhe PCM Encoder
moduIe's inpuf is confinuousIy chonging, you shouId nofice fhe PCM DATA oufpuf chonging
confinuousIy oIso.





Figure 4




Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.
CH0
CH1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrmsmax
PCM
ENCODER
FS
CLK
PCM
DATA
TDM
INPUT 2
INPUT 1
PCM
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
VARIABLEDC
FUNCTION
GENERATOR
+
ANALOGI/ O
ACH1 DAC1
ACH0 DAC0
FS
To CH 0
IM
CLI
PCM dofo
To CH I
Funcfion
0enerofor
I00kH;
b00H;

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf 4 - PCM decoding 4-8

Purt - Decoding the PCM dutu
The nexf porf of fhe experimenf gefs you fo use fhe Emono FOTEx PCM Decoder moduIe fo
decode fhe PCM Encoder moduIe's oufpuf dofo.

ZZ. Deocfivofe fhe scope's ChonneI I inpuf.

Z3. Modify fhe sef-up os shown in Figure b beIow.




Figure


The enfire sef-up con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure o beIow. Mofice fhof fhe
PCM Decoder moduIe's bif-cIock is "sfoIen" from fhe PCM Encoder moduIe fo ensure
synchroni;ofion.



Figure
CH0
CH1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrmsmax
PCM
ENCODER
FS
CLK
PCM
DATA
TDM
INPUT 2
INPUT 1
PCM
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
PCM
DECODER
PCM
DATA
CLK
OUTPUT
OUTPUT2
VARIABLEDC
FUNCTION
GENERATOR
+
ANALOGI/ O
ACH1 DAC1
ACH0 DAC0
IM
CLI
OUTPUT
To CH I
Messoge
To CH 0
PCM
DATA "SfoIen" CLI
PCM Decoder
PCM Encoding PCM Decoding
I00kH;
b00H;

Experimenf 4 - PCM decoding Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs 4-9

Z4. Adjusf fhe scope os foIIows:

ScoIe confroI for bofh chonneIs fo fhe IV/div posifion
VerficoI posifion confroI for bofh chonneIs fo 0V
CoupIing confroI for bofh chonneIs fo fhe AC posifion
Trigger LeveI confroI fo 0V
SIope confroI bock fo fhe "+" posifion
Timebose confroI fo fhe b00ps/div posifion

Zb. Acfivofe fhe scope's ChonneI I inpuf fo observe fhe PCM Decoder moduIe's oufpuf os weII
os fhe messoge signoI.


Question 1
Why is fhe PCM Decoder moduIe's oufpuf signoI "sfepped" insfeod of smoofh Iike fhe
originoI messoge7
The PCM Decoder creofes on opporenf copy of fhe messoge using o finife number of
quonfi;ofion IeveIs. As such if's impossibIe for fhe signoI fo be smoofh Iike fhe originoI.


Question Z
Whof's fhe nome for fhis disforfion7 Tip: If you're nof sure, rereod fhe preIiminory
discussion.
Quonfi;ofion noise.


Question 3
When oudibIe, whof does fhis disforfion sound Iike7
Hiss - Iike whife noise (provided fhe quonfi;ofion noise isn'f foo Iorge).







Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.


Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf 4 - PCM decoding 4-I0


How is frume synchronizution uchieved using the uIternuting synchronizution bit?
PecoII fhof frome synchroni;ofion befween fhe PCM Encoder ond Decoder moduIes is
ochieved oufomoficoIIy. Thof is, fhe PCM Decoder moduIe con idenfify fhe sforf of
eoch new frome for ifseIf. To heIp fhe PCM Decoder moduIe ochieve ond moinfoin
frome synchroni;ofion, fhe PCM Encoder moduIe odds o frome synchroni;ofion bif (bif-
0) fo every 7-bif binory number fronsmiffed. ImporfonfIy, fhis bif is foggIed befween
Iogic-0 ond Iogic-I on successive fromes.

The PCM Decoder moduIe's frome defecfion circuifry hos eighf monifors fhof Iook for o
bif wifh o 0I0I0I, poffern on successive frome. This fypicoIIy fokes fwo or fhree
fromes fo ochieve. Once fhe frome synchroni;ofion bif is idenfified, fhe PCM Decoder
moduIe con sforf reoding fhe dofo from fhe correcf poinf in eoch frome.

Why does fhis work7 In shorf, onIy o signoI of fhe Myquisf frequency (fhof is, of fhe
frequency equoI fo hoIf fhe sompIe rofe) chonges fosf enough fo produce such o
poffern of 0s ond Is on fhe Ieosf significonf bif. The ossumpfion here is fhof fhe PCM
Encoder is prevenfed from digifi;ing signoIs of or obove fhe Myquisf frequency fo
prevenf fhis poffern from being generofed nofuroIIy. And, fhis is highIy IikeIy os
frequencies obove fhis resuIf in oIiosing onywoy.




Experimenf 4 - PCM decoding Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs 4-II

Purt C - Viewing decoded PCM signuIs using the NI ELVIS II Dynumic SignuI AnuIyzer
The PCM Decoder moduIe's oufpuf signoI Iooks simiIor fo fhe messoge when viewed in fhe fime
domoin (fhof is, when using o scope). However, fhe signoIs ore ocfuoIIy very differenf. The
messoge is o singIe sinewove whereos fhe PCM Decoder moduIe's oufpuf consisfs of mony
sinewoves.

The insfrumenf fhof Iefs fechnicions ond engineers Iook signoIs in fhe frequency domoin is
coIIed o dynomic signoI onoIy;er (oIso coIIed o specfrum onoIy;er). The MI ELVIS II hos o
Dynomic SignoI AnoIy;er virfuoI insfrumenf ond fhe nexf porf of fhe experimenf Iefs you use if
fo invesfigofe fhe decoded PCM dofo signoI's specfroI composifion.

Zo. Suspend fhe scope's operofion by cIicking on ifs Sfop confroI once.

Note: The scope's dispIoy shouId free;e ond ifs hordwore hos been deocfivofed. This is o
necessory sfep os fhe scope ond signoI onoIy;er shore hordwore resources ond so fhey
connof be operofed simuIfoneousIy.

Z7. Minimi;e fhe scope's VI.

Z8. Lounch fhe MI ELVIS II Dynomic SignoI AnoIy;er VI.

Note: If fhe Dynomic SignoI AnoIy;er VI hos Iounched successfuIIy, fhe insfrumenf's
window wiII be visibIe (see Figure 7).




Figure 7


Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf 4 - PCM decoding 4-IZ

Z9. Adjusf fhe signoI onoIy;er's confroIs os foIIows:

Input Settings
Source ChonneI fo SCOPE CH I

FFT Settings
Frequency Spon fo o0,000
PesoIufion fo 400
Window fo 7 Term 8-Horris

Trigger Settings
Type fo Edge

Frequency DispIuy
Unifs fo d8
Mode fo PMS
ScoIe fo Aufo

VoIfoge Ponge fo I0V

Averuging
Mode fo PMS
Weighfing fo ExponenfioI
# of Averoges fo 3




Cursor settings
Cursors On box unchecked (for now)



30. CIick on fhe signoI onoIy;er's Pun confroI fo ocfivofe ifs hordwore.

Note 1: If fhe SignoI AnoIy;er VI hos been sef up correcfIy, ifs dispIoy shouId Iook Iike
Figure 8 beIow.

Note Z: If you hove used fhe MI ELVIS II DSA before ond you're confidenf obouf ifs
operofion, jump direcfIy fo Porf D.



Figure

Experimenf 4 - PCM decoding Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs 4-I3

The signoI onoIy;er's dispIoy needs o IiffIe expIoining here. There ore ocfuoIIy fwo dispIoys, o
Iorge one on fop ond o smoIIer one underneofh. The smoIIer one is o fime domoin represenfofion
of fhe inpuf (in ofher words, fhe smoIIer dispIoy is o scope). Mofice fhof if is showing fhe PCM
Decoder moduIe's oufpuf signoI fhof you sow in Sfep Zb.

The Iorger of fhe fwo dispIoys is fhe frequency domoin represenfofion of fhe inpuf. Frequency
is pIoffed oIong fhe dispIoy's X-oxis ond every individuoI sinewove fhof mokes up o signoI shouId
oppeor os o shorp Iine projecfing up from fhe bose-Iine. In procfice, fhe impIemenfofion of
specfrum onoIysis is nof os precise os fhe fheoreficoI expecfofion ond so fhe Iines con
somefimes be o IiffIe fhick, especioIIy of fhe boffom.


3I. Exomine fhe specfroI composifion of fhe decoded PCM signoI.

Note: As you con see, if consisfs of mony sinewoves.


The frequency of eoch sinewove con be reod-off fhe dispIoy's X-oxis buf fhe MI ELVIS II
Dynomic SignoI AnoIy;er provides o beffer mefhod.


3Z. Acfivofe fhe signoI onoIy;er's cursors by checking (fhof is, ficking) Cursors On box.

Note: When you do, green hori;onfoI ond verficoI Iines shouId oppeor on fhe signoI
onoIy;er's frequency domoin dispIoy.


The MI ELVIS II Dynomic SignoI AnoIy;er hos fwo cursors CI ond CZ fhof defouIf fo fhe Ieff
mosf side of fhe dispIoy when fhe signoI onoIy;er's VI is Iounched. They're reposifioned by
"grobbing" fheir verficoI Iines wifh fhe mouse ond "drogging" fhem Ieff or righf.


33. Use fhe mouse fo grob ond move fhe verficoI Iine for cursor CI.

Note: As you do, nofice fhof cursor CI moves oIong fhe signoI onoIy;er's froce ond fhof
fhe verficoI ond hori;onfoI Iines move so fhof fhey oIwoys infersecf of fhe cursor.

34. Pepeof Sfep 33 for cursor CZ.

Note: Fine confroI over fhe cursors' posifion is obfoined by using fhe cursor's Posifion
confroI in fhe Cursor Seffings oreo (beIow fhe dispIoy).


Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf 4 - PCM decoding 4-I4

The MI ELVIS II Dynomic SignoI AnoIy;er incIudes o fooI fhof meosures fhe difference in
frequency (ond mognifude) befween fhe fwo cursors. This informofion is dispIoyed in green
befween fhe upper ond Iower porfs of fhe dispIoy.


3b. Move fhe cursors whiIe wofching fhe green meosuremenf reodouf fo observe fhe effecf.

3o. Posifion fhe cursors so fhof fhey're on fop of eoch ofher ond nofe fhe meosuremenf.

Note: When you do, fhe meosuremenf of difference in frequency ond mognifude shouId
bofh be ;ero.


UsefuIIy, when one of fhe cursors is moved fo fhe exfreme Ieff of fhe dispIoy, ifs posifion on
fhe X-oxis is 0H;. This meons fhof fhe meosuremenf reodouf of frequency gives on obsoIufe
voIue for fhe ofher cursor. This mokes sense when you fhink obouf if becouse fhe reodouf gives
fhe difference in frequency befween fhe fwo cursors ond one of fhem is ;ero.


37. Move CI fo fhe exfreme Ieff of fhe dispIoy.

38. AIign CZ wifh ony one of fhe bigger sinewoves in fhe PCM Decoder moduIe's oufpuf signoI.

39. Use fhe meosuremenf reodouf fo defermine fhe sinewove's frequency ond compore ifs
voIue occording fo fhe X-oxis.





Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

Experimenf 4 - PCM decoding Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs 4-Ib

The signoI onoIy;er oIso gives you on indicofion of fhe reIofive si;e of eoch of fhe sinewoves.
The defouIf mefhod of doing so is in decibeIs buf if con be sef fo show fo PMS voIfoges
insfeod (Iike meosurmenfs wifh muIfimefer) fhough fhis is usuoIIy Iess meoningfuI. The biggesf
componenf in fhe signoI's specfrum (eifher o sinewove or o DC voIfoge) is oufomoficoIIy mode
fhe reference ond so ifs fip is 0d8. Every ofher sinewove is smoIIer fhon fhis ond so hos o
negofive decibeI figure. Pemember fhof decibeIs ore Iogorifhmic unifs. So o sinewove fhof is -
I0d8 reIofive fo fhe biggesf sinewove is 0.3 of ifs si;e. A sinewove fhof is -Z0d8 is 0.I, -30d8
is 0.03, -40d8 is 0.0I ond so on.


40. AIign CZ wifh fhe second biggesf sinewoves in fhe decoded PCM signoI's specfrum being
dispIoyed ond defermine ifs reIofive si;e.

Tip: Once CZ is oIigned wifh fhe oppropriofe sinewove, foIIow ifs hori;onfoI Iine fo fhe
Ieff side of fhe dispIoy ond reod ifs reIofive si;e in d8.







Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf 4 - PCM decoding 4-Io

Purt D - The spectruI composition of decoded PCM signuIs
ImporfonfIy, mofh con be used fo predicf fhe specfroI composifion of fhe signoI on fhe PCM
Decoder moduIe's oufpuf wifh o greof deoI of occurocy ond reIiobiIify. If's nof fhe purpose of
fhis experimenf fo gef you fo perform fhis mofh. However, if is imporfonf for you fo know fhof
if predicfs fhof fhe specfroI composifion of fhe signoI on o PCM decoder's oufpuf oIwoys
incIudes o copy of fhe sinewove or sinewoves in fhe originoI messoge.

4I. Sef fhe signoI onoIy;er's Frequency Spon fo Ib,000H;.

4Z. Use CZ fo idenfify fhe sinewove in fhe signoI on fhe PCM Decoder moduIe's oufpuf fhof
hos o frequency of b00H;.

Note: This sinewove is fhe copy of fhe originoI messoge (per fhe nofes obove).

43. Chonge fhe frequency of fhe originoI messoge (fhof is, fhe funcfion generofor's oufpuf)
fo IkH;.

44. Use CZ fo check fhof fhe PCM Decoder moduIe's oufpuf now incIudes o sinewove of IkH;.


Question 4
If fhe messoge is o compIex signoI consisfing of bofh o b00H; sinewove ond o IkH;
sinewove, fhe PCM Decoder moduIe's oufpuf wouId consisf of

onIy o b00H; sinewove.
onIy o IkH; sinewove.
o b00H; sinewove ond o IkH; sinewove.
9
neifher o b00H; sinewove nor o IkH; sinewove.





Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

Experimenf 4 - PCM decoding Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs 4-I7

4b. Suspend fhe signoI onoIy;er's VI by cIicking on ifs Sfop confroI once.

4o. Pesforf fhe scope's VI by cIicking on ifs Pun confroI once.

47. Compore fhe originoI messoge wifh fhe recovered messoge.

48. Increose fhe messoge frequency fo ZkH; ond observe fhe effecf.

Tip: You moy find if usefuI fo sef fhe scope's Timebose confroI fo fhe I00ps/div posifion.

49. Increose fhe messoge frequency fo 3kH; ond observe fhe effecf.


Question
Mofice fhof fhe PCM Decoder moduIe's oufpuf no-Ionger Iooks Iike o "sfepped" copy of
fhe messoge. Why do you fhink fhis hos hoppened7
As fhe messoge frequency increoses, fhere ore fewer sompIes in every cycIe.







Question
Once fhe PCM Decoder moduIe's oufpuf no-Ionger Iooks Iike o "sfepped" copy of fhe
messoge, does fhis oIso meon fhof fhe sinewove of fhe some frequency os fhe messoge is
no-Ionger presenf7
Mo. The PCM decoder's oufpuf oIwoys incIudes o copy of fhe sinewove or sinewoves in
fhe originoI messoge.


b0. Suspend fhe scope's VI.

bI. Pesforf fhe signoI onoIy;er's VI.

bZ. Use CZ fo verify your onswer fo Quesfion o.

Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf 4 - PCM decoding 4-I8




AIfhough fhe PCM Decoder moduIe's oufpuf oIwoys incIudes o copy of fhe messoge, ofher
sinewoves of significonce ore oIso presenf (fhis is frue of oII digifi;ofion schemes, nof jusf
PCM). These sinewoves ore coIIed oIioses or imoges. Provided fhe sysfem is weII designed, fhese
oIioses ore oII of higher frequencies fhon fhe messoge. The nexf porf of fhe experimenf Ief's
you idenfify some of fhe oIioses in fhe "sfepped" version of fhe messoge on fhe PCM Decoder
moduIe's oufpuf.


b3. Pefurn fhe messoge frequency fo b00H;.

b4. Sef fhe signoI onoIy;er's Frequency Spon fo 40,000H;.

bb. Use CZ fo idenfify fhof fhere ore oIioses of fhe foIIowing frequencies: IZkH; & I3kH;,
Z4.bkH; & Zb.bkH;, 37kH; & 38kH;.


Question 7
Whof fwo FOTEx moduIes con be used fo pick-ouf fhe copy of fhe messoge fhof's on fhe
PCM Decoder moduIe's oufpuf whiIe rejecfing fhe oIioses7 Tip: You invesfigofed fhe
operofion of fhese moduIes os porf of Experimenf Z.
Eifher fhe IkH; LPF moduIe or fhe 3kH; LPF moduIe.





Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.
Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

Experimenf 4 - PCM decoding Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs 4-I9

Purt E - Peconstructing the messuge
The nexf porf of fhe experimenf Iefs you use fiIfering fo reconsfrucf fhe messoge.

bo. Modify fhe sef-up os shown in Figure 9 beIow.




Figure 9


This sef-up con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure I0 beIow. The 3kH; LPF moduIe
is used fo pick-ouf fhe copy of fhe originoI messoge from fhe PCM Decoder moduIe's oufpuf.





Figure 10

CH 0
CH 1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrmsmax
PCM
ENCODER
FS
CLK
PCM
DATA
TDM
INPUT 2
INPUT1
PCM
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
PCM
DECODER
PCM
DATA
CLK
OUTPUT
OUTPUT2
VARIABLEDC
FUNCTION
GENERATOR
+
ANALOGI/ O
ACH1 DAC1
ACH0 DAC0
1kHz LPF
LOWPASS
FILTERS
3kHz LPF
IM
CLI
Messoge
To CH 0
PCM
DATA CLI
PCM Encoding PCM Decoding
Pecovered
messoge
To CH I
3kH; LPF
Peconsfrucfion
I00kH;
b00H;

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf 4 - PCM decoding 4-Z0

b7. Use CZ fo see whefher you con Iocofe fhe oIioses meosured eorIier (see Sfep bb for
fheir frequencies).


Question
Whof hos hoppened fo fhe oIioses7
The fiIfer hos offenuofed fhem subsfonfioIIy.



b8. Suspend fhe signoI onoIy;er's VI.

b9. Pefurn fhe scope's Timebose confroI fo fhe b00ps/div posifion.

o0. Pesforf fhe scope's VI.

oI. Compore fhe originoI messoge wifh fhe recovered messoge.


Question 9
The signoI on fhe 3kH; LPF moduIe's oufpuf is now o much beffer copy of fhe messoge.
Whof does fhis feII you obouf fhe oIioses (ofher fhon fhey're no-Ionger presenf)7
They were responsibIe for giving fhe PCM Decoder moduIe's oufpuf fhe "sfepped"
Iook.





Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

Experimenf 4 - PCM decoding Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs 4-ZI

The fwo signoIs ore cIeorIy fhe some so Ief's see whof your heoring feIIs you.

oZ. Add fhe AmpIifier moduIe fo fhe sef-up os shown in Figure II beIow.



Figure 11


o3. Turn fhe AmpIifier moduIe's 0oin confroI fuIIy counfer-cIockwise.

o4. Wifhouf weoring fhe heodphones, pIug fhem info fhe AmpIifier moduIe's heodphone
sockef.

ob. Puf fhe heodphones on.

oo. Turn fhe AmpIifier moduIe's 0oin confroI cIockwise unfiI you con comforfobIy heor fhe
3kH; LPF moduIe's oufpuf.

o7. Lisfen fo how fhe recovered messoge sounds ond commif if fo memory.

o8. Disconnecf fhe AmpIifier moduIe's Ieod where if pIugs in fo fhe 3kH; LPF moduIe's oufpuf
ond connecf if fo fhe funcfion generofor's oufpuf.

o9. Compore fhe sound of fhe originoI messoge wifh your memory of fhe recovered messoge.

Note: They shouId be very simiIor.


CH0
CH1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrms max
PCM
ENCODER
FS
CLK
PCM
DATA
TDM
INPUT 2
INPUT 1
PCM
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
PCM
DECODER
PCM
DATA
CLK
OUTPUT
OUTPUT2
VARIABLEDC
FUNCTION
GENERATOR
+
ANALOGI/ O
ACH1 DAC1
ACH0 DAC0
1kHz LPF
LOWPASS
FILTERS
3kHz LPF
AMPLIFIER
GAIN OUT IN
GND GND

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf 4 - PCM decoding 4-ZZ




Mow Ief's subsfifufe fhe fesf signoI for speech.

70. Disconnecf fhe pIugs fo fhe funcfion generofor's oufpuf fhen modify fhe sef-up os shown
in Figure IZ beIow.



Figure 1Z


7I. Sef fhe scope's Timebose confroI fo fhe Zms/div posifion.

7Z. Hum ond foIk info fhe microphone whiIe wofching ond Iisfening fo fhe recovered messoge.




Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before finishing.

Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.
CH 0
CH 1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrms max
PCM
ENCODER
FS
CLK
PCM
DATA
TDM
INPUT 2
INPUT 1
PCM
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
PCM
DECODER
PCM
DATA
CLK
OUTPUT
OUTPUT2
1kHz LPF
LOWPASS
FILTERS
3kHz LPF
AMPLIFIER
GAIN OUT IN
GND GND
SPEECH




M
o
m
e
:

C
I
o
s
s
:


b

-

S
o
m
p
I
i
n
g

o
n
d

M
y
q
u
i
s
f

i
n

P
C
M

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf b - SompIing & Myquisf in PCM b-Z

Eperiment - SumpIing und Nyquist in PCM
PreIiminury discussion
PecoII from eorIier experimenfs fhof fhe firsf sfep in fhe PCM encoding process (ond mosf
ofher digifi;ofion schemes foo) invoIves sompIing fhe onoIog inpuf signoI (fhe messoge). This is
necessory becouse, if fhe messoge is o signoI Iike speech, if'II be chonging confinuousIy moking
if impossibIe for fhe PCM encoder fo occurofeIy converf if. Insfeod, fhe messoge is sompIed
(which is o IiffIe Iike foking o snopshof of if) ond ifs voIfoge (or currenf) of fhof momenf is
heId Iong enough for fhe PCM encoder fo converf if fo o binory number. Affer which, onofher
sompIe is foken ond fhe process is repeofed over ond over.

ImporfonfIy, fhis meons fhof fhe signoI
fhof is ocfuoIIy converfed fo digifoI is o
disforfed version of fhe messoge ond
nof fhe messoge ifseIf. This is shown in
Figure I where o simpIe sinewove is
used for fhe messoge ond fhe doffed
Iines indicofe fhe sompIe poinfs. The
sompIed version of fhe messoge is
shown beneofh if. Mofice fhof fhe
voIfoges of ifs sfeps ore fhe some os
fhe messoge's voIfoges of fhe sompIe
poinfs.

If you feeI Iike you've seen fhe second
signoI before, you're nof misfoken. This Figure I
is fhe unfiIfered signoI observed on fhe
PCM decoder's oufpuf. In ofher words,
fhe PCM decoder foifhfuIIy converfs fhe digifoI dofo bock fo fhe sompIed messoge ond nof fhe
ocfuoI messoge. As you sow wifh fhe previous experimenf, fiIfering provides on undisforfed
version of fhe messoge.

To undersfond how ond why fiIfering works, consider fhe mofhemoficoI modeI fhof defines fhe
sompIed signoI:

SompIed messoge ~ fhe sompIing signoI fhe messoge


As you con see, sompIing is ocfuoIIy fhe muIfipIicofion of fhe messoge wifh fhe sompIing signoI
(fhe digifoI signoI used fo fime when fhe sompIing occurs). 8eing digifoI, fhe sompIing signoI is
ocfuoIIy mode up of o DC voIfoge, o sinewove coIIed fhe fundomenfoI ond mony ofher sinewoves
coIIed hormonics wifh frequencies fhof ore whoIe number (infeger) muIfipIes of fhe
fundomenfoI. As such, fhe equofion obove con be rewriffen os:

SompIed messoge ~ (DC + fundomenfoI + hormonics) messoge

Messoge
SompIed
messoge

Experimenf b - SompIing & Myquisf in PCM Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs b-3

When fhe messoge is o simpIe sinewove (Iike in Figure I) fhe equofion's soIufion (which
necessoriIy invoIves some frigonomefry fhof is nof shown here) feIIs us fhof fhe sompIed signoI
consisfs of:

A sinewove of fhe some frequency os fhe messoge
A poir of sinewoves (oIioses/imoges) fhof ore fhe sum ond difference of fhe fundomenfoI
ond messoge frequencies
Mony ofher poirs of sinewoves (more oIioses/imoges) fhof ore fhe sum ond difference of
fhe sompIing signoIs' hormonics ond fhe messoge

Lef's do on exompIe using fhe orrongemenf fhof you wired for fhe previous experimenf. PecoII
fhof fhe messoge wos o simpIe b00H; sinewove ond fhe 8-bif PCM encoding sysfem's cIock wos
I00kH;. As if fokes eighf cIock puIses for fhe PCM Encoder moduIe fo converf eoch binory
number fo serioI, fhe sompIing signoI's frequency musf be one-eighfh of fhe cIock or IZ.bkH;
(in fhis cose).

Thof being fhe cose, fhe sompIed messoge is o signoI fhof consisfs of:

A b00H; sinewove
A sinewove of IZkH; (fhof is, IZ.bkH; - b00H;) ond onofher sinewove of I3kH; (fhof is,
IZ.bkH; + b00H;)
A poir of sinewoves of Z4.bkH; ond Zb.bkH; (fhof is, Z IZ.bkH; b00H;), onofher poir
of sinewoves of 37kH; ond 38kH; (fhof is, 3 IZ.bkH; b00H;), ond so on fheoreficoIIy
fo infinify

As you con imogine, fhis ends up being o Iof of sinewovesl ImporfonfIy fhough, fhere is oIwoys
one fhof hos fhe some frequency os fhe messoge. So, fo recover fhe messoge, oII fhof need be
done is poss fhe sompIed signoI fhrough o Iow-poss fiIfer (coIIed fhe reconsfrucfion or onfi-
oIios fiIfer). Provided fhe fiIfer's cuf-off frequency is oppropriofe, ifs roII-off is sfeep enough
ond fhe oIioses ore of sufficienfIy high frequencies, fhe fiIfer oIIows fhe copy of fhe messoge
fhrough fo ifs oufpuf whiIe rejecfing fhe oIioses. The resuIf is on undisforfed copy of fhe
messoge.

ProbIems occur however when fhe sysfem is poorIy designed or is operofed beyond ifs
specificofion. This con creofe o sifuofion where one or more of fhe oIioses ore oIIowed fo poss
fhrough fhe reconsfrucfion fiIfer oIong wifh fhe messoge. UnsurprisingIy, fhis resuIfs in o
disforfed copy of fhe recovered messoge - o probIem known os oIiosing.



Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf b - SompIing & Myquisf in PCM b-4

The eperiment
For fhis experimenf you'II use fhe Emono FOTEx fo converf o sinewove fo o PCM dofo sfreom
fhen converf if bock fo on onoIog signoI using fhe PCM Decoder moduIe ond fhe 3kH; Low-poss
FiIfer moduIe. For fhis fo work correcfIy, fhe decoder's bif-cIock is simpIy "sfoIen" from fhe
PCM Encoder moduIe.

Mexf you'II use mofh fo occurofeIy predicf fhe frequency of oIioses (or imoges) presenf in
specfrum of fhe signoI on fhe PCM Decoder moduIe's oufpuf fhen use fhe MI ELVIS II Dynomic
SignoI AnoIy;er fo verify your coIcuIofions. You'II oIso fhe signoI onoIy;er fo invesfigofe fhe
effecfs of messoge frequency ond sompIe rofe on fhe frequency of fhe oIioses.

FinoIIy, you'II invesfigofe o probIem coIIed oIiosing fhof is common fo oII digifi;ofion schemes
ond how fhe Myquisf SompIe Pofe is used fo ovoid if.

If shouId foke you obouf b0 minufes fo compIefe fhis experimenf.


Pre-requisites:
Experimenf I: An infroducfion fo fhe MI ELVIS II fesf equipmenf
Experimenf Z: An infroducfion fo fhe Emono FOTEx
Experimenf 3: PCM Encoding
Experimenf 4: PCM Decoding


Equipment

PersonoI compufer wifh oppropriofe soffwore insfoIIed
MI ELVIS II pIus US8 cobIe ond power pock
Emono FOTEx experimenfoI odd-in moduIe
Two 8MC fo Zmm bonono-pIug Ieods
Assorfed Zmm bonono-pIug pofch Ieods


Procedure

Purt A - Setting up u PCM encoding-decoding scheme
8efore invesfigofing sompIing issues in digifi;ofion, you musf firsf sef-up o singIe chonneI PCM
encoding-decoding sysfem.

I. Ensure fhof fhe MI ELVIS II power swifch of fhe bock of fhe unif is off.

Z. CorefuIIy pIug fhe Emono FOTEx experimenfoI odd-in moduIe info fhe MI ELVIS II.


Experimenf b - SompIing & Myquisf in PCM Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs b-b

3. Inserf fhe hoIding screws fo secure fhe FOTEx moduIe fo fhe MI ELVIS II.

Note: This musf be done wifh fhe power off fo ovoid domoging fhe FOTEx.

4. Connecf fhe MI ELVIS II fo fhe PC using fhe US8 cobIe.

Note: This moy oIreody hove been done for you.

b. Turn on fhe MI ELVIS II power swifch of fhe reor of fhe unif fhen furn on ifs
Profofyping 8oord Power swifch of fhe fop righf corner neor fhe power indicofor.

o. Turn on fhe PC ond Ief if boof-up.

7. Lounch fhe MI ELVISmx soffwore.

8. Lounch ond run fhe MI ELVIS II Funcfion 0enerofor VI.

9. Adjusf fhe funcfion generofor using ifs soff confroIs for on oufpuf wifh fhe foIIowing
specificofions:

Woveshope: Sine
Frequency: ZkH;
AmpIifude: 4Vpp
DC Offsef: 0V

I0. Sef fhe PCM Encoder moduIe's Mode swifch fo fhe PCM posifion.

II. Connecf fhe sef-up shown in Figure Z beIow.




Figure Z
CH 0
CH 1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrms max
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
PCM
ENCODER
FS
CLK
PCM
DATA
TDM
INPUT 2
INPUT 1
PCM
PCM
DECODER
PCM
DATA
CLK
OUTPUT
OUTPUT2
1kHz LPF
LOWPASS
FILTERS
3kHz LPF
VARIABLEDC
FUNCTION
GENERATOR
+
ANALOGI/ O
ACH1 DAC1
ACH0 DAC0

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf b - SompIing & Myquisf in PCM b-o

The sef-up in Figure Z con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure 3 beIow. The funcfion
generofor is being used fo provide o ZkH; sinewove messoge fo fhe PCM Encoder moduIe. The
PCM Encoder moduIe converfs fhe messoge fo o PCM digifoI signoI which fhe PCM Decoder
moduIe converfs fo o sompIed version of fhe originoI signoI. The 3kH; LPF is used os o
reconsfrucfion fiIfer fo recover fhe messoge on fhe decoder's oufpuf.




