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# ALGEBRA

COMPLEX NUMBERS
§ 1.1. Important Points
1. Property of Order : i.e. (a + ib) < ( or >) c+ id is not defined. For example, the statement
9 + 6/ < 2 - /' makes no sense.
Note : (i) Complex numbers with imaginary parts zero are said to be purely real and similarly those with real
parts zero are said to be purely imaginary.
(ii) iota : v i = V^T is called the imaginary unit.
Also /
2
= - 1 , /
3
= - /, /
4
= 1, etc.
In general /
4 n
= 1, /
4 n + 1
= /, /
4 n + 2
= - 1
I n+3 _ _ j f
o r a r |
y j
n t e
g
e r n
For example, ;
1997
= /
4 x 4 9 9 + 1
= /
Also, / = ——,
i
2. A complex number z is said to be purely real If l
m
(z) = 0 and is said to be purely imaginary if
Re (z) = 0. The complex number 0 = 0 + /'. 0 is both purely real and purely imaginary.
3. The sum of four consecutive powers of / is zero.
4/JJ-7 in+ 7
Ex. X ? = + ? + I / " =/ ' - 1 - /'+ 0 = - 1
n=1 n=4
4. To find digit in the unit's place, this method is clear from following example :
Ex. What is the digit in the unit's place of (143)
86
?
Sol. The digits in unit's place of different powers of 3 are as follows :
3, 9, 7, 1, 3, 9, 7, 1 (period being 4)
remainder in 86 + 4 = 2
So the digit in the unit's place of (143)
86
= 9
[Second term in the sequence of 3, 9, 7, 1, . . . ]
5. V^a = /'Va, when 'si is any real number. Keeping this result in mind the following computation is
correct.
V- a V- b - i^fa i^fb = F ~{ab =-^fab
But th the computation V- a V- b = >/{(- a) ( - b)} = 'lab is wrong.
Because the property Va -ib = Jab hold good only if, at least one of VJor Vb is real. It does not hold
good if a, b are negative numbers, i.e., Va, VFare imaginary numbers.
§1.2. Conjugate Complex Number
The complex number z = (a, b) = a + ib and z = (a, - b) = a - ib, where a and b are real numbers, /' = V- 1
and b * 0 are said to be complex conjugate of each other. (Here the complex conjugate is obtained by just
changing the sign of /).
Properties of Conjugate : z is the mirror image of z along real axis.
0 ) ( ¥ ) = *
2
Objective Mathematics
(ii) z = z <=> z is purely real
(iii) z = - z<=> z i s purely imaginary
(iv) Re ( z ) = Re ( z ) =
(v) Im (z) =
z - z
2/
(vi) Z1 + Z2 = z 1 + Z 2
(vii)zi - Z2 = Z1 - z
2
(viii)
(ix)
(viii) Z1 Z2 = z 1 . z 2
Z1 Z1
Z2
Z 2
(x) Z1Z2 + Z1Z2 = 2Re (z1 z
2
) = 2Re (ziz
2
)
(xi) = (z)
n
(xii) If z— / (zi ) then z = / ( zi )
§ 1.3. Principal Value of Arg z
If z=a+ib,a,be Ft, then arg z = tan~
1
( b/ a) always gives the principal value. It depends on the
quadrant in which the point (a, b) lies :
(i) (a, b) e first quadrant a > 0, b> 0, the principal value = arg z = 6 = t an"
1
^
(ii) (a, b) e second quadrant a < 0, b > 0, the principal value
= arg z = 9 = 7t - t a n
- 1
^
a
(iii) (a, b) e third quadrant a < 0, b< 0, the principal value
-1
arg z = 9 = - n + tan
(iv) (a, b) e fourth quadrant a > 0, b < 0, the principal value
= arg z = 9 = tan
Note.
(i) - 7i < 9 < n
(ii) amplitude of the complex number 0 is not defined
(iii) If zi = Z2 <=> I zi I = I Z2 I and amp zi = amp Z2 .
(iv) If arg z=n/2 or - r c / 2, is purely imaginary; if arg z = 0 or±rc, z i s purely real.
