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A disaster is a natural or man-made hazard that has come to fruition, resulting in an event
of substantial extent causing significant physical damage or destruction, loss of life, or drastic
change to the environment. In contemporary academia, disasters are seen as the consequence of
inappropriately managed risk. These risks are the product of hazards and vulnerability. Hazards
that strike in areas with low vulnerability are not considered a disaster, as is the case in
uninhabited regions.
Developing countries suffer the greatest costs when a disaster hits more than 95 percent of all
deaths caused by disasters occur in developing countries, and losses due to natural disasters are
20 times greater (as a percentage of GDP) in developing countries than in industrialized
Researchers have been studying disasters for more than a century, and for more than forty
years disaster research has been institutionalize the University of Delaware's Disaster Research
Center. The studies reflect a common opinion when they argue that all disasters can be seen as
being human-made, their reasoning being that human actions before the strike of the hazard
can prevent it developing into a disaster. All disasters are hence the result of human failure to
introduce appropriate disaster management measures. Hazards are routinely divided into
natural or human-made, although complex disasters, where there is no single root cause, are
more common in developing countries. A specific disaster may spawn a secondary disaster that
increases the impact. A classic example is an earthquake that causes a tsunami, resulting in
coastal flooding.

A disaster is a serious disruption of the functioning of a society, causing widespread
human, material or environmental losses which exceed the ability of the affected society (or
community) to cope with using only its own resources.
Disasters are often classified according to their speed of onset(slow or sudden), or according to
their cause (natural, made-made or complex).
Disasters may take many forms and may occur as the result of one or another range of
events, both natural and man-induced. The duration of these events may range from a few
seconds to many years. The severity of the effects of a disaster depends on the degree to which
man has created an environment susceptible to damage that is, an environment in which life and
property are at risk.


Hazards are dangerous conditions or events with potential for injury, loss of life, and/or
damage to property, agriculture or environment. They can be categorised in various ways. One
method of categorization is their nature of origin:
1. Natural hazards with meteorological, geographical, biological or extra-terrestrial (space)
2. Unnatural hazards with human-caused or technological origins.
A hazard is a rare or extreme event in the natural or human=made environment that
adversely affects human life, property or activity to the extent of causing a disaster.
4. Disaster Management
Disaster management can be defined as the organization and management of resources
and responsibilities for dealing with all humanitarian aspects of emergencies, in particular
preparedness, response and recovery in order to lessen the impact of disasters.
Types of disasters
There is no country that is immune from disaster, though vulnerability to disaster varies. There
are four main types of disaster.
Natural disasters. These disasters include floods, hurricanes, earthquakes and volcano
eruptions that can have immediate impacts on human health, as well as secondary impacts
causing further death and suffering from floods causing landslides, earthquakes resulting in
fires, tsunamis causing widespread flooding and typhoons sinking ferries
Environmental emergencies. These emergencies include technological or industrial
accidents, usually involving hazardous material, and occur where these materials are
produced, used or transported. Large forest fires are generally included in this definition
because they tend to be caused by humans.
Complex emergencies. These emergencies involve a break-down of authority, looting and
attacks on strategic installations. Complex emergencies include conflict situations and war.
Pandemic emergencies. These emergencies involve a sudden onset of a contagious disease
that affects health but also disrupts services and businesses, bringing economic and social
Any disaster can interrupt essential services, such as the provision of health care, electricity,
water, sewage/garbage removal, transportation and communications. The interruption can
seriously affect the health, social and economic networks of local communities and countries.
Disasters have a major and long-lasting impact on people long after the immediate effect has
been mitigated. Poorly planned relief activities can have a significant negative impact not only
on the disaster victims but also on donors and relief agencies. So it is important that physical
therapists join established programmes rather than attempting individual efforts.