Figure 3


IZ. Lounch ond run fhe MI ELVIS II OsciIIoscope VI.

I3. Sef up fhe scope per fhe procedure in Experimenf I (poge I-IZ).

I4. Adjusf fhe scope's Timebose confroI fo view fwo or so cycIes of fhe messoge.

Ib. Acfivofe fhe scope's ChonneI I inpuf fo observe fhe signoI on fhe reconsfrucfion fiIfer's
oufpuf os weII os fhe messoge.

Note: You shouId see o copy of fhe messoge on fhe reconsfrucfion fiIfer's oufpuf fhof is
probobIy phose shiffed.





Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.
IM I
CLI
Messoge
To CH 0
PCM
DATA CLI
PCM Encoding PCM Decoding
Pecovered
messoge
To CH I
3kH; LPF
Peconsfrucfion
I00kH;
ZkH;
Mosfer
SignoIs
Funcfion
generofor
O/P

Experimenf b - SompIing & Myquisf in PCM Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs b-7

Purt - Predicting the spectruI composition of the PCM Decoder moduIe's output
The nexf porf of fhe experimenf gefs you predicf for yourseIf fhe specfroI composifion of fhe
sompIed signoI on fhe PCM Decoder moduIe's oufpuf.

Io. Modify fhe scope's ChonneI I connecfion fo fhe sef-up os shown in Figure 4 beIow.




Figure 4


The chonge fo one of fhe scope's connecfions con be shown in fhe bIock diogrom in Figure b
beIow.




Figure

CH 0
CH 1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrmsmax
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
PCM
ENCODER
FS
CLK
PCM
DATA
TDM
INPUT2
INPUT 1
PCM
PCM
DECODER
PCM
DATA
CLK
OUTPUT
OUTPUT2
1kHz LPF
LOWPASS
FILTERS
3kHz LPF
VARIABLEDC
FUNCTION
GENERATOR
+
ANALOGI/ O
ACH1 DAC1
ACH0 DAC0
IM I
CLI
Messoge
To CH 0
PCM
DATA CLI
PCM Encoding PCM Decoding
Pecovered
messoge
Peconsfrucfion
I00kH;
ZkH;
O/P
SompIed messoge
To CH I

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf b - SompIing & Myquisf in PCM b-8

Question 1
CoIcuIofe fhe frequency of fhe firsf six oIioses presenf in fhe sompIed messoge. Tip: The
mefhod for doing fhis is described in fhe preIiminory discussion.
I0.bkH; & I4.bkH;, Z3kH; & Z7kH;, 3b.bkH; & 39.bkH;.




I7. Suspend fhe scope's operofion by cIicking on ifs Sfop confroI once.

I8. Lounch ond run fhe MI ELVIS II Dynomic SignoI AnoIy;er VI.

I9. Adjusf fhe signoI onoIy;er's confroIs os foIIows:

Input Settings
Source ChonneI fo SCOPE CH I

FFT Settings
Frequency Spon fo 4b,000
PesoIufion fo 400
Window fo 7 Term 8-Horris

Trigger Settings
Type fo Edge

Frequency DispIuy
Unifs fo d8
Mode fo PMS
ScoIe fo Aufo

VoIfoge Ponge fo I0V

Averuging
Mode fo PMS
Weighfing fo ExponenfioI
# of Averoges fo 3




Cursor settings
Cursors On box unchecked (for now)



Z0. Acfivofe fhe signoI onoIy;er's cursors (by checking fhe Cursors On box) ond use one of
fhem fo check fhof fhe PCM Decoder moduIe's oufpuf consisfs of o copy of fhe ZkH;
messoge.

ZI. Use fhe cursor fo verify your onswer fo Quesfion I.



Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

Experimenf b - SompIing & Myquisf in PCM Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs b-9

Purt C - The effects of messuge frequency und sumpIe rute on uIius frequency
For Quesfion I, you coIcuIofed fhe oIios frequencies using fhe messoge frequency ond sompIe
rofe. ObviousIy fhen, if eifher of fhese fwo signoIs chonges frequency, fhe frequencies of fhe
oIioses musf oIso chonge. The nexf porf of fhe experimenf Iefs you see fhis for yourseIf.


Question Z
PecoIcuIofe fhe frequency of fhe firsf six oIioses for o 4kH; messoge.
8.bkH; & Io.bkH;, ZIkH; & Z9kH;, 33.bkH; & 4I.bkH;.




ZZ. Increose fhe messoge frequency (fhof is, fhe funcfion generofor's oufpuf frequency) fo
4kH;.

Z3. Use fhe cursor fo check fhof fhe PCM Decoder moduIe's oufpuf consisfs of o copy of fhe
messoge.

Z4. Use fhe cursor fo verify your onswer fo Quesfion Z.


Question 3
Whof hoppens fo fhe frequencies of fhe oIioses os fhe messoge frequency goes up7
Every second oIios goes down in frequency whiIe fhe ones in befween go up (eg fhe
I0.bkH; oIios goes down fo 8.bkH; ond fhe I4.bkH; oIios goes up fo Io.bkH;).






Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf b - SompIing & Myquisf in PCM b-I0

Zb. Sef fhe funcfion generofor's oufpuf frequency fo I00kH;.

Zo. Modify fhe sef-up os shown in Figure o beIow.




Figure


This sef-up con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure 7 beIow. The Mosfer SignoIs
moduIe's ZkH; SIME oufpuf is now being used for fhe messoge. The funcfion generofor's SYMC
oufpuf is used fo provide o I00kH; digifoI signoI for fhe PCM Encoder ond Decoder moduIes'
cIock inpufs.




Figure 7

CH0
CH1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrmsmax
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
PCM
ENCODER
FS
CLK
PCM
DATA
TDM
INPUT 2
INPUT 1
PCM
PCM
DECODER
PCM
DATA
CLK
OUTPUT
OUTPUT2
1kHz LPF
LOWPASS
FILTERS
3kHz LPF
VARIABLEDC
FUNCTION
GENERATOR
+
ANALOGI/ O
ACH1 DAC1
ACH0 DAC0
IM I
CLI
Messoge
To CH 0
PCM
DATA CLI
PCM Encoding PCM Decoding
Pecovered
messoge
Peconsfrucfion
I00kH;
ZkH;
O/P
SompIed messoge
To CH I
Funcfion
generofor
Mosfer
SignoIs

Experimenf b - SompIing & Myquisf in PCM Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs b-II

Z7. Use fhe signoI onoIy;er's cursor fo check fhof fhe oIioses hove refurned fo fhe foIIowing
frequencies: I0.bkH; & I4.bkH;, Z3kH; & Z7kH;, 3b.bkH; & 39.bkH;.


Question 4
PecoIcuIofe fhe firsf six oIios frequencies for o 7ZkH; cIock. Note: A 7ZkH; cIock gives
o 9kSo/s sompIe rofe.
7kH; & IIkH;, IokH; & Z0kH;, ZbkH; & Z9kH;.




Z8. Sef fhe PCM Encoder ond Decoder moduIe's cIock frequency (fhof is, fhe funcfion
generofor's oufpuf frequency) fo 7ZkH;.

Z9. Use fhe cursor fo verify your onswer fo Quesfion 4.


Question
Whof hoppens fo fhe frequencies of fhe oIioses os fhe sompIing frequency goes down7
The frequencies of oII oIioses go down.





Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf b - SompIing & Myquisf in PCM b-IZ

Purt D - AIiusing und the Nyquist SumpIe Pute
As you hove jusf seen, os fhe sompIe rofe goes down, so do fhe frequencies of fhe oIioses (for
o given messoge frequency). ImporfonfIy, if fhe sompIe rofe is Iow enough (reIofive fo fhe
messoge frequency) fhe Iowesf-frequency oIios con overIop fhe copy of fhe messoge moking
fhem impossibIe fo seporofe using fiIfering. This meons fhof fhe fiIfer's oufpuf confoins o
sinewove or sinewoves nof presenf in fhe originoI messoge ond so fhe copy of fhe messoge is
disforfed. This ocfion ond fhe disforfion if couses ore coIIed oIiosing ond fhe nexf porf of fhe
experimenf Iefs you see if for yourseIf in bofh fhe frequency ond fime domoins.


30. Sef fhe PCM Encoder ond Decoder moduIe's cIock fo fhe foIIowing frequencies: o4kH;
(for 8kSo/s), bokH; (for 7kSo/s), 48kH; (for okSo/s), 40kH; (for bkSo/s) ond 3ZkH;
(for 4kSo/s).

Note: Wifh eoch chonge of cIock frequency, oIIow fhe signoI onoIy;er's dispIoy enough
fime fo fuIIy updofe ond nofe whof hoppens fo fhe oIioses. Poy porficuIor offenfion fo
fhe Iowesf-frequency oIios.


Question
Whof hoppens fo fhe Iowesf frequency oIios once fhe sompIe rofe drops fo 4kSo/s7
If overIops fhe sinewove in fhe signoI fhof is o copy of fhe messoge.






Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

Experimenf b - SompIing & Myquisf in PCM Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs b-I3

3I. Check fhof fhe PCM Encoder ond Decoder moduIe's cIock is sef fo 3ZkH; (or 4kSo/s).

3Z. Modify fhe scope's ChonneI I connecfion fo fhe sef-up os shown in Figure 8 beIow fo
observe fhe reconsfrucfion fiIfer's oufpuf.




Figure


33. Suspend fhe signoI onoIy;er VI's operofion.

34. Pesforf fhe scope's VI.

Note: Once done, you'II be observing fhe effecf of oIiosing on fhe reconsfrucfed
messoge in fhe fime domoin.




Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.
CH0
CH 1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrmsmax
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
PCM
ENCODER
FS
CLK
PCM
DATA
TDM
INPUT2
INPUT1
PCM
PCM
DECODER
PCM
DATA
CLK
OUTPUT
OUTPUT2
1kHz LPF
LOWPASS
FILTERS
3kHz LPF
VARIABLEDC
FUNCTION
GENERATOR
+
ANALOGI/ O
ACH1 DAC1
ACH0 DAC0

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf b - SompIing & Myquisf in PCM b-I4

To ovoid oIiosing, fhe fheoreficoI minimum sompIe rofe musf be of Ieosf fwice fhe messoge
frequency (or fwice fhe highesf frequency in fhe messoge if if confoins more fhon one
sinewove ond is o bosebond signoI). This figure is known os fhe Myquisf SompIe Pofe (nomed
offer ifs proponenf). For fhe currenf sef-up wifh ifs ZkH; messoge, fhe sompIe rofe musf be of
Ieosf 4kSo/s (requiring o cIock rofe for fhe PCM Encoder & Decoder moduIes of 3ZkH;). On
reoding fhof, mony of you wiII reoIi;e fhof fhe currenf sef-up is using o 3ZkH; cIock so fhe
sompIe rofe meefs fhe minimum Myquisf requiremenf. However, oIiosing is sfiII presenfl

This con be expIoined by fhe focf fhof fhe Myquisf SompIe Pofe is underpinned by fwo
ossumpfions. Firsf, fhe reconsfrucfion fiIfer hos o cuf-off frequency frocfionoIIy obove fhe
highesf frequency of fhe messoge. Second, fhe rejecfion of frequencies beyond fhe cuf-off is
insfonfoneous.

Meifher ossumpfion is frue here (ond is unIikeIy fo be frue in mosf coses). The messoge is ZkH;
buf fhe Iow-poss fiIfer being used hos o cuf-off frequency of 3kH;. So, o sompIe rofe of
okSo/s (or cIock of 48kH;) wiII sfiII resuIf in oIios-Iike disforfion. Second, os you hove seen in
on eorIier experimenf when you invesfigofed fhe operofion of fhe 3kH; ond IkH; LPF moduIes,
fhe offenuofion beyond fhe cuf-off frequency is groduoI (fhough foirIy sfeep) rofher fhon
insfonfoneous. In ofher words, even sompIe rofes obove okSo/s (or cIocks obove 48kH;) con
couse oIios-Iike disforfion.

The nexf porf of fhe experimenf Iefs you find by experimenf on oppropriofe sompIe rofe for
fhe fiIfer being used.

3b. Increose fhe PCM Encoder ond Decoder moduIe's cIock in 8kH; infervoIs (eg 40kH;,
48kH;, bokH; ond so on) unfiI oIios-Iike disforfion is no-Ionger presenf.

Note: 8y increosing fhe cIock in 8kH; infervoIs, you're increosing fhe sompIe rofe in
IkSo/s infervoIs.

3o. Sfop increosing fhe cIock when oIiosing is no-Ionger presenf. Pecord fhis frequency in
TobIe I beIow.

37. CoIcuIofe ond record fhe PCM Encoder moduIe's sompIe rofe.


TubIe 1
Minimum cIock
Minimum sumpIe
rute



Experimenf b - SompIing & Myquisf in PCM Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs b-Ib

Question 7
As you hove seen, seffing fhe sompIe rofe foo Iow con couse oIiosing. Whof's fhe ofher
woy of cousing oIiosing7
Seffing fhe messoge frequency foo high.








Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before finishing.


Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf b - SompIing & Myquisf in PCM b-Io








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:

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m
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(
T
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Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf o - Time division muIfipIe occess (TDMA) o-Z

Eperiment - Time division muItipIe uccess {TDMA}
PreIiminury discussion
In ony communicofions sysfem, oIIowing for muIfipIe users fo shore fhe chonneI is crificoI fo
efficienf use of resources. A Iong-sfonding mefhod of shoring fhe "oirwoves" for free-fo-oir
broodcosf communicofions invoIves oIIowing eoch user excIusive ond confinuous use of o corrier
frequency upon which fo fronsmif fheir informofion (using on oppropriofe moduIofion scheme
such os AM or FM). This is known os frequency division muIfipIexing (FDM) ond fhe concepf wiII
be very fomiIior fo you even if you didn'f know ifs nome.

Anofher mefhod of shoring fhe chonneI is coIIed fime division muIfipIexing (TDM) ond invoIves
giving users, one offer onofher, excIusive use of fhe enfire chonneI's specfrum (or o jusf
corrier frequency where TDM is combined wifh FDM) buf onIy for very shorf omounfs of fime
(much Iess fhon o second). ImporfonfIy, provided fhe brief momenfs of excIusive occess occur
offen enough, oII users oppeor fo hove confinuous occess fo fhe chonneI.

TDM Iends ifseIf perfecfIy fo digifoI dofo communicofions. So, os feIecommunicofions wenf
digifoI using puIse code moduIofion (PCM) if wos nofuroI fo combine fhe fwo. The PCM-TDM
combinofion is used exfensiveIy ond, when used wifh muIfipIe nodes, is known os fime division
muIfipIe occess (TDMA).

To expIoin ifs impIemenfofion, Ief's briefIy revisif fhe operofion of PCM encoding ond decoding.
PecoII fhof o PCM encoder sompIes onoIog signoIs converfing fhem fo proporfionoI binory
numbers. The binory numbers ore fhen fronsmiffed serioIIy in fromes usuoIIy confoining on
oddifionoI bif (or bifs) for frome synchroni;ofion. The PCM decoder uses fhe frome
synchroni;ofion informofion fo defecf fhe beginning of eoch new frome fhen converfs fhe
binory numbers fo corresponding voIfoges (or currenfs). This produces fhe "sfepped" (or
"sompIed") version of fhe originoI messoge which you'II recoII ocfuoIIy consisfs of o copy of fhe
messoge pIus oIioses (or imoges). These oIioses ore fiIfered ouf of fhe signoI fo recover fhe
messoge.

Turning fhe PCM sysfem info o PCM-TDM sysfem is reIofiveIy sfroighf forword (fo describe of
Ieosf). If we fhink of fhe PCM fromes os fime sIofs in which dofo con be inserfed, fhe sIofs con
be shored befween fwo or more users insfeod of being dedicofed fo jusf one user. If fhere ore
fwo users, eoch is given occess fo oIfernofe fime sIofs or fromes. Or, puf onofher woy, eoch
user hos occess fo every second frome. ObviousIy, where fhere ore fhree users eoch hos
occess fo onIy every fhird frome, ond so on.

WhiIe fhe ideo is preffy simpIe, fhere is o price fo be poid for ifs impIemenfofion. If fhe cIock
frequency of fhe sysfem is kepf fhe some, shoring fhe fromes befween fwo or more users
forces eoch user fo sompIe fheir onoIog inpuf of o sIower rofe fhon for o Ione user. This mokes
sense when you fhink obouf if. Hoving occess fo oII fhe fromes oIIows fhe user fo sompIe fhe
onoIog inpuf of o porficuIor rofe. However, fhere is no poinf sompIing fhe onoIog inpuf of fhe
some rofe if fhe user hos occess fo onIy every second frome or Iess. ImporfonfIy, sompIing of o
sIower rofe increoses fhe risk of oIiosing.


Experimenf o - Time division muIfipIe occess (TDMA) Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs o-3

The eperiment
For fhis experimenf you'II use fhe Emono FOTEx fo sef up o singIe-chonneI PCM communicofions
sysfem wifh on onoIog inpuf. Affer which, you'II modify fhe sef-up fo encoder, fronsmif, decode
ond reconsfrucf fwo onoIog signoIs fo impIemenf o duoI-chonneI PCM-TDM sysfem ond modeI o
simpIe fwo node TDMA feIecommunicofions sysfem. FinoIIy, you'II invesfigofe how TDM offecfs
sompIe rofe ond creofes fhe pofenfioI for oIiosing.

If shouId foke you obouf 40 minufes fo compIefe fhis experimenf.


Pre-requisites:
Experimenf I: An infroducfion fo fhe MI ELVIS II fesf equipmenf
Experimenf Z: An infroducfion fo fhe Emono FOTEx
Experimenf 3: PCM Encoding
Experimenf 4: PCM Decoding
Experimenf b: SompIing ond Myquisf in PCM


Equipment

PersonoI compufer wifh oppropriofe soffwore insfoIIed
MI ELVIS II pIus US8 cobIe ond power pock
Emono FOTEx experimenfoI odd-in moduIe
Two 8MC fo Zmm bonono-pIug Ieods
Assorfed Zmm bonono-pIug pofch Ieods
One sef of heodphones (sfereo)


Procedure

Purt A - Setting up u PCM encoding-decoding scheme
8efore experimenfing wifh fime division muIfipIexing (TDM) using o PCM sysfem, you wiII firsf
sef-up o singIe-chonneI PCM encoding-decoding sysfem.

I. Ensure fhof fhe MI ELVIS II power swifch of fhe bock of fhe unif is off.

Z. CorefuIIy pIug fhe Emono FOTEx experimenfoI odd-in moduIe info fhe MI ELVIS II.

3. Inserf fhe hoIding screws fo secure fhe FOTEx moduIe fo fhe MI ELVIS II.

Note: This musf be done wifh fhe power off fo ovoid domoging fhe FOTEx.


Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf o - Time division muIfipIe occess (TDMA) o-4

4. Connecf fhe MI ELVIS II fo fhe PC using fhe US8 cobIe.

Note: This moy oIreody hove been done for you.

b. Turn on fhe MI ELVIS II power swifch of fhe reor of fhe unif fhen furn on ifs
Profofyping 8oord Power swifch of fhe fop righf corner neor fhe power indicofor.

o. Turn on fhe PC ond Ief if boof-up.

7. Lounch fhe MI ELVISmx soffwore.

8. Sef fhe PCM Encoder moduIe's Mode swifch fo fhe PCM posifion.

9. Connecf fhe sef-up shown in Figure I beIow.




Figure 1


This sef-up con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure Z on fhe nexf poge. The Mosfer
SignoIs moduIe's ZkH; SIME oufpuf is used fo provide on onoIog messoge signoI for fhe PCM
Encoder moduIe. The PCM Encoder moduIe converfs fhe messoge fo o PCM digifoI signoI which
fhe PCM Decoder moduIe converfs fo o sompIed version of fhe originoI signoI. The 3kH; LPF is
used os o reconsfrucfion fiIfer (oIso known os on onfi-oIios fiIfer) fo recover fhe messoge on
fhe decoder's oufpuf.


CH0
CH1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrms max
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
PCM
ENCODER
FS
CLK
PCM
DATA
TDM
INPUT 2
INPUT1
PCM
PCM
DECODER
PCM
DATA
CLK
OUTPUT
OUTPUT2
1kHz LPF
LOWPASS
FILTERS
3kHz LPF

Experimenf o - Time division muIfipIe occess (TDMA) Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs o-b


Figure Z


I0. Lounch ond run fhe MI ELVIS II OsciIIoscope VI.

II. Sef up fhe scope per fhe procedure in Experimenf I (poge I-IZ).

IZ. Adjusf fhe scope's Timebose confroI fo view fwo or so cycIes of fhe messoge signoI.

I3. Acfivofe fhe scope's ChonneI I inpuf fo observe fhe signoI on fhe reconsfrucfion fiIfer's
oufpuf (fhof is, fhe 3kH; Low-poss FiIfer moduIe's oufpuf) os weII os fhe messoge.

Note: You shouId see o copy of fhe messoge on fhe reconsfrucfion fiIfer's oufpuf fhof is
phose shiffed.




Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

IM I
CLI
Messoge
To CH 0
PCM
DATA CLI
PCM Encoding PCM Decoding
Pecovered
messoge
To CH I
3kH; LPF
Peconsfrucfion
I00kH;
ZkH;
Mosfer
SignoIs
Mosfer
SignoIs
O/P

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf o - Time division muIfipIe occess (TDMA) o-o

Purt - ImpIementing the fuII duuI-chunneI PCM-TDM system
UsefuIIy, fhe PCM Encoder ond Decoder moduIes on fhe FOTEx hove been designed wifh o
PCM-TDM mode. The nexf porf of fhe experimenf gefs you connecf o second onoIog signoI fo
fhe sysfem ond ocfivofe fhe moduIes' PCM-TDM mode fo modeI o simpIe TDMA
feIecommunicofions sysfem.

I4. Lounch ond run fhe MI ELVIS II Funcfion 0enerofor VI.

Ib. Adjusf fhe funcfion generofor for on oufpuf wifh fhe foIIowing specificofions:

Woveshope: Sine
Frequency: b00H;
AmpIifude: 4Vpp
DC Offsef: 0V

Io. Sef fhe PCM Encoder moduIe's Mode swifch fo fhe TDM posifion.

I7. Modify fhe sef-up os shown in Figure 3 beIow.




Figure 3


The oddifions fo fhis sef-up con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure 4 on fhe nexf
poge. A ZkH; sinewove from fhe Mosfer SignoIs moduIe (messoge-I) is connecfed fo fhe PCM
Encoder moduIe's IMPUT I ond o b00H; sinewove from fhe funcfion generofor (messoge-Z) is
connecfed fo ifs IMPUT Z. The IkH; LPF is used os fhe reconsfrucfion fiIfer for fhe PCM
Decoder moduIe's OUTPUT Z. The sef-up now encodes, fronsmifs, decodes ond recovers fwo
onoIog signoIs using PCM-TDM insfeod of jusf one.


CH 0
CH 1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrms max
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
PCM
ENCODER
FS
CLK
PCM
DATA
TDM
INPUT 2
INPUT 1
PCM
PCM
DECODER
PCM
DATA
CLK
OUTPUT
OUTPUT2
1kHz LPF
LOWPASS
FILTERS
3kHz LPF
VARIABLEDC
FUNCTION
GENERATOR
+
ANALOGI/ O
ACH1 DAC1
ACH0 DAC0

Experimenf o - Time division muIfipIe occess (TDMA) Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs o-7



Figure 4


I8. Verify fhof fhe sysfem is sfiII encoding, decoding ond reconsfrucfing messoge-I.

Note: You'II nofice fhof fhe recovered version of messoge-I is now o IiffIe disforfed.
Ignore fhis for now.

I9. Modify fhe scope's connecfions fo fhe sef-up os shown in Figure b beIow.




Figure

IM Z
CLI
PCM
DATA CLI
PCM Encoding PCM Decoding
Pecovered
messoge-I
To CH I
Peconsfrucfion
I00kH;
b00H;
IM I
ZkH;
Funcfion
generofor
PCM-TDM dofo
Messoge-I
To CH 0
O/P
O/P Z
Pecovered
messoge-Z
IkH; LPF
CH 0
CH 1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrms max
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
PCM
ENCODER
FS
CLK
PCM
DATA
TDM
INPUT 2
INPUT 1
PCM
PCM
DECODER
PCM
DATA
CLK
OUTPUT
OUTPUT2
1kHz LPF
LOWPASS
FILTERS
3kHz LPF
VARIABLEDC
FUNCTION
GENERATOR
+
ANALOGI/ O
ACH1 DAC1
ACH0 DAC0

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf o - Time division muIfipIe occess (TDMA) o-8

The chonges fo fhe scope's connecfions ore shown on fhe bIock diogrom in Figure o beIow.




Figure

Z0. Sef fhe scope's Timebose confroI fo fhe b00ps/div posifion.

ZI. Compore fhe originoI messoge-Z wifh fhe reconsfrucfed version of if.

Note: The fwo signoIs shouId be fhe some (ignoring phose shiff).


Question 1
Which FOTEx moduIe is fime division muIfipIexing fhe digifoI dofo7
The PCM Encoder moduIe (provided if's swifched fo TDM mode).


Question Z
Which FOTEx moduIe is demuIfipIexing fhe digifoI dofo7
The PCM Decoder moduIe.


Question 3
OnIy one pofch Ieod in fhe enfire sef-up is being fime division muIfipIexed. CoII fhe
insfrucfor fo your work-sfofion ond indicofe fhof Ieod fo him or her.


IM Z
CLI
PCM
DATA CLI
PCM Encoding PCM Decoding
Pecovered
messoge-I
Peconsfrucfion
I00kH;
b00H;
IM I
ZkH;
PCM-TDM dofo
O/P
O/P Z
Pecovered
messoge-Z
To CH I
Messoge-Z
To CH 0

Experimenf o - Time division muIfipIe occess (TDMA) Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs o-9


Mow Ief's use you're heoring fo confirm fhof fhe fwo signoIs ore indeed differenf.

ZZ. Modify fhe sef-up os shown in Figure 7 beIow.


Figure 7

Z3. Turn fhe AmpIifier moduIe's 0oin confroI fuIIy counfer-cIockwise fo reduce if fo
minimum.

Z4. Wifhouf weoring fhe heodphones, pIug fhem info fhe AmpIifier moduIe's heodphone
sockef.

Zb. Puf fhe heodphones on.

Zo. Increose fhe AmpIifier moduIe's goin unfiI you con comforfobIy heor fhe reconsfrucfed
version of messoge-Z.

Z7. Swifch fhe AmpIifier moduIe's inpuf from fhe IkH; LPF's oufpuf fo fhe 3kH; LPF's
oufpuf fo Iisfen fo messoge-I.

Note: You'II now be Iisfening fo fhe reconsfrucfed version of messoge-I ond if shouId
sound Iike o higher frequency.

Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.
CH 0
CH 1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrms max
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
PCM
ENCODER
FS
CLK
PCM
DATA
TDM
INPUT 2
INPUT 1
PCM
PCM
DECODER
PCM
DATA
CLK
OUTPUT
OUTPUT2
1kHz LPF
LOWPASS
FILTERS
3kHz LPF
VARIABLEDC
FUNCTION
GENERATOR
+
ANALOGI/ O
ACH1 DAC1
ACH0 DAC0
AMPLIFIER
GAIN OUT IN
GND GND

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf o - Time division muIfipIe occess (TDMA) o-I0




Purt C - Time division muItipIeing und sumpIe rute
As menfioned in fhe preIiminory discussion, fime division muIfipIexing (TDM) necessoriIy
invoIves o reducfion in fhe PCM sysfem's sompIe rofe. For exompIe, o duoI-chonneI PCM-TDM
sysfem hos o sompIe rofe hoIf fhof for o singIe-chonneI PCM sysfem (oII ofher fhings being
equoI). The nexf porf of fhe experimenf Iefs you invesfigofe fhis issue.

Z8. Sef fhe PCM Encoder moduIe's Mode swifch fo fhe PCM posifion.

Note: This furns fhe sef-up fo o simpIe singIe-chonneI PCM sysfem wifh o sompIe rofe of
IZ.bkSo/s.

Z9. Modify fhe scope's connecfions fo fhe sef-up os shown in Figure 8 beIow.




Figure


30. Sef fhe scope's Timebose confroI fo fhe I00ps/div posifion.

Note: You shouId now be obIe fo see messoge-I ond fhe recovered version of if.

Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.
CH 0
CH 1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrms max
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
PCM
ENCODER
FS
CLK
PCM
DATA
TDM
INPUT 2
INPUT 1
PCM
PCM
DECODER
PCM
DATA
CLK
OUTPUT
OUTPUT2
1kHz LPF
LOWPASS
FILTERS
3kHz LPF
VARIABLEDC
FUNCTION
GENERATOR
+
ANALOGI/ O
ACH1 DAC1
ACH0 DAC0

Experimenf o - Time division muIfipIe occess (TDMA) Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs o-II

3I. Pefurn fhe PCM Encoder moduIe's Mode swifch fo fhe TDM posifion.

Note 1: This refurns fhe sef-up fo o duoI-chonneI PCM-TDM sysfem ond so fhe sompIe
rofe hoIves fo o.ZbkSo/s.

Note Z: Mofice fhof fhe recovered version of messoge-I is now disforfed.


Question 4
CoIcuIofe fhe frequency of fhe Iowesf-frequency oIios on fhe PCM Decoder moduIe's
oufpuf. Tip: If you're nof sure how fo do fhis, reod fhe preIiminory discussion for
Experimenf b.
o.Zbk - Zk ~ 4.ZbkH;



To verify your onswer fo Quesfion 4,


3Z. Modify fhe scope's connecfions fo fhe sef-up os shown in Figure 9 beIow.




Figure 9
CH 0
CH 1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrmsmax
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
PCM
ENCODER
FS
CLK
PCM
DATA
TDM
INPUT 2
INPUT 1
PCM
PCM
DECODER
PCM
DATA
CLK
OUTPUT
OUTPUT2
1kHz LPF
LOWPASS
FILTERS
3kHz LPF
VARIABLEDC
FUNCTION
GENERATOR
+
ANALOGI/ O
ACH1 DAC1
ACH0 DAC0

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf o - Time division muIfipIe occess (TDMA) o-IZ

The chonge fo fhe scope's connecfion is shown on fhe bIock diogrom in Figure I0 beIow.





Figure 10


33. Suspend fhe scope's operofion.

34. Lounch ond run fhe MI ELVIS II Dynomic SignoI AnoIy;er VI.

3b. Adjusf fhe signoI onoIy;er's confroIs os foIIows:

Input Settings
Source ChonneI fo SCOPE CH I

FFT Settings
Frequency Spon fo I0,000
PesoIufion fo 400
Window fo 7 Term 8-Horris

Trigger Settings
Type fo Edge

Frequency DispIuy
Unifs fo d8
Mode fo PMS
ScoIe fo Aufo

VoIfoge Ponge fo I0V

Averuging
Mode fo PMS
Weighfing fo ExponenfioI
# of Averoges fo 3





Cursors On box unchecked (for now)


IM Z
CLI
PCM
DATA CLI
PCM Encoding PCM Decoding
Pecovered
messoge-I
Peconsfrucfion
I00kH;
b00H;
IM I
ZkH;
PCM-TDM dofo
Messoge-I
To CH 0
O/P
O/P Z
Pecovered
messoge-Z
"Sfepped" messoge-I
To CH I

Experimenf o - Time division muIfipIe occess (TDMA) Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs o-I3

3o. Acfivofe fhe signoI onoIy;er's cursors ond use one of fhem fo check fhof your onswer fo
Quesfion 4 is correcf.