§1.4 Coni Method
If zi , Z2, Z3 be the affixes of the vertices of a triangle ABC
described in counter-clockwise sense (Fig. 1.1) then :
(-Z1 ~ Z2) j
a = (Zi - Z3)
I Z1 - Z2 I
or amp
Z1 -Z3
Z1 -Z2
I Z1 - Z3 I
0
= a = Z BAC
Note that if a = | o r t h e n
A(
z
t) B(Z2)
Fig. 1.1.
Complex Numbers
3
Z\ - Z3 . . .
— is purely imaginary.
Note : Here only principal values of arguments are considered.
§ 1.5. Properties of Modulus
(i) I z I > 0 => I zl = 0 iff z = 0 and I z I > 0 iff z * 0.
(ii) - I z I < Re (z) < I z I and - I z I < Im (z) < I z I
(iii) I zI = I z l = l - z l = l - z I
(iv) zz = I z l
2
(V) I Z1Z2 I = I Z1 I I Z2 I
In general I zi Z2 Z3 Z4 .... zn I = I zi 11 Z2 11 Z3 I ... I zn I
(vi)
I Z1 I
Z2 I
(vii) I Z1 + Z2 I < I Z1 I + I Z2 I
In general I zi + Z2 + 23 ± + z
n
I < I zi I +1 Z2 I +1 23 I + +1 zn I
(Vi) I Z1 - Z2 I > II zi I - I z
2
II
(ix) I z" I = I z l "
(X) I I Z1 I - I Z2 I | < I Z1 + Z2 I < I Z1 I + I Z2 I
Thus I zi I + I Z2 I is the greatest possible value of I zi I + I Z2 I and I I zi I - I Z2 I I is the least
possible value of I zi + 22 I.
(xi) I zi + z
2
I
2
= (zi ± z
2
) (ii + z
2
) = I zi I
2
+1 z
2
I
2
± (Z1Z
2
+ Z1Z
2
)
(xii) Z1Z2 + Z1Z2 = 2 I zi I I Z2 I cos (81 - 02) where 0i = arg (zi) and 9= arg (Z2).
(xiii) I zi + z
2
I
2
+ I zi - z
2
I
2
= 2 j I zi I
2
+ I z
2
I
2
}
(xiv) Uni modul ar: i.e., unit modulus
If zi s unimodular then I zl = 1. In case of unimodular let z = cos 0 + /'sin 9, 9 <= R.
Note : is always a unimodular complex number if z * 0.
§ 1.6. Properties of Argument
(i) Arg (zi zz) = Arg (zi) + Arg (z
2
)
In general Arg (Z1Z2Z3 zn) = Arg (zi) + Arg (zz) + Arg{Z3)+ ... + Arg (z„)
/ \
Z1
(ii) Arg
Z2
= Arg (zi) - Arg (z
2
)
(iii) Arg I - | = 2 Ar g z
z
(iv) Arg (z") = n Arg (z)
( v ) l f A r g ^ j =9 , then Arg ^ = 2kn - 9 where ke I.
(vi) Arg z = - Arg z
§ 1.7. Problem Involving the nth Root of Unity
Unity has n roots viz. 1, co , co
2
, to
3
r o"
- 1
which are in G.P., and about which we find. The sum of
t hese n roots is zero.
(a) Here 1 + to + co
2
+ ... + co"~
1
= 0 is the basic concept to be understood.
(b) The product of t hese n roots is ( - 1)"~
1
.
§ 1.8. Demoivre's Theorem
(a) If n is a positive or negative integer, then
9 Objective Mathematics
(b) If n is a positive integer, then
(cos 6 + /' sin 9)" = cos n8 + / sin n9
(cos 9 + /'sin 9)
1 /
"= cos
2/ot + 9
n
+ / sin
2/ot + 9
n
whe.e k = 0, 1, 2, 3 ( n - 1 )
The value corresponding to k = 0 is called the principal value.
Demoivre's theorem is valid if n is any rational number.
