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Footings are the first part of a house that is built,
and they stop your house shifting from its
intended position.
Every new house and extension will need new
footings, the footings will need to be specified by
an engineer ( or possibly architect if they are very
straight forward).
There are a number of factors which will
determine the type of foundations you will need.
Each site is unique, the slope, soil type and
rock position will all affect the design of your
footings. If there is any slope to your site you
may need to do some cut and fill excavation or
you may have a site with uneven rock under
the soil. Footings need to have even bearing
on solid ground, this means that the concrete
needs to sit on rock or very hard compacted
The excavation of footings will be done with a
bobcat or excavator. If you need to drill piers
then the excavator that you hire will need to
have a orger bit attachment. You may need to
consider how the excavator will access your
site and where the excavated earth will go, are
there some garden beds planned for near the
1. The type of house you are building:
If you are building a house which includes many of the
following, then your house will be heavy. This means that your
footing system will need to be substantial to handle the higher
loads, and will typically come at an increased cost.

Concrete slabs
Double brick walls (known as "full-brick")
Multi-storey (particularly if concrete slabs are used for
floors at all levels)
Tile roofing
Large load-bearing concrete columns and walls ("framing").

If you are building a house which includes many of the
following, then your house will be lighter and you will be
able to use a foundation system which typically would not
cost as much.

Steel frame (advantage is they are truly straight, and
unaffected by vermin)
Timber frame
Virtually any floor system which is not concrete
Cladded walls (metal or timber)
Metal roofing

2. The type of ground you are building on
Foundations for wood-frame structures are built
to take advantage of the structures ability to
spread the load out over a wider area rather than
concentrating it on columns. Because of this, it is
important for the footings to be placed deep
enough in the ground to avoid freeze/thaw cycles
There are two primary options for foundations
for wood-frame structures: concrete and pressure
treated wood.
By eliminating the concrete floor slab, wooden
foundations are best used in areas with heavy
precipitation, which can cause problems with
the concrete. It is important that the wood be
pressure treated to ensure that the structural
stability of the wood is not compromised due
to insects and moisture.
A. Anchor bolts
B. Ledger board
C. Joists (typical)
D. Band board
E. Vertical post
F. Concrete footing (shown with form)

Brief History
Therefore, whosoever heareth these saying of mine,
doeth them, I will liken him onto a wise man, which
built his house upon a rock, And the rain descends,
and the floods came, and the winds blew, and beat
upon the house, and it fell not for it was founded
upon a rock.

Matthew 7:24-25
The advanced knowledge brought about by the science of Geology and
Soil mechanics have confirmed the rock foundation bed to be the most
stable medium where to lay the footing of the structure .
The early buildings of the babylonian Empire constructed Raft or Mat
foundation from out of the sundried and burned bricks on top of flat
moulded earth which was filled up from 1.50m. to 4.50meters high The
many foundation was constructed to a thickness of 1.00. to 1.50meters of
brick platform bound together by a natural asphaltic material forming a
solid foundation where the city walls, temples and public buildings, were
The Greeks extensively used marble blocks as foundation oftenly tied
together with metal band likewise, the Chinese buildings also used large
stones carefully cut and accurately fitted to each other without the use of
mortar as evidently seen in the construction of the Great Wall of China.
The Roman builders introduced various foundation types to
suit the soil condition Woodpiles were used on very soft
ground and ground and wooden mats were laid underground
where masonry structure were built upon them. The Roman
builders further developed, this early use of concrete, was
forgotten consisting of flat stone bonded with cement which,
unfortunately, this erly use of concrete, was forgotten during
the middle ages.
The introduction the grillage footing resolved the problem of
foundation weight in the year 1880 when it was first
introduced. The improved grillage footing made of steel rail
embedded in concrete was introduced in Chicago by John
Root in the year 1891. The advent of reinforced concrete in
the early part of 1890. superceded all these kind of footing
due to the advantage it offered in all aspect of building

The earth underlying the building of man provides the
ultimate support of the structure against all elements of
nature. Thus, the soil where the building stand automatically
becomes a material of construction Physically, soil is a
material to carry load satisfactorily, a greater area of volume
of soil is necessarily required. Loads that are carried by the
steel, concrete, and wood has to be transmitted to the ground
but in needs a transfer device called foundation.
Foundation has its purpose, to transmit the collective building
load to the in such a way that the supporting soil will not be
overstressed (load) and will not undergo deformation that
may cause serious building settlement.
A structural foundation performs properly only if the
supporting soil behaves properly. Building support is provided
by a soil foundation system, which is an in separable
combination. Considering that soil foundation system
responsible for proving support for the lifetime of the
building, all forces that may not over that time period must be
considered. For the building to last, its foundation must be
designed for the worst conditions that may develop.

