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"It may be thought in the case of the Bible there is no need for textual investigation; that God would not allow
textual errors to creep in to it during the years it has been handed down. But that is simply not true. God did not
choose to exercise such a miraculous providence over the books of the Bible".
(The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Bible by Ronald E. Murphy,O. Cram. p37-38)
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Y ~ 7 \ : Z k !* g { ~ Y g ~ H Z k ~ H : 1943 Z k Z i !* g { ~ 7 \ : X
"In the present day indeed this art, which is called Textual Criticism and which is used with great and
praiseworthy results in the editions of profane writings is also quite rightly employed in the case of the Sacred
Books because of that very reverence which is due to the Divine Oracles. For its very purpose is to insure that
the sacred text be restored, as perfectly as possible, be purified from the corruption due to the carelessness of
the copyists and be freed , as for as may be done, from glosses and omissions, for the interchange and
repetitions of words and from all other kinds of mistakes, which are wont to make their way gradually in to
writings handed down through many Centuries ."
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"One of the oldest attempts to supplement and finish Mark is the so called "longer endingo"(Vss.9-20). This is
not found in the best MSS (B SK sys,etc.) and dates probably from the second century; it was compiled out of
the data of the other Gospels, and even of Acts,and may have been originally independent list of resurrection
appearances.The author was probably, as Burkitt and Conybere held, the second century presbyter Aristion or
Ariston. It is attributed to him in an Armenian MS written in 989."
(The Interpreters Bible . New york Abingdon. Cokesbury Press Neshvill Parthenon Press Nashville.U.S.A)
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"he parted from them and they returned to Jeruselem with great joy."
~ Z k F, Z k b : New English Bible
."... he parted from them and they returned to Jeruselem with great joy."
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"Although there is a Matthew named among the various lists of Jesus disciples, more telling is the fact that the
name of Levi, the tax collector who is Mark became a follower of Jesus, in Matthew is changes to Matthew.It
would appear from this that Matthew was claiming apostolic authority for his Gospel through this device but that
the writer of Matthew is probably anonymous."
D Biblical Literature E m n 6 m
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"Irenaeus calls John the beloved disciple, who wrote the Gospel in Ephesus. Papias mentions John the son of
Zebedee, the disciple, as well as another John, the presbyter, who might have been at Ephesus. From internal
evidence the Gospel was written by a beloved disciple whose name is unknown. Because both external and
internal evidence are doubtful, a working hypothesis is that John and the Johannine letters were written and
edited somewhere in the East(perhapes Ephesus) as the product of a "school," or Johannine circle, at the end of
the firest century ". (Biblical Literature B i k, ).
~ : The Westminster Dictionary of the Bible Z g
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"The Question of authorship is no easy problem. There is a strong and consistent tradition in the early church
that Matthew was the author. This tradition is confirmed: (1) by the conclusive evidence, furnished by the
contents, that the writer of this Gospel was a Jewish Christian emancipated from Judaism; (2) by the
improbability that so important a book would have been attributed to so obscure an apostle without good
reason;(3) by the likelihood that a publican would keep records; by the modest way in which the writer speaks
of the feast given by Matthew to Jesus". (ch.9:10 of Luke 5:29).
"On the other hand, many scholars feel that internal evidence makes it difficult to accept this tradition of the
Early Church. Matthew reproduces about 90 percent of the subject matter of Mark in language very largley
identical with that of Mark. Now it is highly improbable that an apostle would have used as a major source the
work of one who in all likelihood had not been an eyewitness of the ministry of Jesus. Papias, bishop of
Hierapdis in Phrygia, writing C. A. D. 140, may provide a key to this problem. Eusebius (H. E. iii. 39, 16) quotes
him as saying,"Matthew collected the logia(sayings, or oracles) in the Hebrew language, and each one
interpreted them as he was able. This brief sentence is probably to be interpreted as follows. The Apostle
Matthew (C.A.D 50) wrote down Jesus, saying in Aramaic. These sayings, with a brief frame of historical
narrative were translated into Greek and thus constituted the document that scholars designate by the symbol
(for German Quelle, source). This document and material from Mark and other sources were woven into what is
now our First Gospel. By this hypothesis, The name Matthew, originally attached is the Aramaic source of Q,
was transferred to the whole work which had incorporated it." (The Westminster Dictionary of the Bible by John
D. Davis, Phd., D,LL.D., late professor of OldTestament Literature, Princeton Theological Seminary Revised and
Rewritten by Henry Snyder Gehman, Phd., S.T.D Professor of Old Testament Literature and chairman of the
Department of Biblical Literature Princeton theological Seminary and Lecturer in Semitic languages, Princeton
University London and New York. Collins Clear Type Press. Glasgow-Toronto-Sydney and Auckland.)