§1.9. Square Root of a Complex Number
The square roots of z = a + ib are :
and
Notes:
1. The square root of i are : ±
I z l + a
2
4
z I + a
h i
I - a
2
I *
+ a
for b > 0
for b < 0.
^ J (Here 6=1) .
1 - / "
(Here £> = - 1).
• = or; ex. co = co = co.
2. The square root of - /' are : ±
3. The square root of co are : ± isf
4. The square root of co
2
are : ± co
§ 1.10. Cube roots of Unity
Cube roots of unity are 1 co, co
2
Properti es:
(1) 1 + o) + co
2
= 0
(2) co
2
=1
(3) co
3n
=1, co
3
(4) co = o>
2
and (co)
2
= co
(5) A complex number a + ib, for which I a : £> I = 1 : V3" or V3~: 1, can always be expressed in terms of
/', co or co
2
.
(6) The cube roots of unity when represented on complex plane lie on vertices of an equilateral
inscribed in a unit circle, having centre origin. One vertex being on positive real axis.
(7) a + £xo + cco
2
= 0 => a = b = b = c if a, b, c are real.
(8) com = co
3
, co = e
2n
'
/3
, co = e~
2, c
'
/ 3
§ 1.11. Some Important Results
{i) If zi and Z2 are two complex numbers, then the distance between zi and Z2 is I zi - Z2 I.
(ii) Segment joining points A (zi) and B (Z2) is divided by point P (z) in the ratio mi : m2
then
m-\Z2+ IV2Z1 , ,
z - ' , mi and mz are real.
(mi + m2)
(iii) The equation of the line joining zi and Z2 is given by
z z 1
Z1 Z1 1
zz z 2 1
= 0 (non parametric form)
Complex Numbers 5
(iv) Three points z\ , Z2 and Z3 are collinear if
Z1 z\ 1
Z2 Z 2 1 = 0
Z3 Z3 1
(v) a z + a z = real describes equation of a straight line.
Note : The complex and real slopes of the line a z + az+ b= 0 are (b s Ft)
• — and
a
. ^ are respectively.
Im (a) '
(a) If ai and 02 are complex slopes of two lines on the Argand plane then
* If lines are perpendicular then ai + <X2 = 0
*lf lines are parallel then ai = 0C2
(vi) I z - zo I = r is equation of a circle, whose centre is Zo and radius is r and I z - zo I < r represents
interior of a circle I z - zo I = r and I z - zo I > rrepresents the exterior of the circle I z - zo I = r.
(vii) z z + az + a z + k = 0 ; (k is real) represent circle with centre - a and radius ^l a I
2
- k .
(viii) ( z - z i ) (z - Z2) + ( z- Z2) (z - z 1) = 0 is equation of circle with diameter AB where
A (zf") and B (z
2
).
(ix) If I z - zi I + I z - Z2 I = 2a where 2a > I zi - Z2 I then point z describes an ellipse having foci at
zi and Z2 and ae Ft.
(x) If I z - zi I - I z - Z2 I = 2a where 2a < I Zi - Z2 I then point z describes a hyperbola having foci at
zi and Z2 and ae Ft.
(xi) Equation of all circle which are orthogonal to I z - z\ I = n and I z - Z2 I =
Let the circle be I z - a I = rcut given circles orthogonally
and
r
2
+ n
2
z
2
+ / f
a - zi I
I a - Z2 I
...(1)
•••(2)
On solving r£ - r? = a (z 1 - z 2) + a (zi - £2) + I Z2 I
2
- I zi I
2
(xii)
and let
z - Zi
Z-Z2
a = a + ib.
= k is a circle if k * 1, and is a line if k = 1.
(xiii) The equation I z - z\ I
2
+1 z - Z2 I
2
= k, will represent a circle if k > ~ I zi - Z2 I
2
(xiv) If Arg
(Z2 - Z3) (Z1 - Z4)
= ± 71, 0, then points zi , Z2 , 23 , Z4 are concyclic.
(Z1 - Z3) (Z2 - Z4)
\ /
§ 1.12. Important Results to Remember
(i) lota (/) is neither 0, nore greater than 0, nor less than 0.