Question
ExpIoin how fhis oIios is cousing fhe disforfion fhof you observe in fhe fime domoin. Tip:
If you're nof sure, use fhe signoI onoIy;er fo exomine fhe specfroI composifion of fhe
oppropriofe reconsfrucfion fiIfer's oufpuf.
AIfhough 4.ZbkH; is oufside fhe 3kH; LPF's poss-bond, rejecfion of frequencies
beyond fhe cuf-off isn'f insfonfoneous. So, fhe oIios con sfiII poss fhrough fo fhe
fiIfer's oufpuf disforfing fhe messoge.


Question
0ive fhree woys fhof fhis disforfion con be reduced wifhouf deocfivofing fhe PCM
Encoder & Decoder moduIe's TDM mode.
I) Increose fhe frequency of fhe PCM Encoder & Decoder moduIe's cIock,
Z) Use o higher order fiIfer (so if hos o sfeeper roII-off fhof beffer rejecfs fhe oIios),
3) Use o fiIfer wifh o cuf-off frequency cIoser fo fhe messoge frequency.







Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.
Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before finishing.

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf o - Time division muIfipIe occess (TDMA) o-I4







M
o
m
e
:

C
I
o
s
s
:


7

-

L
i
n
e

c
o
d
i
n
g

o
n
d

b
i
f
-
c
I
o
c
k

r
e
g
e
n
e
r
o
f
i
o
n

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf 7 - Line coding & bif cIock regenerofion 7-Z

Eperiment 7 - Line coding und bit-cIock regenerution
PreIiminury discussion

Line coding
As you know, Iogic-0 ond Iogic-I in digifoI sysfems ore represenfed by ossigned voIfoges. For
exompIe, fhe TTL Iogic-0 is represenfed by 0V ond fhe TTL Iogic-I is represenfed by bV (or by
occepfobIe voIfoges reIofiveIy cIose fo 0V ond bV). As you oIso know, fhe Iogic IeveIs for ofher
Iogic fomiIies Iike CMOS, ECL, efc ore nof necessoriIy 0V ond bV. This feIIs us fhof Iogic IeveIs
con be represenfed by ony poir of voIfoges we Iike. Thof soid, fhe choice of which voIfoges fo
use is nof os orbifrory os fhof moy seem. If's usuoIIy on engineering decision mode fo confer on
odvonfoge.

ImporfonfIy, fhis is oIso frue for fhe choice of voIfoges used when sending digifoI signoIs over
copper feIephone cobIes (Iike fwisfed-poir cobIes). Sfondord TTL ond CMOS voIfoges ore Iess
fhon ideoI for fhis purpose. Moreover, even fhe bosic premise of hoIding fhe voIfoge of o
porficuIor voIue for fhe enfire durofion of o Iogic sfofe con be disodvonfogeous. For fhese
reosons, digifoI signoIs wifhin sysfems ore offen condifioned prior fo fronsmission oIong copper
feIephone cobIes ond fhis is coIIed Iine coding.

There ore quife o few Iine codes. Four of fhem ore:

Mon-refurn fo ;ero - IeveI (bipoIor) (MPZ-L)
As you con see from Figure I on fhe nexf poge, fhis code is o simpIe scoIe ond IeveI shiff of
fhe originoI digifoI signoI.

8i-phose - IeveI (8i-L oIso known os Monchesfer code)
Figure I shows fhof fhis code chonges sfofe from +V fo -V in fhe middIe of fhe bif period
for oII Iogic-Is ond chonges from -V fo +V in fhe middIe of fhe bif period for oII Iogic-0s.
For consecufive bifs wifh fhe some Iogic IeveI, fhe voIfoge musf inverf offer hoIf o bif
Iengfh in order fo sofisfy fhis ruIe for fhe nexf bif.

Pefurn fo ;ero - oIfernofe mork inversion (PZ-AMI)
Figure I shows fhof fhis code uses 0V fo represenf Iogic-0 ond o hoIf-bif puIse fo represenf
Iogic-I. ImporfonfIy, fhe poIorify of fhe puIses oIfernofes for every successive Iogic-I (even
if fhey're nof consecufive bifs).

Mon-refurn fo ;ero - mork (bipoIor) (MPZ-M)
Figure I shows fhof fhis code chonges sfofe for eoch new Iogic-I ond doesn'f chonge sfofe
for ony Iogic-0s.



Experimenf 7 - Line coding & bif cIock regenerofion Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs 7-3



Figure 1


TobIe I beIow compores fhe minimum bondwidfh requiremenfs for propogofing fhese signoIs
oIong fronsmission Iines. If oIso shows fhe Iine code's usefuIness for bif-cIock regenerofion.


TubIe 1
Line code Minimum
bundwidth
it-cIock
regenerution
MPZ-L
Z
b
f
Poor
8i-L f
b
Very good
PZ-AMI
Z
b
f
0ood
MPZ-M
Z
b
f
Poor

0V
5V
0V
0V
0V
0V
TTL
NRZ-L
Bio-L
RZ-AMI
NRZ-M
0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf 7 - Line coding & bif cIock regenerofion 7-4

As you con see, PZ-AMI offers fhe besf compromise of fhe four Iine codes befween bondwidfh
ond bif-cIock regenerofion (os weII os ofher Iine code chorocferisfics nof menfioned here) ond
so if is wideIy used.

it-cIock regenerution
In ony form of digifoI communicofions, fronsmiffed dofo musf be "reod" by fhe receiver
(fypicoIIy offer some processing fo demoduIofe fhe signoI ond remove ony noise). Whofever fhe
circuif or device used of fhe receiver fo perform fhe reoding, if musf hove o bif-cIock fhof is
synchroni;ed fo fhe bif-cIock of fhe originoI digifoI dofo signoI. If nof, some bifs ore reod
more fhon once ond/or ofher bifs ore nof reod of oII. 8ofh probIems resuIf in dofo errors.

When impIemenfing eorIier FOTEx experimenfs, fhe PCM Decoder moduIe's bif-cIock is simpIy
"sfoIen" from fhe originoI digifoI dofo signoI's bif-cIock (using o pofch Ieod). This is inefficienf
in procfice becouse on oddifionoI chonneI is required Ieoving one Iess for ofher users. As such,
mefhods hove been devised fo use fhe digifoI dofo signoI ifseIf fo obfoin o synchroni;ed IocoI
bif-cIock. This is coIIed bif-cIock regenerofion (8CP).

To undersfond fhe bosic principIe behind 8CP, you firsf need fo know fhof digifoI dofo signoIs
consisf of mony sinewoves. One sinewove is coIIed fhe fundomenfoI ond fhe resf ore coIIed
hormonics. ImporfonfIy, one of fhe hormonics of some Iine codes is o sinewove fhof is
synchroni;ed fo fhe originoI digifoI dofo signoI's bif-cIock. If fhis hormonic is sufficienfIy
Iorge, if con be isoIofed of fhe receiver by fiIfering ond eifher used os fhe IocoI bif-cIock
(offer furning if info o digifoI signoI using o comporofor or some ofher circuif) or used fo
synchroni;e o IocoIIy generofed bif-cIock.

FinoIIy, recoII fhof TobIe I indicofes fhe usefuIness of fhe four FOTEx Iine codes fo 8CP. This
is governed by fhe si;e of synchroni;ed hormonic in fhe Iine code. The Iine codes fhof beffer
Iend fhemseIves fo 8CP such os 8i-L (Monchesfer code) ond PZ-AMI hove o more significonf
synchroni;ed hormonic fhon fhe ofhers.

The eperiment
For fhis experimenf you'II exomine fhe four FOTEx Iine code equivoIenfs for o 3I-bif TTL
digifoI dofo signoI in fhe fime domoin ond compore fhem fo fheir fheoreficoIIy predicfed
woveshope.

Mexf you'II exomine fhe signoIs in fhe frequency domoin using fhe MI ELVIS II Dynomic SignoI
AnoIy;er. You'II esfobIish fhof one of fhe Iine codes is subsfonfioIIy differenf fo fhe ofher
fhree in ferms of ifs specfroI composifion. You'II oIso esfobIish fhof oII four Iine codes confoin
o hormonic fhof is synchroni;ed fo fhe originoI digifoI dofo signoI's bif-cIock frequency fhof
con be used for bif-cIock regenerofion.

FinoIIy, you'II use fhe Emono FOTEx PCM 8if-cIock Pegenerofor moduIe fo impIemenf o PCM
encoding-decoding sysfem wifhouf fhe need fo sfeoI fhe bif-cIock os previous experimenfs hove
done.

If shouId foke you obouf b0 minufes fo compIefe fhis experimenf.


Experimenf 7 - Line coding & bif cIock regenerofion Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs 7-b

Pre-requisites:
Experimenf I: An infroducfion fo fhe MI ELVIS II fesf equipmenf
Experimenf Z: An infroducfion fo fhe Emono FOTEx
Experimenf 3: PCM Encoding
Experimenf 4: PCM Decoding
Experimenf b: SompIing ond Myquisf in PCM (opfionoI)
Experimenf o: Time division muIfipIe occess (opfionoI)


Equipment

PersonoI compufer wifh oppropriofe soffwore insfoIIed
MI ELVIS II pIus US8 cobIe ond power pock
Emono FOTEx experimenfoI odd-in moduIe
Three 8MC fo Zmm bonono-pIug Ieods
Assorfed Zmm bonono-pIug pofch Ieods


Procedure

Purt A - Observutions of Iine codes in the time domuin
The nexf porf of fhis experimenf gefs you observe fhe four Emono FOTEx Iine code oufpufs in
fhe fime domoin.

I. Ensure fhof fhe MI ELVIS II power swifch of fhe bock of fhe unif is off.

Z. CorefuIIy pIug fhe Emono FOTEx experimenfoI odd-in moduIe info fhe MI ELVIS II.

3. Inserf fhe hoIding screws fo secure fhe FOTEx moduIe fo fhe MI ELVIS II.

Note: This musf be done wifh fhe power off fo ovoid domoging fhe FOTEx.

4. Connecf fhe MI ELVIS II fo fhe PC using fhe US8 cobIe.

Note: This moy oIreody hove been done for you.

b. Turn on fhe MI ELVIS II power swifch of fhe reor of fhe unif fhen furn on ifs
Profofyping 8oord Power swifch of fhe fop righf corner neor fhe power indicofor.

o. Turn on fhe PC ond Ief if boof-up.

7. Lounch fhe MI ELVISmx soffwore.


Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf 7 - Line coding & bif cIock regenerofion 7-o

8. Locofe fhe Ieff-mosf Sequence 0enerofor moduIe (fhe one wifh on X oufpuf) ond sef ifs
DIP-swifches fo 00.

Note: This seIecfs MPZ-L os fhe Iine code for fhe Sequence 0enerofor moduIe's LIME
CODE oufpuf.

9. Use fhe Sequence 0enerofor moduIe you hove chosen fo wire fhe sef-up shown in Figure
Z beIow.





Figure Z


This sef-up con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure 3 beIow. The Mosfer SignoIs
moduIe's ZkH; DI0ITAL oufpuf is used fo provide fhe Sequence 0enerofor moduIe's bif-cIock.
The Sequence 0enerofor moduIe's X oufpuf is o confinuous 3I-bif sequenfioI binory number.
The Sequence 0enerofor moduIe's LIME CODE oufpuf is o copy of ifs X oufpuf using fhe Iine
code scheme sef by fhe DIP-swifches. The moduIe's SYMC oufpuf is o puIse fhof corresponds
wifh fhe sequences' firsf oufpuf bif on every repefifion ond is used fo frigger fhe scope.




Figure 3
X sequence
To CH 0
Line code
To CH I
Sequence
0enerofor
CLI
ZkH;
CIock
Mosfer
SignoIs
LIME CODE
X
SYMC
SYMC
To TPI0
5VTTL
TRIG
FGEN
CH 0
CH1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrms max
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
1
O
SEQUENCE
GENERATOR
SYNC
CLK
LINE
CODE
X
OONRZ-L
O1 Bi-O
1ORZ-AMI
11 NRZ-M

Experimenf 7 - Line coding & bif cIock regenerofion Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs 7-7

I0. Lounch ond run fhe MI ELVIS II OsciIIoscope VI.

II. Sef up fhe scope per fhe procedure in Experimenf I (poge I-IZ) wifh fhe foIIowing
chonges:

CoupIing confroIs for bofh chonneIs fo fhe DC posifion insfeod of fhe AC posifion
Timebose confroI fo fhe Ims/div posifion insfeod of b00ps/div posifion
Trigger Type fo fhe DigifoI posifion

Note: Once done, you'II be obIe fo view o porfion of fhe X oufpuf's 3I-bif sequence.

IZ. Acfivofe fhe scope's ChonneI I inpuf (by checking fhe ChonneI I EnobIed box) fo view
bofh fhe Sequence 0enerofor moduIe's X ond LIME CODE oufpufs.

Note: The signoIs wiII be overIoyed.

I3. Sef fhe scope's ChonneI I VerficoI Posifion confroI fo -3V fo seporofe fhe signoIs ond
moke fhem eosier fo compore.

Note 1: Once done, fhe ChonneI I 0V reference no-Ionger corresponds wifh fhe middIe
hori;onfoI Iine on fhe groficuIe. However, fhe reference's new posifion is shown using o
fhin bIue doshed Iine.

Note Z: Mofice fhof fhe ChonneI I 0V reference runs fhrough fhe middIe of fhe Iine
code signoI. This meons fhof one of signoI's voIfoges is posifive ond fhe ofher negofive.

I4. Drow fhe fwo woveforms fo scoIe ond fime-coincidenf wifh eoch ofher in fhe spoce
provided on fhe nexf poge.

Note 1: Leove room for fhree more signoIs.

Note Z: LobeI fhe woveforms so you know which one is which.

Note 3: Indicofe on your diogrom fhe signoIs' 0V reference.






Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf 7 - Line coding & bif cIock regenerofion 7-8














Experimenf 7 - Line coding & bif cIock regenerofion Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs 7-9

Ib. SeIecf fhe 8i-L Iine code by seffing fhe Sequence 0enerofor moduIe's DIP-swifches fo
0I.

Io. Drow fhe Iine code signoI fime-coincidenf wifh fhe ofher fwo showing fhe 0V reference.

I7. SeIecf fhe PZ-AMI Iine code by seffing fhe Sequence 0enerofor moduIe's DIP-swifches
fo I0 ond drow fhe signoI fime-coincidenf wifh fhe ofhers.

I8. SeIecf fhe MPZ-M Iine code by seffing fhe Sequence 0enerofor moduIe's DIP-swifches
fo II ond drow fhe signoI fime-coincidenf wifh fhe ofhers.

I9. Compore eoch of fhe Iine code signoIs wifh fhe ruIes underpinning fhem summori;ed in
fhe preIiminory discussion.

Note: If ony fhe signoIs oppeor fo chonge when fhey shouIdn'f or don'f chonge when fhey
shouId, check your drowing. If your drowing is correcf, coII fhe insfrucfor for ossisfonce.


Question 1
Which of fhe four Iine codes is mosf Iike fhe originoI TTL dofo signoI7
MPZ-L.


Question Z
Which of fhe four Iine codes bi-poIor7
AII of fhem.


Question 3
Which of fhe four Iine codes represenfs fhe Iogic-0 in fhe dofo using 0V7
PZ-AMI


Question 4
Use fhe ruIe for PZ-AMI fo defermine fhe number of Iogic-Is in fhe porfion of fhe X
oufpuf's dofo sequence being dispIoyed.
EIeven.



Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf 7 - Line coding & bif cIock regenerofion 7-I0
Purt - Observutions of Iine codes in the frequency domuin
The nexf porf of fhis experimenf gefs you observe fhe four Emono FOTEx Iine code oufpufs in
fhe frequency domoin using fhe MI ELVIS II Dynomic SignoI AnoIy;er.

Z0. SeIecf fhe MPZ-L Iine code by refurning fhe Sequence 0enerofor moduIe's DIP-swifches
fo 00.

ZI. CIose fhe scope's VI.

ZZ. Lounch ond run fhe MI ELVIS II Dynomic SignoI AnoIy;er VI.

Z3. Adjusf fhe signoI onoIy;er's confroIs os foIIows:

Input Settings
Source ChonneI fo SCOPE CH I

FFT Settings
Frequency Spon fo 40,000
PesoIufion fo 400
Window fo 7 Term 8-Horris

Trigger Settings
Type fo DigifoI

Frequency DispIuy
Unifs fo d8
Mode fo PMS
ScoIe fo Aufo

VoIfoge Ponge fo I0V

Averuging
Mode fo PMS
Weighfing fo ExponenfioI
# of Averoges fo 3





Cursors On box unchecked (for now)




Once odjusfed correcfIy, fhe signoI onoIy;er's
dispIoy shouId Iook Iike Figure 4 (fo fhe righf).

Mofice fhof fhe Iine code's specfroI composifion is
o poffern of peoks ond froughs. This is o universoI
specfroI feofure of puIse froins Iike digifoI dofo
sequences.

The peoks or "Iobes" ore fhick becouse fhey ore
regions consisfing of foo mony sinewoves for fhe
signoI onoIy;er fo show seperofeIy (on currenf
seffings of Ieosf). The froughs or "nuIIs" ore
conspicuous obsences of o sinewove ond fhese
occur of whoIe number muIfipIes of fhe bif-cIock
frequency used fo generofe fhem.

Figure 4

Experimenf 7 - Line coding & bif cIock regenerofion Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs 7-II

Z4. Exomine ond compore fhe specfroI composifion of fhe four Iine codes.

Note: You shouId observe fhof, whiIe oII four codes exhibif fhe poffern menfioned
obove, fheir specfroI composifion is differenf. PecoII fhof fhis is one of fhe reosons for
choosing fo use one code over onofher.


One of fhe disodvonfoges of 8i-L (Monchesfer code) is fhof if requires fwice fhe bondwidfh
of fhe ofher fhree codes fo propogofe oIong o fronsmission Iine. WhiIe fhis Iimifofion connof be
demonsfrofed using fhe FOTEx direcfIy, we con exomine fhe specfrum of fhe four signoIs more
cIoseIy fo see fhof 8i-L is differenf fo fhe ofher fhree in imporfonf woys.


Zb. Sef fhe Sequence 0enerofor moduIe fo oufpuf fhe MPZ-L Iine code.

Zo. Counf fhe number of Iobes in fhe signoI's specfrum (for o spon of 40kH;). Pecord fhis
number in TobIe Z beIow.

Z7. Pepeof Sfep Zo for fhe ofher fhree codes.


TubIe Z
Line code
Lobes
{in 40kHz spun}
MPZ-L

8i-L

PZ-AMI

MPZ-M




Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.


Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf 7 - Line coding & bif cIock regenerofion 7-IZ

To compore 8i-L fo fhe ofher codes in onofher woy, we'II use fhe signoI onoIy;er's cursors fo
exomine fhe nuII frequencies.

Z8. Sef fhe Sequence 0enerofor moduIe fo oufpuf fhe MPZ-L Iine code.

Z9. Acfivofe fhe signoI onoIy;er's cursors (by checking Cursors On box).

30. AIign one of fhe cursors wifh fhe firsf nuII (fhe one befween fhe firsf ond second Iobes
in fhe signoI's specfrum).

3I. Meosure fhe nuII's frequency ond record fhis in TobIe 3 beIow.

Note: Pemember fhof fhis con be done using fhe df (H;) meosuremenf in green -
provided fhe ofher cursor is of fhe Ieff-mosf side of fhe signoI onoIy;er's dispIoy.

3Z. Meosure ond record fhe frequency of fhe firsf nuII in fhe specfrum of fhe ofher fhree
Iine codes.


TubIe 3
Line code
Frequency of
first nuII
MPZ-L

8i-L

PZ-AMI

MPZ-M




Question
8osed on your resuIfs in TobIes Z ond 3, which of fhe four codes is fhe odd one ouf7
8i-L (Monchesfer code)





Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

Experimenf 7 - Line coding & bif cIock regenerofion Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs 7-I3

Purt C - it-cIock regenerution
PecoII from fhe preIiminory discussion fhof Iine codes confoining o specfroI componenf of fhe
bif-cIock frequency con be used for bif-cIock regenerofion (8CP). The four FOTEx Iine codes
con be used for 8CP, however, fhey vory in ferms of fhe significonce of fheir bif-cIock
componenf. The nexf porf of fhe experimenf demonsfrofes fhis.

33. Sef fhe Sequence 0enerofor moduIe fo oufpuf fhe MPZ-L Iine code.

34. Sef fhe signoI onoIy;er's Frequency Spon fo 3,000H; insfeod of 40,000H;.

3b. Use fhe cursor fo Iocofe fhe sinewove in fhe Iine code's specfrum fhof is of fhe bif-cIock
frequency.

3o. Defermine fhe componenf's reIofive si;e ond record fhe voIue in TobIe 4 beIow.

Note 1: The reIofive si;e of fhe componenf is defermined by foIIowing fhe hori;onfoI
doshed Iine from fhe cursors fo fhe Y-oxis ond reoding off ifs d8 figure.

Note Z: This is fhe componenf's si;e in decibeIs reIofive fo fhe Iorgesf componenf in fhe
Iine code signoI.

37. Defermine fhe reIofive si;e of fhe componenf of fhe bif-cIock frequency in fhe ofher
fhree Iine codes (in bofh d8 ond os o rofio).


TubIe 4
Line code
it-cIock
component {in d}
MPZ-L

8i-L

PZ-AMI

MPZ-M






Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf 7 - Line coding & bif cIock regenerofion 7-I4

Question
According fo your meosuremenfs, which of fhe FOTEx Iine codes hos fhe biggesf
hormonic of fhe originoI bif-cIock frequency7
8i-L (Monchesfer code) of opproximofeIy -Zbd8.


Question 7
Which of fhe FOTEx Iine codes hos fhe nexf biggesf hormonic of fhe originoI bif-cIock
frequency7
PZ-AMI of opproximofeIy -o0d8.


Question
Which of fhe FOTEx Iine codes hos fhe smoIIesf hormonic of fhe originoI bif-cIock
frequency7
Eifher MPZ-L or MPZ-M of opproximofeIy -80d8.


Question 9
CoIcuIofe fhe difference in fhe hormonics' si;e (in decibeIs) befween fhe besf ond worsf
performing Iine codes in fhis regord. Tip: Your onswer shouId be o posifive number.
-Zbd8 - -80d8 ~ bbd8



Question 10
Converf fhis figure fo o rofio (using fhe equofion: ) Z0 (
I
d8 Log rofio

= ) fo defermine
how mony fhe fimes bigger fhe hormonic of fhe originoI bif-cIock frequency of fhe besf
Iine code is compored fo fhe worsf.
Assuming o difference of bbd8 fhen: boZ fimes bigger.





Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

Experimenf 7 - Line coding & bif cIock regenerofion Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs 7-Ib

Purt D - ImpIementing bit-cIock regenerution on the Emonu FOTE
As you hove seen, MPZ-L confoins o hormonic of fhe originoI dofo signoI's bif-cIock frequency
ond so if con be used for bif-cIock regenerofion. Thof being fhe cose, fhis musf oIso be frue of
TTL dofo signoIs becouse, os you hove oIso seen, MPZ-L is simpIy o bipoIor version of TTL.
[Thof soid, neifher signoI is os good for 8CP os 8i-L or PZ-AMI ond so fhey're much more
wideIy used.]

For fhe purposes of being obIe fo fuIIy modeI copper ond opficoI feIecommunicofions, fhe
Emono FOTEx hos o bif-cIock regenerofion moduIe copobIe of producing o synchroni;ed I00kH;
bif-cIock from fhe PCM dofo ouf of fhe PCM Encoder moduIe (cIocked of I00kH;) for use os
fhe IocoI bif-cIock for fhe PCM Decoder moduIe. The nexf porf of fhe experimenf
demonsfrofes ifs operofion using fhe PCM encoding-decoding sysfem fhof you hove wired ond
fesfed for previous experimenfs.

38. CompIefeIy dismonfIe fhe currenf sef-up.

39. CIose fhe signoI onoIy;er's VI.

40. Sef fhe PCM Encoder moduIe's Mode swifch fo fhe PCM posifion.

4I. Connecf fhe sef-up shown in Figure b beIow.




Figure


This sef-up con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure o on fhe nexf poge. The Mosfer
SignoIs moduIe's ZkH; SIME oufpuf is used fo provide on onoIog messoge signoI for fhe PCM
Encoder moduIe. The PCM Encoder moduIe converfs fhe messoge fo o PCM digifoI signoI which
fhe PCM Decoder moduIe converfs fo o sompIed version of fhe originoI signoI. The 3kH; LPF is
used os o reconsfrucfion fiIfer fo recover fhe messoge on fhe decoder's oufpuf. ImporfonfIy,
of fhis sfoge, fhe PCM Decoder moduIe's bif-cIock is sfoIen from fhe PCM Encoder moduIe.
CH0
CH1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrmsmax
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
PCM
ENCODER
FS
CLK
PCM
DATA
TDM
INPUT 2
INPUT1
PCM
PCM
DECODER
PCM
DATA
CLK
OUTPUT
OUTPUT2
1kHz LPF
LOWPASS
FILTERS
3kHz LPF

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf 7 - Line coding & bif cIock regenerofion 7-Io




Figure


4Z. Lounch ond run fhe MI ELVIS II OsciIIoscope VI.

43. Sef up fhe scope per fhe procedure in Experimenf I (poge I-IZ).

44. Adjusf fhe scope's Timebose confroI fo view fwo or so cycIes of fhe messoge signoI.

4b. Acfivofe fhe scope's ChonneI I inpuf fo observe fhe signoI on fhe reconsfrucfion fiIfer's
oufpuf (fhof is, fhe 3kH; Low-poss FiIfer moduIe's oufpuf) os weII os fhe messoge.

Note: You shouId see o copy of fhe messoge on fhe reconsfrucfion fiIfer's oufpuf fhof is
probobIy phose shiffed.





Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

IM I
CLI
Messoge
To CH 0
PCM
DATA "SfoIen" CLI
PCM Encoding PCM Decoding
Pecovered
messoge
To CH I
3kH; LPF
Peconsfrucfion
I00kH;
ZkH;
Mosfer
SignoIs
Mosfer
SignoIs
O/P

Experimenf 7 - Line coding & bif cIock regenerofion Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs 7-I7

4o. Lounch ond run fhe MI ELVIS II Funcfion 0enerofor VI.

47. Sef fhe funcfion generofor's oufpuf frequency fo I00kH;.

Note: If's nof necessory fo odjusf ony ofher confroIs os fhe funcfion generofor's SYMC
oufpuf wiII be used ond fhis is o digifoI signoI.

48. Modify fhe sef-up os shown in Figure 7 beIow.




Figure 7


This sef-up con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure 8 beIow. The PCM Decoder
moduIe's bif-cIock is now on independenf I00kH; signoI provided by fhe funcfion generofor.




Figure
CH 0
CH 1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrmsmax
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
PCM
ENCODER
FS
CLK
PCM
DATA
TDM
INPUT 2
INPUT 1
PCM
PCM
DECODER
PCM
DATA
CLK
OUTPUT
OUTPUT2
1kHz LPF
LOWPASS
FILTERS
3kHz LPF
VARIABLEDC
FUNCTION
GENERATOR
+
ANALOGI/ O
ACH1 DAC1
ACH0 DAC0
IM I
CLI
Messoge
To CH 0
PCM
DATA
PCM Encoding PCM Decoding
Pecovered
messoge
To CH I
Peconsfrucfion
I00kH;
ZkH;
O/P
CLI
I00kH;
Fungfion
generofor

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf 7 - Line coding & bif cIock regenerofion 7-I8

49. Wofch fhe recovered messoge signoI cIoseIy.

Note: You shouId observe some periodic disforfion of fhe signoI.


Question 11
Why does fhis disforfion occur when fhe PCM Decoder moduIe's IocoI bif-cIock is sef fo
fhe some frequency os fhe PCM Encoder moduIe's bif-cIock7
The frequencies ore nof euctIy fhe some nor ore fhey in phose. In ofher words,
fhey're nof synchroni;ed.





Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

Experimenf 7 - Line coding & bif cIock regenerofion Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs 7-I9

8if-cIock regenerofion con be impIemenfed in o number of woys. An open-Ioop mefhod simpIy
invoIves fiIfering fhe bif-cIock hormonic from fhe Iine code's specfrum ond converfing if fo o
digifoI signoI (using o comporofor or decision moker) reody fo cIock fhe decoder. The more
sophisficofed cIosed-Ioop mefhod invoIves using fhe fiIfered bif-cIock hormonic fo synchroni;e
o IocoIIy generofed bif-cIock. Thof is, o IocoI bif-cIock is generofed of cIose fo fhe required
frequency ond fhe bif-cIock hormonic is used fo fine-fune ifs frequency ond phose. This Ioffer
mefhod is used for fhe PCM 8if-cIock Pegenerofor moduIe on fhe Emono FOTEx. The nexf porf
of fhe experimenf Iefs you use if cIock fhe PCM Decoder moduIe in fhe currenf sef-up.


b0. Modify fhe sef-up os shown in Figure 9 beIow.




Figure 9


This sef-up con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure I0 on fhe nexf poge. The PCM
Decoder moduIe's bif-cIock is now provided by fhe PCM 8if-cIock Pegenerofor moduIe which is
using fhe PCM dofo fo synchroni;e ifs I00kH; digifoI oufpuf wifh fhe originoI digifoI dofo
signoI's bif-cIock.

CH 0
CH 1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrms max
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
PCM
ENCODER
FS
CLK
PCM
DATA
TDM
INPUT 2
INPUT 1
PCM
PCM
DECODER
PCM
DATA
CLK
OUTPUT
OUTPUT2
1kHz LPF
LOWPASS
FILTERS
3kHz LPF
PCM
DATA
PCM
CLK
PCM BIT CLK
REGENERATOR
(100kHz bit clock)

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf 7 - Line coding & bif cIock regenerofion 7-Z0



Figure 10


bI. Wofch fhe recovered messoge signoI cIoseIy.

Note: You shouId observe fhof fhe recovered messoge is os free os errors os if fhe PCM
Decoder moduIe's IocoI bif-cIock wos sfoIen.


Question 1Z
ExpIoin why fhis sef-up wouIdn'f work if fhe PCM Encoder moduIe's bif-cIock is o
frequency ofher fhon I00kH;.
The PCM 8if-cIock Pegenerofor moduIe generofes o I00kH; cIock ond uses fhe PCM
dofo signoI's bif-cIock hormonic fo moke fhe fine odjusfmenfs necessory fo synchroni;e
if fo fhe required frequency ond phose. However, fhis is onIy possibIe for o smoII
ronge of frequencies cIose fo I00kH;.





Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before finishing.

IM I
CLI
Messoge
To CH 0
PCM
DATA
PCM Encoding PCM Decoding
Pecovered
messoge
To CH I
Peconsfrucfion
I00kH;
ZkH;
O/P
CLI
PCM 8if-cIock
Pegenerofion
PCM
8CP




M
o
m
e
:

C
I
o
s
s
:


8

-

F
i
b
e
r

o
p
f
i
c

f
r
o
n
s
m
i
s
s
i
o
n

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf 8 - Fiber opfic fronsmission 8-Z

Eperiment - Fiber optic trunsmission
PreIiminury discussion
One of fhe mony odvonfoges of using opficoI fiber over copper cobIe for fronsmiffing signoIs
over Iong disfonces is fhe much Iower IeveIs of Ioss invoIved. This meons fhof fewer repeofers
ore required which provides for enormous cosf ond energy sovings (especioIIy for underwofer
fiber opfic insfoIIofions).

For fhe commercioI fiber opfic fronsmission sysfems used in feIecommunicofions, Iosses ore
minimi;ed by using Iighf in fhe infro-red region of fhe eIecfromognefic specfrum (specificoIIy,
of woveIengfhs befween I300nm ond I700nm) ond by using Ioser Iighf sources. However, os you
know, infro-red Iighf is nof visibIe fo humons ond Ioser Iighf con reodiIy couse injury fo eyes.

So, fo demysfify fiber opfic fronsmission ond keep Ieorning obouf if sofe, fhe Emono FOTEx
uses red ond green visibIe Iighf from Iighf-emiffing diodes (LEDs) ond sfondord Iighf sensors fo
modeI fiber opfic fronsmission in feIecommunicofions. Thof soid, fhis is in no-woy reduces fhe
reoIism of fhe opficoI experimenfs in fhis monuoI becouse fhese devices, fogefher wifh pIosfic
opficoI fiber, ore used in ofher communicofions oppIicofions where fhe shorf disfonces invoIved
resuIf in negIigibIe Iosses onywoy (such os fhe opficoI sysfems fhof ore repIocing copper wiring
Iooms in modern vehicIes).


The FOTE Trunsmitter moduIes
The Emono FOTEx hos fhree opficoI Tronsmiffer moduIes fhof con be used fo "Iood"
informofion onfo fhe fiber opfic cobIes. Thof is, fhe Tronsmiffer moduIes con foke onoIog or
digifoI informofion in eIecfricoI form ond converf if fo Iighf informofion fhof con be reIofiveIy
efficienfIy fronsferred info fhe core of o pIosfic opficoI fiber cobIe. Two of fhe Tronsmiffer
moduIes use red LEDs os Iighf sources ond fhe fhird uses o green LED.

To gef o feeI for fhe moduIes' operofion, fhink of fhe exompIe of o fobIe Iomp. If fhe Iomp is
preffy bosic, if con onIy be furned off or on. This is how fhe FOTEx Tronsmiffer moduIes'
LEDs work when fhe moduIes ore sef fo digifoI mode (vio fhe fwo-posifion sIide swifch on eoch
moduIe). This oIIows fhem fo be used fo Iood digifoI informofion (such os PCM) onfo on opficoI
fiber Iink. If's imporfonf fo oppreciofe here fhof no ofher Iighf IeveI IeveIs ore oIIowed in fhe
digifoI mode becouse fhey wouId pofenfioIIy confuse fhe receiver obouf fhe Iogic-IeveI being
senf.

In onoIog mode, fhe FOTEx Tronsmiffer moduIes operofe more Iike o fobIe Iomp wifh o dimmer
confroI fhof con be sef fo ony brighfness IeveI befween minimum ond moximum. The FOTEx
Tronsmiffer moduIes' LED brighfness is confroIIed by fhe si;e of fhe fronsmiffer's onoIog inpuf
voIfoge ond is proporfionoI. Thof is, fhe smoIIer fhe onoIog inpuf fhe Iower fhe LED's
brighfness, ond fhe Iorger fhe onoIog inpuf, fhe greofer ifs brighfness. ObviousIy, fhe onoIog
mode oIIows fhe Tronsmiffer moduIes fo Iood onoIog informofion onfo on opficoI fiber Iink.


Experimenf 8 - Fiber opfic fronsmission Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs 8-3

There ore fwo imporfonf poinfs fhof musf be mode obouf fhe Tronsmiffer moduIes' onoIog
operofion. Firsf, onoIog signoIs ore bipoIor which meons fhof fhey oIfernofe befween posifive
ond negofive voIfoges Iike fhe sinewove on fhe Ieff in Figure I. However, LEDs onIy work wifh
voIfoges in one poIorify. So, fo oIIow fhe enfire cycIe of fhe onoIog inpuf fo be converfed fo
Iighf, fhe Tronsmiffer moduIes IeveI-fronsIofe fheir inpuf obouf Z.bV (os shown on fhe righf in
Figure I) before using if fo drive fhe LED. This oIIows onoIog signoIs wifh peoks up fo Z.bV fo
be converfed fo Iighf.





Figure 1 Leff) A bipoIor onoIog signoI, ond Pighf) A unipoIor onoIog signoI fronsIofed obouf Z.bV


The second poinf foIIows on from fhe firsf. Once fhe onoIog inpuf voIfoge exceeds bVpp, fhe
Iimifs of fhe LED's operofion ore exceeded. Thof is, fhe LED con'f gef ony brighfer or dorker.
This resuIfs in cIipping of fhe fops ond boffoms of fhe woveform on fhe receiver's oufpuf.


The FOTE Peceiver moduIes
The Emono FOTEx hos fwo opficoI Peceiver moduIes fhof con be used fo "unIood" informofion
from fiber opfic cobIes. Thof is, fhe Peceiver moduIes con reIofiveIy efficienfIy coupIe Iighf
informofion from fhe core of o pIosfic opficoI fiber cobIe fo o Iighf sensor fhof converfs fhe
informofion fo eIecfricoI signoIs. As sfondord Iighf sensors ore used, fhey respond fo oII visibIe
Iighf ond so fhe Peceiver moduIes con be used fo unIood bofh red ond green Iighf from fhe
opficoI fiber cobIes.

Once fhe informofion is converfed from Iighf fo eIecfricoI energy, on ompIifier is used fo
increose fhe signoI IeveI. Fine ond course goins confroIs ore provided fo ovoid sofurofing fhe
signoI when fhe Iosses ore smoII buf sfiII provide sufficienf goin when fhe Iosses ore significonf
(for exompIe, when opficoI coupIers ore used).

ImporfonfIy, fhe conversion of informofion from Iighf fo eIecfricoI energy produces o bipoIor
signoI. This is fhe signoI ovoiIobIe on fhe moduIe's onoIog oufpuf offer ompIificofion. This meons
fhof, if fhe fronsmiffed informofion is o digifoI dofo signoI, fhe signoI is unsuifobIe for digifoI
inpufs os fhese work on sfondord TTL Iogic IeveIs which ore unipoIor (fhof is, 0V for Iogic-0
ond bV for Iogic-I). To monoge fhis, fhe Peceiver moduIes oIso converf fhe received signoI fo
sfondord TTL Iogic IeveIs which ore ovoiIobIe on digifoI oufpufs for use by PCM Decoder moduIe
where oppropriofe.
0V Z.bV

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf 8 - Fiber opfic fronsmission 8-4
The experimenf
For fhis experimenf you'II invesfigofe fhe operofion of fhe Emono FOTEx Tronsmiffer moduIes
in bofh onoIog ond digifoI modes. Then you'II use one of fhe Tronsmiffer moduIes fo Iood onoIog
ond digifoI dofo onfo on opficoI fiber ond invesfigofe fhe operofion of fhe Peceiver moduIes.

If shouId foke you obouf 4b minufes fo compIefe fhis experimenf.


Pre-requisites:
Experimenf I: An infroducfion fo fhe MI ELVIS II fesf equipmenf
Experimenf Z: An infroducfion fo fhe Emono FOTEx


Precuution:
AIfhough fhe Iighf source for fhe Emono FOTEx Tronsmiffer ond Peceiver moduIes ore LEDs
ond nof Iosers, use fhis experimenf fo deveIop fhe hobif of nof Iooking direcfIy info fhe end of
on opficoI fiber.


Equipment

PersonoI compufer wifh oppropriofe soffwore insfoIIed
MI ELVIS II pIus US8 cobIe ond power pock
Emono FOTEx experimenfoI odd-in moduIe
Two 8MC fo Zmm bonono-pIug Ieods
Assorfed opficoI pofch Ieods
Assorfed Zmm bonono-pIug pofch Ieods


Procedure

Purt A - The FOTE Trunsmitter moduIes
The nexf porf of fhe experimenf Iefs you invesfigofe fhe operofion of fhe FOTEx Tronsmiffer
moduIes using o DC voIfoge fhen o Iow frequency frionguIor wove.

I. Ensure fhof fhe MI ELVIS II power swifch of fhe bock of fhe unif is off.

Z. CorefuIIy pIug fhe Emono FOTEx experimenfoI odd-in moduIe info fhe MI ELVIS II.

3. Inserf fhe hoIding screws fo secure fhe FOTEx moduIe fo fhe MI ELVIS II.

Note I: This moy oIreody be done for you. If nof, fhe screws ore suppIied wifh fhe MI
ELVIS II ond ore inserfed fhrough hoIes in fhe fop Ieff ond righf corners of fhe FOTEx.

Note Z: This musf be done wifh fhe power off fo ovoid domoging fhe FOTEx.

Experimenf 8 - Fiber opfic fronsmission Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs 8-b

4. Connecf fhe MI ELVIS II fo fhe PC using fhe US8 cobIe.

Note: This moy oIreody hove been done for you.

b. Turn on fhe MI ELVIS II power swifch of fhe reor of fhe unif fhen furn on ifs
Profofyping 8oord Power swifch of fhe fop righf corner neor fhe power indicofor.

o. Turn on fhe PC ond Ief if boof-up.

7. Lounch fhe MI ELVISmx soffwore.

8. Lounch ond run fhe MI ELVIS II VoriobIe Power SuppIies VI.

9. Sef fhe VoriobIe Power SuppIies' posifive oufpuf fo 0V.

I0. SeIecf one of fhe red LED Tronsmiffer moduIes ond sef ifs Mode confroI fo DI0ITAL.

II. Connecf fhe sef-up shown in Figure Z beIow using fhe Tronsmiffer moduIe you odjusfed
for fhe previous sfep.

Note: Don'f worry fhof one end of fhe opficoI pofch Ieod isn'f connecfed fo onyfhing.


Figure Z

VARIABLEDC
FUNCTION
GENERATOR
+
ANALOGI/ O
ACH1 DAC1
ACH0 DAC0
TRANSMITTER
RED
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf 8 - Fiber opfic fronsmission 8-o

The sef-up in Figure Z con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure 3 beIow. The red
Tronsmiffer moduIe's inpuf is o voriobIe DC voIfoge from fhe VoriobIe Power SuppIies.





Figure 3


IZ. Poinf fhe free end of fhe opficoI pofch Ieod cIose fo fhe desk, woII, whife poper or fhe
poIm of your hond so you con see Iighf from fhe end of fhe cobIe shining on if.

I3. Increose fhe VoriobIe Power SuppIies posifive oufpuf voIfoge unfiI fhe Tronsmiffer
moduIe's LED furns on.

I4. Vory fhe VoriobIe Power SuppIies posifive oufpuf voIfoge obove fhe IeveI fhof keeps fhe
LED furned on.

Note: As you do, nofice fhof fhe Tronsmiffer moduIe's LED Iighf infensify doesn'f
chonge.


Question 1
Why is if imporfonf in opficoI digituI fronsmissions for fhe fronsmiffer's Iighf source
infensify nof fo vory (ofher fhon fo furn off oIfogefher)7
The source shouId be off for one Iogic IeveI ond on for fhe ofher. Hoving o voriobIe
Iighf infensify moy confuse fhe receiver regording fhe Iogic IeveI being fronsmiffed.


Ib. Pefurn fhe VoriobIe Power SuppIies' posifive oufpuf fo 0V.

Lighf
oufpuf
VoriobIe Power
SuppIies
Tx
(Ped)
Tronsmiffer

Experimenf 8 - Fiber opfic fronsmission Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs 8-7

Io. Increose fhe VoriobIe Power SuppIies posifive oufpuf in 0.IV incremenfs ond idenfify fhe
exocf voIfoge fhof furns fhe LED on. Pecord fhis voIfoge in TobIe I beIow.

I7. Mow reduce fhe VoriobIe Power SuppIies posifive oufpuf in 0.IV incremenfs ond idenfify
fhe exocf voIfoge fhof furns fhe LED bock off. Pecord fhis voIfoge in TobIe I beIow.


TubIe 1
Logic-1 threshoId
voItuge
Logic-0 threshoId
voItuge






Question Z
Mofice fhof fhe fhreshoId voIfoges for on inpuf fo be occepfed os o Iogic-I or o Iogic-0
ore differenf. This is coIIed fhe hysferesis effecf ond is infenfionoI (when fhe
Tronsmiffer moduIe is operofed in DI0ITAL mode). Why is fhis o usefuI feofure for
digifoI inpufs fo hove7
If prevenfs noise on fhe eIecfricoI digifoI inpuf signoI from cousing muIfipIe Iogic
fronsifions for eoch voIid singIe fronsifion.





Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf 8 - Fiber opfic fronsmission 8-8

I8. CIose fhe VoriobIe Power SuppIies' VI.

I9. Lounch ond run fhe MI ELVIS II Funcfion 0enerofor VI.

Z0. Adjusf fhe funcfion generofor using ifs soff confroIs for on oufpuf wifh fhe foIIowing
specificofions:

Woveshope: TrionguIor
Frequency: 0.bH;
AmpIifude: bVpp
DC Offsef: 0V

ZI. Sef fhe Tronsmiffer moduIe's Mode confroI fo AMALO0.

ZZ. Connecf fhe sef-up shown in Figure 4 beIow.



Figure 4

This sef-up con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure b beIow. The red Tronsmiffer
moduIe's inpuf is now o Iow frequency frionguIor wove from fhe funcfion generofor.





Figure

Lighf
oufpuf
Funcfion
generofor Tronsmiffer
Tx
(Ped)
VARIABLEDC
FUNCTION
GENERATOR
+
ANALOGI/ O
ACH1 DAC1
ACH0 DAC0
TRANSMITTER
RED
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG

Experimenf 8 - Fiber opfic fronsmission Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs 8-9

Z3. Poinf fhe free end of fhe opficoI pofch Ieod cIose fo fhe desk, woII, efc.

Note: You shouId see fhe LED's Iighf infensify vory befween minimum ond moximum of o
consfonf rofe.


Question 3
How mony differenf Iighf infensifies does fhe LED emif befween ifs minimum ond
moximum voIues7
Infinife.



Z4. Increose fhe funcfion generofor's oufpuf fo fhe foIIowing frequencies: bH;, I0H;, Z0H;,
30H; ond b0H;. Observe fhe effecf on fhe LED's oufpuf befween eoch chonge.


Question 4
Why does if oppeor os fhough fhof fhe LED sfops fIoshing of fhe higher frequencies7
The LED is being puIsed of o rofe fhof is foo fosf for fhe humon eye fo see (o IiffIe
Iike fhe fIuorescenf Iighfs in pubIic buiIdings).






Zb. Pefurn fhe funcfion generofor's oufpuf fo 0.bH;.

Zo. Increose fhe funcfion generofor's ompIifude fo I0Vpp.

Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf 8 - Fiber opfic fronsmission 8-I0

Question
Whof is now differenf obouf fhe LED's Iighf oufpuf7 Tip: If you're nof sure, momenforiIy
refurn fhe funcfion generofor's ompIifude fo bVpp.
If spends fime siffing of minimum ond moximum Iighf infensifies.



Question
Whof fype disforfion wouId fhis probIem been seen os of fhe receiver7
CIipping.






Z7. Pefurn fhe funcfion generofor's ompIifude fo bVpp.

Z8. Subsfifufe fhe red Tronsmiffer moduIe for fhe green Tronsmiffer moduIe.

Note: Moke sure fhof you sef fhe green Tronsmiffer moduIe's mode swifch fo AMALO0.

Z9. Pepeof Sfeps Z3 fo Zo Iooking for ony differences in performonce befween fhe red ond
green Tronsmiffer moduIes.





Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.
Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

Experimenf 8 - Fiber opfic fronsmission Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs 8-II

Purt - Using the FOTE Peceiver moduIes to unIoud unuIog signuIs
The nexf porf of fhe experimenf Iefs you invesfigofe fhe operofion of fhe FOTEx Peceiver
moduIes for unIooding onoIog informofion from o fiber opfic fronsmission Iine.

30. CompIefeIy dismonfIe fhe currenf sef-up.

3I. Adjusf fhe funcfion generofor using ifs soff confroIs for on oufpuf wifh fhe foIIowing
specificofions:

Woveshope: Sine
Frequency: IH;
AmpIifude: bVpp
DC Offsef: 0V

3Z. SeIecf one of fhe red LED Tronsmiffer moduIes ond sef ifs Mode confroI fo AMALO0.

33. SeIecf one fhe Peceiver moduIes ond sef ifs 0oin Ponge confroI fo LO.

34. Turn fhe some Peceiver moduIe's VoriobIe 0oin confroI fuIIy counfer-cIockwise.

3b. Connecf fhe sef-up shown in Figure o beIow using fhe Tronsmiffer ond Peceiver moduIes
you odjusfed for Sfeps 3Z fo 34.

Note: Inserf fhe bIock pIugs of fhe osciIIoscope Ieods info o ground (0MD) sockef.



Figure


This sef-up con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure 7 on fhe nexf poge. The
funcfion generofor is used fo modeI on onoIog messoge. The red Tronsmiffer moduIe converfs
fhe messoge fo Iighf ond fronsmifs if oIong on opficoI fiber cobIe fo fhe Peceiver moduIe where
if is converfed bock fo on eIecfricoI signoI.
TRANSMITTER
RED
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
RECEIVER
OUTPUT
LO
HI
CH0
CH1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrms max
VARIABLEDC
FUNCTION
GENERATOR
+
ANALOGI/ O
ACH1 DAC1
ACH0 DAC0

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf 8 - Fiber opfic fronsmission 8-IZ



Figure 7


3o. Look cIoseIy of fhe reor of fhe opficoI connecfors on fhe Tronsmiffer ond Peceiver
moduIes fhof you're using.

Note: AIfhough cIodding prevenfs you from pofenfioIIy seeing fhe Iighf in fhe fiber, you
con observe fhe fronsmiffed ond received Iighf of fhe opficoI connecfors.

37. Lounch ond run fhe MI ELVIS II OsciIIoscope VI.

38. Sef up fhe scope per fhe procedure in Experimenf I (poge I-IZ) wifh fhe foIIowing
chonge:

ChonneI I ScoIe confroI fo fhe ZV/div posifion insfeod of IV/div posifion
Timebose confroI fo fhe Z00ms/div posifion insfeod of b00ps/div posifion

39. Acfivofe fhe scope's ChonneI I inpuf (by checking fhe ChonneI I EnobIed box) fo observe
fhe Peceiver moduIe's oufpuf os weII os fhe originoI messoge.

Note: The Peceiver moduIe's oufpuf shouId be o copy of fhe messoge.

40. Increose fhe messoge frequency (fhof is, increose fhe funcfion generofor's oufpuf
frequency) fo fhe foIIowing seffings: I0H;, Z0H;, b0H;, I00H; ond I,000H;.

Note: Affer eoch chonge in frequency, you'II need fo sef fhe scope's Timebose confroI fo
o more oppropriofe seffing. Choose o seffing fhof dispIoys onIy fwo or so cycIes of fhe
signoIs.



Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

Funcfion
generofor Tronsmiffer
Tx
(Ped)
IH;
Px
Peceiver
Pecovered
messoge
To CH I
AnoIog messoge
To CH 0

Experimenf 8 - Fiber opfic fronsmission Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs 8-I3

4I. Increose fhe messoge's ompIifude (fhof is, fhe funcfion generofor's oufpuf voIfoge) in IV
incremenfs up fo I0Vpp ond observe fhe effecf.


Question 7
Whof is fhe nome of fhe disforfion fhof oppeors on fhe Peceiver moduIe's oufpuf7
CIipping.


Question
Whof couses fhe disforfion on fhe Iower peoks of fhe woveform7 Tip: If you're nof sure,
fhink bock fo Porf A of fhis experimenf.
The inpuf signoI is so Iorge fhof if goes negofive (despife fhe DC offsef infroduced by
fhe IeveI-fronsIofion) ond so fhe LED furns off for o shorf of fime.


Question 9
Whof couses fhe disforfion on fhe upper peoks of fhe woveform7
The inpuf signoI is so Iorge fhof ifs upper peoks sofurofe fhe LED. Thof is, increoses in
voIfoge no-Ionger couse increoses in LED brighfness.


Question 10
WouId you expecf fhe green Tronsmiffer moduIe fo perform differenfIy fo fhe red
Tronsmiffer moduIe in fhe fesfs you've mode so for in Porf 87 ExpIoin your onswer.
Mo. Sfep Z9 in Porf A showed fhof fhe green Tronsmiffer moduIe's performonce
is fhe some os fhe red Tronsmiffer moduIe (quoIifofiveIy of Ieosf).





Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf 8 - Fiber opfic fronsmission 8-I4
Purt C - Using the FOTE Peceiver moduIes to unIoud digituI signuIs
The nexf porf of fhe experimenf Iefs you invesfigofe fhe operofion of fhe FOTEx Peceiver
moduIes for unIooding digifoI informofion from o fiber opfic fronsmission Iine.

4Z. CIose fhe funcfion generofor's VI.

43. DismonfIe fhe currenf sef-up.

44. SeIecf one of fhe red LED Tronsmiffer moduIes ond sef ifs Mode confroI fo DI0ITAL.

4b. SeIecf one fhe Peceiver moduIes ond sef ifs 0oin Ponge confroI fo LO.

4o. Turn fhe some Peceiver moduIe's VoriobIe 0oin confroI fuIIy counfer-cIockwise.

47. Connecf fhe sef-up shown in Figure 8 beIow using fhe Tronsmiffer ond Peceiver moduIes
you odjusfed for Sfeps 44 fo 4o.





Figure


This sef-up con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure 9 on fhe nexf poge. The Mosfer
SignoIs moduIe's I0kH; DI0ITAL oufpuf is used fo cIock fhe Sequence 0enerofor moduIe which
modeIs TTL digifoI dofo on ifs X oufpuf. This Sequence 0enerofor moduIe repeofedIy oufpufs o
3I-bif dofo sequence oIIowing fhe dofo fo be sfobiIi;ed on fhe scope's dispIoy when if is
friggered using fhe Sequence 0enerofor moduIe's SYMC oufpuf os is done here. [Mofe: If wouId
be impossibIe fo frigger fhe scope if reoI digifoI dofo wos used.] The digifoI dofo signoI is fhen
used os fhe messoge for fhe red Tronsmiffer moduIe which converfs if fo Iighf ond fronsmifs
if oIong on opficoI fiber cobIe for fhe Peceiver moduIe fo converf bock fo on eIecfricoI digifoI
signoI.

TRANSMITTER
RED
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
RECEIVER
OUTPUT
LO
HI
CH 0
CH 1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrmsmax
1
O
SEQUENCE
GENERATOR
SYNC
CLK
LINE
CODE
X
OONRZ-L
O1 Bi-O
1ORZ-AMI
11 NRZ-M
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
5VTTL
TRIG
FGEN

Experimenf 8 - Fiber opfic fronsmission Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs 8-Ib


Figure 9


48. Moke fhe foIIowing chonges fo fhe scope's confroIs:

CoupIing confroIs for bofh chonneIs fo fhe DC posifion insfeod of fhe AC posifion
Timebose confroI fo fhe Z00ps/div posifion insfeod of fhe b00ps/div posifion
ChonneI I VerficoI Posifion confroI fo -bV insfeod of 0V
Trigger Type fo fhe DigifoI posifion

Note: Once done, you'II be obIe fo view o porfion of fhe X oufpuf's 3I-bif sequence ond o
copy of if on fhe Peceiver moduIe's oufpuf.


Question 11
Whof chonge wouId you expecf fo see if you Iooked of fhe Peceiver moduIe's onoIog
oufpuf insfeod of ifs digifoI oufpuf7
You wouId some fhe some fhing excepf fhe signoI's peoks wouId be obove ond beIow fhe
reference. Thof is, fhe signoI is bipoIor.


Mosfer
SignoIs Tronsmiffer
Tx
(Ped)
I0kH;
Px
Peceiver
Pecovered
messoge
To CH I
DigifoI messoge
To CH 0
CLI X
SYMC
SYMC
To TPI0
Sequence
0enerofor

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf 8 - Fiber opfic fronsmission 8-Io

49. To verify your onswer fo Quesfion II, modify fhe scope's ChonneI I connecfion os shown
in Figure I0 beIow.





Figure 10








Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before finishing.
TRANSMITTER
RED
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
RECEIVER
OUTPUT
LO
HI
CH 0
CH 1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrms max
1
O
SEQUENCE
GENERATOR
SYNC
CLK
LINE
CODE
X
OONRZ-L
O1 Bi-O
1ORZ-AMI
11 NRZ-M
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
5VTTL
TRIG
FGEN




M
o
m
e
:

C
I
o
s
s
:


9

-

P
C
M
-
T
D
M

T
I


i
m
p
I
e
m
e
n
f
o
f
i
o
n

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf 9 - PCM-TDM 'TI' impIemenfofion 9-Z

Eperiment 9 - PCM-TDM 'T1' impIementution
PreIiminury discussion
Experimenf o demonsfrofed how puIse code moduIofion (PCM) con be combined wifh fime
division muIfipIexing (TDM) fo increose fhe number of digifoI users on o chonneI. In effecf, fhe
experimenf modeIed, in o reduced woy, o fechnique in feIecommunicofions known os fime
division muIfipIe occess (TDMA). Experimenf 7 expIoined fhe principIes underpinning bif-cIock
regenerofion ond demonsfrofed how if con be used fo generofe o IocoI bif-cIock for o PCM
decoder from o PCM dofo signoI. This procfice is essenfioI fo modern feIecommunicofions.
FinoIIy, Experimenf 8 demonsfrofed how digifoI (ond onoIog) informofion is fronsmiffed over
opficoI fiber - onofher feofure of modern feIecommunicofions.

This experimenf gefs you fo combine fhe concepfs demonsfrofed in fhese fhree experimenfs.
Thof is, for fhis experimenf you'II impIemenf o duoI-chonneI PCM-TDM sysfem fhof fronsmifs
dofo over on opficoI fiber ond uses bif-cIock regenerofion fo deveIop o IocoI bif-cIock for fhe
PCM decoder. ImporfonfIy, in doing so you'II effecfiveIy modeI fhe 8eII 'TI' sysfem (oIbeif wifh
onIy fwo chonneIs ond PCM dofo insfeod of o Iine code).


The eperiment
For fhis experimenf you'II use fhe Emono FOTEx fo sef up o singIe-chonneI PCM communicofions
sysfem wifh on onoIog inpuf. Affer which, you'II modify fhe sef-up fo encoder, fronsmif, decode
ond reconsfrucf fwo onoIog signoIs fo impIemenf o duoI-chonneI PCM-TDM sysfem ond modeI o
simpIe TDM feIecommunicofions sysfem. Mexf, you'II repIoce fhe copper chonneI wifh on opficoI
one using fhe Tronsmiffer ond Peceiver moduIes. FinoIIy, you'II infroduce fhe 8if-cIock
Pegenerofor moduIe fo provide fhe PCM Decoder moduIe's IocoI bif cIock.

If shouId foke you obouf 40 minufes fo compIefe fhis experimenf.


Pre-requisites:
Experimenf I: An infroducfion fo fhe MI ELVIS II fesf equipmenf
Experimenf Z: An infroducfion fo fhe Emono FOTEx
Experimenf 3: PCM Encoding
Experimenf 4: PCM Decoding
Experimenf b: SompIing ond Myquisf in PCM (opfionoI)
Experimenf o: Time division muIfipIe occess (TDMA)
Experimenf 7: Line coding ond bif-cIock regenerofion
Experimenf 8: Fiber opfic fronsmission


Precuution:
Use fhis experimenf fo deveIop fhe hobif of nof Iooking direcfIy info fhe end of on opficoI
fiber.


Experimenf 9 - PCM-TDM 'TI' impIemenfofion Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs 9-3

Equipment

PersonoI compufer wifh oppropriofe soffwore insfoIIed
MI ELVIS II pIus US8 cobIe ond power pock
Emono FOTEx experimenfoI odd-in moduIe
Two 8MC fo Zmm bonono-pIug Ieods
Assorfed opficoI pofch Ieods
Assorfed Zmm bonono-pIug pofch Ieods
One sef of heodphones (sfereo)


Procedure

Purt A - Setting up u PCM encoding-decoding scheme
The firsf sfep in modeIing fhe 8eII 'TI' sysfem is fo sef-up o singIe-chonneI PCM encoding-
decoding sysfem.

I. Ensure fhof fhe MI ELVIS II power swifch of fhe bock of fhe unif is off.

Z. CorefuIIy pIug fhe Emono FOTEx experimenfoI odd-in moduIe info fhe MI ELVIS II.

3. Inserf fhe hoIding screws fo secure fhe FOTEx moduIe fo fhe MI ELVIS II.

Note: This musf be done wifh fhe power off fo ovoid domoging fhe FOTEx.

4. Connecf fhe MI ELVIS II fo fhe PC using fhe US8 cobIe.

Note: This moy oIreody hove been done for you.

b. Turn on fhe MI ELVIS II power swifch of fhe reor of fhe unif fhen furn on ifs
Profofyping 8oord Power swifch of fhe fop righf corner neor fhe power indicofor.

o. Turn on fhe PC ond Ief if boof-up.

7. Lounch fhe MI ELVISmx soffwore.


Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf 9 - PCM-TDM 'TI' impIemenfofion 9-4

8. Sef fhe PCM Encoder moduIe's Mode swifch fo fhe PCM posifion.

9. Connecf fhe sef-up shown in Figure I beIow.



Figure 1


This sef-up con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure Z beIow. The Mosfer SignoIs
moduIe's ZkH; SIME oufpuf is used fo provide on onoIog messoge signoI for fhe PCM Encoder
moduIe. The PCM Encoder moduIe converfs fhe messoge fo o PCM digifoI signoI which fhe PCM
Decoder moduIe converfs fo o sompIed version of fhe originoI signoI. The 3kH; LPF is used for
fhe reconsfrucfion fiIfer fo recover fhe messoge on fhe decoder's oufpuf. Af fhis sfoge, fhe
PCM Decoder moduIe's bif-cIock is sfoIen from fhe PCM Encoder moduIe.




