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Selective Pallet Rack

Selective Pallet racking is by far the most common type of warehouse storage rack and
is what is typically thought of when the need arises for industrial type storage racking.
All selective rack is made from component pieces that are usually priced & purchased
Pallet Rack Uprights
Uprights (also called Frames, or less commonly, legs) are the support columns that hold
up individual shelves in a section of rack. Pallet Rack uprights form the ends of what are
commonly known as 'bays' of pallet racking. Each pallet rack bay must have at least two
uprights, however if multiple bays will be placed in a row they may share uprights (see
figure 1).

Pallet Rack Beams
Beams are used to create the actual 'shelf levels' that support loads and are held up by
pallet rack uprights. Pairs of beams form each individual shelf level (see figure 1). Shelf
capacity is determined by the height of the beam, length of the beam and the number of
shelves per bay. Most modern beams feature end clips that attach directly to the upright
without the use of specialized hardware, however there are many different brands
available that feature unique designs (see section on selective rack brands.)

How configuring of a rack installation is carried out?
Step 1: Size the product

The first step in determining what is needed is to size the product to be stored. The
product's width, depth and height are important to know, however you must also include
the height, depth and width of your pallet if you are using them (see figure 2). In addition
to the size of the product, the maximum weight of the product must also be determined.
These measurements are key to determining the correct rack for your needs.
Step 2: Rows & Bays

Most often, static racks are configured in rows to make maximum use of available space.
Rows can be configured in single or double (back to back) runs (see figure 3). The
number of rows created will be determined by the width of the bays needed (see figure

Determining the width of the bays is accomplished by using the product measurements
taken in Step 1. A good rule of thumb is to add 6" to the width of each load to get overall
bay width (also beam length - see below.) For example, if the product width is 42" and is
to be stored as two pallets per shelf, this is the correct equation: (42+6) x 2 =96" wide
bays. To determine the depth of your uprights, subtract 6" from the depth of the product
to allow the proper pallet overhang. For example, if the pallets are 48" deep, subtracting
6" gives an upright depth of 42". This overhang is adequate to insure that the weight of
the product will be evenly distributed on the beams however, a lesser overhang is
allowable as a function of aesthetics. If this is the case be sure that the pallets are in good
condition. In this situation we would also recommend the use of additional supports; ie.
Pallet Supports or Wire Decking (see figure 5 below).
As mentioned above, the beam length will be the exact same as the width of the bays.
The length of beams is always measured from the insides of the upright frames.

Step 3: Shelf Spacing & Overall Rack Height
To get the overall rack height, again use the load measurements taken at the beginning.
To each load, add 6" to get the distance between shelves. The beam height will also need
to be accounted for here and a rough estimate of 4", 5" or 6" per shelf level (depeding on
shelf capacity needed) will leave enough room for the beams. An equation to use for this
height would read as follows:

((Load Height + 6") x # of Shelf Levels)
([4", 5" or 6"] x # of Shelf Levels) = Upright Height

Note: - The top of the upright should be more than 1/2 the height of the pallet +load to
prevent loads from tipping over and falling off the rack. The bottom of the top load
should never be at the top of the upright.
Other items to take into account when determining the overall rack height are the overall
height of the ceiling, sprinkler system, lights and any other obstructions. Make sure to
also account for the maximum reach of the lift truck that will retrieve the pallets. Also of
note when determining aisle width is the turning radius of the lift truck.

Step 4: Rack Accessories

Types Racks:
Increases productive use of floor space by 60% by storing two pallet loads at each aisle
lane. Uses deep reach lift trucks.


Single Deep Vs Double Deep
Double Deep Pallet Rack Systems increase productive use of floor space by about 60% to
65%. They offer low initial cost, good density and selectivity.
Double deep pallet rack has become a very popular choice in high throughput
operations by offering efficient use of available storage space.
Double Deep is similar to selective racking; but pallets are now stored two rows
deep instead of one. This type of racking therefore requires specialised pallet handling
equipment using ether a specialised forklift or a standard unit a with double deep
handling attachment.

The most common forklift used for double-deep handing is a reach truck.
One key disadvantage with reach trucks is that they require a counterbalance for loading
and unloading the pallet onto trucks, which can double capital investment requirements
for your pallet handling equipment.

Another Option is articulated forklifts which are able to work in double deep narrow
aisles while still doing the job of a counter balance
Douple-Deep Racking Advantages & Disadvantages
Increased storage capacity compared with Selective Racking
Medium to low storage system.
Can increase pallet storage by as much as 10-15% depending on racking layout.

Reduced SKUs accessibility
LIFO inventory management.
Special trucks required.