Typically, foundation design always include the
1. the effect of the natures dead load plus
the live load
2. Load effects caused by wind, heat, water,
3. Explosive blasts

Foundation are grouped into two boad
1. Spread footing
2. Mat or Raft foundations
Shallow foundations includes:
a. Spread footing
b. Mat or Raft foundations
Deep foundations also includes:
a. Piles
b. Piles
c. Caissons
The Floating Foundations is a special category
of foundation and is not a different type but it
represents a special application of soil
mechanics principles to combination mat-
caisson foundation
The General types of foundations are:
1. Spread Footing
2. Mat or Raft Foundation
3. Piles and Pier Foundation
4. Floating Foundation
Spread footing
Spread Footing is typically of plan concrete or reinforced
concrete. Basically, it is used to spread put building column
and wall loads over a sufficiently large soil area.
Spread footing are constructed as close to the ground surface
as the building design permits and as controlled by local
conditions and building regulations. To be classified as spread
footing, the foundation does not have to be on shallow depth.
However, spread footing will be located deep enough into
ground if soil conditions or building design requires.
The spread footing foundations for building columns and wall
have a common shape of:
1. Square
2. Rectangular
3. Trapezoidal
4. Long Strips

Mat or Raft Foundations
The mat or raft foundation is considered a large
footing extending over a wide area. Frequently, the
entire area is occupied by mat or raft foundation.
The mat foundation is adopted in a condition where
individual column footings (if used) would tend to be
closer with each other or tend to overlap. The type
of foundation is utilized as a means to reduce
differential settlement between adjacent areas. The
mat structure should be rigid and thicker than spread
footing to function effectively.
Pile and Pier Foundations
Pile and pier foundation is intended to transmit structural
load through the upper zone of poor soil to a depth where the
earth is capable of providing the desired support. The type of
foundation is utilized where it is necessary to provide
resistance to uplift or where is a possible loss of ground or
erosion due to flowing water. Piles are slender foundation
units driven into place. Pier units are formed in place by
excavating an opening to the desired depth where concrete is
poured. Naturally, such foundations are large enough to allow
an individual to enter and inspect the exposed earth layer.
A clear distinction between pile and pier type type foundation
is not definite because of the changes and innovations in
construction or installation methods. The developing practice
classify all deep slender foundation units simply as pile type
foundation with terms such as driven, bored, or drilled all
deep slender foundation units simply as pile type foundation
with terms such as driven, bored or drilled and precast or cast
in place to indicate the method of installation and
construction .
A caisson is a structural box or chamber that is sunk in place
or built in place by excavating systematically below the
bottom of the unit which descends to the final depth.

Open caisson maybe: box type or pile type. The top and
bottom are opening during installation. When in place, the
bottom maybe sealed with concrete if needed to keep out of
water. Sometimes the bottoms are socketed into rock to
obtain a high bearing capacity.
Pneumatic caissons have the top and side sealed and use
compressed air to prevent water and soil from entering the
lower chamber where excavations to advance the caissons
Floating Foundation
The floating foundation is a special type of foundation applied
in location where deep deposits of compressible cohesive
soils exist and the use of piles is impractical. The floating
foundation concept requires that a building substructure
(below the ground structure) be assembled as a combination
mat and caisson to create a rigid box. This foundation is
installed to a selected depth that the total weight of the soil
excavated for the rigid box is equal to the total weight of the
planned building. In theory, the soil below the structure occur
when the bottom of the excavation expands after excavation
and recompresses during and after the construction
By definition, piles is a structural member of
small cross-sectional area with reasonable
length driven down the ground by means of
hammer or vibratory generators.
Piles are classified according to:
a. Type and size
b. Shape as to the cross-section
c. Material