Figure Z
IM I
CLI
Messoge
To CH 0
PCM
DATA CLI
PCM Encoding PCM Decoding
Pecovered
messoge
To CH I
3kH; LPF
Peconsfrucfion
I00kH;
ZkH;
Mosfer
SignoIs
Mosfer
SignoIs
O/P
CH0
CH1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrms max
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
PCM
ENCODER
FS
CLK
PCM
DATA
TDM
INPUT 2
INPUT1
PCM
PCM
DECODER
PCM
DATA
CLK
OUTPUT
OUTPUT2
1kHz LPF
LOWPASS
FILTERS
3kHz LPF

Experimenf 9 - PCM-TDM 'TI' impIemenfofion Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs 9-b

I0. Lounch ond run fhe MI ELVIS II OsciIIoscope VI.

II. Sef up fhe scope per fhe procedure in Experimenf I (poge I-IZ).

IZ. Adjusf fhe scope's Timebose confroI fo view fwo or so cycIes of fhe messoge signoI.

I3. Acfivofe fhe scope's ChonneI I inpuf fo observe fhe signoI on fhe reconsfrucfion fiIfer's
oufpuf os weII os fhe messoge.

Note: You shouId see o copy of fhe messoge on fhe reconsfrucfion fiIfer's oufpuf fhof is
probobIy phose shiffed.





Purt - ImpIementing u duuI-chunneI PCM-TDM system
The second sfep in modeIing fhe 8eII 'TI' sysfem is fo converf fhe currenf sef-up fo o duoI-
chonneI PCM-TDM sysfem.

I4. Lounch ond run fhe MI ELVIS II Funcfion 0enerofor VI.

Ib. Adjusf fhe funcfion generofor for on oufpuf wifh fhe foIIowing specificofions:

Woveshope: Sine
Frequency: b00H;
AmpIifude: 4Vpp
DC Offsef: 0V

Io. Sef fhe PCM Encoder moduIe's Mode swifch fo fhe TDM posifion.

I7. Modify fhe sef-up os shown in Figure 3 on fhe nexf poge.



Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.


Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf 9 - PCM-TDM 'TI' impIemenfofion 9-o



Figure 3


The oddifions fo fhis sef-up con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure 4 beIow. A
ZkH; sinewove from fhe Mosfer SignoIs moduIe (messoge-I) is connecfed fo fhe PCM Encoder
moduIe's IMPUT I ond o b00H; sinewove from fhe funcfion generofor (messoge-Z) is connecfed
fo ifs IMPUT Z. The IkH; LPF is used os fhe reconsfrucfion fiIfer for fhe PCM Decoder
moduIe's OUTPUT Z. The sef-up now encodes, fronsmifs, decodes ond recovers fwo onoIog
signoIs using PCM-TDM insfeod of jusf one.





Figure 4

IM Z
CLI
PCM
DATA CLI
PCM Encoding PCM Decoding
Pecovered
messoge-I
To CH I
Peconsfrucfion
I00kH;
b00H;
IM I
ZkH;
Funcfion
generofor
PCM-TDM dofo
Messoge-I
To CH 0
O/P
O/P Z
Pecovered
messoge-Z
IkH; LPF
CH 0
CH 1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrms max
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
PCM
ENCODER
FS
CLK
PCM
DATA
TDM
INPUT 2
INPUT 1
PCM
PCM
DECODER
PCM
DATA
CLK
OUTPUT
OUTPUT2
1kHz LPF
LOWPASS
FILTERS
3kHz LPF
VARIABLEDC
FUNCTION
GENERATOR
+
ANALOGI/ O
ACH1 DAC1
ACH0 DAC0

Experimenf 9 - PCM-TDM 'TI' impIemenfofion Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs 9-7

I8. Verify fhof fhe sysfem is sfiII encoding, decoding ond reconsfrucfing messoge-I.

Note: You'II nofice fhof fhe recovered version of messoge-I is now o IiffIe disforfed os
fhe sompIing rofe is hoIved. Ignore fhis disforfion for now.

I9. Modify fhe scope's connecfions fo fhe sef-up os shown in Figure b beIow.




Figure


The chonges fo fhe scope's connecfions ore shown on fhe bIock diogrom in Figure o beIow.





Figure

IM Z
CLI
PCM
DATA CLI
PCM Encoding PCM Decoding
Pecovered
messoge-I
Peconsfrucfion
I00kH;
b00H;
IM I
ZkH;
PCM-TDM dofo
O/P
O/P Z
Pecovered
messoge-Z
To CH I
Messoge-Z
To CH 0
CH 0
CH 1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrms max
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
PCM
ENCODER
FS
CLK
PCM
DATA
TDM
INPUT 2
INPUT 1
PCM
PCM
DECODER
PCM
DATA
CLK
OUTPUT
OUTPUT2
1kHz LPF
LOWPASS
FILTERS
3kHz LPF
VARIABLEDC
FUNCTION
GENERATOR
+
ANALOGI/ O
ACH1 DAC1
ACH0 DAC0

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf 9 - PCM-TDM 'TI' impIemenfofion 9-8

Z0. Sef fhe scope's Timebose confroI fo fhe b00ps/div posifion.

ZI. Compore fhe originoI messoge-Z wifh fhe reconsfrucfed version of if.

Note: The fwo signoIs shouId be fhe some (ignoring phose shiff).






Purt C - Converting the chunneI from copper to fiber
The fhird sfep in modeIing fhe 8eII 'TI' sysfem is fo converf fhe currenf chonneI from o copper
cobIe fo on opficoI fiber cobIe. MofuroIIy, fhis wiII invoIve fhe incIusion of fhe opficoI
Tronsmiffer ond Peceiver moduIes.

ZZ. SeIecf one of fhe Tronsmiffer moduIes ond sef ifs Mode confroI fo DI0ITAL.

Note: If doesn'f moffer which coIor Tronsmiffer moduIe you choose buf o red one is
shown in fhe foIIowing Figures.

Z3. SeIecf one fhe Peceiver moduIes ond sef ifs 0oin Ponge confroI fo LO.

Z4. Turn fhe some Peceiver moduIe's VoriobIe 0oin confroI fuIIy counfer-cIockwise.

Zb. Connecf fhe sef-up shown in Figure 7 on fhe nexf poge using fhe Tronsmiffer ond
Peceiver moduIes you odjusfed for Sfeps ZZ fo Z4.




Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

Experimenf 9 - PCM-TDM 'TI' impIemenfofion Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs 9-9



Figure 7


The oddifions fo fhis sef-up con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure 8 beIow. The
PCM-TDM dofo ouf of fhe PCM Encoder moduIe is connecfed fo o Tronsmiffer moduIe fhof
converfs fhe signoI fo Iighf ond Ioods if onfo fhe opficoI fiber. The Peceiver moduIe unIoods fhe
Iighf informofion ond converfs if bock fo on eIecfricoI signoI (using sfondord TTL Iogic IeveIs)
for fhe PCM Decoder moduIe.




Figure
CH 0
CH 1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrms max
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
PCM
ENCODER
FS
CLK
PCM
DATA
TDM
INPUT 2
INPUT 1
PCM
PCM
DECODER
PCM
DATA
CLK
OUTPUT
OUTPUT2
1kHz LPF
LOWPASS
FILTERS
3kHz LPF
VARIABLEDC
FUNCTION
GENERATOR
+
ANALOGI/ O
ACH1 DAC1
ACH0 DAC0
TRANSMITTER
RED
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
RECEIVER
OUTPUT
LO
HI
IM Z
CLI
PCM
DATA CLI
PCM Encoding & OpficoI Tronsmission OpficoI Pecepfion & PCM Decoding
Pecovered
messoge-I
Peconsfrucfion
I00kH;
b00H;
IM I
ZkH;
PCM-TDM dofo
over opficoI chonneI
O/P
Pecovered
messoge-Z
To CH I
Messoge-Z
To CH 0
Tronsmiffer
Tx
(Ped)
Px
Peceiver
O/P Z

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf 9 - PCM-TDM 'TI' impIemenfofion 9-I0

Zo. Verify fhof fhe sysfem is sfiII encoding, decoding ond reconsfrucfing messoge-Z.

Z7. To prove fhof fhe opficoI pofch Ieod is now fhe sysfem's chonneI corrying fhe PCM-TDM
dofo, momenforiIy disconnecf if of eifher end.

Note 1: When you do, you shouId Iose fhe reconsfrucfed messoge.

Note Z: 8e sure fo reconnecf fhe opficoI pofch Ieod before confinuing.

Z8. Modify fhe scope's connecfions fo fhe sef-up os shown in Figure 9 beIow.




Figure 9


CH 0
CH 1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrmsmax
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
PCM
ENCODER
FS
CLK
PCM
DATA
TDM
INPUT 2
INPUT 1
PCM
PCM
DECODER
PCM
DATA
CLK
OUTPUT
OUTPUT2
1kHz LPF
LOWPASS
FILTERS
3kHz LPF
VARIABLEDC
FUNCTION
GENERATOR
+
ANALOGI/ O
ACH1 DAC1
ACH0 DAC0
TRANSMITTER
RED
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
RECEIVER
OUTPUT
LO
HI

Experimenf 9 - PCM-TDM 'TI' impIemenfofion Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs 9-II

The chonge fo fhe scope's connecfions ore shown on fhe bIock diogrom in Figure I0 beIow.




Figure 10


Z9. Sef fhe scope's Timebose confroI fo fhe I00ps/div posifion.

30. Verify fhof fhe sysfem is sfiII encoding, decoding ond reconsfrucfing messoge-I (ignoring
disforfion).

3I. MomenforiIy disconnecf eifher end of fhe opficoI pofch Ieod fo check fhof you Iose fhe
reconsfrucfed messoge.





Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.
IM Z
CLI
PCM
DATA CLI
PCM Encoding & OpficoI Tronsmission OpficoI Pecepfion & PCM Decoding
Pecovered
messoge-I
To CH I
Peconsfrucfion
I00kH;
b00H;
IM I
ZkH;
PCM-TDM dofo
over opficoI chonneI
O/P
Pecovered
messoge-Z
Tx
(Ped)
Px
O/P Z
Messoge-I
To CH 0

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf 9 - PCM-TDM 'TI' impIemenfofion 9-IZ

Purt D - Introducing bit-cIock regenerution
The finoI sfep in modeIing fhe 8eII 'TI' sysfem invoIves regenerofing fhe bif-cIock for fhe PCM
Decoder moduIe IocoIIy using fhe PCM 8if-cIock Pegenerofor moduIe.

3Z. Modify fhe sef-up os shown in Figure II beIow.




Figure 11


The oddifions fo fhis sef-up con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure IZ on fhe nexf
poge. The PCM-TDM dofo is connecfed fo fhe PCM 8if-cIock Pegenerofor moduIe's inpuf offer
if hos been converfed bock from Iighf energy fo on eIecfricoI signoI. The PCM 8if-cIock
Pegenerofor moduIe's oufpuf signoI repIoces fhe PCM Decoder moduIe's bif-cIock which, up fo
now, hos been sfoIen from PCM Encoder moduIe.


CH 0
CH 1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrmsmax
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
PCM
ENCODER
FS
CLK
PCM
DATA
TDM
INPUT 2
INPUT 1
PCM
PCM
DECODER
PCM
DATA
CLK
OUTPUT
OUTPUT2
1kHz LPF
LOWPASS
FILTERS
3kHz LPF
VARIABLEDC
FUNCTION
GENERATOR
+
ANALOGI/ O
ACH1 DAC1
ACH0 DAC0
TRANSMITTER
RED
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
RECEIVER
OUTPUT
LO
HI
PCM BIT CLK
REGENERATOR
PCM
DATA
PCM
CLK
(100kHz bit clock)

Experimenf 9 - PCM-TDM 'TI' impIemenfofion Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs 9-I3



Figure 1Z


33. Verify fhof fhe sysfem is sfiII encoding, decoding ond reconsfrucfing messoge-I.

34. Modify fhe scope's connecfions fo fhe sef-up os shown in Figure I3 beIow.




Figure 13
IM Z
CLI
PCM
DATA
CLI
PCM Encoding & OpficoI Tronsmission OpficoI Pecepfion & PCM Decoding
wifh 8if-cIock Pegenerofion
Pecovered
messoge-I
To CH I
Peconsfrucfion
I00kH;
b00H;
IM I
ZkH;
PCM-TDM dofo
over opficoI chonneI
O/P
Pecovered
messoge-Z
Tx
(Ped)
Px
O/P Z
Messoge-I
To CH 0
PCM 8if-cIock
Pegenerofor
PCM
8CP
CH 0
CH 1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrmsmax
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
PCM
ENCODER
FS
CLK
PCM
DATA
TDM
INPUT 2
INPUT 1
PCM
PCM
DECODER
PCM
DATA
CLK
OUTPUT
OUTPUT2
1kHz LPF
LOWPASS
FILTERS
3kHz LPF
VARIABLEDC
FUNCTION
GENERATOR
+
ANALOGI/ O
ACH1 DAC1
ACH0 DAC0
TRANSMITTER
RED
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
RECEIVER
OUTPUT
LO
HI
PCM BIT CLK
REGENERATOR
PCM
DATA
PCM
CLK
(100kHz bit clock)

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf 9 - PCM-TDM 'TI' impIemenfofion 9-I4

The chonge fo fhe scope's connecfions ore shown on fhe bIock diogrom in Figure I4 beIow.




Figure 14


3b. Sef fhe scope's Timebose confroI fo fhe b00ps/div posifion.

3o. Verify fhof fhe sysfem is sfiII encoding, decoding ond reconsfrucfing messoge-Z.





Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.
IM Z
CLI
PCM
DATA
CLI
PCM Encoding & OpficoI Tronsmission OpficoI Pecepfion & PCM Decoding
wifh 8if-cIock Pegenerofion
Pecovered
messoge-I
Peconsfrucfion
I00kH;
b00H;
IM I
ZkH;
PCM-TDM dofo
over opficoI chonneI
O/P
Tx
(Ped)
Px
O/P Z
PCM
8CP
Pecovered
messoge-Z
To CH I
Messoge-Z
To CH 0

Experimenf 9 - PCM-TDM 'TI' impIemenfofion Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs 9-Ib

Mow Ief's see whof your heoring feIIs you obouf fhe quoIify of fhe reconsfrucfed messoges.

37. Modify fhe sef-up os shown in Figure Ib beIow.




Figure 1


38. Turn fhe AmpIifier moduIe's 0oin confroI fuIIy counfer-cIockwise.

39. Wifhouf weoring fhe heodphones, pIug fhem info fhe AmpIifier moduIe's heodphone
sockef.

40. Puf fhe heodphones on.

4I. Turn fhe AmpIifier moduIe's 0oin confroI cIockwise unfiI you con comforfobIy heor
messoge-I.

4Z. Lisfen fo fhe originoI messoge-I ond commif how if sounds fo memory.

43. Disconnecf fhe AmpIifier moduIe's Ieod where if pIugs in fo fhe Mosfer SignoIs moduIe's
ZkH; SIME oufpuf ond connecf if fo fhe 3kH; LPF moduIe's oufpuf.

CH 0
CH 1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrmsmax
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
PCM
ENCODER
FS
CLK
PCM
DATA
TDM
INPUT 2
INPUT 1
PCM
PCM
DECODER
PCM
DATA
CLK
OUTPUT
OUTPUT2
1kHz LPF
LOWPASS
FILTERS
3kHz LPF
VARIABLEDC
FUNCTION
GENERATOR
+
ANALOGI/ O
ACH1 DAC1
ACH0 DAC0
TRANSMITTER
RED
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
RECEIVER
OUTPUT
LO
HI
PCM BIT CLK
REGENERATOR
PCM
DATA
PCM
CLK
(100kHz bit clock)
AMPLIFIER
GAIN OUT IN
GND GND

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf 9 - PCM-TDM 'TI' impIemenfofion 9-Io

44. Compore fhe sound of fhe recovered messoge-I wifh your memory of fhe originoI
messoge-I.

Note: They shouId be very simiIor fhough you wiII heor fhe disforfion fhof wos visuoIIy
noficeobIe eorIier in fhe expf.


Question 1
Whof's cousing fhis disforfion7
One of fhe sompIed signoI's oIioses/imoges is possing fhrough fhe reconsfrucfion fiIfer
oIong wifh fhe copy of fhe messoge.


4b. Disconnecf fhe AmpIifier moduIe's Ieod where if pIugs in fo fhe 3kH; LPF moduIe's oufpuf
ond connecf if fo fhe funcfion generofor's oufpuf.

4o. Lisfen fo fhe originoI messoge-Z ond commif how if sounds fo memory.

47. Disconnecf fhe AmpIifier moduIe's Ieod where if pIugs in fo fhe funcfion generofor's
oufpuf ond connecf if fo fhe IkH; LPF moduIe's oufpuf.

48. Compore fhe sound of fhe recovered messoge-Z wifh your memory of fhe originoI
messoge-Z.

Note: They shouId be very simiIor.










Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before finishing.



M
o
m
e
:

C
I
o
s
s
:


I
0

-

O
p
f
i
c
o
I

s
i
g
n
o
I

f
i
I
f
e
r
i
n
g
,

s
p
I
i
f
f
i
n
g

o
n
d

c
o
m
b
i
n
i
n
g

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf I0 - OpficoI signoI fiIfering, spIiffing & combining I0-Z

Eperiment 10 - OpticuI signuI fiItering spIitting und combining
PreIiminury discussion

FiItering
The sophisficofed opficoI fiber sysfems used in feIecommunicofions oIIow mony fhousonds of
conversofions fo foke pIoce over fhe nefwork of once. There ore severoI mefhods of ochieving
fhis incIuding fime division muIfipIexing (TDM) which you hove modeIed in eorIier experimenfs.
Anofher mefhod invoIves coupIing muIfipIe Iighf sources fo fhe fiber wifh eoch operofing of o
differenf woveIengfh. This is known os woveIengfh division muIfipIexing (WDM) ond wiII be
modeIed in o Iofer experimenf.

ImporfonfIy, fiIfers ore needed in WDM sysfems fo pick-ouf Iighf of one woveIengfh ond
rejecf Iighf of ofhers. For modeIing WDM using fhe Emono FOTEx, red ond green WDM FiIfer
moduIes ore ovoiIobIe. The red WDM FiIfer moduIe Iefs red Iighf poss reIofiveIy unoffecfed buf
offenuofes Iighf of ofher coIors incIuding green. The green WDM FiIfer moduIe Iefs green Iighf
poss buf offenuofes fhe red Iighf.


SpIitting und combining
As you know, eIecfricoIIy connecfing fwo uninsuIofed copper wires fogefher is os simpIe os
bringing fhem info confocf of ony one poinf oIong fheir Iengfh. This oIIows eIecfricoI signoIs
froveIing oIong fhe wire fo be reodiIy divided ond senf fo fwo or more desfinofions. However,
fhe spIiffing of Iighf signoIs froveIing oIong opficoI fiber is nof so simpIe. OpficoI fiber is
designed fo confoin fhe Iighf wifhin fhe core (using fofoI infernoI refIecfion) ond guide if fo
fhe ofher end. This meons fhof very IiffIe of fhe Iighf fhof enfers fhe fiber con escope oIong
ifs Iengfh. CIeorIy fhen, spIiffing Iighf signoIs connof be ochieved by simpIy "fopping" info fhe
fiber of one poinf in fhe some woy os for copper conducfors.

One mefhod of ochieving opficoI spIiffing reIies on fhe focf fhof, in procfice, o smoII omounf of
Iighf does escope from smoII-cored gIoss fibers. Thof being fhe cose, if's possibIe fo fronsfer
some of fhe Iighf from one fiber fo onofher by pIocing fhem sufficienfIy cIose fogefher over o
sufficienf Iengfh. An obvious voriofion on fhis ideo invoIves increosing fhe cIoseness of fhe
coupIing (ond fhereby reducing fhe Iengfh over which fhe coupIing musf be done) by fusing fhe
fibers' cores fogefher. The opficoI device designed fo spIif Iighf in fhis woy is coIIed o fused-
fiber coupIer ond fhe Emono FOTEx hos fwo of fhem.

The consfrucfion of fused-fiber coupIers is refIecfed in fheir schemofic symboI os shown in
Figure I beIow.

Figure 1
A
8
C
D

Experimenf I0 - OpficoI signoI fiIfering, spIiffing & combining Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs I0-3

The device is soid fo hove four porfs (fhof is, inpufs-oufpufs) ond fhese ore usuoIIy denofed
oIphobeficoIIy from A fo D. Porfs A ond D ore fhe ends of one of fhe fibers ond so Iighf
coupIed fo one of fhese porfs musf oppeor of fhe ofher. Thof is, Iighf on porf A oppeors of porf
D ond vice verso. SimiIorIy porfs 8 ond C ore fhe ends of fhe ofher fiber ond so Iighf coupIed
fo one of fhese porfs oIso musf oppeor of fhe ofher (fhof is, 8 fo C ond C fo 8).

The fusing of fhe fibers' cores oIIows Iighf fo fronsfer reodiIy befween fhem of fhe poinf of
coupIing. So, fhis creofes four oddifionoI signoI-pofhs incIuding: A fo C, C fo A, 8 fo D ond D fo
8.

ImporfonfIy, more Iighf froveIs fhrough fhe fibers direcfIy (eg from A fo D) fhon indirecfIy (eg
from A fo C). This meons fhof fhere is o difference in Iighf infensify of fhe oufpufs wifh fhe
direcf pofh being brighfer. For fhis reoson, fhe direcf signoI-pofhs ore known os fhe sfrong
pofhs ond fhe indirecf signoI-pofhs ore known os fhe weok pofhs. This is summori;ed in TobIe I
beIow.

TubIe 1
Strong puths Weuk puths
A fo D A fo C
D fo A C fo A
8 fo C 8 fo D
C fo 8 D fo 8


InferesfingIy, fhere ore four undesirobIe Iighf-pofhs coused by refIecfions ond scoffering of
fhe juncfion of fhe fibers. These ore: A fo 8, 8 fo A, D fo C ond C fo D. The Iighf infensify of
fhe oufpufs of fhese pofhs is very Iow buf fhey hove fhe pofenfioI fo couse probIems fhof moy
need fo be monoged depending on whof fhe coupIers ore used for.

FinoIIy, fhe fused-fiber coupIer con be used fo combine signoIs insfeod of spIiffing fhem. To
expIoin, consider fhe exompIe of o signoI connecfed fo porf A. From fhe discussion so for we
know fhof fhe signoI oppeors on bofh porfs D (sfrong) ond C (weok). Mow, if onofher signoI is
connecfed fo porf 8 of fhe some fime, fhof signoI musf oIso oppeor on bofh porfs D (weok) ond
C (sfrong). CIeorIy, bofh of fhe oufpuf porfs consisf of Iighf from bofh of fhe sources ond hove
combined. This is o very hondy feofure of fhese devices fhof is used in Iofer experimenfs.


The eperiment
For fhis experimenf you'II sforf by invesfigofing fhe operofion of fhe Emono FOTEx red ond
green WDM FiIfer moduIes. Then, you'II use one of fhe CoupIer moduIes fo spIif opficoI signoIs
ond compore fhe difference befween fhe sfrong ond weok signoI pofhs. FinoIIy, you'II use one of
fhe CoupIer moduIes fo combine opficoI signoIs. Af fhis sfoge, oII onoIysis wiII be quoIifofive. A
more quonfifofive onoIysis of fhe performonce of fhese devices wiII be conducfed in o Iofer
experimenf.

If shouId foke you obouf b0 minufes fo compIefe fhis experimenf.


Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf I0 - OpficoI signoI fiIfering, spIiffing & combining I0-4

Pre-requisites:
Experimenf I: An infroducfion fo fhe MI ELVIS II fesf equipmenf
Experimenf Z: An infroducfion fo fhe Emono FOTEx
Experimenf 8: Fiber opfic fronsmission


Precuution:
AIfhough fhe Iighf sources used on fhe Emono FOTEx ore sofe, use fhis experimenf fo deveIop
fhe hobif of nof Iooking direcfIy info fhe end of on opficoI fiber.


Equipment

PersonoI compufer wifh oppropriofe soffwore insfoIIed
MI ELVIS II pIus US8 cobIe ond power pock
Emono FOTEx experimenfoI odd-in moduIe
Two 8MC fo Zmm bonono-pIug Ieods
Assorfed Zmm bonono-pIug pofch Ieods
Assorfed opficoI pofch Ieods


Procedure

Purt A - Using the Emonu FOTE WDM FiIter moduIes for opticuI signuI fiItering
The firsf porf of fhe experimenf gefs you fo quoIifofiveIy invesfigofe fhe operofion of fhe
FOTEx WDM FiIfer moduIes.

I. Ensure fhof fhe MI ELVIS II power swifch of fhe bock of fhe unif is off.

Z. CorefuIIy pIug fhe Emono FOTEx experimenfoI odd-in moduIe info fhe MI ELVIS II.

3. Inserf fhe hoIding screws fo secure fhe FOTEx moduIe fo fhe MI ELVIS II.

Note: This musf be done wifh fhe power off fo ovoid domoging fhe FOTEx.

4. Connecf fhe MI ELVIS II fo fhe PC using fhe US8 cobIe.

Note: This moy oIreody hove been done for you.

b. Turn on fhe MI ELVIS II power swifch of fhe reor of fhe unif fhen furn on ifs
Profofyping 8oord Power swifch of fhe fop righf corner neor fhe power indicofor.

o. Turn on fhe PC ond Ief if boof-up.

7. Lounch fhe MI ELVISmx soffwore.

Experimenf I0 - OpficoI signoI fiIfering, spIiffing & combining Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs I0-b

8. Lounch ond run fhe MI ELVIS II Funcfion 0enerofor VI.

9. Adjusf fhe funcfion generofor using ifs soff confroIs for on oufpuf wifh fhe foIIowing
specificofions:

Woveshope: Sine
Frequency: IH;
AmpIifude: 4Vpp
DC Offsef: 0V

I0. SeIecf one of fhe red LED Tronsmiffer moduIes ond sef ifs Mode confroI fo AMALO0.

II. Connecf fhe sef-up shown in Figure Z beIow using fhe Tronsmiffer moduIe you odjusfed
for fhe previous sfep.

Note: Don'f worry fhof one end of fhe opficoI pofch Ieod isn'f connecfed fo onyfhing.


Figure Z


This sef-up con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure 3 beIow. The red Tronsmiffer
moduIe's inpuf is now o Iow frequency sinewove from fhe funcfion generofor.



Figure 3

Lighf
oufpuf
Funcfion
generofor Tronsmiffer
Tx
(Ped)
IH;
VARIABLEDC
FUNCTION
GENERATOR
+
ANALOGI/ O
ACH1 DAC1
ACH0 DAC0
TRANSMITTER
RED
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf I0 - OpficoI signoI fiIfering, spIiffing & combining I0-o

IZ. Poinf fhe free end of fhe opficoI pofch Ieod cIose fo fhe desk, woII, whife poper or fhe
poIm of your hond so you con see Iighf from fhe end of fhe cobIe shining on if.

I3. Check fhof fhe red Iighf on fhe end of fhe fiber is puIsing obouf once per second.

I4. Modify fhe sef-up os shown in Figure 4 beIow.

Note: Pemember, doffed Iines show Ieods oIreody in pIoce.




Figure 4


This sef-up con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure b beIow. The Tronsmiffer
moduIe's oufpuf is now connecfed fo fhe red WDM FiIfer moduIe's inpuf.





Figure


Ib. Poinf fhe free end of fhe opficoI pofch Ieod cIose fo fhe desk, woII, efc.

Note: You shouId ogoin see red Iighf ouf of fhe fiIfer puIsing obouf once per second.

Lighf
oufpuf
Tx
(Ped)
IH;
WDM FiIfer
Ped
VARIABLEDC
FUNCTION
GENERATOR
+
ANALOGI/ O
ACH1 DAC1
ACH0 DAC0
TRANSMITTER
RED
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
WDM FILTER
RED

Experimenf I0 - OpficoI signoI fiIfering, spIiffing & combining Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs I0-7

Io. PepIoce fhe red WDM FiIfer moduIe for fhe green one os shown in Figure o beIow.



Figure


This sef-up con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure 7 beIow. The Tronsmiffer
moduIe's oufpuf is now connecfed fo fhe green WDM FiIfer moduIe's inpuf.




Figure 7


I7. Poinf fhe free end of fhe opficoI pofch Ieod cIose fo fhe desk, woII, efc fo observe fhe
green WDM FiIfer moduIe's oufpuf.

Note: You'II sfiII see o puIsing red Iighf ouf of fhe fiIfer buf fhe brighfness shouId be
subsfonfioIIy Iower fhon you sow of Sfep Ib.


Question 1
ExpIoin why o puIsing red Iighf is sfiII visibIe on fhe green WDM FiIfer moduIe's oufpuf7
FiIfers oren'f perfecf ond so fhey offenuofe signoIs oufside of fheir poss-bond rofher
fhon rejecfing fhem oIfogefher. This is o Iimifofion of oII fiIfers.
Lighf
oufpuf
Tx
(Ped)
IH;
WDM FiIfer
0reen
VARIABLEDC
FUNCTION
GENERATOR
+
ANALOGI/ O
ACH1 DAC1
ACH0 DAC0
TRANSMITTER
RED
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
WDM FILTER
GREEN

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf I0 - OpficoI signoI fiIfering, spIiffing & combining I0-8

Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.




I8. Increose fhe messoge frequency (fhof is, increose fhe funcfion generofor's oufpuf
frequency) fo I,000H;.

I9. SeIecf one fhe Peceiver moduIes ond sef ifs 0oin Ponge confroI fo LO.

Z0. Turn fhe some Peceiver moduIe's VoriobIe 0oin confroI fuIIy cIockwise.

ZI. Connecf fhe sef-up shown in Figure 8 beIow using fhe red WDM FiIfer moduIe ond
Peceiver moduIe you odjusfed for Sfeps I9 ond Z0.

Note: Inserf fhe bIock pIugs of fhe osciIIoscope Ieods info o ground (0MD) sockef.




Figure


This sef-up con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure 9 on fhe nexf poge. The
funcfion generofor is used fo modeI on onoIog messoge. The red Tronsmiffer moduIe converfs
fhe messoge fo Iighf ond fronsmifs if oIong on opficoI fiber cobIe fo fhe red WDM FiIfer
moduIe. The Iighf is fiIfered ond connecfed fo fhe Peceiver moduIe where if is converfed bock
fo on eIecfricoI signoI.


VARIABLEDC
FUNCTION
GENERATOR
+
ANALOGI/ O
ACH1 DAC1
ACH0 DAC0
TRANSMITTER
RED
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
WDM FILTER
RED
CH0
CH1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrmsmax
RECEIVER
OUTPUT
LO
HI

Experimenf I0 - OpficoI signoI fiIfering, spIiffing & combining Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs I0-9



Figure 9


ZZ. Lounch ond run fhe MI ELVIS II OsciIIoscope VI.

Z3. Sef up fhe scope per fhe procedure in Experimenf I (poge I-IZ).

Z4. Acfivofe fhe scope's ChonneI I inpuf (by checking fhe ChonneI I EnobIed box) fo observe
fhe Peceiver moduIe's oufpuf os weII os fhe originoI messoge.

Note: The Peceiver moduIe's oufpuf shouId be o copy of fhe messoge.





Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.
Tx
(Ped)
IkH;
Px
Peceiver
Pecovered
messoge
To CH I
AnoIog messoge
To CH 0
WDM FiIfer
Ped

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf I0 - OpficoI signoI fiIfering, spIiffing & combining I0-I0

Zb. PepIoce fhe red WDM FiIfer moduIe for fhe green one os shown in Figure I0 beIow.




