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DAKNET:

Rethinking Connectivity in
Developing Nations

Seminar 2006 Daknet
ABSTRACT
This paper outlines a migration path towards universal broadband connectivity,
motivated by the design of a wireless store-and-forward communications
network.
We argue that the cost of real-time, circuit-switched communications is
sufficiently high that it may not be the appropriate starting point for rural
connectivity. Based on market data for information and communication
technology (IT! services in rural India, we propose a combination of wireless
technology with an asynchronous mode of communications to offer a means of
introducing ITs with"
affordability and practicality for end users#
a sustainable cost structure for operators and investors#
a smooth migration path to universal broadband
connectivity.
$ summary of results and data are given for an operational pilot test of this
wireless network in %arnataka, India, beginning in &arch '(().
We also briefly discuss the economics and policy considerations for deploying
this type of network in the conte*t of rural connectivity.
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CONTENTS
+ Introduction
' Wireless atalyst
) &obile $d ,oc onnectivity
- .eamless .calability
- /conomics
0 1aknet
2 Wifi
- $dvantages
- 1isadvantages
3 1aknet 4etwork $rchitecture
5 onclusion
6 7eference
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INTRODUCTION

$s a government representative enthusiastically talks about the new
telephone for a village in remote rural India, a villager asks, 8Who am I going to
call9 I don:t know anybody who owns a telephone.; <et, despite this sensible
observation, a phone is dutifully installed as part of the current government
mandate to connect villages to neighbouring towns. $lthough some villagers do
use the phone occasionally, most still travel sometimes days to talk to family or
to obtain the forms and other data that citi=ens in developed nations can call up
on a computer in a matter of seconds.
In short, the goal of 8broadband connectivity for everyone; has been
shelved in favor of cutting back to the minimum possible standard telephone
service in the mistaken belief that this is the cheapest way to provide
connectivity. This compromise is particularly tragic given recent advances in
wireless technology, which make running a copper line to an analog telephone
far more e*pensive than broadband wireless Internet connectivity. 7ather than
backpedal on the goal of connecting everyone, society should be thinking, ,ow
can we establish the kernel of a user network that will grow seamlessly as the
village:s economics develop9 In other words,what is the basis for a progressive,
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market-driven migration from government seed services- e-governance -to
universal broadband connectivity that local users will pay for9
1ak4et, an ad hoc network that uses wireless technology to provide
asynchronous digital connectivity, is evidence that the marriage of wireless and
asynchronous service may indeed be that kernel -the beginning of a road to
universal broadband connectivity. 1eveloped by &IT &edia >ab researchers,
1ak4et has been successfully deployed in remote parts of both India and
ambodia at a cost two orders of magnitude less than that of traditional landline
solutions. ?illagers now get affordable Internet services-and they:re using them.
$s one man in a small village outside of 4ew 1elhi remarked, 8This is better
than a telephone@;
THE IRE!ESS CATA!"ST
7ecent advances in wireless computer networking-particularly the
I/// 6(' standardsAhave led to huge commercial success and low pricing for
broadband networks. While these networks are viewed as mainly for offices or
for hotspots in urban areas, they can provide broadband access to even the most
remote areas at a low price. Today, wireless cell phone and wireless local loop
(W>>! service costs roughly a third of copper or fiber landline service, while
packet-based broadband computer networks cost roughly a ninth of the landline
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serviceAand they are far friendlier to data services and to lower-grade voice
service such as voice messaging. These new technologies thus offer developing
countries an opportunity to leapfrog over wireline and W>> telephony
infrastructure to the forefront of broadband communications technology.
Wireless data networks based on the I/// 6('.++, or WiBi, standard
are perhaps the most promising of the wireless technologies. The forces driving
the standardi=ation and proliferation of WiBi in the developed world have
resulted in features that can stimulate the communications market in the
developing world. These features include ease of setup, use, and maintenance#
relatively high bandwidth# and, most important, relatively low cost for both
users and providers.

