17 views

IJRET : International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology

- PG Timetable & Breakdown_Jan14
- Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics
- ISBN-978-0-471-66174-0
- What Came From the Stars Excerpt
- documents.mx_heat-exchanger-design-558446bb7fd62.xlsx
- FlowLabEOC2e_CH01
- Intro to ChE
- Service Manual PAC9041 (1)
- 6 - Conduction Through Solids in Series
- lATTICE BOLTZMANN METHOD
- Lecture 15 Mass Tranfer Ppt
- Assignment m.e (Elp) Ept&d
- Particle Suspension
- Soal 4
- CEIC 2005 Tutorial Problem Set 12 2010
- Presentation on Heat EXchanger1
- Curing Effects
- 30_Fresh Crankcase Oil
- A Simple CEOS
- Journal of Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics Volume 35 Issue 4 2010 [Doi 10.1515%2Fjnetdy.2010.024] Von Stockar, Urs -- Biothermodynamics of Live Cells- A

You are on page 1of 7

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 03 Issue: 04 | Apr-2014, Available @ http://www.ijret.org 562

THEORETICAL INVESTIGATIONS ON STANDING WAVE

THERMOACOUSTIC PRIME MOVER USING DELTAEC

Ajinkya Sarode

1

, Vijay Dighe

2

, Vinay Ingle

3

, Nilesh Kolekar

4

1

M.Tech Student, Mechanical Engineering Department, Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology (SVNIT),

Surat, Gujarat, India

2

M.Tech Student, Mechanical Engineering Department, Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology (SVNIT),

Surat, Gujarat, India

3

M.Tech Student, Mechanical Engineering Department, Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology (SVNIT),

Surat, Gujarat, India

4

M.Tech Student, Mechanical Engineering Department, Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology (SVNIT),

Surat, Gujarat, India

Abstract

Thermoacoustic is a field of science and technology that studies heat and sound interactions. It deals with the conversion of thermal

energy into acoustical energy and vice-versa. Thermoacoustic prime mover is an attractive alternative for a conventional pressure

wave generator to drive cryocooler which attains cryogenic temperature below 123K to liquefy gases, to produce ultra-vacuum, etc.

Also, it can be used to produce electricity with the help of thermoacoustic electric generator. The cooling effect generated by

thermoacoustic refrigerator can be used in areas where there is no supply of electricity. The advantages of thermoacoustic prime

mover lie in its less complicated construction, absence of any moving part and use of environmental friendly gases as a working

medium. Number of simulations using gases such as He, Ar, N

2

and He-Ar mixture were carried out in DeltaEC to investigate the

performance of the prime mover in terms of pressure amplitude, onset temperature and resonating frequency. Input parameters like

working pressure and heat input was varied to observe the effect on the performance of the prime mover. The results showed that as

the working pressure increased, the pressure amplitude and onset temperature also increased. Similar effect was observed in case of

heat input. Unlike pressure amplitude and onset temperature, resonating frequency does not depend on working pressure and heat

input. It is controlled by the working gas and the geometry of the prime mover. Also the type of the working gas has a profound impact

on the performance of the prime mover. Simulations also demonstrated that a mixture of He-Ar can be used to get the optimum output

from the prime mover.

Keywords: Thermoacoustic prime mover, onset temperature, pressure amplitude, resonating frequency, DeltaEC.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------***-----------------------------------------------------------------------

1. INTRODUCTION

The thermodynamic interaction between acoustics and solid

surfaces that possess a temperature gradient is termed as

thermoacoustic effect. Recent years has witnessed a rapid

developed in thermoacoustic technology. Devices such as

thermoacoustic engine, thermoacoustic refrigerator and thermo

acoustically driven pulse tube cryocoolers are the outcomes of

this field. Thermoacoustic engines convert thermal energy into

acoustic power in the form of high amplitude sound waves.

The heat transfer from the working fluid to stack and vice

versa gives rise to thermoacoustic oscillations. This acoustic

power is used to drive thermoacoustic pulse tube cryocooler

thermoacoustic refrigerators and thermoacoustic electric

generators. Eradication of mechanical pistons such as

compressors, use of environment friendly gases as working

medium and no maintenance are the important reasons for the

increasing interest in thermoacoustics. The performance of the

standing wave thermoacoustic engine depends on number of

parameters like working fluid, heat input, working pressure,

geometry of the prime mover, etc. Gases such as helium (He),

nitrogen (N

2

), argon (Ar), carbon-dioxide (CO

2

) and their

mixtures are used as the working fluid in the thermoacoustic

prime mover. The aim of this report is to theoretically

investigate the effect of working pressure, working fluid and

heat input through simulation using DeltaEC software.

IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 03 Issue: 04 | Apr-2014, Available @ http://www.ijret.org 563

2. SIMULATION IN DELTAEC

DeltaEC (Design Environment for Low Amplitude

Thermoacoustic Energy Conversion) developed by Ward and

Swift is used to investigate the performance of the

thermoacoustic prime mover. The prime mover is simulated in

DeltaEC and the performance is evaluated using various gases

at different pressures and heat input. The half wave standing

thermoacoustic prime mover consists of parts such as hot heat

exchanger, cold heat exchanger, stack, resonator and working

gas. as shown in the schematic diagram Figure 1 [1].

2.1 Heat Exchangers

The hot and cold heat exchanger plays an important role in

maintaining a temperature gradient across the stack of the

prime mover. The hot heat exchanger supplies heat to the

working fluid and the cold heat exchanger draws the heat from

the working fluid. The heat transfer coefficient should be high

to provide efficient heat transfer. The porosity of the cold heat

exchanger and the stack should be same to avoid entrance

losses of gas parcels.

Parallel plate type heat exchangers made of copper and having

a porosity of 0.4 is used for hot heat exchanger and 0.6 for

cold heat exchanger in the simulation. To ensure effective heat

transfer from hot heat exchanger to the working gas, its

porosity is kept low. The porosity or blockage ratio (BR) is

defined as the ratio of area through which the gas is passing to

the total area of the heat exchanger. The porosity of any heat

exchanger is given by the following equation,

=

0

+

(1)

Where, y

0

and l are half of the plate spacing and plate

thickness respectively [2].

2.2 Stack

Stack is the most important component of the prime mover as

it is the source of the thermoacoustic oscillations. It should

have high heat capacity to maintain constant temperature

gradient and low thermal conductivity to avoid axial heat

conduction from hot heat exchanger to cold heat exchanger.

The position of the stack in the prime mover should be such

that the magnitude of gas velocity amplitude should be low to

reduce the viscous losses. The minimum plate spacing of the

stack depends on thermal penetration depth (

k

) and it is

generally kept as 2-3 times of

k

to have imperfect thermal

contact between gas and plate in order to have phase

difference in case of standing wave thermoacoustic prime

mover. Thermal penetration depth is defined as the distance

through which the diffusion of heat can take place to the gas.

In the simulation, stack made of stainless steel is used which is

a parallel plate type having BR same as that of the cold heat

exchanger.

The expression for the thermal penetration depth (

k

) is given

by,

=

2

(2)

Where, k

, , ,

frequency, density and specific heat at constant pressure of

gas, respectively.

The thermal efficiency of the thermoacoustic prime mover is

the ratio of normalized acoustic power developed by the

engine to the total power supplied to the engine through hot

heat exchanger and it is given as, [3]

(3)

Normalised acoustic power is given by,

=

1

4

2

[ 1 cos

2

1+

1)

sin

2

] (4)

Nomenclature

BR blockage ratio H normalised total power flux through stack(W)

y

0

half of plate spacing(m) ratio of isobaric to isochoric specific heat

l half of plate thickness(m) R inner radius of resonator pipe(m)

k

thermal penetration depth (m) normalised temperature gradient

k thermal conductivity(W/mK) Prandtl number

angular frequency(radian)

density of gas(kg/m

3

)

c

p

specific heat of gas(J/kgk)

thermal efficiency

acoustic power generated from the stack(W) a acoustic velocity(m/s)

IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 03 Issue: 04 | Apr-2014, Available @ http://www.ijret.org 564

=

1

8

DR

2

sin 2

1+

[

1++

1+

1 +

] (5)

= 1

+

1

2

2

(6)

=

cot

(7)

Multiplication of wave number (/) to the actual stack

position and length gives the normalized stack position and

length. The ratio of penetration depth to y

0

gives the

normalized penetration depth.

2.3 Resonator

A resonant tube is also an important part of an engine as it

decides the resonant frequency and velocity and pressure

profiles. It is a smooth, linear cylindrical pipe without steps,

misalignments and abrupt transitions connected after cold heat

exchanger to avoid unwanted eddying or non-linear pressure

variations that can greatly complicate the analysis. It is a long

pipe where oscillating gas and sound wave are in resonance.

The material of the resonator should have high impedance so

that it will behave as a rigid boundary and will minimize the

viscous losses. Also, to avoid axial heat conduction the

material should have less thermal conductivity.