As to the kind of material
a. Timber pile
b. Concrete pile
c. Metal pile
The important functions and uses of Piles:
The decision to use pile foundation is the result of scientific
method of exploration and tests of the underlying soil
conducted by designing engineers which were brought about
by any one of the following purpose:
a. As friction pile at their bottom portion transmitting the load
through soft strata into stiffer lower strata.
b. As friction pile utilizing its full length.
c. As soil compactor
d. As end bearing column
e. As stabilizer of banks
f. As batter pile
g. As a dolphin
h. As sheeting
Unless batter piles are intended to be effective in serving any
one of these functions, they should not be utilized, otherwise,
driving piles without any purpose will be expensive exercise in
Wooden post
The traditional methods of construction utilizing wood as post
have been outmoded by reinforced concrete column and the
use of load bearing masonry blocks. The use of lumber in
most construction is now limited to floor and roof framing,
studs and joists, ceiling and paneling. Lumber material is fast
becoming are and costly despite of its being inferior in quality.
Lumber, which is most abundant and a cheap construction
material something ago has turned out to become hot item
For brief historical background, the construction of
building with wooden post is briefly discussed as
1. wooden post to rest on a concrete footing is dressed with
its bottom end squared and trimmed perpendicular at its side.
2. A charcoal or chalk mark is established along the face
length of the post connecting both ends. This marking will
serve as the reference line for checking its vertical position
with the aid of plumb bob.
3. From the bottom of the post, measure and indicate the
height of the girder and girts, make the necessary dap before
its erection to assure that the girder and girts are in the
horizontal level. However, it is assumed that the concrete
footing is horizontally leveled with the floor line.
4. The post could be erected manually using 2*3 lumber
braces and man power or by the use of rope and pulley
mounted on a jump-pole.
5. Check the vertical position of the post on two sides with the
aid of plumb bob, then have it permanent position. The size of
the drill must be the same as that of the machine bolts.
6. With boring tools, drill a hole across the opposite strap and
have it bolted to its permanent position. The size of the drill
must be the same as that of the machine bolts.

In most cases, not all wooden post selected for post
structures are straight. Some are bowed slightly curved but
thry could be corrected in the process of construction.
Bent posts are erected in a counter-bend position with other
post facing toward the outside of the building perimeter. After
mounting the girder and floor joist-straightening operation
could follow.
However, no attempt should be done through the use of a bar
clamp or a rope as shown in Figure 4-2. The common failure
of this process is the crushing of footing pedestal caused by
twisting of the wrought iron post strap. However, it could be
prevented with a proper diagonal and horizontal bracing at
the lower potion of the wooden post along the post strap.
Reinforced Concrete
The term column is loosely used in a general sense for any
support such as a post or pier. The chief purpose of a column
is to support a floor and roof beam or arch. Most columns are
free standing; some however, are integrated, that is , part of
the circumference is embedded in a wall.

Reinforced concrete columns are classified
into two:
1. Short column-when the unsupported height is not greater
than times shortest lateral dimension of the cross section.
2. Long column-when the unsupported height is more than
ten times the shortest dimensions of the cross section.
Columns are classified according to the types
of reinforcement used:
1. Tied column
2. Spiral column
3. Composite column
4. Combined column
5. Lally column
The cross section of a column is either
1. Square
2. Rectangular
3. Circular
4. Elliptical
5. Octagonal or any other geometrical forms depending upon
the needs and tastes of the designer.
Tied Column
Tied column has reinforcement consisting of vertical or
longitudinal bars held in position by lateral reinforcement
called lateral ties. The vertical reinforcement shall consist of at
least 4 bars with a minimum diameter of 16mm or number 5
steel bars.
Lateral Ties-the ACI code on lateral ties
All non-prestressed bars for tied column shall be enclosed by
lateral ties of at least NO. 3 bar size for longitudinal bars NO.
10 or smaller and at least NO. 4 size for NO. 11, 14 and 18 and
bundled longitudinal bars. The spacing of the ties shall not
exceed 16 longitudinal bar diameter or the least dimension of
the column.

The Code is specific as to the size of the lateral ties
required with respect to the size of the longitudinal
bars, which is the main reinforcement of the column,
1. A No. 3 or 10mm lateral tie is required if the main
reinforcement of the column size is No. 10(32mm) or smaller.
2. No. 4(12mm) lateral ties shall be used if the main
reinforcement size of the column is either Nos. 11, 14 or
18(36mm, 45mm or 57mm) steel bars.