Natural disasters are caused when natural hazards occur in vulnerable areas, resulting in
substantial damage, disruption and possible casualties and leaving the affected communities
unable to function normally. While most natural hazards may be unavoidable, the damage they
cause can be minimised. Some common causal factors play a large role in determining the
severity and magnitude of a disaster. The following causal factors are general in nature, and are
not ranked. They may be more or less applicable to any given society and contributes to
determining the vulnerability of a society to disasters.
POVERTY- the single most important factor that increases the vulnerability of people
to disaster is poverty. Impoverished people who lack education, usually lack the
economic and political clout to cope with hazards.
UNGOVERNED POPULATION GROWTH can lead to settlements in hazardous
areas, susceptibility to disease, competition for scarce resources and civil strife.
RAPID URBANISATION AND MIGRATION rapid population growth and
migration are related to the major phenomenon of rapid urbanisation. An inevitable
consequence of rapid urbanisation, can lead to man-made disasters.
TRANSITION IN CULTURSL PRACTICES all societies are in a continual state of
transition and change. These transitions are often extremely disruptive and uneven,
leaving gaps in social coping mechanisms and technology.
ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION many disasters are either caused or
exacerbated by environmental degradation. Deforestation leads to rapid rain runoff,
which leads to flooding. And the destruction of mangrove swamps leading to the
creation of drought conditions is a natural phenomenon. Man-made contributions to
drought conditions include: poor cropping patterns, overgrazing, poor conservation
techniques, and to an extent unchecked urbanisation.
LACK OF AWARENESS AND INFORMATION disasters can also occur when
people who are vulnerable, have not been educated on how to get out of harms way or
take protective measures at the onset of a disaster event.
WAR AND CIVIL STRIFEare regarded as hazards or extreme events that produce
disasters. The factors like scarce resources, religious or ethnic intolerance, and
ideological differences are the by-products of the other casual disaster factors
Local, regional, national and (where necessary) international organisations are all involved in
mounting a humanitarian response to disasters. Each will have a prepared disaster management
plan. These plans cover prevention, preparedness, relief and recovery.
Disaster prevention
These are activities designed to provide permanent protection from disasters. Not all disasters,
particularly natural disasters, can be prevented, but the risk of loss of life and injury can be
mitigated with good evacuation plans, environmental planning and design standards. In January
2005, 168 Governments adopted a 10-year global plan for naturaldisaster risk reduction


called the Hyogo Framework. It offers guiding principles, priorities for action, and practical
means for achieving disaster resilience for vulnerable communities
Disaster preparedness
These activities are designed to minimise loss of life and damage for example by removing
people and property from a threatened location and by facilitating timely and effective rescue,
relief and rehabilitation. Preparedness is the main way of reducing the impact of disasters.
Community-based preparedness and management should be a high priority in physical therapy
practice management
Disaster relief
This is a coordinated multi-agency response to reduce the impact of a disaster and its long-term
results. Relief activities include rescue, relocation, providing food and water, preventing disease
and disability, repairing vital services such as telecommunications and transport, providing
temporary shelter and emergency health care.
Disaster recovery
Once emergency needs have been met and the initial crisis is over, the people affected and the
communities that support them are still vulnerable. Recovery activities include rebuilding
infrastructure, health care and rehabilitation. These should blend with development activities,
such as building human resources for health and developing policies and practices to avoid
similar situations in future.
Disaster management is linked with sustainable development, particularly in relation to
vulnerable people such as those with disabilities, elderly people, children and other marginalised
Myths and Realities of Disaster Assistance summarises some of the common misunderstandings
about disaster management.
Causal Phenomena
Slippage of crustal rock, along a fault or area of strain and rebound, would result in a new pattern
of alignment.
General Characteristics and Effects
Tremors in the earth caused by waves on and below the earths surface would result in:
Surface faulting