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"Like the other Gospels the Fourth does not mention the writer's name but both internal and external
considerations lend some support to the traditional belief that the work was written by the Apostle John. . ....It
must be stated, however, that many scholars today do not feel the cogency of the above reasoning. They believe
that the author of the Fourth Gospel was distinct from John the apostle, who was the witness to whose
testimony the author and his followers appeal (John 19:33;21:24) The Evangelist (The author Proper) was,
according to these Scholars a disciple and follower of John the son of Zabedee (the apostle) and wrote from the
reminiscences and the teaching of his master, an eyewitness. His name is either unknown to us or, more likely,
was John the presbyter or Elder(cf.11 John I and III John I). Thus though the Apostle John was responsible for
the Gospel, it was actually written by the pen of another; it is according to this view 'the Gospel of John the Elder
according to John the Apostle'." (John The Gospel according to i k, ).
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"When Irenaeus(Ca.AD.185) quoted words 'said by Peter', he invariably had in mind passages from I peter. His
introductory formula, 'Peter says in his epistle,' implies that he recognised only one epistle as by Peter. He may
have known only one epistle under Peter's name. Conceivably, however, he knew II Peter but rejected its
authenticity. Contemporary leaders in the west, such as the author of the Muratorian canon, Tertullian, and
Cyprian were similarly silent regarding II Peter.
Clement of Alexandria was an Eastern contemporary of these Western leaders. Eusebius says that in his
Outlines clement gave 'Concise explanations of all the canonical scriptures,' including 'disputed' writings such as
'Jude and the Apocalypse known as Peter's. His statement clearly implies an acquaintance with II Peter.
Clement's extant writings, however, contain no quotations from II Peter and reflect no acquaintance with it.
The earliest explicit reference to II Peter is made by Origin (AD. 217-51). He says that Peter 'left only one
epistle of acknowledged genuineness'. Without trying to account for or refute current scepticism about the
authenticity of a second epistle under Peter's name, he says simply, 'This is doubtful'. Eusebius (ca AD.325)
included II Peter in his New Testament with the other Catholic epistles. He recognized, however that its
canonization, was the outcome of its being 'read in public in most churches' rather than the result of any
certainty of its authorship by Peter. Only I Peter he says, is recognised 'as genuine and acknowledged by the
elders of olden times.' II Peter is used 'along with the other scriptures' despite the tradition that 'it was not
canonical.' The Judgement prevailing in the Church caused Eusebius to describe II Peter as disputed,
nevertheless familiar to the majority.'
Athnasius and Augustine both recognized II Peter as canonical. Neither says anything about its authenticity.
Essentially the same position is taken by the third council of carthage(AD.397). Jerome at about this time
expressed the Judgement that Peter 'wrote two epistles which are called Catholic.' "Because of differences in
style, however, he says that II Peter is considered by many not to have been by him."
The epistle names Peter as its author. Its message is said to be from 'Simon Peter, a Servant and apostle of
Jesus Christ.'(I:I) This ascription is further emphasized by the authors allusion to Jesus prediction of Peter's
martyrdom (I:14:cf. John 21: 18-19), his claim to have been with Jesus 'on the holy mountain' on the occasion of
the Transfigurations (I:17-18 cf. Matth. 17:5, Mark. 9:7; Luke 9:35) and his implicit reference to I Peter as also
written by him(3:1)
This Zeal of the epistle for its own authenticity creates more doubt than confidence and other data fail to
support its claim. Differences in style from I Peter create insuperable difficulties for the new that the two epistles
have a common author. Although both are probably pseudonymous, a strongest case can be made for the
authenticity of I Peter. The possibility of Petrine authorship is definitely eliminated by data which locate the
second epistle in the second century:(a) the incorporation of Jude as its second chapter;(b) the authors implicit
classification of himself with a generation to whom the fathers' were known by tradition (3:2,4); (c) the recognition
of Paul's letters as scripture(3:16);(d) the allusion to heretical misuse of Paul's letters(3:16)
Because he felt he wrote in Peter's spirit, this unknown Christian leader of the second century felt justified
in attributing what he wrote to Peter that this was legitimate by current literary standards is shown by the titles
of other second-Century such as the Gospel of Peter, the Acts of Peter, the teaching of Peter and the Preaching
of Peter. Peter symbolized original and authoratative christaianity.By his authority, therefore,our author
condemned heresy.(The Interpreters Bible New York, A bingdon Press Nashville. Vol. XII )
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accounted a novel. In his ethical teaching Jesus in many ways highly conservative. True, he emphasised certain
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this would be trueof any teacher worth listening to."(The Bible in making p.24 .by Geddes Macgragor)
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