$s one demonstration of the practicality of this new technology for
rural connectivity, researchers from the Indian Institute of Technology at
%anpur, working with &edia >ab $sia , have 8unwired; a +((-sC km area of the
Dangetic Elain in central India. Bigure + shows the corridor. This proFect
provides broadband connectivity along a corridor with almost one million
residents, at a proFected one-time cost of under G0( per subscriber. Hther
e*periments have shown the practicality of the technology in mountainous
terrain and in city centers. Indeed, several cities in the I. have begun to deploy
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free Internet connectivity using I/// 6('.++b. /ven with advances such as
those demonstrated in the 1igital Dangetic Elain proFect, the cost of
realtime,circuit-switched communications is sufficiently high that it may not be
the appropriate starting point for rural connectivity in developing nations.&arket
data for information and communication technology (IT! services in rural India
strongly implies that asynchronous service-voice messaging, e-mail, and so on-
may be a more cost-effective starting point for rural connectivity proFects.

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#OBI!E AD HOC CONNECTI$IT"
The 1ak4et wireless network takes advantage of the e*isting
communications and transportation infrastructure to distribute digital
connectivity to outlying villages lacking a digital communications infrastructure.
1ak4et, whose name derives from the ,indi word for 8post; or 8postal,;
combines a physical means of transportation with wireless
data transfer to e*tend the Internet connectivity that a central uplink or hub, such
as a cybercafJ , ?.$T system, or post office provides. $s Bigure ' shows,
instead of trying to relay data over a long distance, which can be e*pensive and
power-hungry, 1ak4et transmits data over short point-to-point links between
kiosks and portable storage devices, called mobile access points (&$Es!.
&ounted on and powered by a bus, a motorcycle, or even a bicycle with a small
generator, a &$E physically transports data among public kiosks and private
communications devices (as an intranet! and between kiosks and a hub (for
nonreal-time Internet access!. >ow-cost WiBi radio transceivers automatically
transfer the data stored in the &$E at high bandwidth for each point-to-point
connection.
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1ak4et operation thus has two steps"
K $s the &$E-eCuipped vehicle comes within range of a village WiBi-
enabled kiosk, it automatically senses the wireless connection and
then uploads and downloads tens of megabytes of data.
K When a &$E-eCuipped vehicle comes within range of an Internet
access point (the hub!, it automatically synchroni=es the data from all
the rural kiosks, using the Internet. The steps repeat for every vehicle
carrying a &$E unit, thereby creating a low-cost wireless network
and seamless communications infrastructure.

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$n ad hoc network is a collection of autonomous nodes or terminals
that communicate with each other by forming a multihop radio network and
maintaining connectivity in a decentrali=ed manner. .ince the nodes
communicate over wireless links, they have to contend with the effects of radio
communication such as noise, fading and interference. In addition, the links
typically have less bandwidth than in a wired network. /ach node in a wireless
ad hoc network functions as both a host and a router and the control of the
network is distributed among the nodes. The network topology is in general
dynamic, because the connectivity among the nodes may vary with time due to
nodes departure, new node arrivals, and the possibility of having mobile nodes.

Diving everyone access to digital messaging-voice mail, digital
documents, e-mail, and so on-is better than installing a community telephone.
7ural information and communication technology (IT! is typically introduced
as a communications channel that the community shares. Whether through a
public call office (EH! or a public computer kiosk, users are introduced to IT
as shared utilities with a technically literate operator acting as an intermediary.

In this shared-use model, much IT has relied on real-time
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communications , such as landline telephone, cellular phone, or satellite radio
links. These real-time technologies can be useful for immediate interactivity and
accessing highly time-sensitive information.

.uccessful e*amples include India:s EHs and the Drameen Ehone
initiative .While successful at providing basic services, the strategy of deploying
shared, real-time communications also has serious drawbacks. Hne is the large
capital investment in a real-time infrastructure, which reCuires a high level of user
adoption to recover costs. The average villager cannot even afford a personal
communications device such as a telephone or computer, let alone a subscription
fee for access to the communications infrastructure.,ence, to recover cost, users
must share the communications infrastructure. This limits the all-important value
added from network effects. $ villager who finds no use for a phone is typical, and
this is perhaps why so few of the world:s poor have used a telephone.