Tremors, vibrations
Probability of occurrence can be determined but not the exact timing of a possible disaster. A
weather forecast is based on the monitoring of seismic activity, historical incidence and
Factors Contributing to Vulnerability
Location of settlements in seismic areas;
Structures which are not resistant to ground motion;
Dense collections of building with high occupancy;
Lack of access to information about earthquake risks.
Typical Adverse Effects
Physical damage in the form of loss of structures or infrastructure. Fires, dam failures,
landslides flooding may occur;
Casualties particularly near the epicentre or in highly populated areas or where buildings
are not resistant;
Public health issues become an area of concern as fracture injuries a widespread problem.
Secondary threats due to flooding, contaminated water supply, or breakdown in sanitary
conditions can be another likely set of problems;
Water supply problems are likely to arise due to damage of water systems, pollution of
open wells and changes in the water table.
Possible Risk Reduction Measures
Hazard mapping;
Public awareness programmes and training;
Assessing and reducing structural vulnerability;
Land use control or zoning, building codes;
Specific Preparedness Measures
Earthquakes warnings and preparedness programmes.
Typical Post-Disaster Needs
Search and rescue measures;


Emergency medical assessment survey;
Relief assistance;
Repair and reconstruction;
Economic recovery.
Impact Assessment Tools
Earthquake scales, earthquake damage and usability forms.
Causal Phenomena
Fault movement on the sea floor, accompanied by an earthquake. A landslide occurring
underwater or above the sea, and then plunging into the water.Volcanic activity either
underwater or near the shore.
General Characteristics and Effects
Tsunami waves are barely perceptible in deep water and may measure 160 km between
wave crests;
May strike shore in crashing waves or may inundate the land;
Flooding effect depends on shape of shoreline and tidal movements.
The Tsunami Warning System in the Pacific monitors seismic activity and offers warning well in
advance of the imminence of disaster.
Factors Contributing to Vulnerability
Location of settlements in low-lying coastal regions;
Lack of tsunami-resistant buildings;
Lack of timely warning systems and evacuation plans;
Lack of awareness about the destructive force of tsunamis.
Typical Adverse Effects
Physical damage happens as the force of water can raze everything in its path through
damage to structure and infrastructure largely results from flooding ;
Free-floating debris can result in major injuries and water can be contaminated by salt
water or sewage making drinking water available;
Land may be rendered infertile due to salt water incursion.
Possible Risk Reduction Measures


Protection of buildings along coast, houses on stilts;
Building barriers such as breakwater.
Specific Preparedness Measures
Hazard mapping, planning evacuation routes;
Establish warning systems;
Community education.
Typical Post-Disaster Needs
Warning and evacuation; search and rescue; medical assistance; food, water and shelter.
Impact Assessment Tools
Aerial surveys of coastal areas, damage surveys, evaluation of warning systems and
evacuation plans.

Causal Phenomena
Magma pushed upward through volcanic vent by pressures and effervescence of
dissolved gases.

General Characteristics and Effects
Types of volcanoes are cinder cones, shield volcanoes, composite volcanoes and lava
Magma flowing out onto surface is lava while ejected solid particles are tephra;
Damage results from the type of material ejected such as ash, pyroclastic flows (blasts of
gas containing ash and fragments), mud, debris, and lava flows.
Study of the geological history of volcanoes, mainly located in a clearly defined volcanic belt,
along with seismic activity and other observations, may indicate an impending volcano. No
reliable indicator has been discovered and precursory signs do not always occur.
Factors Contributing to Vulnerability
Settlements on the flanks of volcanoes;
Settlements in the historical paths of mud or lava flows;


Structures with roof designs not resistant to ash accumulation;
Presence of combustible materials;
Lack of evacuation plan or warning systems.
Typical Adverse Effects
Casualties take place in the form of death from pyroclastic flows. Mud flows and
possibly lava flows and the release of toxic gases. Injuries from falling rock; burns;
respiratory difficulties from gas and ash;

Possible Risk Reduction Measures
Land-use planning for settlements around volcanoes;
Protective structural measures.
Specific Preparedness Measures
National volcanic emergency plans;
Volcano monitoring and warning system;
Training for government officials and community participation in search and rescue, fire
Typical Post-Disaster Needs
Warning and evacuation; medical assistance, search and rescue measures; provisions for
food, water and shelter; relocation of victims; provision of financial assistance.