The spacing of the lateral ties of a tied column is governed by
1. That the distance should not be more than 16 times the
diameter of the main reinforcing bar.
2. That the spacing should not be more than 48 times the
diameter of the lateral ties.
3. Spacing should not be more than the shortest dimension of
the cross section of the column.
To find the spacing of a lateral tie required for
a tie column the following illustration is
Determine the spacing of the lateral ties for
a tied column as shown in figure 8-3.
1. The diameter of the longitudinal bar is 20mm.
2. Multiply 16*20mm=320mm or 32cm
3. Multiply 48*10mm=480mm or 48cm.
4. The shortest dimension of the column is 35cm.
From the result of the above computation, it could be seen
that the least value found is 32cm. Therefore, the spacing of
the lateral ties will be 32cm. On center.
When there are more than 4 vertical bars in a tied column,
additional ties shall be provided to hold the longitudinal bars
firmly to its designed position. The Code further states:
The tie shall be so arranged that every corner and the
alternate longitudinal bar shall have lateral support provided
by the corner of the tie having an inclined angle of not more
than 135 degrees and no bar shall be farther apart than 15cm.
Clear on either side from such a laterally supported bar.
Reinforcement Ratio and Limitation
The size and number of steel bars to be places in a tied
column is governed by the proportion of its cross sectional
area to the gross area of the column. The Code so provides
The cross sectional area of the vertical reinforcement shall
not be less than 0.01 nor more than 0.08 times the gross area
of the column section.
Find the minimum and maximum steel bars that could be
placed in a tied column having a cross sectional dimension of
25*30cm. In figure 8-5.
A. Determine the Minimum Reinforcement Area:
1. The cross sectional area of the column is:
2. Find the minimum area of the vertical reinforcement area
3. Convert this area to the size and number of steel bars
with the aid of Table 10-1 and 10-4 Area of 4pcs. No. 5

B. Determine the Maximum Reinforcement Area
1. 0.08* Maximum area of steel bars.
2. Referring to Table 10-2
10pcs. Of No. 9(28mm)
8pcs. Of No. 10(32mm)

From the result of the illustration (Figure 8-5), the minimum
steel bars that could be placed in a 25*30cm, column are 4pcs.
16mm. And the maximum are either 10pcs. 28mm. Or 8pcs.
Bundled Bars in a Column
Difficulties have been experienced in placing concrete mixture
inside forms congested with steel bars. A column that is
heavily loaded with reinforcement has this serious problem
when large number of steel bars are positioned and held
individually by lateral ties. Bundled bars consisting of 2 to 4
bars tied in direct contact with each other is somethings
employed to using bundled bars is to accommodate the
required steel bars for the column and at the same time
provide enough space for the concrete thereby observing the
rules and specifications as to the spacing of bar limitation and
the required concrete protective covering.
Failure of Tied Column
The failure of a tied column is by crushing and shearing
outward along an inclined plane where vertical bars fail by
bucking outward between lateral ties. The failure of a tied
column is said to be abrupt and complete and is considered to
be more disastrous than the failure of a single beam girder in
the same floor.
Methods of Constructing Tied Column
There are three methods presented in constructing a tied
column for a small and medium reinforced concrete structure:
1. Block laying after the concreting of tied column.
2. Concreting of the tied column after block laying.
3. Simultaneous concreting of columns and wall.
Stock laying after the concreting of tied column.
This type of construction is actually erecting an isolated or
independent column providing steel dowels in anticipation of
the installation of walls and partitions. There are two methods
adopted in setting tied column reinforcement of the column
on the footing by means of steel dowel embedded during the
concreting of the footing slab. The other is directly attaching
the main reinforcement itself to the footing slab
reinforcement, followed by concreting of the footing slab
ahead or monolithically with the column.

The construction procedures under this method of block laying after the
concreting of the concreting of the tied column are as follows:
1. Install the scaffolding that will support the column reinforcement and
its form. Usually, there are 4 pieces of lumber installed vertically around
the 4 corners of the column provided with horizontal members and
diagonal braces. The horizontal member of the scaffolding is vertically
spaced at about 1.00 meter between each layer.
2. Transfer the marking and reference point of the building from the batter
board to the upper and lower member of the scaffolding. By the use of
plumb bob, check the vertical projections of this marking.
3. Install the assembled tied column reinforcement directly to the footing
slab reinforcement if concreting of the column and foundation are
simultaneous, or to the footing dowels if concreting of the foundation slab
is ahead of the column.
4. Provide a temporary wood brace on top and lower members of the
scaffolding across the column reinforcement. Insert these braces across
the tied column reinforcement to hold the bars to its vertical position. The
idea of inserting this brace across the tied reinforcement is to give way to
the mounting or installation of the column forms.
5. Verify the vertical position of the reinforcement in the row
of several columns in series both in either direction.
6. Install first the narrower side forms in opposite direction on
its vertical position.
7. Do not cover the form until after the following accessories
have been verified from the plan and installed, if there is:
a. Downspout
b. Electrical conduits and utility boxes
c. Stand pipe or fire hydrant d.
Plumbing soil and water supply line e.
Telephone line f.
Burglar alarm line g.
Intercom door bell line
h. Steel dowels for walls and partitions, etc.