The real-time aspect of telephony can also be a disadvantage"
Both intended parties must be present at each terminal to capture the
infrastructure:s full value. If a caller wishes to contact someone who does not
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own (or is not present at! a telephone, the communication is asynchronous
despite the real-time infrastructure..ome kind of additional messaging
mechanism (be it a messenger or an answering machine! is reCuired to deliver
the caller:s message to its destination.
$s a conseCuence, real-time telephony can reinforce gaps among rural
populations since it encourages users to communicate mainly with people who
have private phone lines, typically those of higher economic status located in
more urban areas. In the Drameen-Ehone initiative, women were chosen as the
community operators to help reduce this effect, since it was socially acceptable
for women to deliver messages to everyone in the village.
Intil widespread private ownership of IT devices becomes economically
feasible for end users, it may be useful to consider non-real-time infrastructures and
applications such as voice mail, e-mail, and electronic bulletin boards. $lso known
as store-and-forward or asynchronous modes of communication, these technologies
can be significantly lower in cost and do not necessarily sacrifice the functionality
reCuired to deliver valuable user services. They might also be more practical and
socially appropriate for users than a shared real-time communications
infrastructure.
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The poor not only need digital services, but they are willing and able to
pay for them to offset the much higher costs of poor transportation, unfair
pricing, and corruption. .ome rural service providers (7.Es! have achieved
profitability by offering lower-cost substitutes for a villager:s e*isting
information, communication, and transportation e*penses. Bor instance, 1rishtee
provides an e-government platform that lets villagers interact with local
government offices remotely from a kiosk in their village that is managed by a
trained operator. $ variety of services such as filing a complaint, applying for a
loan, and reCuesting a driver:s license are generating up to G',((( per year per
kiosk for 1rishtee. The significant demand for these services results from a
sound value proposition" .ave villagers time and money. 1rishtee:s success
suggests that the introduction of IT in rural areas might not have anything to
do with technology. &uch rural IT starts with a specific technology and then
tests out a variety of information and communication services to see which get
accepted (a push approach!. $ better strategy might be to start with a basic
serviceAin 1rishtee:s case, aggregating demand and brokering information
e*change between the villager and the governmentAand then see how
technology
can support and streamline that service. 1rishtee determined that computers and
available connectivity were enough to capture, send, and receive information
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electronically.>ike other 7.Es, however, 1rishtee is constrained by India:s lack of
a viable communications infrastructure. &any of the villages that 1rishtee
operates in lack working phone lines because of poor line maintenance and
delayed installations. $s a result, 1rishtee has resorted to 8sneaker net,; an
asynchronous approach to connectivity that involves transporting and swapping
floppy disks from the village to the government center and back again. 1espite
this labor-intensive approach, sneaker net is successful because 1rishtee:s
applications that generate the most revenue reCuire only intermittent connectivity.
$synchronous IT services are sufficient to meet most rural community
needs. The .ustainable $ccess for 7ural India (.$7I! proFect in Tamil 4adu,
IndiaAa Foint endeavor by the &IT &edia >ab, the ,arvard enter for
International 1evelopment, and the Indian Institute of Technology, &adrasA
recently collected data about the communications needs, habits, and costs in
hundreds of rural Indian households to gauge the desire for and perceived
affordability of household communications. The study found that the current
market for successful rural IT services does not appear to rely on real-time
connectivity, but rather on affordability and basic interactivity" 7ural IT
companies should start their operations by first focusing on providing basic
communication and information services rather than more sophisticated
applications. $nother .$7I analysis done by &c%insey onsulting indicates that
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although the universe of potential applications is large, 8in the short-term only e-
mail, scan-mail, voice-over-e-mail and chat are likely to be revenue-generating
applications.; The &c%insey report also found that most of .$7I:s applications
do not reCuire real-time connectivity. It estimates that 2( percent of all e*isting
rural mail will convert to e-mail, and people often preferred voice messaging to a
real-time voice channel. Both e-mail and voice messaging are non-real-time
applications. In addition to these non-real-time applications, providers can use
asynchronous modes of communication to create local information repositories
that community members can add to and Cuery. Bor e*ample, a villager can access
information from a computer somewhere outside the community and store that
information in a village repository so that others can use it. This approach is
particularly viable because the cost of digital storage is decreasing faster than the
cost of most communication technologies. &oreover, users are apt to find the
information in a local repository highly relevant, which further decreases their
reliance on a real-time infrastructure and international bandwidth. Isers could
search and browse the Web in non-real time through applications developed for
low-connectivity environments such as T/%.
/ven a single vehicle passing by a village once per day is sufficient to
provide daily information services.The connection Cuality is also high. $lthough
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1ak4et does not provide real-time data transport, a significant amount of data can
move at once-typically '( &bytes in each direction.
Indeed, physically transporting data from village to village by this means
generally provides a higher data throughput than is typical with other low-
bandwidth technologies such as a telephone modem.
Sea%less scala&ility
In addition to its tremendous cost reduction, a critical feature of 1ak4et is its
ability to provide a seamless method of upgrading to always-on broadband
connectivity. $s a village increases its economic means, its inhabitants can use the
same hardware, software , and user interface to enFoy realtime
information access. The only change is the addition of fi*ed-location wireless
antennas and towersAa change that is entirely transparent to end users because
they need not learn any new skills or buy any new hardware or software. The
addition of fi*ed transceivers would provide real-time connectivity, thus enabling
new, more sophisticated services, such as voice over IE, which allows 8normal;
real-time telephony. Thus, as the 8.ome ommon &yths about 7ural Information
and ommunication Technology; sidebar describes, asynchronous broadband
wireless connectivity offers a practical stepping-stone and migration path to
always-on, broadband infrastructure and end-user applications. Together with the
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development of two other key rural communication componentsArobust, low-
cost terminals and local user-interface design and applications - 1ak4et makes it
practical for individual households and private users to get connected.
Econo%ics
$ back-of-the-envelope calculation for 1ak4et suggests that a capital investment of
G+2 million could eCuip each of India:s 2(,((( rural buses with a G)(( &$E and
thereby provide mobile ad hoc connectivity to most of the 52( million people in
rural India. This figure represents a cost that is orders of magnitude lower than
other rural communication alternatives. osts for the interactive user devices that
1ak4et supportsAincluding thin-client terminals, E1$s, and ?oIE telephonesA
may also soon become far more affordable than traditional Es or W>>
eCuipment.E1$-like devices using an I/// 6('-like wireless protocol retail for
G+((, with a manufacturing cost of appro*imately G2(..ystem-on-a-chip
technology is lowering these costs even more, potentially enabling wireless E1$s
at prices as low as G'2 .
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DAKNET IN ACTION
?illages in India and northern ambodia are actively using 1ak4et with
good results. >ocal entrepreneurs currently are using 1ak4et connections to
make e-services like e-mail and voice mail available to residents in rural
villages.
Hne of 1ak4et:s earliest deployments was as an affordable rural
connectivity solution for the Bhoomi e-governance proFect. In .eptember
'((),we also implemented 1ak4et in a remote province of ambodia for +2
solar-powered village schools, telemedicine clinics, and a governor:s office.
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Bhoo%i initiative in In'ia