Impact Assessment Tools
Aerial and ground surveys to assess damage; evaluation of evacuation plans and
emergency responses.

Causal Phenomena
Downslope transport of soil and rock resulting from naturally occurring vibrations, changes in
direct water content, removal of lateral support, loading with weight and weathering, or human
manipulation of water courses and slope composition.
General Characteristics and Effects


Landslides vary in types of movement (falls, slides, topples, lateral spread, flows), and may be a
secondary consequence of heavy storms, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions.
Frequency of occurrence, extent and consequence may be estimated and areas of high risk
determined by use of information on area geology, geomorphology, hydrology, climatology and
Factors Contributing to Vulnerability
Settlements built on steep slopes, softer soils, cliff tops;
Roads, communication lines in mountain areas;
Buildings with weak foundations;
Buried pipelines, brittle pipes;
Lack of understanding of landside hazard.
Typical Adverse Effects
Physical damage of anything on top of or in the path of a landslide.
Indirect effects may include loss of productivity of agricultural or forest lands flooding,
reduced property values;
Casualties have occurred due to slop failure. Catastrophic debris slides or mud flows have
killed thousands of people.
Possible Risk Reduction Measures
Hazard mapping;
Legislation and land use regulation;
Specific Preparedness Measures
Community education;
Monitoring, warning and evacuation systems.
Typical Post-Disaster Needs
Search and rescue (use of earth removal equipment);
Medical assistance;
Emergency shelter for the homeless.
Impact Assessment Tools
Damage Assessment Forms.


Causal Phenomena
Heat and moisture forms a low pressure centre over oceans in tropical latitudes where
temperatures are over 26oC. Wind currents spin and organise around deepening pressure toward
the centre and moving along the track pushed by trade winds. When winds reach a gale force of
117 km per hr. The depression becomes a tropical cyclone.
General Characteristics and Effects
When the cyclone strikes land, high wilds, exceptional rainfall and storm surges cause damage
with secondary flooding and landslides.
Tropical cyclones can be tracked from their development but accurate landfall forecasts are
usually possible only a few hours before disaster strikes as unpredictable changes in course can
Factors Contributing to Vulnerability
Settlements located in low coastal areas (direct impact);
Settlements in adjacent areas (heavy rains floods);
Poor warning system;
Lightweight structures, bad construction, poor masonry;
Infrastructural elements, fishing boats and maritime industries.
Causal Phenomena
Naturally occurring flash, river and coastal flooding from intense rainfall or inundation
associated with seasonal weather patterns. Human manipulation of watersheds, drainage basins
and floodplains.
General Characteristics and Effects
Flash floods leading to accelerated runoff, dam failures, breakdown of ice jams;
River floods resulting in a slow and usually seasonal building in river systems;
Coastal floods which are associated with tropical cyclones, tsunami waves and storm
Other contributing factors include the depth of water, duration velocity, rate of rise,
frequency of occurrence and seasonality.