Hence, in simulation resonator made of stainless steel is used.

Resonator losses such as thermal and viscous losses are

directly proportional to its surface area [4]. Also, if the length

of the resonator is too long compared to stack, the prime

mover may oscillate in its second node and increase the losses

[5]. Thus, in order to minimise the losses, it is preferred to use

resonator having less surface area.

2.4 Working Gas

The performance of the thermoacoustic prime mover highly

depends on the properties of the working gas. Prandtl number

which gives the relation between viscous penetration depth to

thermal penetration depth plays an important role in evaluating

the performance of the engine. Generally, gases having low

Prandtl number and high ratio of specific heat are suitable for

thermoacoustic engine in order to reduce the viscous losses. In

order to optimize the properties of the working fluid, mixtures

are used in appropriate compositions. In this simulation, gases

such as Helium, Nitrogen, Argon and He-Ar mixture are used

to compare the performance of the engine.

Figure 2 shows the model of the thermoacoustic prime mover

used during the simulation in DeltaEC.

Fig -1: Schematic diagram of Standing wave thermoacoustic prime mover

Fig -2: Model of Standing wave thermoacoustic prime mover in DeltaEC

IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 03 Issue: 04 | Apr-2014, Available @ http://www.ijret.org 565

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

The model shown in Fig. 2 of the standing wave

thermoacoustic prime mover was simulated using DeltaEC.

The performance of the engine was evaluated in terms of

pressure amplitude, onset temperature and resonant frequency

by varying working pressure, working gas and heat input.

3.1 Effect of Working Pressure

The variation in working pressure has an effect on the pressure

amplitude, onset temperature and resonating frequency of the

prime mover. This variation is compared for He, N

2

, Ar and

He-Ar mixture. During this simulation, the cold end

temperature was maintained to 303 K and the heat input to the

system was kept constant at 1500W.

3.1.1 Pressure Amplitude

As shown in Graph. 1, the pressure amplitude for various

gases has been plotted with respect to working pressure.

Graph- 1: Effect of working pressure on pressure amplitude

It can be seen that as the working pressure increases, the

pressure amplitude increases. Also, this trend is followed by

all the gases used in simulation. At any working pressure, the

maximum pressure amplitude achieved is for Ar, followed by

N

2

and least for He. The present trend matches with the trend

observed during the experiments performed by Hao et.al on

standing wave thermoacoustic prime mover [6].

3.1.2 Onset Temperature

The Graph. 2, shows the behaviour of the onset temperature

for Ar, He and N

2

as the working pressure varies. The onset

temperature of any working gas can be defined as that

temperature at which the thermoacoustic phenomenon begins

in the prime mover.

Graph-2: Effect of working pressure on onset temperature

The graph depicts that as the working pressure increases, the

onset temperature of the gases increases. This pattern is

followed by all the three gases. Maximum onset temperature is

for Ar, followed by N

2

and minimum for He. Similar

comparison was observed by Hao et.al [6]

3.1.3 Resonant Frequency

Graph. 3 shows the variation of the resonant frequency with

respect to working pressure.

Graph- 3: Effect of working pressure on resonant frequency

It is seen from the graph that there is negligible effect of the

working pressure on resonant frequency. The same trend is

followed for He, N

2

and Ar gases, among which helium has

the highest value, while nitrogen and argon has almost same

value. The trend observed through simulation is similar to the

trend obtained by Hao et.al during the experiments [6]. The

IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 03 Issue: 04 | Apr-2014, Available @ http://www.ijret.org 566

main reason behind this behaviour is that the resonant

frequency depends on the type of the gas and geometry of the

prime mover and not on the working pressure [5].

3.2 Effect of Heat Input

In addition to the working pressure, variation in heat input to

the prime mover also has a significant effect on its

performance. Throughout the simulation, He was used as the

working gas and the temperature of cold heat exchanger was

maintained at a constant temperature of 303 K.

3.2.1 Pressure Amplitude

The Graph. 4 shows the variation of pressure amplitude at

different working pressures as the heat input to the system

varies.

Graph- 4: Effect of heat input on pressure amplitude

From the graph, it can be seen that as the heat input increases,

the pressure amplitude increases significantly. This trend is

followed at all working pressures. Chen et.al observed similar

trend in his work on thermoacoustic engines [7]. This is

obvious as more heat energy is available for conversion into

acoustic power.

3.2.2 Onset Temperature

Graph 4 shows the variation of onset temperature with respect

to heat input at different working pressures.