Bhoomi, an initiative to computeri=e land records, is recogni=ed as the first
national e-governance initiative in India. Eioneered by the .tate Dovernment of
%arnataka, Bhoomi has been successfully implemented at district headCuarters
across the state to completely replace the physical land records system.1ak4et
makes Bhoomi:s land records database available to villages up to 0( km away
from Bhoomi:s district headCuarters,or 8taluka,; in 1oddaballapur. In this
deployment,we outfitted a public government bus with a 1ak4et &$E to
transport land record reCuests from each village kiosk to the taluka server. The
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server processes reCuests and outputs land records. The bus then delivers the
records to each village kiosk, where the kiosk manager prints them out and
collects a payment of +2 rupees (I.G(.)'! per land record. The bus passes by
the hub and stops at each village si* times per day(three round-trips!.$ 8session;
occurs each time the bus comes within range of a kiosk and the &$E transfers
data.The average length of a session is ' minutes and )0 seconds, during which
the &$E transfers an average of '(.L &bytes unidirectionally (kiosk to &$E or
&$E to kiosk! and up to twice that amount bidirectionally (from kiosk to &$E
and &$E to kiosk!.

The average 8goodput; (actual data throughput!for a session, during
which the &$E and kiosk go in and out of connection because of mobility and
obstructions, is '.05 &bps. These averages are based on repetitive testing in a
sample group of villages that reflect the range of different antenna configurations.
The team used both omnidirectional and directional antennas with differing gains
according to the orientation of each kiosk with the road and the bus stop.
The total cost of the 1ak4et &$E eCuipment used on the bus is G26(, which
includes
K a custom embedded E running >inu* with 6('.++b wireless card
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and 2+' &bytes of compact flash memory#
K a +((-mW amplifier, cabling, mounting eCuipment, and a +0-in
omnidirectional antenna# and
K an uninterruptible power supply powered by the bus battery.