A flood forecast depends on seasonal patterns, drainage basin capacity, flood plain mapping and
air and land surveys. A prior word of warning about seasonal floods can be provided well in
advance of an actual disaster but such forewarning is not possible in the case of storm surges,
flash floods or tsunamis.
Factors Contributing to Vulnerability
Location of floodplain settlements;
Lack of awareness of flood hazards;
Reduction of absorptive capacity of land;
Non-resistant buildings and foundations;
High risk infrastructural elements;
Unprotected food stocks and standing crops, livestock;
Fishing boats and maritime industries.
Typical Adverse Effects
Physical damage structure damaged by washing away, becoming inundated, collapsing,
impact of floating debris. Landslides from saturated soils. Damage greater in valleys than
open areas.
Casualties and public health deaths from drowning but few serious injuries. Possible
outbreaks of malaria, diarrhea and viral infections.
Water supplies contamination of wells and groundwater possible. Clean water may be
Crops and food supplies harvests and food stocks may be lost to inundation. Animals,
farm tools and seeds might be lost.
Possible Risk Reduction Measures
Flood control measures would include provision for dikes channels, dams, flood-proofing,
erosion control, floodplain mapping, land use control.
Specific Preparedness Measures
Flood detection and warning systems;
Community participation and education;
Development of master plan for floodplain management.
Typical Post-Disaster Needs
Search and rescue; medical assistance; disaster assessment; short-term food and water supplies;
water purification; epidemiological surveillance; temporary shelter.
Impact Assessment Tools
Damage assessment forms; aerial surveys.


Causal Phenomena
Rainfall deficit.
El Nino (incursion of warm surface waters into the normally colder waters of the South
American Pacific); human-induced changes in ground surface and soil; higher sea surface
temperatures; higher levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide and soil; higher sea surface
temperatures; higher levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide and greenhouse gases.
General Characteristics and Effects
The reduction of water or moisture availability is temporary and significant.
Meteorological drought is the reduction in rainfall and hydrological and drought is the
reduction in water resources;
Agricultural drought is the impact of drought on human activity and it is influenced by
various factors like the presence of irrigation systems; moisture retention capacity of the
soil; the timing of the rainfall; and the adaptive behaviour of the farmers.
A dry spell is considered normal in all weather systems. Rainfall and hydrological data must be
carefully analysed along with other contributing factors to make an accurate disaster forecast.

Factors Contributing to Vulnerability
Location in an arid area where dry conditions are increased by drought;
Farming on marginal lands, subsistence farming;
Lack of agricultural inputs that can help improve yields;
Lack of seed reserves;
Areas dependent on other weather systems for water resources;
Areas of low soil moisture retention;
Lack of insight into the problem and an accompanying lack of resource allocation in the
face of a drought hazard.
Typical Adverse Effects
Reduced income for farmers; reduction of spendingfrom agricultural sector; increase in price of
staple foods, inflation, deterioration of nutritional status, famine, illness, death, reduction of
drinking water sources, migration, breakup of communities , loss of livestock.
Possible Risk Reduction Measures


A system which would forewarn people of the imminence of drought or famine.
Specific Preparedness Measures
It includes development of inter-institutional response plans.
Typical Post-Disaster Needs
Measures to maintain food security: price stabilisation, food subsidies, employment creation
programmes, general food distribution, supplementary feeding programmes, special programmes
for livestock and pastoralists, complementary water and health programmes rehabilitation
Impact assessment Tools
Nutritional surveys, socio-economic surveys, monitoring of rainfall and hydrological data,
satellite imagery.

These are disasters resulting from man-made hazards (threats having an element of human intent,
negligence, or error; or involving a failure of a man-made system), as opposed to natural
disasters resulting from natural hazards. Man-made hazards or disasters are sometimes referred
to as anthropogenic.

Crime is to breach to rules or laws for which some governing authority (via mechanisms such as
legal systems) can ultimately prescribe a conviction. Individual human societies may each define
crime and crimes differently. While every crime violates the law, not every violation of the law
counts as a crime; for example: breaches of contract and of other private law may rank as
offenses or as infractions. Modern societies generally regard crimes as offenses against the
public or the state, distinguished from torts (offenses against private parties that can give rise to a
civil cause of action).
In context, not all crimes provide man-made hazards.