It can be seen from the graph that as the heat input increases,

the onset temperature increases gradually. At all working

pressures, the same behaviour of onset temperature was

observed. In other words it can be said that higher rate of heat

transfer leads to higher onset temperature [5].

Graph- 5: Effect of heat input on onset temperature

3.2.3 Resonant Frequency

The effect of heat input on resonant frequency is shown in

Graph. 6.

Graph- 6: Effect of heat input on resonant frequency

The graph depicts that the variation in heat input has

negligible effect on the frequency. And also same trend was

observed at all the working pressures.

3.3 Effect of He-Ar Mixture

Most of the times, it is preferred to use mixture of various

gases as the working fluid in the prime mover. It helps to

utilize the beneficial properties of both the gases. In this

simulation, binary mixture of He-Ar was used to evaluate the

performance of the engine in terms of pressure amplitude,

onset temperature and frequency.

IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 03 Issue: 04 | Apr-2014, Available @ http://www.ijret.org 567

3.3.1 Pressure Amplitude

Graph. 6 shows the impact of mole fraction of Helium in He-

Ar mixture on the pressure amplitude at different working

pressure.

Graph- 7: Effect of mole fraction of He on pressure amplitude

As the mole fraction of He in the mixture goes on increasing,

the pressure amplitude of the engine goes on reducing [6].

This means that more the amount of Argon in the mixture

more will be the pressure amplitude. Similar trend is observed

at all working pressures.

3.3.2 Onset Temperature

The Graph. 8 shows the variation of onset temperature as the

mole fraction of He in the mixture increases.

Graph- 8: Effect of mole fraction of He on onset temperature

It can be seen that as the mole fraction of He in the mixture

increases, the onset temperature keeps on reducing [6]. The

change in onset temperature is significant in the range of 0%-

60% mole fraction of He. The same pattern is observed at

different working pressures.

3.3.3 Resonant Frequency

As shown in Graph. 9, the effect of mole fraction of He on the

resonant frequency has been plotted.

Graph- 8: Effect of mole fraction of He on resonant

Frequency

Graph shows that the resonant frequency increases as the mole

fraction of He increases. It also shows that the resonant

frequency is independent of working pressure.

4. CONCLUSIONS

In the present work of simulation using DeltaEC, it can be

concluded that Argon has the maximum pressure amplitude at

all working pressures, while Helium has the minimum

pressure amplitude. But, in case of Argon the onset

temperature is high as compared to Helium and Nitrogen. So,

it becomes unfavourable to use Argon as working gas in the

prime mover when a low grade form of heat energy is used as

a source of heat to the prime mover. Therefore, to get a

balance between onset temperature and pressure amplitude, a

mixture of He-Ar can be used in appropriate composition.

Graphs show that a mixture in the range of 40%-60% mole

fraction of He has the lowest onset temperature, which states

that it is the most suitable composition of He-Ar mixture for

low grade supply of energy such as solar energy, biomass and

waste heat exhaust from internal combustion engine [8].

Resonant frequency depends only on the working gas and is

completely independent of working pressure and heat input to

the prime mover.

IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 03 Issue: 04 | Apr-2014, Available @ http://www.ijret.org 568

For He, Ar and N2, both pressure amplitude and onset

temperature increases with increase in working pressure and

heat input. To put up in a nut shell, depending on the required

output and grade of heat energy available, the working gas

should be selected wisely.

REFERENCES

[1] Mehta SM, Desai KP, Naik HB, Atrey MD, Design of

Standing Wave Type Thermoacoustic Prime Mover for

300Hz Operating Frequency, 2012, PhD Thesis,

SVNIT, INDIA.

[2] Ishikawa H, Hobson PA, Optimization of heat

exchanger design in a thermoacoustic engine using a

second law analysis, International Community Heat

and Mass Transfer 1996, pp. 325-34

[3] Swift GW, Thermoacoustic: A Unifying perspective

for some engines and refrigerators, 5

th

Edition, New

York, Melville, Los Alamos National Laboratory,

2001.

[4] Hariharan NM, Sivashanmugam P, Kasthurirengan S,

Effect of resonator length and working fluid on the

performance of twin thermoacoustic heat engine-

Experimental and simulation studies, Computers and

fluids, Vol. 75, 2013, pp.51-55.

[5] Shuliang Zhou, Yoichi Matsubara, Experimental

research of thermoacoustic prime mover, Cryogenics

387, 1998, pp.813-822.