The average total cost of the eCuipment used to make a village kiosk or
hub 1ak4et-ready was G+62. $ssuming that each bus can provide connectivity to
appro*imately +( villages, the average cost of enabling each village was G'0)
(G+62 at each village plus G26( &$E cost for +( villages!.?illagers along the bus
route have enthusiastically received the 1ak4et-Bhoomi system. They are grateful
to avoid making the long, e*pensive trip into the main city to obtain land records.
DakNet: A Last Mile Solution
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The Internet is the nervous system of our planet and the billions of
people who lack the proper telecommunications infrastructure are seen as the
Mlast mile problemM. NBirst &ile .olutions
&any technologies have been introduced to the world with in the last )(
years. Through them we have sent men to the moon and are able to
communicate with individuals face to face from half way around the world.
These advances have brought progress to the I.$ and other first world
countries and have become the standard. It has become a vital engine of growth
for the world economy. 1espite these advances the entire world has not been
able to take advantage of those advancements for several reasons.
Eoor telecommunication lines
>ack of local economy for development of infrastructure
$wareness about the technological advantages
The firm Birst &ile .olutions has taken it upon themselves to start
introducing the information technologies to rural areas in the developing world.
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Their proFects use e*isting infrastructures to introduce technologies to villages
through uniCue solutions, such as 81aknet;. 1ak means, 8post; in ,indi.
reating an electronic postal network, complete with electronic 8Eostmen;
(Boyd, lark!.
1ak4et &obile $ccess Eoint (&$E! 4etworks reCuire"
K $ppropriate /nvironment" computers in remote villages that can be
accessed by road transport.
K $pproach" &$Es are installed on vehicles that normally pass by each village to
provide store-and-forward connectivity

81aknet; allows rural villages to e*change messages and video through a
mobile I.E. By mounting a wireless card on a vehicle that travels around to
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remote villages and e*changes updated information with each kiosk it
encounters through WiBi.
?illagers are able to send message and record videos through these
kiosks. That data is stored in the outbo* of the kiosk. When the mobile vehicle
comes around it e*changes the data in the outbo* and the inbo*. Those awaiting
messages are able to check the inbo* for any messages or videos. $ll
information is downloaded to the central system at the office station.
Ising WiBi allows for cheap reliable Internet service to those rural
communication Infrastructures. The telephone lines in the remote and rural areas
are freCuently dysfunctional and unreliable for Internet connectivity. (Baatchit!
Thus WiBi creates better access to bandwidth from the large data lines that run
throughout the world (B/>HW" Titanic backbone through $sia. (Titanic!!