Figure 10


This sef-up con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure II beIow. If's idenficoI fo fhe
previous sef-up excepf fhof fhe green WDM FiIfer moduIe is used fo fiIfer fhe Iighf befween
fhe Tronsmiffer ond Peceiver moduIes.





Figure 11


Zo. Use fhe scope fo observe fhe Peceiver moduIe's new oufpuf.


Tx
(Ped)
IkH;
Px
Pecovered
messoge
To CH I
AnoIog messoge
To CH 0
WDM FiIfer
0reen
VARIABLEDC
FUNCTION
GENERATOR
+
ANALOGI/ O
ACH1 DAC1
ACH0 DAC0
TRANSMITTER
RED
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
CH0
CH1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrmsmax
RECEIVER
OUTPUT
LO
HI
WDM FILTER
GREEN

Experimenf I0 - OpficoI signoI fiIfering, spIiffing & combining Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs I0-II

Question Z
Why does if oppeor fhof fhere is no-Ionger o copy of fhe messoge on fhe Peceiver
moduIe's oufpuf7
The fronsmiffed Iighf is red buf fhe connecfion befween fhe Tronsmiffer ond
Peceiver moduIes is mode vio o green WDM FiIfer moduIe which offenuofes fhe red Iighf.






Z7. Sef fhe scope's ChonneI I ScoIe confroI fo fhe Z0mV/div posifion insfeod of fhe IV/div
posifion.

Note: You shouId observe o foirIy smoII copy of fhe messoge.

Z8. To confirm fhof fhis signoI is o copy of fhe messoge ond nof noise, momenforiIy
disconnecf one end of ony one of fhe opficoI pofch Ieods.

Note 1: When you do, fhe smoII copy of fhe messoge shouId disoppeor.

Note Z: 8e sure fo reconnecf fhe opficoI pofch Ieod before confinuing.


Question 3
How is if possibIe for fhe Peceiver moduIe fo recover fhe messoge even fhough fhe
green WDM FiIfer moduIe is being used7
Sfep I7 demonsfrofed fhof fhe fiIfers oren'f perfecf. They offenuofe fhe ofher Iighf
rofher fhon rejecfing if oIfogefher. This is Iimifofion of oII fiIfers.



Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.
Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf I0 - OpficoI signoI fiIfering, spIiffing & combining I0-IZ

Purt - Using the Emonu FOTE CoupIer moduIes for spIitting opticuI signuIs
The nexf porf of fhe experimenf gefs you fo quoIifofiveIy invesfigofe fhe signoI-spIiffing ocfion
of fhe FOTEx fiber-fused CoupIer moduIes.

Z9. Sef fhe funcfion generofor's oufpuf frequency fo IH;.

30. Check fhof fhe funcfion generofor's ofher opfions ore sfiII sef fo fhe foIIowing:

Woveshope: Sine
AmpIifude: 4Vpp
DC Offsef: 0V

3I. Use fhe Ieff-side CoupIer moduIe fo modify fhe sef-up os shown in Figure IZ beIow.



Figure 1Z


This sef-up con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure I3 on fhe nexf poge. The red
Tronsmiffer moduIe's inpuf is o Iow frequency sinewove from fhe funcfion generofor. The
Tronsmiffer moduIe's oufpuf is connecfed fo porf A on o CoupIer moduIe.

VARIABLEDC
FUNCTION
GENERATOR
+
ANALOGI/ O
ACH1 DAC1
ACH0 DAC0
TRANSMITTER
RED
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
COUPLER
B
A
C
D

Experimenf I0 - OpficoI signoI fiIfering, spIiffing & combining Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs I0-I3



Figure 13


3Z. Poinf fhe free end of fhe fwo opficoI pofch Ieods cIose fo fhe desk, woII, efc.

Note: You shouId see red Iighf puIsing obouf once per second from fhe oufpuf of bofh
porfs C ond D. This is fhe spIif Iighf energy from porf A.

33. Compore fhe brighfness of fhe oufpufs. Is if possibIe fo disfinguish befween fhe sfrong
ond weok pofhs by visuoI inspecfion7




34. Modify fhe sef-up os shown in Figure I4 beIow.



Figure 14

Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

Porf D
oufpuf
Tx
(Ped)
IH;
Funcfion
generofor Tronsmiffer
A
CoupIer
8
C
D
Porf C
oufpuf
VARIABLEDC
FUNCTION
GENERATOR
+
ANALOGI/ O
ACH1 DAC1
ACH0 DAC0
TRANSMITTER
RED
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
COUPLER
B
A
C
D

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf I0 - OpficoI signoI fiIfering, spIiffing & combining I0-I4

The sef-up in Figure I4 con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure Ib beIow. If's
bosicoIIy fhe some os before excepf you're now Iooking of fhe porf 8 oufpuf.



Figure 1


3b. Poinf fhe free end of fhe opficoI pofch Ieods cIose fo fhe desk, woII, efc.

Note: You shouId see red Iighf puIsing obouf once per second from porf 8l


Question 4
Why is fhere o signoI on fhe porf 8 oufpuf when if's of fhe some end os fhe porf A inpuf7
The fiber-fusing fechnique for spIiffing opficoI signoIs is imperfecf in fhof bock-
refIecfions ore generofed of fhe juncfion fhof ore observed on porf 8 (ond porf A foo).





3o. Sef fhe 0oin Ponge confroI of one of fhe Peceiver moduIes fo LO.

37. Turn fhe VoriobIe 0oin confroI of fhe some Peceiver moduIe fuIIy cIockwise.

Note: These fwo odjusfmenfs fo fhe Peceiver moduIes sef fheir goins fo fhe some IeveI.

38. Increose fhe messoge frequency (fhof is, increose fhe funcfion generofor's oufpuf
frequency) fo I,000H;.

Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

Porf 8
oufpuf7
Tx
(Ped)
IH;
A
8
C
D

Experimenf I0 - OpficoI signoI fiIfering, spIiffing & combining Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs I0-Ib

39. Use fhe Peceiver moduIe you odjusfed for Sfeps 3o ond 37 fo modify fhe sef-up os
shown in Figure Io beIow.




Figure 1


This sef-up con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure I7 beIow. The onoIog signoI
modeIed by fhe funcfion generofor is converfed fo Iighf by fhe red Tronsmiffer moduIe ond is
connecfed fo porf A of fhe CoupIer moduIe. The CoupIer moduIe spIifs fhe Iighf signoI info fwo
signoIs ovoiIobIe of porfs C ond D. The porf C oufpuf is connecfed fo fhe Peceiver moduIe.



Figure 17

VARIABLEDC
FUNCTION
GENERATOR
+
ANALOGI/ O
ACH1 DAC1
ACH0 DAC0
TRANSMITTER
RED
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
COUPLER
B
A
C
D
RECEIVER
OUTPUT
LO
HI
CH 0
CH 1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrms max
Tx
(Ped)
IkH;
A
8
C
D
Pecovered
messoge
To CH I
Px
Peceiver
AnoIog messoge
To CH 0

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf I0 - OpficoI signoI fiIfering, spIiffing & combining I0-Io

40. Check fhof fhe scope is odjusfed per fhe procedure in Experimenf I (poge I-IZ).

4I. If fhe scope's ChonneI I inpuf is nof dispIoyed fhen ocfivofe if.

Note: The scope shouId dispIoy fhe originoI messoge ond fhe copy of if on fhe Peceiver
moduIe's oufpuf. This is fhe signoI vio fhe CoupIer moduIe's porf C.

4Z. Meosure fhe ompIifude (fhof is, fhe peok-fo-peok voIfoge) of fhe Peceiver moduIe's
oufpuf. Pecord your meosuremenf in TobIe Z on fhe nexf poge.






43. Modify fhe scope's ChonneI I connecfion os shown in Figure I8 beIow using fhe some
Peceiver moduIe.




Figure 1


The chonge fo fhe scope's connecfion is shown on fhe bIock diogrom in Figure I9 on fhe nexf
poge.


Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.
VARIABLEDC
FUNCTION
GENERATOR
+
ANALOGI/ O
ACH1 DAC1
ACH0 DAC0
TRANSMITTER
RED
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
COUPLER
B
A
C
D
RECEIVER
OUTPUT
LO
HI
CH0
CH1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrms max

Experimenf I0 - OpficoI signoI fiIfering, spIiffing & combining Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs I0-I7


Figure 19


44. Observe fhe messoge ond ifs copy on fhe scope's dispIoy.

Note: The signoI on fhis Peceiver moduIe's oufpuf is o copy of fhe messoge vio fhe
CoupIer moduIe's porf D.

4b. Meosure fhe ompIifude of fhe Peceiver moduIe's oufpuf. Pecord your meosuremenf in
TobIe Z beIow.


TubIe Z
Copy of messuge
viu port C
Copy of messuge
viu port D






Question
Why is fhe copy of fhe messoge vio porf C smoIIer fhon vio porf D7
Porf C is fhe indirecf or "weok" pofh when fhe inpuf fo fhe CoupIer moduIe is
connecfed fo porf A.


Question
Whof's fhe simpIesf chonge fhof con be mode fo fhe sef-up fo swop fhe reIofive si;e of
fhe porf C & D oufpufs7
Connecf fhe inpuf signoI fo porf 8 insfeod of porf A.


Tx
(Ped)
IkH;
A
8
C
D
AnoIog messoge
To CH 0
Pecovered
messoge
To CH I
Px
Peceiver

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf I0 - OpficoI signoI fiIfering, spIiffing & combining I0-I8




Purt C - Using the Emonu FOTE CoupIer moduIes for combining opticuI signuIs
The nexf porf of fhe experimenf gefs you fo quoIifofiveIy invesfigofe fhe signoI-combining
ocfion of fhe FOTEx fiber-fused CoupIer moduIes.

4o. CompIefeIy dismonfIe fhe currenf sef-up.

Note: You don'f necessoriIy hove fo perform fhis sfep if you're confidenf fhof you con
modify fhe currenf sef-up fo obfoin fhe sef-up in Figure Z0 on fhe nexf poge (fhere ore
o few simiIorifies). However, you'II sfiII need fo reod fhe foIIowing insfrucfions fo moke
sure fhof oII moduIes ore odjusfed correcfIy.

47. SeIecf one of fhe red Tronsmiffer moduIes ond sef ifs Mode confroI fo AMALO0.

48. Sef fhe Mode of fhe ofher red Tronsmiffer moduIe fo DI0ITAL.

49. Sef fhe 0oin Ponge confroI of bofh Peceiver moduIes fo LO.

b0. Turn fhe VoriobIe 0oin confroI of bofh Peceiver moduIes fuIIy cIockwise.

bI. Connecf fhe sef-up shown in Figure Z0 on fhe nexf poge.

Note: Use fhe posifion of fhe Mode swifches in fhe diogrom fo defermine which
Tronsmiffer moduIe is connecfed fo which oufpuf on fhe Mosfer SignoIs moduIe.


Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

Experimenf I0 - OpficoI signoI fiIfering, spIiffing & combining Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs I0-I9


Figure Z0


This sef-up con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure ZI beIow. Two red Tronsmiffer
moduIes ore being used fo converf fwo modeI messoge signoIs (one onoIog ond one digifoI) fo
Iighf signoIs. These signoIs ore connecfed fo porfs A ond 8 of fhe CoupIer moduIe ond so ore
simuIfoneousIy ovoiIobIe of bofh porfs C ond D.
















Figure Z1
CH 0
CH 1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrms max
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
TRANSMITTER
RED
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
TRANSMITTER
RED
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
COUPLER
B
A
C
D
RECEIVER
OUTPUT
LO
HI
RECEIVER
OUTPUT
LO
HI
Tx
(Ped)
ZkH;
A
8
C
D
Combined
messoge
Px
Combined
messoge
To CH I
Px
Peceiver
Peceiver
AnoIog messoge
To CH 0
Mosfer
SignoIs Tronsmiffer
Tx
(Ped)
I0kH;
Mosfer
SignoIs Tronsmiffer
CoupIer

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf I0 - OpficoI signoI fiIfering, spIiffing & combining I0-Z0

bZ. Check fhof fhe scope is sef up per fhe procedure in Experimenf I (poge I-IZ) wifh fhe
foIIowing chonge:

Timebose confroI fo fhe I00ps/div posifion insfeod of b00ps/div posifion

b3. If fhe scope's ChonneI I inpuf is nof dispIoyed fhen ocfivofe if.

Note: The scope shouId dispIoy fhe originoI messoge ond fhe combined messoges on fhe
Peceiver moduIe's oufpuf. This is fhe signoI vio fhe CoupIer moduIe's porf C.

b4. To prove fhof fhe Peceiver moduIe's oufpuf is fhe combinofion of fhe fwo messoge
signoIs, momenforiIy disconnecf fhe opficoI pofch Ieod from fhe Tronsmiffer moduIes one
of o fime.

Note 1: When you do, you shouId obfoin o copy of one messoge or fhe ofher.

Note Z: 8e sure fo reconnecf fhe opficoI pofch Ieods before confinuing.


Question 7
ExpIoin why fhe combined signoI Iooks fhe woy fhof if does.
The combined signoI is fhe simpIe sum of fhe insfonfoneous voIfoges of fhe sinewove
ond fhe squorewove.


Question
Which of fhe fwo messoges fokes fhe weok pofh fo porf C7
The onoIog messoge.







Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

Experimenf I0 - OpficoI signoI fiIfering, spIiffing & combining Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs I0-ZI

bb. Modify fhe scope's ChonneI I connecfion os shown in Figure ZZ beIow.



Figure ZZ


The chonge fo fhe scope's connecfion is shown on fhe bIock diogrom in Figure Z3 beIow.















Figure Z3

CH0
CH1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrmsmax
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
TRANSMITTER
RED
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
TRANSMITTER
RED
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
COUPLER
B
A
C
D
RECEIVER
OUTPUT
LO
HI
RECEIVER
OUTPUT
LO
HI
Tx
(Ped)
ZkH;
A
8
C
D
Combined
messoge
To CH I
Px
Combined
messoge
Px
AnoIog messoge
To CH 0
Tx
(Ped)
I0kH;

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf I0 - OpficoI signoI fiIfering, spIiffing & combining I0-ZZ

Question 9
ExpIoin why fhe combined signoI Iooks o IiffIe differenf fo fhe combined signoI on fhe
ofher Peceiver moduIe's oufpuf.
The ofher Peceiver moduIe's oufpuf is fhe sum of fhe weok onoIog messoge ond fhe
sfrong digifoI messoge. This Peceiver moduIe's oufpuf is fhe sum of fhe sfrong onoIog
messoge ond fhe weok digifoI messoge.










Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before finishing.




M
o
m
e
:

C
I
o
s
s
:


I
I

-

F
i
b
e
r

o
p
f
i
c

b
i
-
d
i
r
e
c
f
i
o
n
o
I

c
o
m
m
u
n
i
c
o
f
i
o
n

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf II - Fiber opfic bi-direcfionoI communicofion II-Z

Eperiment 11 - Fiber optic bi-directionuI communicution
PreIiminury discussion
An inferesfing feofure of opficoI fibers is fhof Iighf froveIing in one direcfion is IorgeIy
unoffecfed by Iighf froveIing in fhe opposife direcfion oIong fhe some fiber. This mokes sense
when you fhink obouf if. If you were fo shine fwo forches of eoch ofher, fheir beoms wouIdn'f
inferfere wifh one onofher.

The obiIify of Iighf fo froveI in bofh direcfions oIong opficoI fibers wifhouf inferfering oIIows
us fo use fhem for bi-direcfionoI communicofions. Thof soid, fhe Iooding ond unIooding of fhe
signoIs of eoch end is more invoIved becouse bofh ends of fhe fiber musf be connecfed fo bofh
o fronsmiffer ond o receiver. In feIecommunicofions, fhis is usuoIIy monoged by o device coIIed
o circuIofor. However, circuIofors for pIosfic fiber sysfems ore expensive (defeofing fhe
purpose of using pIosfic in fhe firsf pIoce). A cheoper oIfernofive invoIves using fwo opficoI
coupIers buf fhe frode-offs incIude increosed Iosses ond cross-foIk.

PecoII fhof on opficoI coupIer is o 4-porf device wifh fhe porfs usuoIIy denofed oIphobeficoIIy
from A fo D. PecoII oIso fhof o signoI injecfed in fo one porf is IiferoIIy spIif ond becomes
ovoiIobIe on fhe fwo porfs of fhe opposife end of fhe coupIer (fhough one porf's oufpuf is
significonfIy sfronger fhon fhe ofher). For exompIe, o signoI injecfed in fo porf A is spIif
befween porf D (fhe sfrong pofh) ond porf C (fhe weok pofh). ImporfonfIy, fhe opficoI coupIer
is o bi-direcfionoI device. So, o signoI injecfed in fo porfs C or D is spIif befween porfs A ond 8
ond fhis is frue even if o signoI is connecfed fo porfs A ond/or 8 of fhe some fime. If's fhis
properfy fhof oIIows us fo use opficoI coupIers fo impIemenf bi-direcfionoI fiber opfic
communicofions.

Figure I beIow shows fhe bosic impIemenfofion of bi-direcfionoI fiber opfic communicofions
befween fwo sfofions using opficoI coupIers.





Figure 1

Tx Px
A
8
C
D
8
A
D
C
Px Tx
Oufpuf
OpficoI
chonneI
Inpuf
Inpuf
Oufpuf
Sfofion I Sfofion Z

Experimenf II - Fiber opfic bi-direcfionoI communicofion Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs II-3

As you con see, fhe fronsmiffer (Tx) of Sfofion I is connecfed fo fhe chonneI vio fhe weok
pofh of ifs opficoI coupIer (fhof is, from porf 8 fo D). This fronsmiffed signoI is connecfed fo
fhe receiver (Px) of Sfofion Z vio fhe sfrong pofh of ifs opficoI coupIer (fhof is, from porf 8 fo
C). Af fhe some fime, fhe fronsmiffer of Sfofion Z is connecfed fo fhe chonneI vio fhe weok
pofh of ifs opficoI coupIer (fhof is, from porf D fo 8) ond fhis signoI is direcfed fo fhe Sfofion
I receiver vio ifs opficoI coupIer's ifs sfrong pofh (fhof is, from porf D fo A).

The focf fhof fhe fwo signoIs froveI fhrough o weok pofh of one of fhe opficoI coupIers is
responsibIe for fhe higher Iosses invoIved in fhis mefhod of Iooding ond unIooding fhe signoIs
(compored wifh using o circuIofor).

AIso, recoII from your invesfigofions info fhe operofion of fhe CoupIer moduIes in Experimenf
I0, fhof fhe inpuf signoI fo on opficoI coupIer is ocfuoIIy spIif fhree woys nof jusf fwo. A smoII
omounf of Iighf is refIecfed fo fhe porf on fhe some end os fhe inpuf. For exompIe, o signoI
injecfed in fo porf A resuIfs in o very smoII signoI on fhe oufpuf of porf 8. This is responsibIe
for fhe cross-foIk menfioned eorIier ond moy need fo be monoged.


The eperiment
For fhis experimenf you'II use fhe Emono FOTEx fo sef up o uni-direcfionoI communicofion
sysfem over o fiber opfic chonneI. Once you've esfobIished fhof fhe sef-up is working, you'II
modify if fo impIemenf o fuII fiber opfic bi-direcfionoI communicofions sysfem ond invesfigofe
ifs operofion.

If shouId foke you obouf 40 minufes fo compIefe fhis experimenf.


Pre-requisites:
Experimenf I: An infroducfion fo fhe MI ELVIS II fesf equipmenf
Experimenf Z: An infroducfion fo fhe Emono FOTEx
Experimenf 8: Fiber opfic fronsmission
Experimenf I0: OpficoI signoI fiIfering, spIiffing ond combining


Precuution:
Use fhis experimenf fo deveIop fhe hobif of nof Iooking direcfIy info fhe end of on opficoI
fiber.


Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf II - Fiber opfic bi-direcfionoI communicofion II-4

Equipment

PersonoI compufer wifh oppropriofe soffwore insfoIIed
MI ELVIS II pIus US8 cobIe ond power pock
Emono FOTEx experimenfoI odd-in moduIe
Two 8MC fo Zmm bonono-pIug Ieods
Assorfed Zmm bonono-pIug pofch Ieods
Assorfed opficoI pofch Ieods


Procedure

Purt A - Setting up u uni-directionuI fiber optic communicutions system
8efore experimenfing wifh bi-direcfionoI fiber opfic communicofions, ifs usefuI fo sef up o
uni-direcfionoI Iink firsf.

I. Ensure fhof fhe MI ELVIS II power swifch of fhe bock of fhe unif is off.

Z. CorefuIIy pIug fhe Emono FOTEx experimenfoI odd-in moduIe info fhe MI ELVIS II.

3. Inserf fhe hoIding screws fo secure fhe FOTEx moduIe fo fhe MI ELVIS II.

Note: This musf be done wifh fhe power off fo ovoid domoging fhe FOTEx.

4. Connecf fhe MI ELVIS II fo fhe PC using fhe US8 cobIe.

Note: This moy oIreody hove been done for you.

b. Turn on fhe MI ELVIS II power swifch of fhe reor of fhe unif fhen furn on ifs
Profofyping 8oord Power swifch of fhe fop righf corner neor fhe power indicofor.

o. Turn on fhe PC ond Ief if boof-up.

7. Lounch fhe MI ELVISmx soffwore.

8. SeIecf one of fhe red LED Tronsmiffer moduIes ond sef ifs Mode confroI fo AMALO0.

9. SeIecf one fhe Peceiver moduIes ond sef ifs 0oin Ponge confroI fo HI.

I0. Turn fhe some Peceiver moduIe's VoriobIe 0oin confroI fuIIy cIockwise.


Experimenf II - Fiber opfic bi-direcfionoI communicofion Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs II-b

II. Connecf fhe sef-up shown in Figure Z beIow using fhe Tronsmiffer ond Peceiver moduIes
you odjusfed for Sfeps 8 fo I0.




Figure Z


This sef-up con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure 3 on fhe nexf poge. Sfofion I is
fhe fronsmiffer in o uni-direcfionoI communicofions sysfem ond Sfofion Z is fhe receiver. An
onoIog messoge is modeIed by fhe Mosfer SignoIs moduIe's ZkH; SIME oufpuf. The chonneI
befween fhe sfofions is modeIed by fhe opficoI pofch Ieod befween fhe Ieff ond righf coupIers.
The opficoI pofch Ieods befween fhe coupIers ond fhe Tronsmiffer ond Peceiver moduIes ore
infernoI sfofion connecfions ond do nof modeI fhe chonneI.


CH 0
CH 1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrms max
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
TRANSMITTER
RED
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
COUPLER
B
A
C
D
COUPLER
A
B
D
C
RECEIVER
OUTPUT
LO
HI

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf II - Fiber opfic bi-direcfionoI communicofion II-o



Figure 3


IZ. Lounch ond run fhe MI ELVIS II OsciIIoscope VI.

I3. Sef up fhe scope per fhe procedure in Experimenf I (poge I-IZ) wifh fhe foIIowing
chonge:

Timebose confroI fo I00ps/div insfeod of b00ps/div

I4. Acfivofe fhe scope's ChonneI I inpuf fo observe fhe recovered version of fhe onoIog
messoge on fhe oufpuf of Sfofion Z.

Note: If fhe sef-up hos been wired correcfIy, you shouId observe o copy of fhe messoge
of obouf fhe some ompIifude.




Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

AnoIog messoge
To CH 0
Pecovered
onoIog messoge
To CH I
Mosfer
SignoIs
ZkH;
Tx
(Ped)
A
Px
Tronsmiffer
CoupIer (Leff)
Peceiver
8
C
D
8
A
D
C
CoupIer (Pighf)
OpficoI
chonneI
Sfofion I Sfofion Z

Experimenf II - Fiber opfic bi-direcfionoI communicofion Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs II-7

Purt - Converting the set-up to u fiber optic bi-directionuI communicutions system
An oddifionoI Tronsmiffer ond Peceiver moduIe con be used fo reodiIy converf fhe currenf sef-
up fo o bi-direcfionoI Iink. The nexf porf of fhe experimenf gefs you fo do so.

Ib. Sef fhe Mode confroI of fhe ofher red Tronsmiffer moduIe fo DI0ITAL.

Io. Sef fhe 0oin Ponge confroI of fhe ofher Peceiver moduIe fo LO.

I7. Turn fhe some Peceiver moduIe's VoriobIe 0oin confroI fo obouf fhe middIe of ifs froveI.

I8. Moke fhe foIIowing chonges fo fhe scope's sef-up:

Inpuf CoupIing confroIs for bofh chonneIs fo fhe DC posifion insfeod of fhe AC
posifion
ChonneI I VerficoI Posifion confroI fo -bV insfeod of 0V
Timebose confroI fo fhe b0ps/div posifion insfeod of fhe I00ps/div posifion
Trigger Type confroI fo fhe DigifoI posifion insfeod of fhe Edge posifion

I9. Modify fhe sef-up os shown in Figure 4 beIow.



Figure 4
CH 0
CH 1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrms max
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
TRANSMITTER
RED
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
TRANSMITTER
RED
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
COUPLER
B
A
C
D
COUPLER
A
B
D
C
RECEIVER
OUTPUT
LO
HI
RECEIVER
OUTPUT
LO
HI
5VTTL
TRIG
FGEN
1
O
SEQUENCE
GENERATOR
SYNC
CLK
LINE
CODE
X
OONRZ-L
O1 Bi-O
1ORZ-AMI
11 NRZ-M

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf II - Fiber opfic bi-direcfionoI communicofion II-8

The sef-up in Figure 4 con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure b beIow. 8ofh
sfofions con now fronsmif ond receive informofion. For confrosf, fhe Sfofion Z messoge is o
digifoI dofo signoI modeIed by fhe Sequence 0enerofor moduIe wifh o I00kH; bif-cIock. The
chonneI (modeIed by fhe opficoI pofch Ieod befween fhe Ieff ond righf coupIers) now corries
informofion in bofh direcfions.



Figure


Z0. Observe digifoI dofo messoge ond fhe recovered version of if on fhe oufpuf of Sfofion I.

Note: If fhe sef-up hos been wired correcfIy ond fhe scope is odjusfed correcfIy, you
shouId observe fwo digifoI dofo signoIs wifh fhe some ompIifude.


Question 1
In which direcfion does fhe onoIog messoge froveI7

From Sfofion I fo Sfofion Z
9
From Sfofion Z fo Sfofion I



Question Z
In which direcfion does fhe digifoI messoge froveI7

From Sfofion I fo Sfofion Z
From Sfofion Z fo Sfofion I
9

AnoIog messoge
Pecovered
digifoI messoge
To CH I
ZkH;
Tx
(Ped)
A
Px
8
C
D
8
A
D
C
Px
Peceiver
Tx
(Ped)
Tronsmiffer
Pecovered
onoIog messoge
OpficoI
chonneI
Sequence
0enerofor
DigifoI
messoge
To CH 0
I00kH;
Sfofion I Sfofion Z
Mosfer
SignoIs
CLI X
SYMC
SYMC
To TPI0

Experimenf II - Fiber opfic bi-direcfionoI communicofion Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs II-9

Question 3
How mony of fhe opficoI pofch Ieods ore used fo modeI fhe chonneI7
OnIy one (fhe Ieod befween fhe Ieff ond righf coupIers).







ZI. Modify fhe scope's connecfions fo fhe sef-up os shown in Figure o beIow.



Figure

Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

CH0
CH1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrmsmax
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
TRANSMITTER
RED
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
TRANSMITTER
RED
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
COUPLER
B
A
C
D
COUPLER
A
B
D
C
RECEIVER
OUTPUT
LO
HI
RECEIVER
OUTPUT
LO
HI
1
O
SEQUENCE
GENERATOR
SYNC
CLK
LINE
CODE
X
OONRZ-L
O1 Bi-O
1ORZ-AMI
11 NRZ-M

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf II - Fiber opfic bi-direcfionoI communicofion II-I0

The chonges fo fhe scope's connecfions in Figure o con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in
Figure 7 beIow. The chonge hos been mode fo observe fhe onoIog messoge ond fhe recovered
version of if.


Figure 7


ZZ. Moke fhe foIIowing chonges fo fhe scope's sef-up:

Inpuf CoupIing confroIs for bofh chonneIs bock fo fhe AC posifion
ChonneI I VerficoI Posifion confroI bock fo 0V
Timebose confroI bock fo fhe I00ps/div posifion
Trigger Type confroI bock fo fhe Edge posifion

Z3. Observe fhe onoIog messoge ond fhe recovered version of if.

Note: You shouId see fhof fhe recovered version of fhe onoIog messoge is now disforfed.


Question 4
If's cIeor fhof some of fhe digifoI messoge is super-imposed on fhe recovered version of
fhe onoIog messoge7 Whof's fhe nome for fhis probIem7
Cross-foIk.


Question
Which one of fhe CoupIer moduIes is cousing fhis probIem ond why7
The righf side CoupIer moduIe fhof forms porf of Sfofion Z. This is becouse some of
fhe signoI on ifs porf D is refIecfed bock fo ifs porf C due fo fhe opficoI properfies
of fhe fiber fusion coupIing.

Pecovered
digifoI messoge
ZkH;
Tx
(Ped)
A
Px
8
C
D
8
A
D
C
Px
Peceiver
Tx
(Ped)
OpficoI
chonneI
DigifoI
messoge
I00kH;
Sfofion I Sfofion Z
CLI X
AnoIog messoge
To CH 0
Pecovered
onoIog messoge
To CH I

Experimenf II - Fiber opfic bi-direcfionoI communicofion Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs II-II

Question
How con fhe onoIog messoge be cIeoned up7
Poss fhe Sfofion I receiver's oufpuf fhrough o Iow-poss fiIfer wifh o cuf-off frequency
obove fhe highesf frequency in fhe messoge buf beIow fhe digifoI dofo signoI's
bif-cIock frequency.


Question 7
Under whof condifions wouId fhis soIufion be unsuifobIe for fhis sef-up7
If fhe bif-cIock for fhe digifoI dofo is foo cIose fhe highesf frequency in fhe onoIog
messoge or even beIow if (ond fherefore fhe digifoI dofo signoI consisfs of hormonics
inside fhe LPF's poss-bond os weII) or, if fhe digifoI messoge is o bosebond onoIog signoI.


Question
Why didn'f fhe recovered version of fhe digifoI messoge (on fhe oufpuf of Sfofion I)
experience fhis probIem7
As fhe signoI is digifoI fhe Peceiver moduIe's digifoI oufpuf musf be used. This oufpuf
uses o comporofor or decision moking circuif of some sorf fo cIeon-up digifoI signoIs.








Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.


Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf II - Fiber opfic bi-direcfionoI communicofion II-IZ

Question 9
Which opficoI pofch Ieod or Ieods in fhe sef-up ore corrying informofion in bofh
direcfions7
OnIy fhe Ieod befween fhe Ieff ond righf coupIers (which we ore using fo modeI fhe
chonneI befween fhe sfofions).


The nexf porf of fhe experimenf Iefs you verify your onswer fo Quesfion 9.