Arson is the criminal intent of setting a fire with intent to cause damage. The definition of arson
was originally limited to setting fire to buildings, but was later expanded to include other objects,
such as bridges, vehicles, and private property. Arson is the greatest cause of fires in data
repositories. Sometimes, human-induced fires can be accidental: failing machinery such as a
kitchen stove is a major cause of accidental fires.
Civil disorder
Civil disorder is a broad term that is typically used by law enforcement to describe forms of
disturbance. Although civil disorder does not necessarily escalate to a disaster in all cases, the
event may escalate into general chaos. Rioting has many causes, from antipathy over low
minimum wages to racial segregation.
Terrorism is a controversial term with varied definitions. One definition means a violent action
targeting civilians exclusively. Another definition is the use or threatened use of violence for the
purpose of creating fear in order to achieve a political, religious, or ideological goal. Under the
second definition, the targets of terrorist acts can be anyone, including civilians, government
officials, military personnel, or people serving the interests of governments.Definitions of
terrorism may also vary geographically.
September 11 attacks, which are in multiple categories of manmade disaster: terrorist attack, air
disaster, arson, and structural collapse.
War is conflict between relatively large groups of people, which involves physical force inflicted
by the use of weapons. Warfare has destroyed entire cultures, countries, economies and inflicted
great suffering on humanity. Other terms for war can include armed conflict, hostilities, and
police action. Acts of war are normally excluded from insurance contracts and disaster planning.
Industrial hazards
Industrial disasters occur in a commercial context, such as mining accidents. They often have an
environmental impact. The Bhopal disaster is the worlds worst industrial disaster to date, and
the Chernobyl disaster is regarded the worst nuclear accident in history. Hazards may have
longer-term and more dispersed effects, such as dioxin and DDT poisoning.


Structural collapse
Structural collapses are often caused by engineering failures. Bridge failures may be caused in
several ways, such as under-design (as in the Tay Bridge disaster), by corrosion attack (such as
in the Silver Bridge collapse), or by aerodynamic flutter of the deck (as in Galloping Gertie, the
original Tacoma Narrows Bridge). Failure
of dams was not infrequent during the Victorian era, such as the Dale Dyke dam failure in
Sheffield, England in the 1860s, causing the Great Sheffield Flood.
Power outage
A power outage is an interruption of normal sources of electrical power. Short-term power
outages (up to a few hours) are common and have minor adverse effect, since most businesses
and health facilities are prepared to deal with them. Extended power outages, however, can
disrupt personal and business activities as well as medical and rescue services, leading to
business losses and medical emergencies. Only very rarely do power outages escalate to disaster
proportions, however, they often accompany other types of disasters, such as hurricanes and
floods, which hampers relief efforts.
Electromagnetic pulses and voltage spikes from whatever cause can also damage electricity
infrastructure and electrical devices.
Bush fires, forest fires, and mine fires are generally started by lightning, but also by human
negligence or arson. They can burn thousands of square kilometers. If a fire intensifies enough to
produce its own winds and weather, it will form into a firestorm.
Casualties resulting from fires, regardless of their source or initial cause, can be aggravated by
inadequate emergency preparedness. Such hazards as a lack of accessible emergency exits,
poorly marked escape routes, or improperly maintained fire extinguishers or sprinkler systems
may result in many more deaths and injuries than might occur with such protections.
Radiation contamination
When nuclear weapons are detonated or nuclear containment systems are otherwise
compromised, airborne radioactive particles (nuclear fallout) can scatter and irradiate large areas.
Not only is it deadly, but it also has a long-term effect on the next generation for those who are
contaminated. Ionizing radiation is hazardous to living things, and in such a case much of the
affected area could be unsafe for human habitation.
A number of military accidents involving nuclear weapons have also resulted in radioactive
CBRN is catch-all initialism for chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear. The term is used
to describe a non-conventional terror threat that, if used by a nation, would be considered use of
a weapon of mass destruction. This term is used primarily in the United Kingdom. Planning for
the possibility of a CBRN event may be appropriate for certain high-risk or high-value facilities


and governments. Examples include Saddam Husseins Halabja poison gas attack, the Sarin gas
attack on the Tokyo subway and the preceding test runs in Matsumoto, Japan 100 kilometres
outside of Tokyo, and Lord Amherst giving smallpox laden blankets to Native Americans.

