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Pulse-Width-Modulated

(PWM) Inverter Part II ( )


Chapter 10 (or 6)
Prepared by
p ( )
p y
Dr. Mohammad Abdul Mannan
Assistant Professor, Department of EEE
A i I t ti l U i it B l d h American International University - Bangladesh
Current Source Inverter (CSI)
Ad t f CSI C d VSI Advantage of CSI as Compared VSI
1. Since the input dc current is controlled and limited, miss
firing of switching devices, or a short circuit, would not be g g , ,
series problems;
2. The peak current of power devices is limited;
3 The commutation circuits for thyristors are simpler; 3. The commutation circuits for thyristors are simpler;
4. It has ability to handle reactive or regenerative load
without feedback or freewheeling diodes.
Disadvantage of CSI as Compared VSI
1. A CSI requires a relative large reactor (or inductor) to
exhibit current-source characteristics,
2. An extra converter stage is required to control the
current current,
3. The dynamic response is slower, and
4. Due to current transfer from one pair of switches to
another, an output filter is required to suppress the output
voltage spikes.
Single-Phase Transistorized CSI
The circ it diagram of a single phase transistori ed CSI is sho n in The circuit diagram of a single-phase transistorized CSI is shown in
Fig. 10-36(a).
Since there must be a continuous current flow from the source,
two switches must always conduct one from upper and one
f l i h from lower switches.
The conduction sequence is 12, 23, 34, and 41.
The diode in series with transistors are required to block the The diode in series with transistors are required to block the
reverse voltage on the transistors.
The gate signals and output current waveshape is shown in
Fig., 10-36(b) and (c). g , ( ) ( )
When two devices in different arms conduct, the source current
I
L
flows through the load.
When two devices in the same arm conduct, the source current
is bypassed from the load.
From Eq (10 27) the load From Eq. (10.27), the load
current can be expressed as

4
L
I

=
=
,.. 5 , 3 , 1
sin
2
sin
4
) (
n
t n
n
n
L
I
t
o
i

Single-Phase Thyristorized CSI


Th i it di f i l h t i t i d CSI i The circuit diagram of a single-phase transistorized CSI is
shown in Fig. 10-36(a).
Let us consider that T and T are conducting and capacitors C Let us consider that T
1
and T
2
are conducting, and capacitors C
1
and C
2
are charged with polarity as shown.
Firing of T
3
and T
4
reverse biases T
1
and T
2
. T
1
and T
2
are g
3 4 1 2 1 2
turned off by impulse commutation.
The current now flows through
T
3
C
1
D
1
, load, and D
2
C
2
T
4
.
The capacitors C
1
and C
2
are
di h d d h d t discharged and recharged at a
constant rate determined by
load current, I =I
L
. load current, I
m
I
L
.
When C
1
and C
2
charged to the
load voltage and their currents
f ll t th l d t falls to zero, the load current
will be transferred from diode
D
1
to D
3
and D
2
to D
4
. D
1
to D
3
and D
2
to D
4
.
Firing of T
1
and T
2
reverse
biases T
3
and T
4
. T
3
and T
4
are
3 4 3 4
turned off by impulse
commutation.
The current now flows through
T
1
C
1
D
3
, load, and D
4
C
2
T
2
.
The capacitors C and C are The capacitors C
1
and C
2
are
discharged and recharged at a
constant rate determined byy
load current, I
m
=I
L
.
When C
1
and C
2
charged to the When C
1
and C
2
charged to the
load voltage and their currents
falls to zero, the load current
will be transferred from diode
D
3
to D
1
and D
4
to D
2
.
Th it d The capacitors are now ready
to turn off T
1
to T
2
.
Three-Phase CSI
Fig 10 38(a) shows the circuit diagram of a three phase Fig. 10-38(a) shows the circuit diagram of a three-phase
current-source inverter.
The wave forms for gating signals
and line currents for a wye-
connected load are shown in Fig. connected load are shown in Fig.
10-38(b).
At any instant only two thyristors
d t t th ti E h conduct at the same time. Each
device conducts for 120
o
.
The current for phase a can be expressed as:

=
+ =

,.. 5 , 3 , 1
) 79 . 10 ( )
6
( sin
6
cos
2
) (
n
t n
n
n
L
I
t
a
i

The PWM, or SPWM, or MSPWM technique can be


applied to vary the load current and to improve the quality pp y p q y
of its waveform.
The current source inverter (CSI) is a dual of voltage
source inverter (VSI).
The line-to-line of a VSI is similar in shape to the line
current of a CSI current of a CSI.
Filter to Reduced Output Harmonics
T d th t t h i t t filt To reduce the output harmonics, output filters are necessary.
Fig. 10-40 shows the commonly used output filters.
AC-filter is very simple, but it draws more reactive power.
An LC-filter as in Fig. 10-40(b) can eliminate only one
ffrequency.
A properly designed CLC-filer as in Fig. 10-40(c) is more
effective in reducing harmonics of wide bandwidth and draws effective in reducing harmonics of wide bandwidth and draws
less reactive power.
Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) Inverter
S i t ff f t j d b k Square-wave inverters suffers from two major drawbacks:
(i) The output voltage of the inverter cannot be controlled for a fixed-source
voltage. To achieve voltage control, the inverter must be fed either from
controlled ac-dc or dc-dc converter.
(ii) The output voltage contains appreciable harmonics (low-frequency range).
Also, THD is very high. so, s ve y g .
The problem of square-wave inverter can be minimized by using PWM
technique.
PWM techniques allows:
(i) Variation of output voltage within the inverter by varying the gain of the
inverter This allows the input dc voltage to be fixed amplitude inverter. This allows the input dc voltage to be fixed amplitude.
(ii) Variations of output frequency either by varying the number of pulses per
half-cycle of the output or by varying the period for each half-cycle with fixed
b f l i h h lf l number of pulses in each half-cycle.
(iii) Simultaneous variation of out voltage and frequency is also possible. So
that V/f ratio can be kept constant. This feature is required in induction motor-
drives.
(iv) Control of harmonics at the output of the inverter.
Why the Output Voltage is Required to Control in
Industrial Application? Industrial Application?
The control of output voltage is required in industrial applications for the
following reasons:
To cope with the variation of dc input voltage,
For voltage regulation of inverter, and
For the constant volts/frequency control requirement q y q
Basic Principle of a PWM Inverter Operation
In PWM technique the gate signal of switching devices of an inverter is
obtained by comparing a reference signal with a carrier signal.
Basic Principle of a PWM Inverter Operation
obtained by comparing a reference signal with a carrier signal.
The magnitude of the output voltage depends on the amplitude modulation
index and the frequency of the output voltage depends on the frequency of
reference signal reference signal.
Thus, the magnitude of output voltage can be controlled by varying the
modulation index and the frequency of output voltage can be controlled by
ar ing the freq enc of reference signal varying the frequency of reference signal.
Control the Output Voltage By Varying the p g y y g
Inverter Gain
There various pulse-width-modulation (PWM) techniques
to vary the inverter gain are as follows: to vary the inverter gain are as follows:
1. Single-pulse-width-modulation,
2. Multiple-pulse-width-modulation,
3. Sinusoidal-pulse-width-modulation (SPM),
4. Modified sinusoidal-pulse-width-modulation
(MSPM) (MSPM),
5. Phase-displacement control
Single-Pulse-Width-Modulation
There is only one pulse per half cycle and the width of the pulse There is only one pulse per half-cycle and the width of the pulse
is varied to control the inverter output voltage.
The following figure shows the generation of gating signals and e o ow g gu e s ows e ge e o o g g s g s d
output voltage of single-pulse full-bridge inverters.
The gating signals are generated
by comparing a rectangular y p g g
reference signal of amplitude,
A
r
, with a triangular carrier
f lit d A wave of amplitude, A
c
.
The frequency of fundamental output voltage is determined by
the frequency of reference signal. the frequency of reference signal.
By varying A
r
from 0 to A
c
, the pulse width, , can be varied
from 0
o
to 180
o
.
The ratio of A
r
to A
c
is control variable and defined as the
amplitude modulation index.
The amplitude modulation index, or simply modulation index
is given by M=A
r
/A
c
.
The rms output voltage can be found from:


2 / 1
2 ) (

s
V t d
s
V
o
V =

2 ) (
2 ) (
) (
2
2
2

4
n
V

The Fourier series of output voltage
yields:

=
=
,.. 5 , 3 , 1
sin
2
sin
4
) (
n
t n
n
n
s
V
t
o
v

y
Fig. 10-12 shows the harmonic
profile of modulation index M profile of modulation index, M.
The dominant harmonic is the
third, and the distortion factor
increases significantly at low
output voltage.
Example [2, p.654] A single-phase full-wave inverter uses
single-pulse width modulation, and is required to eliminate the single pulse width modulation, and is required to eliminate the
third harmonics from the output wave. Determine the width of
pulse, .
Solution: From the Fourier series, we obtain the rms value of
third harmonics is:
3
sin
4

s
V
V =
2
sin
2 3
3

s
V =
To eliminate the third harmonics, V
3
=0, thus
0
2
3
sin =

=180
2
3
= = 120 180
3
2

Multiple-Pulse-Width-Modulation
The harmonic content can be reduced by using several pulses in The harmonic content can be reduced by using several pulses in
each half-cycle of output voltage.
The generation of gating signals for turning on and off of e ge e o o g g s g s o u g o d o o
transistor is shown in Fig. 10-13(a) by comparing a reference
signal with a triangular carrier wave.
The frequency of reference signal, f
r
, sets the output frequency,
f
o
, and the carrier frequency, f
c
, determines the number of
pulses per half cycle p pulses per half-cycle, p.
The rms output voltage
is controlled by is controlled by
modulation index (or
ratio). )
This type of modulation
is also known as uniform
pulse-width modulation
(UPWM).
The number of pulses per half-cycle is found
from: 2 2
f
m
o
f
c
f
p = =
o
f
Where m
f
= f
c
/f
o
is defined as the frequency modulation ratio
(or index). The variation of modulation index M from 0 to 1 ( )
varies the pulse width from 0 to /p and the output voltage
from 0 to V
s
.
If is the width of each
pulse, the rms output
lt b f d

p
s
V
p
t d
s
V
p
o
V =

+
=

2 / 1
2 ) / (
) (
2
2
2
voltage can be found
from:


s
V
p
t d
s
V
o
V

2 ) / (
) (
2
The general form of Fourier
series for the instantaneous
output voltage is: output voltage is:

= sin ) ( t n
n
B t
o
v

= ,.. 5 , 3 , 1 n
n o
If the positive pulse of mth pair starts at t =
m
and ends at
t =
m
+, the Fourier series coefficient for a pair of pulses is:

+ +
+
=
2
) ( cos ) ( cos
1

m
m
m
m
t td n t td n
n
b
i i i

+ + + =
2
sin
2
sin
2
sin
2

m
n
m
n
n
n
s
V
The coefficient B
n
can be found by adding the effects of all
pulses:

+ + + =

p
m
n
m
n
n
n
s
V
n
B
2
sin
2
sin
2
sin
2

m
m m n n
1
2 2 2

Advantages
(i) Distortion factor are reduced compared to single-pulse- ( ) p g p
modulation.
(ii) As value of p increases amplitudes of lower harmonic
d reduces.
Disadvantages
(i) With increased number of pulses switching losses are (i) With increased number of pulses, switching losses are
increased.
(ii) Control scheme is complex. (ii) Control scheme is complex.
Sinusoidal Pulse-Width-Modulation (SPWM)
In this modulation technique, the width of pulse is varied in In this modulation technique, the width of pulse is varied in
proportion to the amplitude of a sine-wave evaluated at the
center of the same pulse.
By comparing a sinusoidal reference signal of frequency, f
r
, (of
amplitude, A
r
), with a triangular carrier wave of frequency, f
c
,
(of amplitude A ) the gating signals are generated as shown (of amplitude, A
c
), the gating signals are generated, as shown
in Fig. 0-15(a).
Within the constraint Within the constraint
that two transistors
of the same arm (Q
1
(Q
1
and Q
4
) cannot
conduct at the same
time, the
instantaneous output
voltage is shown in voltage is shown in
the following figure.
If
m
is the width of mth pulse, the
rms output voltage as follows:

=
p
m
s
V
o
V

rms output voltage as follows:

= m
s o
1

The Fourier series for the


instantaneous output voltage is:

= sin ) ( t n
n
B t
o
v
instantaneous output voltage is:

= ,.. 5 , 3 , 1
) (
n
n o
sin sin sin
2

+ + +

p
m
n
m
n
m
n
s
V
B

.. ,......... 7 , 5 , 3 , 1 for
1
2
sin
2
sin
2
sin
=

=
+ + + =

n
m
m
m
n
m
m
n
m
n
s
n
B

The peak of fundamental output voltage for PWM and SPWM


control can be given as follows:
0 1 0 f d dV V
control can be given as follows:
The maximum peak amplitude of the fundamental output
0 . 1 0 for
1
= d
s
dV
m
V
e u pe p ude o e u d e ou pu
voltage as V
m1(max)
= V
s
(when d=1).
But according to the relation of rms value of fundamental But according to the relation of rms value of fundamental
output of bridge inverter, V
m1(max)
could be as high as
4V
s
/=1.278V
s
for a square-wave output. 4V
s
/ 1.278V
s
for a square wave output.
Overmodulation (d>1) basically leads
to a square-wave operation and adds to a square wave operation and adds
more harmonics as compared to
operation in the linear range (with d
1.0).
Overmodulation is normally avoided in
li ti i i l di t ti applications requiring low distortion
[e.g. UPS].
The same gating signals can be generated by using unidirectional
triangular carrier wave as shown in Fig. 10-15(b) [Fig. 9.17 (b) of g g ( ) [ g ( )
Ref. 2].
Advantages
(i) The distortion factor is reduced significantly compared to (i) The distortion factor is reduced significantly compared to
that of multiple-PWM.
(ii) SPWM eliminates all harmonics less than or equal to 2p-1.
For p=5, the lowest-order harmonics is ninth.
(iii) Lower-order-harmonics is reduced significantly.
Disadvantages
(i) With increased number of pulses, switching losses are
i d increased.
(ii) Control scheme is more complex.
Modified Sinusoidal Pulse-Width-Modulation (MSPWM)
I SPWM t h i th idth f l th t th k In SPWM technique, the width of pulses that are nearer the peak
of the sine wave do not change significantly with the variation of
modulation index.
Thus, the SPWM technique can be modified so that the carrier
wave is applied during the first and last 60
o
intervals per half-
l ( 0 60 d 120 180 ) Thi f d l i i cycle (e.g. 0
o
to 60
o
and 120
o
to 180
o
). This type of modulation in
known as MSPWM and shown in Fig, 10-18.
The number of pulses per The number of pulses per
half-cycle is found from:
3 6 ) / ( + = q
o
f
c
f ) ( q
o
f
c
f
The fundamental component is
increased and its harmonic increased and its harmonic
characteristics are improved. It
reduces the number of
switching of power devices and
also reduces switching losses.
Phase-Displacement Control
Voltage control can be obtained by using multiple inverters
d i th t t lt f i di id l i t and summing the output voltages of individual inverters.
A single-phase full-bridge inverter can be perceived as the sum
of two half-bridge inverters. of two half bridge inverters.
A 180
o
phase displacement produces an output voltages as
shown in Fig. 10-20(c), whereas a delay (or displacement) shown in Fig. 10 20(c), whereas a delay (or displacement)
angle of produces an output as shown in Fig. 10-20(e).
The rms output voltage:

s
V
o
V =
Fig. 10-20
The instantaneous voltages equation can be expressed as
follows:

2V

2V
follows:

=
=
,.. 5 , 3 , 1
sin
2
n
t n
n
Vs
ao
v

=
=
,.. 5 , 3 , 1
) ( sin
2
n
t n
n
Vs
bo
v

=
= =

,.. 5 , 3 , 1
) ( sin sin
2
n
t n t n
n
Vs
bo
v
ao
v
ab
v

=
=

,.. 5 , 3 , 1
)
2
( cos
2
sin
4
n
t n
n
n
Vs
ab
v

The rms value of the fundamental output


voltage is: 2
sin
2
4
1

n
Vs
V =
voltage is: 2
2
1

The above equation indicates that the output voltage can be
varied by varying the delay angle .
This type of control is especially useful for high-power
li ti i i l b f t i t i applications, requiring a large number of transistors in
parallel.
Advanced Modulation Techniques q
Th SPWM hi h i t l d ff The SPWM which is most commonly used, suffers
from drawbacks (e.g. low fundamental output
lt ) voltage).
The other techniques that offer improved
f performances are:
Trapezoidal modulation,
St i d l ti Staircase modulation,
Stepped modulation,
H i i j ti d l ti d Harmonic injection modulation, and
Delta modulation
Delta Modulation
In delta modulation, triangle wave is allowed to oscillate within a , g
defined window V above and below the reference sine wave v
r
.
The inverter switching function, which is identical to the output
lt i t d f th ti f th t i l voltage v
o
is generated from the vertices of the triangular wave v
c
as
shown in Fig. 10-27. It is also known as hysteresis modulation.
If the frequency of the modulating wave is changed keeping the slope of the
triangle wave constant, the number of pulses and pulses widths of the
modulated wave would change.
Th f d l The fundamental output
voltage can be up to V
s
and
is dependent on the peak p p
amplitude A
r
and frequency
f
r
of the reference voltage.
Th d lt d l ti The delta modulation can
control the ratio of voltage
to frequency (v/f control), q y ( ),
which is a desired feature in
ac motor control.
Harmonic Reductions
A pair of unwanted harmonics at the output of single-phase A pair of unwanted harmonics at the output of single phase
inverters can be eliminated by introducing a pair of
symmetrically placed bipolar voltage notches as shown in Fig.
10.28.
The Fourier series of output voltage can be expressed as

) 46 . 10 (
,.. 5 , 3 , 1
sin ) (

=
=
n
t n
n
B t
o
v
1
0
2 /
2
) ( sin
2
1
) ( sin ) ( sin
4
t td n t td n t td n
s
V
n
B

) 47 . 10 (
2
cos 2
1
cos 2 1
4
0
2 1
n
n n
s
V
n
B


+
=

Eq. (10.47) can be extended to m notches per quarter-wave, then


h i f B b
n
the expression of B
n
becomes:
) 48 10 ( cos 2 cos 2 cos 2 cos 2 1
4

+ + n n n n
s
V
B ) 48 . 10 ( ..
4
cos 2
3
cos 2
2
cos 2
1
cos 2 1

+ + =

n n n n
n
s
n
B
The third and fifth harmonics would be eliminated if B
3
= B
5
=0 e d d o cs wou d be e ed
3 5
0
and Eq. (10.47) gives the necessary equations to be solved.

= = + 5 . 0
1
3 cos
1
cos
3
1
2
or 0
2
3 cos 2
1
3 cos 2 1
1

= = + 5 . 0
2
5 cos
1
cos
3
1
1
or 0
2
5 cos 2
1
5 cos 2 1
Th ti b l d it ti l b i iti ll i These equations can be solved iteratively by initially assuming

1
= 0 and repeating the calculation for
1
and
2
. The result is
= 23 62
o
and = 33 3
o

2
23.62 , and
2
33.3 .
A pair of unwanted harmonics at the output of single-phase
inverters can also be eliminated by introducing a pair of
symmetrically placed unipolar voltage notches.
With unipolar voltage notches, the co-efficient B
n
is given by
1
0
2 /
2
) ( sin ) ( sin
4
t td n t td n
s
V
n
B


+ =

) 49 . 10 (
2
cos
1
cos 1
4
n
n n
s
V
n
B

+
=
The third and fifth harmonics would be eliminated if
0
2
3 cos
1
3 cos 1 = +
The third and fifth harmonics would be eliminated if
0
2
5 cos
1
5 cos 1 = +
The result is

2
= 17.83
o
,
2
17.83 ,
and

2
= 37.97
o
.
The modified sinusoidal PWM techniques can be applied to
generate the notches which would eliminate certain harmonics generate the notches which would eliminate certain harmonics
effectively in the output voltage as shown in Fig. 10-30.