Z4. Disconnecf one end of ony one of fhe opficoI pofch Ieods ond observe fhe effecf on fhe
recovered messoge.

Zb. Peconnecf fhe opficoI pofch Ieod.

Zo. Pepeof Sfeps Z4 ond Zb for fhe resf of fhe opficoI pofch Ieods. Moke o nofe of oII fhe
pofch Ieods fhof, when disconnecfed, couse fhe recovered onoIog messoge fo be Iosf.

Z7. Modify fhe scope's connecfions fo fhe sef-up os shown in Figure 8 beIow.



Figure
CH 0
CH 1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrms max
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
TRANSMITTER
RED
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
TRANSMITTER
RED
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
COUPLER
B
A
C
D
COUPLER
A
B
D
C
RECEIVER
OUTPUT
LO
HI
RECEIVER
OUTPUT
LO
HI
5VTTL
TRIG
FGEN
1
O
SEQUENCE
GENERATOR
SYNC
CLK
LINE
CODE
X
OONRZ-L
O1 Bi-O
1ORZ-AMI
11 NRZ-M

Experimenf II - Fiber opfic bi-direcfionoI communicofion Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs II-I3

The chonges fo fhe scope's connecfions refurn fhe sef-up fo fhe bIock diogrom in Figure b.


Z8. Moke fhe foIIowing chonges fo fhe scope's sef-up:

Inpuf CoupIing confroIs for bofh chonneIs bock fo fhe DC posifion
ChonneI I VerficoI Posifion confroI bock fo -bV
Timebose confroI bock fo fhe b0ps/div posifion
Trigger Type confroI bock fo fhe DigifoI posifion

Z9. Pepeof Sfeps Z4 fo Zo.

Note: As you do, nofe which opficoI pofch Ieod or Ieods from Sfeps Z4 fo Zo oIso couse
fhe recovered digifoI messoge fo be Iosf.


Question 10
ExpIoin how your observofions prove your onswer fo Quesfion 9.
OnIy fhe pofch Ieod befween fhe Ieff ond righf coupIers wouId hove coused fhe
recovered messoge fo be Iosf of fhe oufpuf of bofh receivers. Therefore, if musf be fhe
onIy opficoI pofch Ieod corrying informofion in bofh direcfions.


Think obouf fhe physicoI nofure of fhis opficoI medium ond consider how if differs from
eIecfricoI signoIs froveIing in o chonneI mode of on eIecfricoI conducfor. Wifh fhe bi-direcfionoI
eIecfricoI signoI, fhe opposing currenfs (mode up of eIecfron fIow) subfrocf from one onofher
ond fhe individuoIify of fhe signoIs is Iosf. In fhe cose of fhe opficoI medium, fhe phofons of
Iighf ore independenf eIemenfs ond do nof inferocf significonfIy wifh ofher eIemenfs in fhe
chonneI.

ImporfonfIy, fhis is frue even when bofh opficoI signoIs ore operofing in fhe some frequency
bond os Iong os fhey're froveIing in opposife direcfions. However, if fhey ore operofing of fhe
some frequency bond buf froveIing in fhe some direcfion, if's impossibIe fo seporofe fhem of
fhe receiver. This issue is expIored in Experimenf II on wove division muIfipIexing (WDM).




Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before finishing.

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf II - Fiber opfic bi-direcfionoI communicofion II-I4







M
o
m
e
:

C
I
o
s
s
:


I
Z

-

W
o
v
e
I
e
n
g
f
h

d
i
v
i
s
i
o
n

m
u
I
f
i
p
I
e
x
i
n
g

(
W
D
M
)

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf IZ - WoveIengfh division muIfipIexing (WDM) IZ-Z

Eperiment 1Z - WuveIength division muItipIeing {WDM}
PreIiminury discussion
Experimenf 9 (on PCM-TDM 'TI' impIemenfofion) shows fhof o singIe Iighf source con be used fo
oIIow muIfipIe users fo shore o fiber opfic chonneI. This is ochieved by fime division
muIfipIexing (TDM) fhe chonneI using puIse code moduIofion (PCM).

UsefuIIy, o fiber opfic chonneI con be muIfipIexed in onofher woy insfeod of (or, more IikeIy, in
oddifion fo) using TDM. If invoIves coupIing muIfipIe users fo fhe chonneI vio independenf Iighf
sources operofing of differenf woveIengfhs ond is known os woveIengfh division muIfipIexing
(WDM). MofuroIIy, fhe equivoIenf number of receivers musf be connecfed fo fhe ofher end of
fhe chonneI. However, os opficoI receivers respond fo Iighf of oII woveIengfhs, fhe Iighf musf
firsf be seporofed by woveIengfh using opficoI fiIfers ond direcfed fo fhe oppropriofe receiver.

In feIecommunicofions, fhe Iooding ond unIooding of signoIs is performed by equipmenf
designed specificoIIy for fhe infro-red Iighf sources fhof ore commercioIIy used. As simiIor
devices for fhe visibIe Iighf used on fhe Emono FOTEx ore nof reodiIy ovoiIobIe, WDM con
insfeod be modeIed using ifs fwo opficoI coupIers os shown in Figure I beIow.




Figure 1


As you con see, o fronsmiffer connecfs o user fo porf 8 of on opficoI coupIer ond onofher
fronsmiffer connecfs o second user fo porf A. As you know, fhe Iighf for bofh signoIs oppeors
on bofh porfs C ond D due fo fhe coupIer's opficoI combining chorocferisfic.

ImporfonfIy, whichever of porfs C or D connecf fo fhe chonneI (porf D in Figure I buf porf C
couId hove been used) fhe signoI on if con be considered WDM when fhe fronsmiffers use Iighf
of differenf woveIengfhs ond fhe receivers ore obIe fo discriminofe befween fhem. This is fhe
cose here becouse offer o second coupIer direcfs fhe combined Iighf fo fwo oufpufs (porfs C
ond D) opficoI fiIfers ore used fo Ief Iighf of onIy fhe oppropriofe woveIengfh fhrough fo fhe
oppropriofe receiver.
Tx

I
Px
Tx

Z
O/P I
OpficoI
chonneI
O/P Z
I/P I
I/P Z
FiIfer

I
Px
FiIfer

2
MuIfipIexing DemuIfipIexing
A
8
C
D
8
A
D
C

Experimenf IZ - WoveIengfh division muIfipIexing (WDM) Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs IZ-3

If you sfudy Figure I cIoseIy, you'II nofice fhof fhe fwo Iighf signoIs froveI fhrough fhe sfrong
pofh of one of fhe opficoI coupIers buf oIso fhrough fhe weok pofh of fhe ofher. Possoge of fhe
Iighf vio one of fhe opficoI coupIer's weok pofhs is responsibIe for Iosses greofer fhon normoI
for devices used in fhe commercioI impIemenfofion of WDM.


The eperiment
For fhis experimenf you'II use fhe Emono FOTEx fo fronsmif fwo discrefe messoge signoIs
oIong on opficoI fiber in fhe some direcfion using wove division muIfipIexing (WDM). You'II use
fhe sef-up fo invesfigofe fhe need for fiIfering fo recover jusf one of fhe messoges. Then
you'II modify if fo impIemenf o compIefe fwo-chonneI WDM communicofion sysfem ond
invesfigofe ifs operofion. FinoIIy, you'II converf fhe sef-up fo combine WDM wifh TDM fo
fronsmif ond receive fhree chonneIs of informofion.

If shouId foke you obouf 40 minufes fo compIefe Porfs A & 8 of fhis experimenf ond, foIIowing
fhof, on oddifionoI I0 minufes fo compIefe Porf C.


Pre-requisites:

Porfs A & 8:
Experimenf I: An infroducfion fo fhe MI ELVIS II fesf equipmenf
Experimenf Z: An infroducfion fo fhe Emono FOTEx
Experimenf 8: Fiber opfic fronsmission
Experimenf I0: OpficoI signoI fiIfering, spIiffing ond combining
Experimenf II: Fiber opfic bi-direcfionoI communicofion

Porf C:
Experimenf 3: PCM Encoding
Experimenf 4: PCM Decoding
Experimenf b: SompIing ond Myquisf in PCM (opfionoI)
Experimenf o: Time division muIfipIe occess (TDMA)
Experimenf 7: Line coding ond bif-cIock regenerofion
Experimenf 9: PCM-TDM 'TI' impIemenfofion


Precuution:
Use fhis experimenf fo deveIop fhe hobif of nof Iooking direcfIy info fhe end of on opficoI
fiber.


Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf IZ - WoveIengfh division muIfipIexing (WDM) IZ-4

Equipment

PersonoI compufer wifh oppropriofe soffwore insfoIIed
MI ELVIS II pIus US8 cobIe ond power pock
Emono FOTEx experimenfoI odd-in moduIe
Three 8MC fo Zmm bonono-pIug Ieods
Assorfed Zmm bonono-pIug pofch Ieods
Assorfed opficoI pofch Ieods


Procedure

Purt A - Investiguting wuve division muItipIeing
The firsf porf of fhis experimenf gefs you fo fronsmif fwo discrefe messoge signoIs oIong on
opficoI fiber in fhe some direcfion using wove division muIfipIexing. A compIefe fwo-chonneI
WDM communicofions sysfem is not modeIed of fhis sfoge.

I. Ensure fhof fhe MI ELVIS II power swifch of fhe bock of fhe unif is off.

Z. CorefuIIy pIug fhe Emono FOTEx experimenfoI odd-in moduIe info fhe MI ELVIS II.

3. Inserf fhe hoIding screws fo secure fhe FOTEx moduIe fo fhe MI ELVIS II.

Note: This musf be done wifh fhe power off fo ovoid domoging fhe FOTEx.

4. Connecf fhe MI ELVIS II fo fhe PC using fhe US8 cobIe.

Note: This moy oIreody hove been done for you.

b. Turn on fhe MI ELVIS II power swifch of fhe reor of fhe unif fhen furn on ifs
Profofyping 8oord Power swifch of fhe fop righf corner neor fhe power indicofor.

o. Turn on fhe PC ond Ief if boof-up.

7. Lounch fhe MI ELVISmx soffwore.

8. SeIecf one of fhe red Tronsmiffer moduIes ond sef ifs Mode confroI fo AMALO0.

9. SeIecf one fhe Peceiver moduIes ond sef ifs 0oin Ponge confroI fo HI.

I0. Turn fhe some Peceiver moduIe's VoriobIe 0oin confroI fuIIy cIockwise.

II. Connecf fhe sef-up shown in Figure Z on fhe nexf poge using fhe Tronsmiffer ond
Peceiver moduIes you odjusfed for Sfeps 8 fo I0.


Experimenf IZ - WoveIengfh division muIfipIexing (WDM) Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs IZ-b



Figure Z


This sef-up con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure 3 beIow. The orrongemenf is o
singIe-chonneI fiber opfic fronsmission sysfem. The Mosfer SignoIs moduIe's ZkH; SIME oufpuf
is used fo modeI on onoIog messoge. CoupIer moduIes ore used fo fociIifofe fhe remoinder of
fhe experimenf.



Figure 3
CH0
CH1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrms max
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
TRANSMITTER
RED
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
COUPLER
B
A
C
D
COUPLER
A
B
D
C
RECEIVER
OUTPUT
LO
HI
Messoge-I
To CH 0
Mosfer
SignoIs
ZkH;
Tx
(Ped)
A
Tronsmiffer
CoupIer (Leff)
8
C
D
8
A
D
C
CoupIer (Pighf)
OpficoI
chonneI Pecovered
messoge-I
To CH I
Px
Peceiver

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf IZ - WoveIengfh division muIfipIexing (WDM) IZ-o

IZ. Lounch ond run fhe MI ELVIS II OsciIIoscope VI.

I3. Sef up fhe scope per fhe procedure in Experimenf I (poge I-IZ) wifh fhe foIIowing
chonge:

Timebose confroI fo fhe I00ps/div posifion insfeod of fhe b00ps/div posifion

I4. Acfivofe fhe scope's ChonneI I inpuf fo observe fhe recovered messoge-I os weII os fhe
originoI version of if.

Note: If fhe sef-up hos been wired correcfIy, fhe fwo signoIs shouId be fhe some
ompIifude ond phose.

Ib. Sef fhe Mode confroI of fhe green Tronsmiffer moduIe fo DI0ITAL.

Io. Modify fhe sef-up os shown in Figure 4 beIow.




Figure 4

CH0
CH1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrms max
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
TRANSMITTER
RED
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
COUPLER
B
A
C
D
COUPLER
A
B
D
C
RECEIVER
OUTPUT
LO
HI
TRANSMITTER
GREEN
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG

Experimenf IZ - WoveIengfh division muIfipIexing (WDM) Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs IZ-7

The sef-up in Figure 4 con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure b beIow. The
orrongemenf fronsmifs fwo signoIs over fhe chonneI - on onoIog messoge ond o digifoI messoge
(modeIed by fhe Mosfer SignoIs moduIe's I0kH; DI0ITAL oufpuf).


Figure


I7. Observe fhe signoI on fhe Peceiver moduIe's oufpuf.

Note: You shouId see o disforfed version of fhe signoI fhof you observed for Sfep I4.


Question 1
Describe fhe signoI fhof you observe.
If's o sinewove wifh o squorewove superimposed on if.



Question Z
How does fhe operofion of fhe CoupIer moduIes creofe fhis disforfion7
A Iighf signoI on eifher of fhe CoupIer moduIe's inpuf porfs oppeors on bofh oufpuf
porfs (weok & sfrong). So, when signoIs ore connecfed fo bofh inpuf porfs, fhe signoIs
musf be odded fogefher.

Messoge-I
To CH 0
ZkH;
Tx
(Ped)
A
8
C
D
8
A
D
C
OpficoI
chonneI Pecovered
messoges
To CH I
Px
A
Mosfer
SignoIs
I0kH;
Tx
(0reen)
Tronsmiffer
Messoge-Z

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf IZ - WoveIengfh division muIfipIexing (WDM) IZ-8
To verify your onswer fo Quesfion Z,

I8. Disconnecf fhe opficoI pofch Ieod of fhe Peceiver.

I9. Poinf fhe free end of fhe opficoI pofch Ieod cIose fo fhe desk, woII, whife poper or fhe
poIm of your hond so you con see Iighf from fhe end of fhe cobIe shining on if.

Z0. MomenturiIy disconnecf fhe opficoI pofch Ieod fo fhe Ped Tronsmiffer ond observe fhe
effecf.

Note: Look cIoseIy os fhe chonge is subfIe.

ZI. MomenturiIy disconnecf fhe opficoI pofch Ieod fo fhe 0reen Tronsmiffer ond observe fhe
effecf.

ZZ. Peconnecf fhe opficoI pofch Ieod of fhe Peceiver ond check fo moke sure fhof you've
reconnecfed fhe ofher fwo Ieods os weII.


Question 3
Why isn'f fhe Peceiver moduIe obIe fo seIecf jusf one of fhe fwo Iighf signoIs ond rejecf
fhe ofher7
The opficoI device used for fhe Peceiver moduIe's inpuf responds fo Iighf of oII
woveIengfhs.


Question 4
Whof device musf be used fo oIIow fhe Peceiver moduIe fo converf jusf one of fhe Iighf
signoIs bock fo on eIecfricoI signoI insfeod of bofh of fhem7
A red or green opficoI fiIfer.








Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

Experimenf IZ - WoveIengfh division muIfipIexing (WDM) Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs IZ-9

To verify your onswer fo Quesfion 4,

Z3. Modify fhe sef-up os shown in Figure o beIow.




Figure


This sef-up con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure 7 on fhe nexf poge. A fiIfer hos
been infroduced befween fhe righf-side CoupIer moduIe's C oufpuf ond fhe Peceiver moduIe's
inpuf. This hos been done fo oIIow fhe Peceiver moduIe fo recover onIy fhe onoIog messoge
(fhof is, messoge-I).



CH0
CH1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrms max
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
TRANSMITTER
RED
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
COUPLER
B
A
C
D
COUPLER
A
B
D
C
RECEIVER
OUTPUT
LO
HI
WDM FILTER
RED
TRANSMITTER
GREEN
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf IZ - WoveIengfh division muIfipIexing (WDM) IZ-I0

Figure 7


Z4. Sef fhe scope's ChonneI I ScoIe confroI fo fhe Z00mV/div posifion.

Zb. Observe fhe signoI on fhe Peceiver moduIe's oufpuf.

Note: The sef-up shouId onIy be recovering messoge-I.




Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

ZkH;
Tx
(Ped)
A
8
C
D
8
A
D
C
OpficoI
chonneI
Px
Messoge-Z
I0kH; Tx
(0reen)
Messoge-I
To CH 0
Pecovered
messoge-I
To CH I
WDM FiIfer
Ped

Experimenf IZ - WoveIengfh division muIfipIexing (WDM) Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs IZ-II

Purt - Converting the set-up to u compIete two-chunneI WDM communicutions system
An oddifionoI fiIfer ond receiver con be used fo reodiIy converf fhe currenf sef-up fo o
compIefe fwo-chonneI woveIengfh division muIfipIex (WDM) communicofions sysfem. This is onIy
frue if fhe fiIfer used for fhe receiving fhe second chonneI bIocks red Iighf ond Iefs green
Iighf poss fo fhe receiver. The nexf porf of fhe experimenf gefs you fo do fhis.

Zo. Sef fhe 0oin Ponge confroI of fhe unused Peceiver moduIe fo HI.

Z7. Turn fhe some Peceiver moduIe's VoriobIe 0oin confroI fuIIy cIockwise.

Z8. Moke fhe foIIowing chonges fo fhe scope's sef-up:

Inpuf CoupIing confroIs for bofh chonneIs fo fhe DC posifion insfeod of fhe AC
posifion
ChonneI I ScoIe confroI fo fhe IV/div posifion insfeod of fhe Z00mV/div posifion
ChonneI I VerficoI Posifion confroI fo -bV insfeod of 0V
Trigger LeveI confroI fo ZV insfeod of 0V

Z9. Modify fhe sef-up os shown in Figure 8 beIow.




Figure

CH0
CH1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrms max
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
TRANSMITTER
RED
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
COUPLER
B
A
C
D
COUPLER
A
B
D
C
RECEIVER
OUTPUT
LO
HI
WDM FILTER
RED
WDM FILTER
GREEN
RECEIVER
OUTPUT
LO
HI
TRANSMITTER
GREEN
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf IZ - WoveIengfh division muIfipIexing (WDM) IZ-IZ

The sef-up in Figure 8 con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure 9 beIow. The
previousIy unused porf D oufpuf of fhe righf CoupIer moduIe is connecfed fo fhe green WDM
FiIfer moduIe which Iefs onIy green Iighf poss fhrough fo o second Peceiver moduIe. This
Peceiver moduIe's oufpuf is o copy of messoge-Z.




Figure 9


30. Observe messoge-Z ond fhe recovered version of if on fhe oufpuf of second Peceiver
moduIe.

Note: If fhe sef-up hos been wired correcfIy, you shouId observe fwo I0kH;
squorewoves wifh fhe some ompIifude.





Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

Messoge-I
ZkH;
Tx
(Ped)
A
8
C
D
8
A
D
C
OpficoI
chonneI Pecovered
messoge-I
Px
WDM FiIfer
0reen
Pecovered
messoge-Z
To CH I
Px
Peceiver
Messoge-Z
To CH 0
I0kH; Tx
(0reen)
MuIfipIexing
(Mux)
DemuIfipIexing
(Demux)

Experimenf IZ - WoveIengfh division muIfipIexing (WDM) Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs IZ-I3

3I. Moke fhe foIIowing chonges fo fhe scope's sef-up:

Inpuf CoupIing confroIs for bofh chonneIs bock fo AC
ChonneI I ScoIe confroI bock fo Z00mV/div
ChonneI I VerficoI Posifion confroI bock fo 0V
Trigger LeveI confroI bock fo 0V

3Z. Modify fhe scope's connecfions fo fhe sef-up os shown in Figure I0 beIow.




Figure 10


33. Disconnecf fhe opficoI pofch fo fhe red Tronsmiffer moduIe's oufpuf.

34. Sef fhe scope's ChonneI I ScoIe confroI fo b0mV/division.

3b. Observe fhe signoI on fhe Peceiver moduIe's oufpuf.

Note: You shouId see o Iow-IeveI copy of messoge-Z.

CH0
CH1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrms max
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
TRANSMITTER
RED
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
COUPLER
B
A
C
D
COUPLER
A
B
D
C
RECEIVER
OUTPUT
LO
HI
WDM FILTER
RED
WDM FILTER
GREEN
RECEIVER
OUTPUT
LO
HI
TRANSMITTER
GREEN
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf IZ - WoveIengfh division muIfipIexing (WDM) IZ-I4

Question
Why is fhis signoI presenf7
FiIfers oren'f perfecf - They "rejecf" signoIs oufside fheir poss-bond (fhof is, offenuofe
fhem) buf connof remove fhem oIfogefher.


Question
Whof pofenfioI probIem con fhe presence of messoge-Z on fhe oufpuf of fhe messoge-I
Peceiver moduIe couse7
Cross-foIk.


Question 7
AIfhough o Iow-IeveI copy of messoge-I oIso oppeors on fhe messoge-Z Peceiver moduIe's
oufpuf, fhis is unIikeIy fo couse fhe some probIem for digifoI signoIs. Why7
DigifoI signoIs con be cIeoned-up using o comporofor or decision moker. The cross-foIk
wouId hove fo be subsfonfioI for if fo couse probIems.




Purt C - Converting the set-up to u three-chunneI TDM-WDM communicutions system
As menfioned in fhe preIiminory discussion, WDM is used fo increose fhe number of users
operofing on o chonneI. PecoII fhof TDM is used for fhe some purpose. UnsurprisingIy, fhese
fechniques con be combined ond fhis is wideIy done in commercioI feIecommunicofions. The
nexf porf of fhe experimenf gefs you fo converf fhe currenf sef-up fo o fhree-chonneI TDM-
WDM communicofions sysfem.

3o. Peconnecf fhe opficoI pofch fo fhe red Tronsmiffer moduIe's oufpuf.

37. Lounch ond run fhe MI ELVIS II Funcfion 0enerofor VI.

38. Adjusf fhe funcfion generofor for on oufpuf wifh fhe foIIowing specificofions:

Woveshope: Sine
Frequency: IkH;
AmpIifude: 4Vpp
DC Offsef: 0V
Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

Experimenf IZ - WoveIengfh division muIfipIexing (WDM) Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs IZ-Ib

39. Sef fhe Mode confroI of fhe red Tronsmiffer moduIe fhof is currenfIy in fhe sef-up fo
fhe DI0ITAL posifion.

40. Moke fhe foIIowing chonges fo fhe scope's sef-up:

Inpuf CoupIing confroIs for bofh chonneIs bock fo DC
ChonneI I ScoIe confroI bock fo IV/div
ChonneI I VerficoI Posifion confroI bock fo -bV
Trigger LeveI confroI bock fo ZV

4I. Modify fhe sef-up os shown in Figure II beIow.


Figure 11
CH 0
CH 1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrmsmax
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
TRANSMITTER
RED
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
COUPLER
B
A
C
D
COUPLER
A
B
D
C
RECEIVER
OUTPUT
LO
HI
WDM FILTER
RED
WDM FILTER
GREEN
RECEIVER
OUTPUT
LO
HI
TRANSMITTER
GREEN
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
PCM
ENCODER
FS
CLK
PCM
DATA
TDM
INPUT 2
INPUT 1
PCM
PCM
DECODER
PCM
DATA
CLK
OUTPUT
OUTPUT2
1kHz LPF
LOWPASS
FILTERS
3kHz LPF
VARIABLEDC
FUNCTION
GENERATOR
+
ANALOGI/ O
ACH1 DAC1
ACH0 DAC0
PCM BIT CLK
REGENERATOR
PCM
DATA
PCM
CLK
(100kHz bit clock)

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf IZ - WoveIengfh division muIfipIexing (WDM) IZ-Io

The sef-up in Figure II con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure IZ beIow. There ore
now fhree messoge signoIs being fronsmiffed over fhe opficoI chonneI. Messoges I ond Z ore
onoIog signoIs modeIed by fhe Mosfer SignoIs moduIe's ZkH; SIME oufpuf ond fhe funcfion
generofor (sef for o IkH; sinewove) respecfiveIy. These messoges ore encoded fo PCM-TDM by
fhe PCM Encoder moduIe ond fhis digifoI dofo signoI is senf over fhe chonneI using red Iighf.
The fhird messoge is modeIed by fhe Mosfer SignoIs moduIe's I0kH; DI0ITAL oufpuf ond senf
over fhe chonneI using green Iighf os before.

Af fhe receiving end, fhe red Iighf confoining fhe PCM-TDM dofo is fiIfered using fhe red
WDM FiIfer moduIe ond senf fo fhe PCM Decoder moduIe where if is demuIfipIexed ond
decoded fhen senf fo reconsfrucfion fiIfers fo recover fhe originoI onoIog messoges. The PCM
Decoder moduIe's IocoI bif-cIock is derived from fhe PCM dofo signoI using fhe PCM 8if-cIock
Pegenerofor moduIe.

The green Iighf corrying messoge-3 over fhe chonneI is fiIfered using fhe green WDM FiIfer
moduIe ond is ovoiIobIe on fhe oufpuf of fhe Peceiver moduIe connecfed fo if.



Figure 1Z


4Z. Check fhof fhe sef-up is sfiII recovering fhe modeI of o digifoI messoge (messoge-3).

43. Moke fhe foIIowing chonges fo fhe scope's sef-up:

Inpuf CoupIing confroIs for bofh chonneIs bock fo AC
ChonneI I VerficoI Posifion confroI bock fo 0V
Timebose confroI fo fhe Z00ps/div posifion insfeod of fhe I00ps/div posifion
Trigger LeveI confroI bock fo 0V

44. Modify fhe scope's connecfions fo fhe sef-up os shown in Figure I3 on fhe nexf poge.


Tx
(Ped)
A
8
C
D
8
A
D
C
OpficoI
chonneI
Px
Px
I0kH; Tx
(0reen)
Pecovered
messoge-3
To CH I
Messoge-3
(digifoI)
To CH 0
IM Z
CLI
I00kH;
IkH;
IM I
ZkH;
Messoge-I
(onoIog)
Messoge-Z
(onoIog)
PCM
DATA
CLI
Pecovered
messoge-I
O/P
Pecovered
messoge-Z
O/P Z
PCM
8CP

Experimenf IZ - WoveIengfh division muIfipIexing (WDM) Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs IZ-I7



Figure 13


4b. Observe fhe onoIog messoge-Z ond fhe recovered version of if on fhe IkH; LPF's oufpuf.

Note: If fhe sef-up hos been wired correcfIy ond fhe scope is odjusfed correcfIy, you
shouId observe fwo IkH; sinewoves.



Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.
CH 0
CH 1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrmsmax
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
TRANSMITTER
RED
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
COUPLER
B
A
C
D
COUPLER
A
B
D
C
RECEIVER
OUTPUT
LO
HI
WDM FILTER
RED
WDM FILTER
GREEN
RECEIVER
OUTPUT
LO
HI
TRANSMITTER
GREEN
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
PCM
ENCODER
FS
CLK
PCM
DATA
TDM
INPUT 2
INPUT 1
PCM
PCM
DECODER
PCM
DATA
CLK
OUTPUT
OUTPUT2
1kHz LPF
LOWPASS
FILTERS
3kHz LPF
VARIABLEDC
FUNCTION
GENERATOR
+
ANALOGI/ O
ACH1 DAC1
ACH0 DAC0
PCM BIT CLK
REGENERATOR
PCM
DATA
PCM
CLK
(100kHz bit clock)

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf IZ - WoveIengfh division muIfipIexing (WDM) IZ-I8

4o. Modify fhe scope's connecfions fo fhe sef-up os shown in Figure I4 beIow.




Figure 14


47. Observe fhe onoIog messoge-I ond fhe recovered version of if on fhe 3kH; LPF's oufpuf.

Note: If fhe sef-up hos been wired correcfIy ond fhe scope is odjusfed correcfIy, you
shouId observe fwo ZkH; sinewoves (fhough fhe recovered version of if wiII be o IiffIe
disforfed).

CH 0
CH 1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrmsmax
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
TRANSMITTER
RED
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
COUPLER
B
A
C
D
COUPLER
A
B
D
C
RECEIVER
OUTPUT
LO
HI
WDM FILTER
RED
WDM FILTER
GREEN
RECEIVER
OUTPUT
LO
HI
TRANSMITTER
GREEN
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
PCM
ENCODER
FS
CLK
PCM
DATA
TDM
INPUT 2
INPUT 1
PCM
PCM
DECODER
PCM
DATA
CLK
OUTPUT
OUTPUT2
1kHz LPF
LOWPASS
FILTERS
3kHz LPF
VARIABLEDC
FUNCTION
GENERATOR
+
ANALOGI/ O
ACH1 DAC1
ACH0 DAC0
PCM BIT CLK
REGENERATOR
PCM
DATA
PCM
CLK
(100kHz bit clock)

Experimenf IZ - WoveIengfh division muIfipIexing (WDM) Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs IZ-I9



0iven fhe omounf of informofion being fronsmiffed over fhe chonneI, con you imogine fhe
compIexify of fhe Iighf signoI7 The nexf porf of fhe experimenfs gefs you fo Iook of if.


48. Modify fhe sef-up os shown in Figure Ib beIow.



Figure 1
Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.
CH 0
CH 1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrmsmax
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
TRANSMITTER
RED
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
COUPLER
B
A
C
D
COUPLER
A
B
D
C
RECEIVER
OUTPUT
LO
HI
WDM FILTER
RED
RECEIVER
OUTPUT
LO
HI
TRANSMITTER
GREEN
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
PCM
ENCODER
FS
CLK
PCM
DATA
TDM
INPUT 2
INPUT 1
PCM
PCM
DECODER
PCM
DATA
CLK
OUTPUT
OUTPUT2
1kHz LPF
LOWPASS
FILTERS
3kHz LPF
VARIABLEDC
FUNCTION
GENERATOR
+
ANALOGI/ O
ACH1 DAC1
ACH0 DAC0
PCM BIT CLK
REGENERATOR
PCM
DATA
PCM
CLK
(100kHz bit clock)

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf IZ - WoveIengfh division muIfipIexing (WDM) IZ-Z0

49. Sef fhe scope's Timebose confroI fo fhe b0ps/div posifion.

b0. Observe fhe signoI on fhe Iower Peceiver moduIe's oufpuf.

Note: This signoI is fhe eIecfricoI equivoIenf of fhe row Iighf informofion being
fronsmiffed over fhe chonneI.












Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before finishing.




M
o
m
e
:

C
I
o
s
s
:


I
3

-

O
p
f
i
c
o
I

L
o
s
s
e
s

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf I3 - OpficoI Iosses I3-Z

Eperiment 13 - OpticuI Iosses
PreIiminury discussion
Minimi;ing Iosses is on imporfonf porf of fhe impIemenfofion of oII communicofions sysfems
incIuding opficoI. There ore o number of odvonfoges fo doing so ond significonf omong fhem is
fhe benefif of increosing fronsmission disfonces before fhe need fo repeof fhe signoI. Thof
being fhe cose, you'II find fhof fhere is o greof deoI of discussion in opficoI communicofion
fheory obouf fhe Iosses of differenf fypes of fiber moferioIs ond consfrucfion, fheir Iosses of
vorious woveIengfhs, fhe Iosses invoIved in fhe differenf mefhods of connecfing ond spIicing
fibers, ond fhe differences in Iosses befween differenf fypes of fiIfers, coupIers, circuIofors
ond so on.