An aviation incident is an occurrence other than an accident, associated with the operation of an
aircraft, which affects or could affect the safety of operations, passengers, or pilots.
A railroad disaster is an occurrence associated with the operation of a passenger train which
results in substantial loss of life. Usually accidents with freight (goods) trains are not considered
disasters, unless they cause substantial loss of life or property.
Road are the leading cause of death, and road-based pollution creates a substantial health hazard,
especially in major conurbations. The greenhouse effect of road transport is a significant fraction
of the anthropogenic warming effect, and the rapid consumption of fossil fuel accelerates the
Hubbard peak.
The direct participants (astronauts or cosmonauts and ground support personnel), but also carry
the potential of disaster to the public at large. Accidents related to space travel have killed 22
astronauts and cosmonauts, and a larger number of people on the ground.
Accidents can occur on the ground during launch, preparation, or in flight, due to equipment
malfunction or the naturally hostile environment of space itself. An additional risk is posed by
(unmanned) orbiting satellites whose orbits eventually decay due to friction with the extremely
thin atmosphere. If they are large enough, massive pieces travelling at great speed can fall to the
Earth before burning up, with the potential to do damage.
A Partial list of shipwrecks Ships can sink, capsize or crash in disasters. One well known sinking
was that of the titanic which hit a iceberg and sank.

The word rehabilitate means to return to a good or healthy condition, state or way of living.
So, disaster rehabilitation is a long haul effort and requires strength, energy and stamina. We
need to understand the difference between temporary and permanent shelter, to identify the kind


of people who would be interested in such long-run work, and the right kind of people and
materials need to be resourced for a particular disaster area.
Disaster rehabilitation should be seen in a more holistic manner and the problem should be dealt
in its entirety. The issues- that need the attention of policy makers, administrators, planners and
professionals associated in this activity- must be identified for further consolidation. The major
issues are:
1. Disaster rehabilitation should be part of the total development perspective of an area.
Toachieve this, the development needs, for different disaster-prone areas, should be
assessed and specific planning approaches should be evolved keeping in mind things like
resource endowments, population pressure and the types of disaster in the area.
2. Area-specific plans should be prepared and the disaster reduction activities and socio-
economic development of the area should be integrated appropriately.
3. There should be a specific settlement and housing policy for the disaster areas so that the
concentration of people in high the risk areas can be checked in future. Disaster-proof
housing designs and technologies should be strictly enforced.
4. There should be a well organized and scientific data-based system, networking and
information sharing. Detailed guidelines and appropriate techniques should be evolved.
The organizational and administrative network should be improved further.
5. Rural development programmes should be specifically designed for disaster areas.
Programmes like those of drinking water supply; construction of roads and school
buildings; and housing should be planned implemented keeping in view their
vulnerability to disaster.
1. Disaster Assessment: an assessment of needs and resources available in the area.

2. Rehabilitation planning: the planning process sets out a framework for the initial stages
of implementation. As the project proceeds, plans may be revised or changed.

3. The Acquisition of Materials: the materials, necessary to help re-build or repair houses,
are identified and acquired during this phase.

4. Public Awareness:as the programme commences, an extensive methodology for
informing the public about how they can participate in the programme is carried out.

5. Construction Training:the key element of the programme is that of providing training in
methods of improved disaster-resistant construction.


6. Participation:NGOs should help victims to participate more effectively in rehabilitation
programmes. Special attention is given to collaborative work as families help each other
as a means of reducing cost and speeding-up construction.