8. Have the work inspected by authorized inspectors or
supervisions. This is done as a matter of procedures to give
access to the inspector to see everything inside the form
before it is closed.
9. Before covering the form, see to it that the wide cover is
provided with charcoal line mark and nail as a guide to assure
the column size and in fixing the form to its vertical position.
All dirt and debris inside the form shall be removed before
10. Do not leave the forms if it is not firmly set and completely
supported. Most of the bulging failures of forms are due to
negligence and the inherited manana habit attitude.
11. Verify if the form is provided with window opening for
pouring of concrete at lower elevation pouring of concrete at
high elevation is one cause of segregation of particles
Concreting of column after block laying of walls
Under this type of construction, which is very common, the
wall footing and the column footing are worked and
concreted ahead. The column and the wall reinforcement are
set into its final position followed by installing masonry blocks
then concreting of the column.

The methods of construction are as follows:
1. After the excavation of the soil, guide post for block laying
is prepared and installed about the corner of the wall line.
This guide post is usually lumber of the size from2*2 or 2*3
erected vertically in plumb line to serve as guide of the mason
for his block laying work.
2. Concretion of the wall footing is followed immediately by
concrete block laying. The idea is to have a strong bond
between the footing and the masonry block aside from the
saving in the use of mortar.

3. The tied column footing is concreted much ahead than the
wall footing with the column reinforcement embedded on it.
Masonry block laying stops where it meets the column
4.after the block laying, the forms for the column are installed
and properly braced, but see to it that accessories such as
downspouts, electrical conduits, etc. are also installed if called
for the plans.
5.prior to the pouring of concrete mix to the column, the
inside space of the forms are cleared with dirt, sawdust,
debris and washed thoroughly then grouted before pouring of