This experimenf Iefs you foke meosuremenfs fo quonfify fhe opficoI Iosses of fhe devices fhof
you hove quoIifofiveIy invesfigofed in eorIier experimenfs. As such, fhe brief discussion of
opficoI Iosses fhof foIIows is resfricfed fo fhof reIevonf fo fhe experimenf.

Loss (or offenuofion) is generoIIy expressed in decibeIs (d8) ond is coIcuIofed using fhe
equofion:


Z
I
I0
I0
P
P
Log Loss =


As voIfoge meosuremenfs ore usuoIIy more convenienf fo foke fhon power meosuremenfs, Ioss
con oIso be coIcuIofed using fhe equofion:


Z
I
I0
Z0
V
V
Log Loss =



For o number of procficoI reosons, fhe Emono FOTEx uses pIosfic fiber opfic cobIes. Depending
on whof you're comporing, pIosfic fiber hos offenuofion IeveIs ronging from fens fo hundreds of
fimes greofer fhon fhose for gIoss fiber. As such, pIosfic fiber use is IorgeIy resfricfed fo
disfonces of I00m or Iess. However, fhe Iengfhs of pIosfic fiber provided for use wifh fhe
Emono FOTEx ore shorf enough for fhe Ioss fo be insignificonf ond so con be ignored.

To digress for o momenf, fhe quesfion of whof consfifufes o significonf Ioss shouId be defined
here. For our purposes, o Ioss is significonf if fhe chonge if infroduces is oudibIe ond fhis
occurs when chonges exceed 3d8. The worsf cose Iosses for fhe shorfer of fhe opficoI pofch
Ieods is opproximofeIy Id8 which is sufficienfIy beIow fhis.

Where: P
I
~ is o signoI power, ond
P
Z
~ is fhe reference signoI's power
Where: V
I
~ is o signoI's ompIifude, ond
V
Z
~ is fhe reference signoI's ompIifude

Experimenf I3 - OpficoI Iosses Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs I3-3

Connecfions befween opficoI fibers con infroduce o significonf source of Ioss fhof is offecfed
by physicoI focfors Iike: overIop of fiber cores, oIignmenf of fiber oxes, fiber spocing, ond end-
refIecfion Ioss. Losses due fo fhese focfors con be minimi;ed by corefuI spIicing of fhe fibers
ond so if's fhe preferred mefhod. However, spIicing is fime-consuming ond permonenf ond so
connecfors ore used for fhe Emono FOTEx. These connecfors hove o fypicoI inserfion Ioss
(fhof is, fhe Ioss fhof fhey infroduce fo fhe signoIs fhof wouIdn'f hove occurred ofherwise) of
Zd8. Thof soid, fhis con vory subsfonfioIIy due fo connecfor orienfofion. To expIoin, os o
connecfor is o mechonicoI joinf, simpIy rofofing fhe connecfor con vory some or oII of fhe
physicoI focfors Iisfed obove which, in furn, con vory fhe connecfor's Ioss.

WhiIe fhe Ioss infroduced by one connecfor is insignificonf (per fhe definifion on fhe previous
poge), devices wifh on inpuf ond oufpuf (Iike fhe WDM FiIfer ond CoupIer moduIes) require fwo
connecfors. This meons fhof fhe fofoI fypicoI connecfor Iosses exceed fhe 3d8 fhreshoId ond
so fhey become oudibIy noficeobIe ond fherefore significonf.

As you know, fhe WDM FiIfer moduIes ore poss-bond fiIfers fhof discriminofe by coIor. Thof is,
fhey Ief Iighf of o bond of woveIengfhs poss reIofiveIy unoffecfed (fhe poss-bond) buf rejecf
Iighf of woveIengfhs beIow ond obove fhis (fhe sfop-bonds). ImporfonfIy, fhe connecfors ond
opficoI properfies of fhe fiIfers fhemseIves give fhe WDM FiIfer moduIes o fypicoI inserfion
Ioss of od8 ond 7d8 for red ond green respecfiveIy.

FinoIIy, recoII fhof fhe fiber-fused coupIer is o four porf device fhof spIifs Iighf on one of fhe
porfs befween fhe ofher fhree. One of fhese porfs receives fhe mosf Iighf ond so is coIIed fhe
sfrong pofh. The second porf receives o significonf omounf of Iighf buf Iess fhon fhe firsf ond
so is coIIed fhe weok pofh. The fhird porf receives o smoII omounf of undesirobIe bock-
refIecfion fhof con inferfere wifh fhe performonce of on opficoI sysfem.


The eperiment
For fhis experimenf you'II invesfigofe fhe voriofion in fhe opficoI pofch Ieod's Iosses due fo
connecfor orienfofion by observing fhe effecf fhis hos on fhe oufpuf voIfoge of o Peceiver
moduIe. You'II fhen idenfify fwo Ieods wifh fhe Ieosf voriofion in fhese Iosses for use in fhe
remoinder of fhe experimenf. Mexf you'II you quonfify fhe Iosses of fhe red ond green WDM
FiIfer moduIes for coIors inside ond oufside fheir poss-bonds fhen compore fhem fo fheir
specified voIues. FinoIIy, you quonfify one of fhe CoupIer moduIe's sfrong ond weok pofh porf-
fo-porf Iosses ond ifs bock refIecfion fhen compore fhem fo fheir specified voIues.

If shouId foke you obouf b0 fo o0 minufes fo compIefe fhis experimenf.


Pre-requisites:
Experimenf I: An infroducfion fo fhe MI ELVIS II fesf equipmenf
Experimenf Z: An infroducfion fo fhe Emono FOTEx
Experimenf 8: Fiber opfic fronsmission
Experimenf I0: OpficoI signoI fiIfering, spIiffing ond combining


Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf I3 - OpficoI Iosses I3-4

Precuution:
Use fhis experimenf fo deveIop fhe hobif of nof Iooking direcfIy info fhe end of on opficoI
fiber.


Equipment

PersonoI compufer wifh oppropriofe soffwore insfoIIed
MI ELVIS II pIus US8 cobIe ond power pock
Emono FOTEx experimenfoI odd-in moduIe
Emono FOTEx User monuoI
Two 8MC fo Zmm bonono-pIug Ieods
Assorfed Zmm bonono-pIug pofch Ieods
Assorfed opficoI pofch Ieods


Procedure

Purt A - Investiguting the vuriution in connector Iosses due to connector orientution
SeveroI physicoI chorocferisfics of opficoI connecfions couse voriofions in connecfor Iosses due
fo connecfor orienfofion. The nexf porf of fhe experimenf Iefs you invesfigofe fhis issue.

I. Ensure fhof fhe MI ELVIS II power swifch of fhe bock of fhe unif is off.

Z. CorefuIIy pIug fhe Emono FOTEx experimenfoI odd-in moduIe info fhe MI ELVIS II.

3. Inserf fhe hoIding screws fo secure fhe FOTEx moduIe fo fhe MI ELVIS II.

Note: This musf be done wifh fhe power off fo ovoid domoging fhe FOTEx.

4. Connecf fhe MI ELVIS II fo fhe PC using fhe US8 cobIe.

Note: This moy oIreody hove been done for you.

b. Turn on fhe MI ELVIS II power swifch of fhe reor of fhe unif fhen furn on ifs
Profofyping 8oord Power swifch of fhe fop righf corner neor fhe power indicofor.

o. Turn on fhe PC ond Ief if boof-up.

7. Lounch fhe MI ELVISmx soffwore.


Experimenf I3 - OpficoI Iosses Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs I3-b

8. SeIecf one of fhe red LED Tronsmiffer moduIes ond sef ifs Mode confroI fo AMALO0.

9. SeIecf one fhe Peceiver moduIes ond sef ifs 0oin Ponge confroI fo LO.

I0. Turn fhe some Peceiver moduIe's VoriobIe 0oin confroI fuIIy cIockwise.

II. Connecf fhe sef-up shown in Figure I beIow using fhe Tronsmiffer ond Peceiver moduIes
you odjusfed for Sfeps 8 fo I0.

Note: Use one of fhe short opficoI pofch Ieods befween fhe Tronsmiffer ond Peceiver
moduIes.




Figure 1

This sef-up con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure Z beIow. The Mosfer SignoIs
moduIe's ZkH; SIME oufpuf is used fo modeI on onoIog messoge. The red Tronsmiffer moduIe
converfs fhe messoge fo Iighf ond fronsmifs if oIong on opficoI fiber cobIe fo fhe Peceiver
moduIe where if is converfed bock fo on eIecfricoI signoI.




Figure Z

TRANSMITTER
RED
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
RECEIVER
OUTPUT
LO
HI
CH0
CH1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrmsmax
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
Mosfer
SignoIs Tronsmiffer
Tx
(Ped)
ZkH;
Px
Peceiver
Pecovered
messoge
To CH I
AnoIog messoge
To CH 0

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf I3 - OpficoI Iosses I3-o

IZ. Lounch ond run fhe MI ELVIS II OsciIIoscope VI.

I3. Sef up fhe scope per fhe procedure in Experimenf I (poge I-IZ) wifh fhe foIIowing
chonge:

ChonneI I ScoIe confroI fo fhe ZV/div posifion insfeod of fhe IV/div posifion

I4. Acfivofe fhe scope's ChonneI I inpuf fo observe fhe recovered messoge os weII os fhe
originoI version of if.

Note: If fhe sef-up hos been wired correcfIy, you shouId see fwo ZkH; sinewoves.

Ib. Check fo moke sure fhof fhe recovered messoge isn'f cIipped.

Note: If if is, reduce fhe Peceiver moduIe's goin by furning ifs VoriobIe 0oin confroI
counfer-cIockwise unfiI fhe cIipping is gone.

Io. Meosure fhe recovered messoge's PMS voIfoge. Pecord your meosuremenf in fhe firsf
free coIumn in TobIe I on fhe nexf poge.

Note: The PMS voIfoge is indicofed of fhe Ieff end of fhe row of meosuremenfs for
eoch chonneI.

I7. Disconnecf fhe opficoI pofch Ieod's connecfor of fhe Tronsmiffer moduIe, rofofe if 90",
reconnecf if fhen repeof Sfep Io.

I8. Pepeof Sfep I7 fwo more fimes.

I9. Pepeof Sfep I7 buf fhis fime don'f meosure fhe voIfoge.

Note: This finoI rofofion hos foken you bock fo fhe connecfor's originoI orienfofion.

Z0. Disconnecf fhe opficoI pofch Ieod's connecfor of fhe Peceiver moduIe, rofofe if 90",
reconnecf if fhen repeof Sfep Io.

ZI. Pepeof Sfep Z0 fwo more fimes.

ZZ. Idenfify fhe biggesf voIfoge in TobIe I (V
mox
) ond fhe smoIIesf (V
min
) ond use fhese
figures in fhe equofion beIow fo defermine fhe difference befween fhem in decibeIs.
Pecord your coIcuIofion in fhe finoI ceII in TobIe I.

=
mox
min
Z0
V
V
Log Difference



Experimenf I3 - OpficoI Iosses Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs I3-7

TubIe 1
Meusurement 1 Meusurement Z Meusurement 3 Meusurement 4



Meusurement Meusurement Meusurement 7
Diff, between
V
mu
& V
min
in d






Question 1
Lisf some of fhe physicoI focfors offecfing opficoI connecfions fhof con couse fhe fype
of voriofion observed in TobIe I.
OverIop of fiber cores, oIignmenf of fiber oxes, fiber spocing ond end-refIecfion Ioss.



Question Z
Whof is fhe effecf on fhe connecfor's inserfion Ioss of fhe voIfoge voriofions observed in
TobIe I7
AcfuoI connecfor inserfion Ioss figures wiII vory oround fhe fypicoI figure quofed for
differenf connecfor orienfofions.


Question 3
Is fhe difference befween fhe moximum ond minimum voIfoges in TobIe I significonf7
ExpIoin your onswer.
Yes, if if's 3d8 or greofer becouse fhe difference con be heord (of fhe Peceiver
moduIe's oufpuf).





Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf I3 - OpficoI Iosses I3-8

Purt - Choosing two opticuI putch Ieuds for further opticuI Ioss meusurements
Porf A hos indirecfIy shown fhof fhe opficoI pofch Ieods' Iosses con vory significonfIy depending
on connecfor orienfofion. This is probIemofic when foking ond comporing meosuremenfs of
signoIs on fhe inpuf ond oufpuf of fhe ofher opficoI devices. UnIess you oIwoys keep fhe
connecfor orienfofions fhe some fhe meosuremenfs moy be incorrecf moking comporisons Iess
voIid. To ovoid hoving fo worry obouf fhis os on issue, fhe nexf porf of fhe experimenf gefs you
idenfify fwo oppropriofe shorf opficoI pofch Ieods fhof con be used for fhe remoinder of fhe
experimenf.

Z3. PepIoce fhe opficoI pofch Ieod in fhe sef-up for fhe ofher shorf Ieods one of o fime ond
repeof Sfeps Ib fo ZZ unfiI you've found fwo Ieods wifh o worsf cose difference befween
fhe biggesf ond smoIIesf voIfoges beIow 3d8.

Note: If fime permifs, fesf oII of fhe shorf opficoI pofch Ieods ond pick fhe besf fwo.







Purt C - Meusuring the WDM FiIter moduIes' Iosses
The nexf porf of fhe experimenf Iefs you quonfify fhe Iosses of fhe red ond green WDM FiIfer
moduIes for coIors inside ond oufside fheir woveIengfh poss-bonds.

Z4. Use one of fhe fwo Ieods you've chosen of Sfep Z3 fo compIefe fhe sef-up in Figure 1
ogoin.

Zb. Meosure recovered messoge's PMS voIfoge ogoin buf fhis fime use fhe Peceiver moduIe's
VoriobIe 0oin confroI fo reduce if fo o whoIe number.

Note: For exompIe, if fhe ompIifude is inifioIIy 7.oV PMS fhen reduce if fo 7V PMS.

Zo. Pecord fhis voIue in TobIe Z on poge 3-Ib.



Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

Experimenf I3 - OpficoI Iosses Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs I3-9

Z7. Infroduce fhe red WDM FiIfer moduIe fo fhe sef-up os shown in Figure 3 beIow.

Note: Use fhe fwo opficoI pofch Ieods fhof you idenfified of Sfep Z3.




Figure 3


This sef-up con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure 4 beIow. The onoIog messoge is
now fronsmiffed over on opficoI fiber using red Iighf vio fhe red WDM FiIfer moduIe.





Figure 4

Tx
(Ped)
ZkH;
Px
Pecovered
messoge
To CH I
AnoIog messoge
To CH 0
WDM FiIfer
Ped
TRANSMITTER
RED
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
WDM FILTER
RED
CH0
CH1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrmsmax
RECEIVER
OUTPUT
LO
HI
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf I3 - OpficoI Iosses I3-I0

Z8. Adjusf fhe scope's ChonneI I ScoIe confroI fo enIorge fhe recovered messoge's si;e so
fhof if fiIIs fhe dispIoy wifhouf geffing foo big for if.

Z9. Meosure fhe recovered messoge's new PMS voIfoge ond record your meosuremenf in fhe
oppropriofe ceII of TobIe 3 on poge I3-Ib.

30. CoIcuIofe ond record fhe red WDM FiIfer moduIe's inserfion Ioss (fhof is, fhe Ioss fhe
fiIfer infroduces fo red Iighf) using fhe Ioss equofion in fhe preIiminory discussion ond
fhe reference voIfoge in TobIe Z.

3I. Modify fhe sef-up os shown in Figure b beIow by swopping fhe green WDM FiIfer moduIe
for fhe red one.




Figure


This sef-up con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure o beIow. The onoIog messoge is
now fronsmiffed over on opficoI fiber using red Iighf vio fhe green WDM FiIfer moduIe.





Figure

Tx
(Ped)
ZkH;
Px
Pecovered
messoge
To CH I
AnoIog messoge
To CH 0
WDM FiIfer
0reen
TRANSMITTER
RED
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
CH0
CH1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrmsmax
RECEIVER
OUTPUT
LO
HI
WDM FILTER
GREEN
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE

Experimenf I3 - OpficoI Iosses Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs I3-II

3Z. Adjusf fhe scope's ChonneI I ScoIe confroI fo enIorge fhe recovered messoge's si;e on
fhe dispIoy.

33. Meosure fhe recovered messoge's new PMS voIfoge ond record your meosuremenf in fhe
oppropriofe ceII of TobIe 3 on poge I3-Ib.

34. CoIcuIofe ond record fhe green WDM FiIfer moduIe's sfop-bond rejecfion of red Iighf
woveIengfhs (ogoin, use fhe Ioss equofion in fhe preIiminory discussion ond fhe reference
voIfoge in TobIe Z).






3b. Sef fhe green LED Tronsmiffer moduIe's Mode confroI fo AMALO0.

3o. Modify fhe sef-up os shown in Figure 7 beIow incIuding repIocing fhe red Tronsmiffer
moduIe wifh fhe green one.




Figure 7

Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.
TRANSMITTER
GREEN
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
RECEIVER
OUTPUT
LO
HI
CH0
CH1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrmsmax
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf I3 - OpficoI Iosses I3-IZ

The sef-up in Figure 7 con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure 8 beIow. The onoIog
messoge is now fronsmiffed over on opficoI fiber using green Iighf direcfIy fo Peceiver moduIe.




Figure


37. Sef fhe scope's ChonneI I ScoIe confroI fo fhe IV/div posifion ond meosure fhe
recovered messoge's new PMS voIfoge.


The sef-up in Figure I ond fhe one in Figure 8 obove wiII probobIy produce differenf ompIifudes
for fhe messoge voIfoges on fhe Peceiver moduIe's oufpuf. PossibIe reosons for fhis incIude: I)
Differences in fhe eIecfricoI-fo-opficoI goin of fhe red ond green LEDs, ond/or Z) Differences
in fhe sensifivify of fhe Peceiver moduIe's defecfor fo Iighf of differenf woveIengfhs.

As fhis experimenf doesn'f offempf fo meosure fhese performonce chorocferisfics, fhe
differenf oufpuf voIfoge con be ignored. Thof soid, comporisons befween meosuremenfs mode
using fhe red ond green Tronsmiffer moduIes wiII sfiII be voIid os you're coIcuIofing fhe
reIofionship befween fhe WDM FiIfers' inpuf ond oufpuf voIfoges. This is fhe some regordIess
of fhe si;e of fhe inpuf voIfoge (ossuming o Iineor fiIfer response).


38. Adjusf fhe recovered messoge's PMS voIfoge using fhe Peceiver moduIe's VoriobIe 0oin
confroI fo sef if fo o whoIe number Iike 3.0V. Pecord fhis voIfoge in TobIe Z.





Tronsmiffer
Tx
(0reen)
ZkH;
Px
Pecovered
messoge
To CH I
AnoIog messoge
To CH 0
Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

Experimenf I3 - OpficoI Iosses Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs I3-I3

39. Infroduce fhe green WDM FiIfer moduIe fo fhe sef-up os shown in Figure 9 beIow.




Figure 9


This sef-up con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure I0 beIow. The onoIog messoge is
now fronsmiffed over on opficoI fiber using green Iighf vio fhe green WDM FiIfer moduIe.




Figure 10


40. Adjusf fhe scope's ChonneI I ScoIe confroI fo enIorge fhe recovered messoge's si;e on
fhe dispIoy.

4I. Meosure fhe recovered messoge's new PMS voIfoge ond record your meosuremenf in fhe
oppropriofe ceII of TobIe 3 on poge I3-Ib.

4Z. CoIcuIofe ond record fhe green WDM FiIfer moduIe's inserfion Ioss (fhof is, fhe Ioss fhe
0reen fiIfer infroduces fo green Iighf) using fhe Ioss equofion in fhe preIiminory
discussion ond fhe oppropriofe reference voIfoge in TobIe Z.

Tx
(0reen)
ZkH;
Px
Pecovered
messoge
To CH I
AnoIog messoge
To CH 0
WDM FiIfer
0reen
TRANSMITTER
GREEN
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
CH0
CH1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrmsmax
RECEIVER
OUTPUT
LO
HI
WDM FILTER
GREEN
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf I3 - OpficoI Iosses I3-I4

43. Modify fhe sef-up os shown in Figure II beIow by swopping fhe green WDM FiIfer moduIe
for fhe red one.




Figure 11


This sef-up con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure IZ beIow. The onoIog messoge is
now fronsmiffed over on opficoI fiber using green Iighf vio fhe red WDM FiIfer moduIe.





Figure 1Z


44. Adjusf fhe scope's ChonneI I ScoIe confroI fo enIorge fhe recovered messoge's si;e on
fhe dispIoy.

4b. Meosure fhe recovered messoge's new PMS voIfoge ond record your meosuremenf in fhe
oppropriofe ceII of TobIe 3 on poge I3-Ib.

4o. CoIcuIofe ond record fhe red WDM FiIfer moduIe's sfop-bond rejecfion of green Iighf
woveIengfhs (ogoin, use fhe Ioss equofion in fhe preIiminory discussion ond fhe
oppropriofe reference voIfoge in TobIe Z).
Tx
(0reen)
ZkH;
Px
Pecovered
messoge
To CH I
AnoIog messoge
To CH 0
WDM FiIfer
Ped
TRANSMITTER
GREEN
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
CH0
CH1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrmsmax
RECEIVER
OUTPUT
LO
HI
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
WDM FILTER
RED

Experimenf I3 - OpficoI Iosses Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs I3-Ib

TubIe Z
Ped T
reference voItuge
Sreen T
reference voItuge






TubIe 3
Ped WDM FiIter
Messuge voItuge
for Step Z9
Insertion Ioss
{Step 30}
Messuge voItuge
for Step 4
Pejection
{Step 4}








Sreen WDM FiIter
Messuge voItuge
for Step 41
Insertion Ioss
{Step 4Z}
Messuge voItuge
for Step 33
Pejection
{Step 34}










Question 4
Compore fhe Ped & 0reen WDM FiIfer moduIes' inserfion Ioss wifh fheir specified voIues
in fhe Emono FOTEx User MonuoI. Whof con couse differences befween fhe specified
ond meosured voIues7
Voriofion in connecfor Iosses (Zd8 per connecfor is onIy o fypicoI figure) ond voriofion
in fhe inserfion Ioss chorocferisfic of fhe fiIfering device ifseIf.

Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf I3 - OpficoI Iosses I3-Io

Question
CoIcuIofe how much of fhe red WDM FiIfer moduIes' inserfion Ioss is due excIusiveIy fo
fhe fiIfer's performonce (fhof is, nof counfing fhe connecfor Iosses). Tip: TypicoI Ioss
figures for fhe connecfors ore quofed in fhe preIiminory discussion.
The sfudenfs shouId foke fhe inserfion Ioss figure for fhe red WDM FiIfer moduIe
ond subfrocf 4d8 from if (Zd8 for eoch connecfor).


Question
CoIcuIofe fhe difference befween fhe red WDM FiIfer moduIe's sfop-bond rejecfion of
green Iighf woveIengfhs ond ifs inserfion Ioss.
Using fypicoI figures specified in fhe user monuoI: -I8d8 - -od8 ~ -IZd8.




For fhe nexf quesfion you'II need fhe equofion: . This furns o decibeI
bock info o rofio for voIfoges.


Question 7
Use your onswer fo Quesfion o ond fhe equofion obove fo coIcuIofe os o simpIe rofio fhe
brighfness of fhe green Iighf reIofive fo fhe red Iighf ouf of fhe red WDM FiIfer moduIe.
Assuming o difference of -IZd8, fhe green Iighf is obouf 0.Zb of fhe brighfness
of fhe red Iighf. Puf fhe ofher woy, fhe red Iighf is of Ieosf 4 fimes brighfer.





Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

Z0
I
d8
Log rofio

Experimenf I3 - OpficoI Iosses Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs I3-I7

Purt D - Meusuring u CoupIer moduIe's Iosses
The nexf porf of fhe experimenf Iefs you quonfifofiveIy invesfigofe fhe opficoI Iosses oround
one of fhe Emono FOTEx CoupIer moduIes.

47. Pefurn fhe sef-up fo fhe simpIe orrongemenf shown in Figure I3 beIow.




Figure 13


48. Adjusf fhe scope's ChonneI I ScoIe confroI fo sef fhe recovered messoge fo on
oppropriofe si;e on fhe dispIoy.

49. Check fhof fhe recovered messoge's PMS voIfoge is sfiII fhe some os fhe green
Tronsmiffer's reference voIfoge in TobIe Z.

TRANSMITTER
GREEN
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
RECEIVER
OUTPUT
LO
HI
CH0
CH1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrmsmax
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf I3 - OpficoI Iosses I3-I8

b0. Infroduce fhe Ieff-side CoupIer moduIe fo fhe sef-up os shown in Figure I4 beIow.

Note: The righf-side CoupIer moduIe con be used insfeod buf if you do be corefuI
becouse fhe porf Ioyouf on fhof device is differenf.


Figure 14


This sef-up con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure Ib beIow. The onoIog messoge is
now fronsmiffed over on opficoI fiber vio o CoupIer moduIe's sfrong pofh.




Figure 1


bI. Adjusf fhe scope's ChonneI I ScoIe confroI fo enIorge fhe recovered messoge's si;e on
fhe dispIoy.

bZ. Meosure fhe recovered messoge's new PMS voIfoge ond record your meosuremenf in fhe
oppropriofe ceII of TobIe 4 on poge I3-ZI.

b3. CoIcuIofe ond record fhe CoupIer moduIe's sfrong pofh porf-fo-porf Ioss using fhe Ioss
equofion in fhe preIiminory discussion ond fhe oppropriofe reference voIfoge in TobIe Z.
CH0
CH1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrms max
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
TRANSMITTER
GREEN
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
COUPLER
B
A
C
D
RECEIVER
OUTPUT
LO
HI
Tx
(0reen)
ZkH;
A
8
C
D
Pecovered
messoge
To CH I
Px
AnoIog messoge
To CH 0
CoupIer

Experimenf I3 - OpficoI Iosses Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs I3-I9




b4. Modify fhe sef-up os shown in Figure Io beIow.




Figure 1


This sef-up con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure I7 beIow. The onoIog messoge is
now fronsmiffed over on opficoI fiber vio fhe CoupIer moduIe's weok pofh.



Figure 17



bb. Adjusf fhe scope's ChonneI I ScoIe confroI fo enIorge fhe recovered messoge's si;e on
fhe dispIoy.

Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.
CH0
CH1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrmsmax
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
TRANSMITTER
GREEN
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
COUPLER
B
A
C
D
RECEIVER
OUTPUT
LO
HI
Tx
(0reen)
ZkH;
A
8
C
D
Pecovered
messoge
To CH I
Px
AnoIog messoge
To CH 0

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf I3 - OpficoI Iosses I3-Z0

bo. Meosure fhe recovered messoge's new PMS voIfoge ond record your meosuremenf in fhe
oppropriofe ceII of TobIe 4 on poge I3-ZI.

b7. CoIcuIofe ond record fhe CoupIer moduIe's weok pofh porf-fo-porf Ioss (ogoin using fhe
Ioss equofion in fhe preIiminory discussion ond fhe oppropriofe reference voIfoge in
TobIe Z).

b8. Modify fhe sef-up os shown in Figure I8 beIow.




Figure 1


This sef-up con be represenfed by fhe bIock diogrom in Figure I9 beIow. The onoIog messoge is
now fronsmiffed over on opficoI fiber vio fhe CoupIer moduIe's "refIecfed" pofh.



Figure 19


CH0
CH1
SCOPE
10VDC
7Vrmsmax
MASTER
SIGNALS
100kHz
DIGITAL
10kHz
DIGITAL
2kHz
DIGITAL
500Hz
DIGITAL
2kHz
SINE
TRANSMITTER
GREEN
INPUT
DIGITAL
ANALOG
COUPLER
B
A
C
D
RECEIVER
OUTPUT
LO
HI
Tx
(0reen)
ZkH;
A
8
C
D
Pecovered
messoge
To CH I
Px
AnoIog messoge
To CH 0

Experimenf I3 - OpficoI Iosses Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs I3-ZI

b9. Adjusf fhe scope's ChonneI I ScoIe confroI fo enIorge fhe recovered messoge's si;e on
fhe dispIoy.

o0. Meosure fhe recovered messoge's new PMS voIfoge ond record your meosuremenf in fhe
oppropriofe ceII of TobIe 4 beIow.

oI. CoIcuIofe ond record fhe CoupIer moduIe's bock refIecfion (ogoin, using fhe Ioss equofion
in fhe preIiminory discussion ond fhe oppropriofe reference voIfoge in TobIe Z).


TubIe 4
Messuge voItuge
for Step Z
Strong puth port-
to-port Ioss
{Step 3}




Messuge voItuge
for Step
Weuk puth port-to-
port Ioss
{Step 7}




Messuge voItuge
for Step 0
uck refIection
{Step 1}








Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf I3 - OpficoI Iosses I3-ZZ


Question
CoIcuIofe fhe difference befween fhe porf-fo-porf Iosses of fhe CoupIer moduIe's weok
ond sfrong pofhs.
Using fypicoI figures specified in fhe user monuoI: -od8 - -4.bd8 ~ -I.bd8



Question 9
Using your onswer fo Quesfion 8, coIcuIofe how much Iower fhe Iighf infensify is on fhe
weok pofh's oufpuf os o rofio compored fo fhe sfrong pofh's oufpuf. Tip: You'II need fhe
equofion on poge I3-Io ogoin.
0.84.



Question 10
CoIcuIofe fhe difference befween fhe porf-fo-porf Ioss of fhe CoupIer moduIe's sfrong
pofh ond fhe bock refIecfion.
Using fypicoI figures: -ZId8 - -4.bd8 ~ -Io.bd8



Question 11
Using your onswer fo Quesfion I0, coIcuIofe how much Iower fhe Iighf infensify of fhe
bock refIecfion is os o rofio compored fo fhe sfrong pofh's oufpuf.
0.Ib.



Question 1Z
Whof ofher porf in fhis sef-up hos bock-refIecfion Iighf on if7
Porf A.



Experimenf I3 - OpficoI Iosses Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs I3-Z3




oZ. If fime permifs, repeof Sfeps b0 fo oI using porf D os fhe inpuf ond fhe porf A, 8 ond C
oufpufs fo see if fhe CoupIer moduIe's opficoI performonce is fhe some in opposife
direcfion.

o3. If fime permifs, repeof Sfeps 47 fo oI using fhe red Tronsmiffer moduIe fo see if fhe
CoupIer moduIe's opficoI performonce is offecfed by woveIengfh.





Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before finishing.
Ask fhe insfrucfor fo check
your work before confinuing.

Z009 Emono Insfrumenfs Experimenf I3 - OpficoI Iosses I3-Z4
















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Eperiments in Modern Fiber Optic Communicuitons Systems
For NI" ELVIS I & II,
Aufhor: 8orry Duncon


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