(ii) Amp z - Amp ( - z) = ± n according as Amp ( z) is positive or negative.
(iii) The triangle whose vertices are zi , Z2 , Z3 is equilateral iff
1 1 1
or
(
i v
) If
• = 0
Z1 - Z2 Z2 - Z3 Z3 - Z1
Z1
2
+ Z | + Z3
2
= Z1Z2 + Z2Z3 + Z3Z1
1
+ - =
z
a + \(,a +4)
and
a + n a
2
+ 4)
6
Objective Mathematics
MULTI PLE CHOI CE- I
Each question in this part has four choices out of which just one is correct. Indicate your choice of correct
answer for each question by writing one of the letters a, b, c, d whichever is appropriate.
One of the values of i' is (i = V- 1)
(a) e
_7C/ 2
( b ) ^
2
(c) ^ (d) e *
2. If x
r
= cos (7t/3
r
) - i sin (n/3
r
), then value of
x
x
. x
2
.... is
( a ) l ( b ) - l
(c) - i (d ) i
3. The area of the triangle on the Argand plane
formed by the complex numbers
- z, tz, z - iz, is
( a ) i t z l
2
( c ) | l z l
2
(b) I z r
(d) None of these
4. Let Z\ — 6 + i and z
2
= 4 - 3i. Let z be
complex number such that
arg
Z- Zi
= — ; then z satisfies
Zi - z
(a) I z - ( 5 - 0 1 = 5 ( b ) l z - ( 5 - / ) l = V5
(c) I z — (5 + i) I = 5 (d) I z - (5 + /) I = VT
5. The number of solutions of the equation
z + I z I
2
= 0, where z e C is
(a) one (b) two
(c) three (d) infinitely many
6. If z = (k + 3) + i V ( 5 - ^
2
) ; then the locus of
zi s
(a) a straight line (b) a circle
(c) an ellipse (d) a parabola
7. The locus of z which sotisfies the inequality
logQ.31 z - 1 I > log
0
.
3
1 z - /1 is given by
(a) * + y < 0 ( b) x + y > 0
(c)x-y>0 ( d ) j t - y < 0
8. If Zi and z
2
are any two complex numbers,
then
Iz, + Vz
2
- z \ I + I Zi - Vz
2
- z \ I is equal to
(a) I Zi I ( b) l z
2
l
(c) IZ) + z
2
1 (d) None of these
9. If Z\ and z
2
are complex numbers satisfying
z , + z
2
21- 22
= 1 and arg
Zl - 22 ^ Zl + 22
then Z]/Z
2
is always
(a) zero
(b) a rational number
(c) a positive real number
(d) a purely imaginary number
^ mn (m e 7)
10- If z * 0, then J
100
[arg I z I] dx is :
E = 0
denotes the greatest integer (where [.]
functi on)
(a) 0 (b) 10
(c) 100 (d) not defined
11. The centre of square ABCD is at z = 0. A is
Zi. Then the centroid of triangle ABC is
(a) Z) (cos n ± i sin 7t)
Z I
(b) — (cos n ± i sin n)
(c) Z\ (cos rc/2 ± i sin 7C/2)
Zl
(d) — (cos tc/2 ± i sin n/2)
12. The point of intersection of the curves arg
( Z - 3i) = 371/4 and arg (2z + 1 - 2i) = n / 4 is
(a) 1/ 4 ( 3+ 9i) (b) 1/ 4 (3 - 9;")
(c) 1/ 2( 3 + 2/) (d) no point
13. If S (n) = i
n
+ i where i = V- 1 and n is an
integer, then the total number of distinct
values of 5 (n) is
(a) 1 ( b) 2
( c) 3 ( d) 4
14. The smallest positive integer n for which
1 + i *
1 - i
/
(a) 1 (b) 2
( c) 3 (d) 4
15. Consider the following statements :
S, : - 8 = 2 i x 4 i = V( - 4) x V( - 16)
S
2
: 4) x V(- 16) = 4) x ( - 16)
5
3
: V(- 4) x ( - 16) = V64"
Sa : V64 = 8
= - 1, is