The popularity of this method of construction is
attributed to the following advantages:
1. This method of construction requires less material
for forms scaffolding and bracing.
2. Once the column form is mounted, G.I. tie wire
could be sufficient to hold the form in rigid position
3. The bond between the wall and the column is
stronger than when they are connected by mortar as
in the other method of construction.
4. Cracks between the wall and the column are
unlikely or seldom appear on the surface.
5. The horizontal bars used in block laying are laid
continuously across the column reinforcement. This process
minimize the horizontal overlapping of splices and
consequently eliminate the use of horizontal dowels
supposed to be inserted across the column in preparation for
the wall construction if column concreting is ahead of the
block laying.
6. The column will not be affected much by shocks or
vibrations caused by the removal of forms because the
column is laterally supported by the hollow block walls and
only two forms are to be removed.
7. The work is fast, easy, and economical with less destruction
of forms, lumber braces and supports, waste of nails and
labor aside from the handy handing in transferring and
reinstalling of the forms.
The methods of construction under the third category of
simultaneous pouring for column and walls in one setting of
mixing could only be made possible if the concrete mixture
for both the wall and columns are of the same proportions.
Otherwise, if the concrete proportion of column differs from
that of the wall, one structure must be poured ahead using
each specified mixture proportions. In such a case, the
column has the priority, which in effect, the methods of
construction fall under the first category.
Spiral Column
Spiral column is the term given where a circular concrete core
is enclosed by spirals with vertical or longitudinal bars. The
vertical reinforcement is provided with evenly spaced
continuous spiral held firmly in position by at least three
vertical bar spacers.
The column reinforcement is also protected by a concrete
covering cast monolithically with the core. Comparatively, this
type of column is stronger than the tied column and is
preferred for a slender (long) column in carrying heavy load.
When a load is imposed on a cylindrical column, a lateral
pressure is exerted at the confining materials, which
eventually causes hoop tension in the spiral. A closely spaced
spiral, confining the concrete and vertical bar, counteracts the
lateral expansion, while the concrete in the core increases its
carrying capacity. The sign of failure of spiral column is
advanced by the shell (protective covering) spall due to
excessive load, but failure of the column occurs only when the
spirals yield or burst.
Unlike the tied column that fails abruptly, the spiral column
with heavy spirals shows a gradual and ductile failure.
Spiral reinforcement limitation and Spacing
or cast in place of construction, the following should be observed:
1. The spiral column shall have a minimum diameter of 10 mm,
or 1cm.
2. The clear spacing between the spirals shall not be more
than 7.5cm. Or less than 2.5cm.
3. The longitudinal reinforcement area to the gross column
area shall not be less than 0.01 nor more than 0.08.
4. The minimum number of vertical bars shall not be less than
6 pieces of 16mm. Bar diameter.
Section 7-12 2 of the ACI Building Code provides that: Spiral
reinforcement for compression members shall consists of
evenly spaced continuous spiral held firmly in place and true
to the line by vertical spacers. At least two spacers shall be
used for spirals less than 50cm. diameter, three for spirals
50cm. to 75cm. In diameter and four spaces for more than
75cm. Diameter.
When bigger size of steel bar is used for spiral such as 16mm.
Or larger, three spaces shall be used for a spiral having 60cm.
diameterThe spiral shall be protected from distortion due to
handing and placing from the designed dimensions.
Spiral Anchorage and Spacing
The anchorage of spiral reinforcement shall be provided by
one and a half-extra turn of spiral bar or wire at each end of
the spiral unit. When splices are necessary for special bars it
shall be tension lap splices with 48 bar diameters as minimum
but in no cases shall be less than 30cm. or welded.
The reinforcing spiral shall extend from the floor level in any
storey or from the top of the footing to the level of the lowest
horizontal reinforcement in the slab, drop panel or beam
above. Where beams or brackets are not present on all sides
of the column, ties shall extend above the terminal of the
spiral to the bottom of the slab or drop panel. In a column
with a capital, the spiral shall extend to a plane at which the
diameter or width of the capital is twice that of the column.
Composite, Combined and Lally Column
Composite column is another type of column where structural
steel column is embedded into the concrete core of a spiral
column. The work involved under this type of column is
similar to that of a spiral column after the structural steel
have been set to its position.
The combined column is a column with a structural steel
encased in concrete of at least 7cm. Thick reinforced with
wire mess surrounding the column at a distance of 3cm.
Inside the outer surface of the concrete covering.
The construction process of a combined column calls for the
installation of the structural steel as the main reinforcement
followed by the attachment of the wire mesh covering. The
wire mesh serves as the holding rids of the encased concrete.
Usually the wire mess is attached to the structural steel by
weld. The forms are similar to that of the tied column
construction as previously discussed.
Lally column is a fabricated post made of steel pipe provided
with a plain flat steel bar or plate which hold a girder, bear or
girts. The steel pipe is something filled with a grout or
concrete for additional strength and protection from rust and

The Relationship Between the Material and the Structure
Building structure has to be distinguished from building
materials. Although, the quality and durability of the material
is a prime consideration, material in its original form as a unit
has nothing to do with the strength of participation in
supporting load nor resisting forces unless utilized as part of
the structural. The combination of different building materials
that make it into a building part is called building structure.
The utilization of the different materials in the structure has
their own purpose of service in counteracting the different
forces affecting the structure. This is where design comes in to
determine the sizes, quantity, quality, spacing, proportions,
Although this subject matter is beyond the scope of this book
to discuss stresses, moments, compression, torsion and the
like is considered as important matter since to discuss those
terms briefly will orient the beginner and future builders of
the rudimentary knowledge on how these terms influences
the principle on designing structure. Likewise, the reacting
behaviors of the structure when different forces are applied
on it are also relevant in the knowledge of building
The different kinds of stresses that may act on
structures are:
1. Compressive Stresses
2. Tensile (Tension) Stresses
3. Shear and Strain Stresses
4. Torsion Stress and Strain
Stresses on structures are usually brought
about by load, which are classified into three
a. Live load
b. Dead load
c. Environmental load
Live Load-refers to the occupancy load, which is either
partially or fully in place or may not be present at all.
Dead load-are those loads that are distributed or
concentrated, which are fixed in position throughout the
lifetime of the structure such as the weight of the structure
Environment load-consist of wind pressure and suctions,
earthquake, rainwater on flat roof, snow and forces caused by
temperature differentials.
Strength-is the cohesive power of the materials that resist an
attempt to pull it apart in the direction of its fiber.
Ultimate Strength-is the maximum unit of stress developed at
anytime before rupture.

Moment-is a kind of alteration or deformation produced by
the stresses.
Strain-is a kind of alteration or deformation produced by the
Stress-is an internal action set up between the adjacent
molecule of the body when acted upon by forces, or
combination of forces, which produces strain. Stress refers too
the pressure of load, weight and some other adverse forces or