[6] Hao XH, Ju YL, Upendra Behera, Kasthurirengan S,

Influence of working fluid on the performance of a

standing wave thermoacoustic prime mover,

Cryogenics 51, 2011, pp.559-561.

[7] Tang K, Chen GB, Jin T, Bao R, Li XM, Performance

comparison of thermoacoustic engines with constant

diameter resonant tube and tapered resonant tube,

Cryogenics 46, 2006, pp.699-704.

[8] Gardner DL, Howard CQ, Waste heat driven

thermoacoustic engine and refrigerator, Proceedings

of Acoustics, Adelaide, Australia 2009.

BIOGRAPHIES

Name: Ajinkya Sarode, Currently pursuing

M.Tech in SVNIT, Surat, Gujarat (INDIA) in

the field of Thermal System Design. My area

of research is thermoacoustic, heat transfer and

renewable energy resources.

Name: Vijay Dighe, Currently pursuing

M.Tech in SVNIT, Surat, Gujarat (INDIA) in

the field of Thermal System Design. Research

area is heat transfer and thermoacoustic.

Name: Vinay Ingle, Currently pursuing

M.Tech in SVNIT, Surat, Gujarat (INDIA) in

the field of Thermal System Design. I am

interested in thermoacoustic and cryocoolers.

Name: Nilesh Kolekar, Currently pursuing

M.Tech in SVNIT, Surat, Gujarat (INDIA) in

the field of Thermal System Design.

Thermoacoustics and refrigeration are my key

areas of interest.

- PG Timetable & Breakdown_Jan14Uploaded byManinder Khurana
- Introduction to Chemical Engineering ThermodynamicsUploaded byChong Jing Yi
- ISBN-978-0-471-66174-0Uploaded byAriadne Chua
- What Came From the Stars ExcerptUploaded byHoughton Mifflin Harcourt
- documents.mx_heat-exchanger-design-558446bb7fd62.xlsxUploaded byRamesha Rao
- FlowLabEOC2e_CH01Uploaded bySammymac656
- Intro to ChEUploaded byAnonymous 7BQxlt8c
- Service Manual PAC9041 (1)Uploaded byMartin Mumba Chikombo
- 6 - Conduction Through Solids in SeriesUploaded byPatricia de Leon
- lATTICE BOLTZMANN METHODUploaded byKrunal Gangawane
- Lecture 15 Mass Tranfer PptUploaded byShubham
- Assignment m.e (Elp) Ept&dUploaded byEngrAneelKumarAkhani
- Particle SuspensionUploaded byKarl Belasa
- Soal 4Uploaded byalfin
- CEIC 2005 Tutorial Problem Set 12 2010Uploaded byarethaa2392
- Presentation on Heat EXchanger1Uploaded byBaqirMuhammad
- Curing EffectsUploaded bydamini
- 30_Fresh Crankcase OilUploaded byAEHSFOUNDATION
- A Simple CEOSUploaded bynghiabactramy
- Journal of Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics Volume 35 Issue 4 2010 [Doi 10.1515%2Fjnetdy.2010.024] Von Stockar, Urs -- Biothermodynamics of Live Cells- AUploaded byBryan R. Mena
- McGee_CVUploaded byAnonymous jnUByJpsKt
- emulsifiersUploaded byKhaled Abu-Alruz
- Same 023Uploaded byamardeepbedi
- EXP NO 8Uploaded byAnonymous yxBprL
- Kid Fever Away TabletUploaded byArun Kumar Tiwari
- 02 Determinacy and StabilityUploaded bySaleem Malik
- Heat and Mass Transfer Ok 1 1Uploaded bySyedUbaidRehman
- scr254Uploaded bylayziness_killsyahoo
- Peter Mason- The Effect of the Trapping Potential on the Behaviour of a Fast Rotating CondensateUploaded byVortices3443
- Col DesUploaded byPleasca Pleasca

