Chapter 4 Prefixes The Language of Medicine Apnea Without breathing Anoxia A condition of no oxygen in the tissue Abnormal Irregular

Abductor Any muscle that moves a part of the body away from the body Adductor Any muscle that moves a part of the body towards the middle line of the body Adrenal glands Two endocrine glands each above a kidney / suprarenal glands Anabolism The process of making complex molecules such as proteins from simpler substances Analysis Separating a substance into its components Ante cibum Before meals

Anteflexion The abnormal bending forward of an organ especially the bending of the body of the womb towards the front Antepartum Before birth Antisepsis The destruction of microorganisms to prevent infection Antibiotic A substance produced by a microorganism that reduces or inhibits the growth of other organisms Antigen Any substance that the body regards as foreign and stimulates production of antibodies Antibody A protein produced by WBC to fight antigens Antitoxin An antibody produced by the body to counteract a toxin Autoimmune The body makes antibodies against its normal cells and tissues causing inflammation Bi furc ation Branching into two parts such as bifurcation of the trachea Bilateral Pertaining to both sides

Bradycardia A condition of slow heart rate / a pulse of less than 60 Catabolism Breaking down of complex materials to form simpler substances and release energy Congenital anomaly An abnormality present at birth Connective tissue A tissue that binds or supports other tissues and parts - bone, cartilage and fibrous tissues are examples. Contraindication Any factor in a patient’s condition that makes it unwise to pursue a certain line of treatment Contralateral Affecting the opposite side of the body Dehydration Deficiency of water in body tissue Diameter Length of a straight line between opposite points on the periphery of a circular body part (blood vessels or intestines) Diarrhea Frequent discharge of watery and loose wastes from the colon Dialysis Complete separation of nitrogenous wastes/urea from the blood when kidneys fail

Dyspnea Painful/difficult breathing Dysplasia Condition of abnormal formation Ectopic pregnancy Development of a fetus in a place other than the uterus (fallopian tubes) ==== Endocardium The inner lining of the heart Endoscope An instrument to visually examine the interior of the body (bronchsocpe and colonoscope) Endotracheal Pertaining to within the trachea Epithelium Layer of cells covering the external surface of the body and lining the hollow tubes within the body Euphoria A condition of exaggerated well-being (feeling good) Euthyroid Having a normally functioning thyroid gland Exophthalmos Protrusion of the eyeballs (associated with hyperthyroidism) Hemiglossectomy Removal (resection) of half (one side) of the tongue

Hyperglycemia High levels of sugar in the blood Hyperplasia Condition of increased formation of cells / increase in cell numbers Hypertrophy an increase in the size of a muscle or an organ because of an increase in the size of the individual cells Hypodermic Pertaining to under the skin Hypoglycemia Lower than normal level of sugar in the blood Insomniac Pertaining to without sleep Incision The process of cutting into Infracostal Pertaining to below the ribs Intercostal Pertaining to between the ribs intravenous Pertaining to within a vein Macrocephaly Abnormal largeness of the head

Malignant Cancerous; harmful Malaise A general feeling of being unwell Metacarpal bones Bones that lie beyond the wrist bones (hand bones) Metamorphosis An abnormal condition of change in shape or form Metastasis Spread of a cancerous tumor from its original site to a new or distant location Microscope An instrument to view small objects Neonatal Pertaining to a new born baby/ the first four weeks after birth Neoplasm A new and abnormal growth of tissue / tumor (benign or malignant) Pancytopenia Deficiency of all blood cells – red, white blood cells and platelets Paralysis Destruction of nerve tissue leading to loss of sensation or motion in a part of the body

Parathyroid glands Two pairs of endocrine glands situated behind the thyroid gland Percutaneous Pertaining to through the skin Pericardium A membrane (sac) surrounding the heart Periosteum A membrane surrounding a bone Polymorphonuclear Pertaining to a nucleus with several shapes Polyneuritis Inflammation of many nerves Postmortem After death Postpartum After birth Precancerous Pertaining to occurring before a malignant condition Prenatal Pertaining to before birth Prodrome Symptoms that appear before the onset of a more serious illness

Prolapse sliding forward or downward of a part of the body / uterus Pseudocyesis False pregnancy Relapse Return/recurrence of symptoms of a disease after apparent recovery (sliding back) Remission disappearance of the symptoms of a disease Recombinant DNA Insertion of a gene (region of DNA) from an organism into the DNA of another organism Retroperitoneal Pertaining to behind the peritoneum Retroflexion The bending back of an organ or a part of an organ especially the upper part of the womb Subcutaneous Pertaining to under the skin Subcutaneous layer Lower layer of the skin composed of fatty tissue Suprapubic Pertaining to above the pubic bones / anterior part of the hip bone

Syndactyly The congenital fusion of fingers or toes Synthesis The combination of simple substances to create something new and more complex Syndrome A set of symptoms that occur together indicating a particular condition or disorder Symbiosis An association between two different species of organisms in which there is mutual aid and benefit Symmetry Equality of parts, literally measured together (on the opposite side of the body) Symphysis Bones that grow together separated by a piece of fibrocartilage (pubic symphysis) Tachypnea A condition of fast breathing Transfusion The transfer of blood from one person to another Transurethral Pertaining to across the urethra Ultrasonography Use of high frequency sound waves that are beyond the range of normal hearing to produce a record or a picture of an organ

Unilateral Pertaining to one side

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