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The latest installation to 1ak4et has been adding the remote region of
7atanakiri, ambodia. $ collection of +) villages that are only accessible by
motorcycle and o*cart. The per capita income is roughly under G0( I. dollars.
The area school is eCuipped with solar panels that run the computer for si* hours
a day. Eroviding them now with email and video messaging.
8/arly every morning, five ,onda motorcycles leave the hub in the
provincial capitol of Banlung where a satellite dish, donated by .hin
.atellite, links the provincial hospital and a special skills school to the
Internet for telemedicine and computer training. The moto drivers
eCuipped with a small bo* and antenna at the rear of their vehicle, that
downloads and delivers e-mail through a wi-fi (wireless! card, begin the
day by collecting the e-mail from the hubOs dish, which takes Fust a few
seconds.;
Through the donations from various organi=ations the developing world is given
an opportunity to participate in the technological revolution. $fter many pilot
proFects there are still investigations to understanding how to increase the
proFects through various solutions such as 1ak4et. 1aknet:s ne*t installation is
proFected for another group of villages in ambodia in 4ovember.
(i)st #ile Sol*tions: DakNet Takes R*)al Co%%*nities Online
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&any developing countries continue to face the challenge of how to
increase access to information communication technologies (ITs! in rural and
remote areas. Telecommunication companies are usually reluctant to e*tend
their network due to high infrastructure costs, low population density, and
limited ability to pay for the services. Birst &ile .olutions P+Q (B&.! counters
this problem by providing telecommunications eCuipment that can cheaply
connect rural and remote populations to the Internet through an innovative
technology" 1ak4et. 1ak4et leverages short- range wireless technology in
tandem with traditional telecommunication and physical transportation
infrastructures. >ocal transportationA e.g., public buses, motorcycles, and
supply trucksA facilitates data e*changes between rural villages and Internet
hubs. This unconventional communication network provides end users with
asynchronous access to e- mail, voice messages, and Internet browsing.
Activity Description" ?illagers in ambodia, osta 7ica, 7wanda, Earaguay and
India are getting connected to the global network, using technology from
&assachusetts-based Birst &ile .olutions. B&.O 1ak4et technology provides
connectivity to villages through a uniCue drive-by WiBi techniCue. The proFect
provides e-mail addresses, phone services and web capability to individual
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villagers. While they are not always connected to the network, villagers can
access them any time to write e-mail, record messages or conduct web searches.
/very day, a vehicle drives slowly into the village, uploading stored data and
downloading them to the central machines. When the vehicle returns to the base
station, data are uploaded to a satellite and can be sent anywhere in the world.
Activity Update" B&. now reaches 0(,((( villagers through its various proFects
and is unrolling its first local branch in India. The company plans to spend G)(
million over the ne*t si* years to reach IndiaOs market capacity of ''(,(((
villages. $fter the start-up phase is complete, this system will be entirely
financed by private investment and profits from low service fees. Bor the
purpose of spreading Inited ?illages services to other countries where
operations are not currently active, the company has begun offering a franchise
service open to Cualified entrepreneurs.

B&. has three maFor future proFects in the pipeline. They plan to
utili=e cellular networks to transfer data to their customers, eliminating the need
for most Bi*ed $ccess Eoints. The company also plans to begin offering a
private internet currency service whereby users may purchase goods using credit
from their prepaid Inited ?illages accounts. Binally, B&. is in preliminary talks
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with maFor search engine providers to create innovative new caching technology
that would essentially offer many internet services in an offline format.
It is an initiative led by Birst &ile .olutions (B&.!, a venture
managed by a team of &IT graduates, developing and testing innovative
connectivity approaches aiming at rural needs in developing
countries. $ pilot demonstration took place in Tikawali, a village
near Baridabad (.tate of ,aryana, India! in &arch '(('. The pilot
solution enabled villagers to file complaints via email and send
video messages from one village to another. The solution combines
WiBi (I/// 6('.++b! eCuipment at '.0Dh= with &obile $ccess Eoints
(&$Es! mounted on and powered by a public bus. The pilot proved able
to wirelessly and automatically collect, transport and deliver data
at high speeds to and from kiosk-based computers enabled with WiBi
cards.
Testing Wi-Bi with data store-and-forward solutions in rural India will
not be confined to pilot proFects anymore. The government has proposed to roll
out the 1ak4et Wi-Bi proFect - involving the linking up of computers to
networks without using wires - as a connectivity medium aimed at the rural
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masses, according to the department of industrial policy and promotion secretary
7aFeeva 7atna .hah.
8The pilot proFects have proved their ability to wirelessly and automatically
collect, transport and deliver data at high speeds to and from kiosk-based
computers with Wi-Bi cards,; he told /B/ on the sidelines of the fourth India-
/I business summit here. ,e, however, refused to reveal the proFect details as
well as the time frame as to when the proFect will be rolled out. 8Eilot proFects
such as the one currently on in %arnataka, are fast proving that Wi-Bi
technologies can actually bring connectivity to underserved populations at a
fraction of the cost of alternative wired or wireless technologies,; &r .hah said.
$ccording to Birst &ile .olutions founder $mir $le*ander ,asson,
who helped initiate the two 1ak4et Wi-Bi pilot proFects in Tikawali, a village
near Baridabad, ,aryana, and 1odabalapur district in %arnataka, 8We are using
I/// 6('.++b eCuipment at '.0 D,=. We don:t use base stations, but rather our
custom 1ak4et &obile $ccess Eoint (&$E! that is mounted on and powered by
a vehicle.;
Diving the proFect details, &r ,asson said, 8/ssentially, a van roam
roams around the 1odabalapur district in %arnataka, stopping at different
villages long enough for the local computer to connect to it wirelessly and
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transfer the data stored in it. Brom the van to the central database is also a Wi-Bi
hop, thus resulting in a wireless end-to-end transfer of information - which is
what Wi-Bi is all about. The proFect involves creating an online database of land
records.;