- Hudhud Cyclone – a Severe Disaster in VisakhapatnamUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- Enhancing Post Disaster Recovery by Optimal Infrastructure Capacity BuildingUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- Impact of Flood Disaster in a Drought Prone Area – Case Study of Alampur Village of Mahabub Nagar DistrictUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- Flood Related Disasters Concerned to Urban Flooding in Bangalore, IndiaUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- Effect of Hudhud Cyclone on the Development of Visakhapatnam as Smart and Green City- A Case StudyUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- Detection of Hazard Prone Areas in the Upper Himalayan Region in Gis EnvironmentUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- Wind Damage to Trees in the Gitam University Campus at Visakhapatnam by Cyclone HudhudUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- Wind Damage to Buildings, Infrastrucuture and Landscape Elements Along the Beach Road at VisakhapatnamUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- Groundwater Investigation Using Geophysical Methods- A Case Study of Pydibhimavaram Industrial AreaUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- Shear Strength of Rc Deep Beam Panels – a ReviewUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- Role of Voluntary Teams of Professional Engineers in Dissater Management – Experiences From Gujarat EarthquakeUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- Effect of Lintel and Lintel Band on the Global Performance of Reinforced Concrete Masonry in-filled FramesUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- Risk Analysis and Environmental Hazard ManagementUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- Monitoring and Assessment of Air Quality With Reference to Dust Particles (Pm10 and Pm2.5) in Urban EnvironmentUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- Low Cost Wireless Sensor Networks and Smartphone Applications for Disaster Management and Improving Quality of LifeUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- Likely Impacts of Hudhud on the Environment of VisakhapatnamUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- Review Study on Performance of Seismically Tested Repaired Shear WallsUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- A Geophysical Insight of Earthquake Occurred on 21st May 2014 Off Paradip, Bay of BengalUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- Cyclone Disaster on Housing and Coastal AreaUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- Assessment of Seismic Susceptibility of Rc BuildingsUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE FORCES IN G+5 AND G+10 MULTI STORIED BUILDINGS SUBJECTED TO DIFFERENT WIND SPEEDSUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- Can Fracture Mechanics Predict Damage Due Disaster of StructuresUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- Disaster Recovery Sustainable HousingUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- Challenges in Oil and Gas Industry for Major Fire and Gas Leaks- Risk Reduction MethodsUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- Coastal Zones – Seismic Vulnerability an Analysis From East Coast of IndiaUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- Cpw-fed Uwb Antenna With Wimax Band-notched CharacteristicsUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- Rate Adaptive Resource Allocation in Ofdma Using Bees AlgorithmUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- Developing of Decision Support System for Budget Allocation of an r&d OrganizationUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- Analytical Solutions for Square Shape PressureUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- Brain Tumor Segmentation Using Asymmetry Based Histogram Thresholding and K-means ClusteringUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology

- Service Boom Inspection and RepairUploaded byKOK
- Design of BeamsUploaded bykbkwebs
- Presentation XIGA Feb07Uploaded bycysauts
- TZ fahidy 1983 : MagnetoelectrolysisUploaded bySudibyo
- WFIUploaded byRphNaeemMalik
- Time A Figment of Human Imagination?Uploaded byKedar Jonnalagadda
- TKS10002_CH[1]Uploaded byFlavio Badaro
- Impact of Cooking Methods on the Levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Chicken MeatUploaded byIOSRjournal
- Compost and vermicompost of horticultural waste as substrates for cutting rooting and growth of rosemaryUploaded byDaicy
- MSDS Sodium Hydroxide (50 Solution)Uploaded bybbmoksh
- Goldstein_31_32_7Uploaded byDijana Tolić
- CSWIP Multiple Choice 30Uploaded byAdil Hasanov
- Hyundai Welding Handbook(12th)-GmawUploaded byErick Quan Luna
- Vibrating Plate 2D Viscous Flow 53Uploaded byAteeq Ur Rehman
- Iso octane msds.pdfUploaded bySB
- 8400-A_External Painting & Protective CoatingsUploaded byamalhaj2013
- Microstates of systems obeying Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, a limiting case of Quantum Statistics!Uploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- activity penny atomic massUploaded byapi-254428474
- Turbidity TubeUploaded byRiyadul Islam
- RedoxUploaded byZainudin Abdul Razak
- AllatRa by Anastasia NovykhUploaded byALLATRA
- 6. LithographyUploaded byphani8802
- Freek J. M. Hoeben, Pascal Jonkheijm, E. W. Meijer and Albertus P. H. J. Schenning- About Supramolecular Assemblies of pi-Conjugated SystemsUploaded byCogsms
- 970086 R060-2 - CompleteUploaded bydragonfire8
- 11-7677 Wp Depg FinalUploaded byStefano Ramsingh
- 3.8m AntennaUploaded byGiscard Sibefo
- 20101209120114 b e Mba Mechanical Engineering 3rd to 6th Semester 2010 2011Uploaded bycoolrathee
- Hossain CLC ReviewUploaded byluh06002
- Impulse Time Method of Sag MeasurementUploaded byQvixote Eléctrico
- Petrified WoodUploaded byFabiando Hendy