/ssentially, the 1ak4et-enabled vehicle drives past a kiosk where it
picks up and drops off land record Cueries and responses. /ach day, this is
synchronised with a central database. 1ata is transported through the access
point, which automatically and wirelessly collects and delivers data from each
kiosk on the network. The transfer of data can take place up to a radius of +.'2
km around the kiosk.
&r ,asson said, 8The benefits of using this low-cost wireless network which is
easy to set up and maintain are already emerging.8
1ak4et offers a cost-effective network for data connectivity in regions
lacking communications infrastructure. The patent-pending hybrid network
architecture combines physical and wireless data transport to enable high-
bandwidth intranet and Internet connectivity among kiosks (public computers!
and between kiosks and hubs (places with a reliable Internet connection!.
Department of ECE VJEC )(
Seminar 2006 Daknet
1ata is transported by means of a mobile access point, which
automatically and wirelessly collects and delivers data fromRto each kiosk on the
network. 1aknet focuses on bridging the digital divide by e*tending the
advantages of 6('.++* technologies and solutions to the remote areas.
I(I
.hort for wireless fidelity and is meant to be used generically when
referring of any type of 6('.++ network, whether 6('.++b, 6('.++a, dual-band,
etc. The term is promulgated by the Wi-Bi $lliance. Bormerly, the term MWi-BiM
was used only in place of the '.0D,= 6('.++b standard, in the same way that
M/thernetM is used in place of I/// 6('.). The $lliance e*panded the generic
use of the term in an attempt to stop confusion about wireless >$4
interoperability.

Department of ECE VJEC )+
Seminar 2006 Daknet
Wireless data networks (Wide $rea 4etworks and >ocal $rea
4etworks! based on the I/// 6('.++ or 8WiBi; standard are perhaps the most
promising wireless technology. Diven its popularity in developed nations, it is
reasonable to consider the use of WiBi in developing countries as well. The
forces driving the standardi=ation and proliferation of WiBi in the developed
world could also stimulate the communications market dynamic in the
developing world. These features include" its ease of set-up, use, and
maintenance# its relatively high bandwidth# and, most importantly, its relatively
low cost for both users and providers.
.tandard WiBi connectivity (I/// 6('.++b! provides up to ++&bRsec
data rates, and operates in a band near '.0Dh= that is generally unlicensed in
/urope and the $mericas. 4ewer versions of WiBi provide ''&bRsec in this band,
and versions that operate at higher freCuencies provide up to 20&bRsec. Tests in
rural settings show that a standard WiBi card (such as commonly used with laptop
Es! can provide good connectivity up to a S kilometer radius given line-of-sight.
With the addition of antennas and repeaters, it is possible to achieve point-to-point
connectivity at distances of up to '( kilometers. WiBi access points (devices
commonly used to provide a WiBi network! currently retail for G+'(, and WiBi
cards retail for under G3(. WiBi technology opens up new possibilities for rural
connectivity in developing countries. ,owever, the successful implementation of
Department of ECE VJEC )'
Seminar 2006 Daknet
this technology and the choice of usage model should be guided by an intimate
knowledge of rural communities and their information- and communication-related
needs. Hur vision is that, provided a conducive regulatory environment, local
entrepreneurs within developing countries will leverage WiBi-based technology to"
(a! solve the chicken-and-the-egg problem of the simultaneous need for both a
market and an infrastructure# and (b! create a widespread wireless infrastructure
that grows seamlessly with the rural communications market, ultimately scaling up
to universal broadband connectivity.
Speci+ications
&a* speed - ++ &BE.
&a* encryption - +'6 bit W/E
1iscrete channels - )
&a* range T full throughput - )(ft
4atively compatible - 6('.++b,6('.++g
Eotential user - /ntry level and home networks
AD$ANTA,ES O( I(I
Department of ECE VJEC ))
Seminar 2006 Daknet
Ises an unlicensed part of the radio spectrum.This means less regularly
controls in many countries.
Brees network devices from cables,allows for a more dynamic network to
be grown
&any reliable and bug-free Wi-Bi products on the market.
ompetition amongst vendors has lowered prices considerably since their
inception.
While connected on a Wi-Bi network,it is possible to move about without
breaking the internet connection.
&odern $ccess points and lient ards have e*cellent in-built security
and encryption.
DISAD$ANTA,ES O( I(I
The 6('.++b and 6('.++g flavours of Wi-Bi use the '.0D,= spectrum
which is crowded with other devices such as Bluetooth, microwave
ovens, cordless phones(L((&,= or 2.6D,= !, video sender devices
Department of ECE VJEC )0
Seminar 2006 Daknet
among many others. This may cause degradation in performance.
Hther devices which use microwave freCuencies such as certain types
of cell phones , can also cause degradation in performance.
Eower consumption is fairly high compared to other standards, making
battery life and heat a concern.
Isers do not always configure it properly. In addition, Wi-Bi
commonly uses Wired /Cuivalent Erivacy (W/E! protocol for
protection, which has been shown to be easily breakable even when
properly configured. 4ewer wireless solutions are slowly providing
support for the superior Wi-Bi Erotected $ccess (WE$! protocol,
though many systems still employ W/E.
Wi-Bi networks have limited range. $ typical Wi-Bi home router using
6('.++b might have a range of +2( ft(03 m! indoors and )(( ft (L' m!
outdoors. But about +( I.G and an hour of building will give you an
antenna that can go much further.
Department of ECE VJEC )2
Seminar 2006 Daknet
DAKNET NETORK ARCHITECTURE
The main parts of daknet architecture are"
&obile access point
,ub
%iosk
#OBI!E ACCESS -OINT
Department of ECE VJEC )3
Seminar 2006 Daknet
1aknet offers data to be transmitted over short point-to-point links.It combines
physical and wireless data transport to enable high bandwidth intranet and internet
connectivity among kiosks (public computers! and between kiosks and hubs(places
with reliable Internet connection! .1ata is transported by means of mobile access
point, which automatically and wirelessly collects and delivers data fromRto each
kiosk on the network. >ow cost WIBI radio transceivers automatically transfer the
data stored in the &$E at high bandwidth for each point-to-point connection.
CONC!USION
DakNet will enlighten rural India to the Internet
The government has proposed to roll out the 1ak4et Wi-Bi proFect -
involving the linking up of computers to networks without using wires - as a
connectivity medium aimed at the rural masses.
$ccording to Birst &ile .olutions founder $mir $le*ander ,asson,
who helped initiate the two 1ak4et Wi-Bi pilot proFects in Tikawali, a village
near Baridabad, ,aryana, and 1odabalapur district in %arnataka, MWe are using
Department of ECE VJEC )5
Seminar 2006 Daknet
I/// 6('.++b eCuipment at '.0 D,=. We donOt use base stations, but rather our
custom 1ak4et &obile $ccess Eoint (&$E! that is mounted on and powered by
a vehicle.M
Diving the proFect details, &r ,asson said, M/ssentially, a van roam
roams around the 1odabalapur district in %arnataka, stopping at different
villages long enough for the local computer to connect to it wirelessly and
transfer the data stored in it. Brom the van to the central database is also a Wi-Bi
hop, thus resulting in a wireless end-to-end transfer of information - which is
what Wi-Bi is all about. The proFect involves creating an online database of land
records.M
/ssentially, the 1ak4et-enabled vehicle drives past a kiosk where it
picks up and drops off land record Cueries and responses. /ach day, this is
synchroni=ed with a central database. 1ata is transported through the access
point, which automatically and wirelessly collects and delivers data from each
kiosk on the network. The transfer of data can take place up to a radius of +.'2
km around the kiosk.
Department of ECE VJEC )6
Seminar 2006 Daknet
RE(ERENCE
www.cs.cmu.edu

www.thinkcycle.orgRtc-filesystem

www.thinkcycle'.media.mit.edu

www.firstmilesolutions.com

www.daknet.net

www.digitalpartners.orgRdrishtee.html
Department of ECE VJEC )L
Seminar 2006 Daknet


Department of ECE VJEC 0(