10.1 Case Study 1:: TURKEYS EARTHQUAKE
A magnitude-7.2 earthquake struck 12 miles northeast of the city of Van in eastern
Turkey on Sunday, October 23, 2011, at 1:41 p.m. local time at the epicentre. The earthquake
occurred at a depth of 12.4 miles and causing
Strong shaking throughout a broad area, and significant damage to Van and
Neighbouring towns.
The epicentre of the quake was in the village of Tabanli at Ercis district in the easternprovince
of Van. The province borders Iran on the east. The earthquake was also felt inthe Van province
city center as well as the neighboring 11 provinces including Ar,Batman, Igdir, Mu, Bingl,
Tunceli, Diyarbakr, Siirt, Sirnak, Mardin, and Erzurum.
The HDI (Human Development Index) in the affected region (Van, Hakkari, Bitlis, Mus)is
among the lowest in Turkey. The HDI is a combination of literacy rate, life expectancyand GDP
(per capita). In the Van area (0.630), the HDI is equivalent to Bhutan, SolomonIslands, India or
Congo, as compared to the average HDI of Turkey which is 0.810. Thedevelopment of the region
poses many problems for health issues.
Van Province has a population of 1.035 million The average household size is between7 and 8
persons. It has 539,619 residents living in cities, and a village population of495,799.
The current version of the USGS Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for
Response (PAGER) estimate is that economic losses are most likely to be in the $110billion
range, and fatalities are likely to be in the 1001,000 range.
Turkey is a tectonically active country that experiences frequent destructive
Earthquakes. Quakes in this region are controlled by the Arabian and Eurasian tectonicplates.
The Arabian plate converges with Eurasia in a northerly direction at a rate of approximately 24
millimetres per year in this area.
As of 30 OCT 2011: The death toll is at 601, the number of injured 4,152,the number pulled
from rubble alive 188. (AFAD)


There have been 1,769aftershocks since the earthquake occurred:
637aftershocks with magnitudes 2-3
850aftershocks with magnitudes 3-4
108aftershocks with magnitudes 4-5
7aftershocks with magnitudes 5-6

A technical committee of 20 personnel from the government and 200technical personnel from
different provinces have started preliminarydamage assessment.
All disaster and emergency centers of related ministries operating 24/7.
On 24 OCT 2011 the Ministry of Education indicated many schools in thearea collapsed or
were seriously damaged. With the possible exception ofboarding schools, they were all empty
and resulted in no casualties
UTILITIES : Electricity and telecommunications services have been disruptedin the city of Van
and the nearby town of Erci (Van). Damage to buildingshas also occurred in parts of the
neighboringBitlis and Hakkari Provinces.
Search and rescue, medical and first aid personnel from 48 differentprovinces and 39 different
institutions have been deployed to the region.
In total, 4.446 search-rescue personnel, 1,796 medical personnel, 18search dogs, 653
construction vehicles, 173 ambulances (7 of them airambulances), 11 mobile hospitals (6 of them
in service), 143 generators,77 reflectors, 141 WC-shower bath containers, 44,164 tents (9,436
ofthem from abroad), 109 tents for general usage, 60 prefabricated houses,15 house containers,
2,310 Mevlana type prefabricated houses, 165,531blankets, 1,179 quilts, 37 portable kitchens,
3,051 kitchen sets, 6,915catalytic stoves, 5,792 sleeping bags, 1,000 folding beds and 1
mobileoven have been delivered to the region.

Food items have been sent by different sources, including from provinces neighbouring Van.
Red Crescent is continuing to distribute hot meals three times a day to theaffected population.


WATER: People in the earthquake area have been warned by the Ministry ofHealth to drink
only bottled water. Many cases of diarrhea have beenreported locally.
Farmers and livestock breeders will need support to resume theiractivities.
The earthquake had a very high toll on livestock, cattle and sheep which is the main
economy in the rural areas.
The TRCS Crisis Management Desks in the Disaster ManagementCenter (HQ) (Ankara), the
Northern Anatolia (Erzurum), the SoutheasternAnatolia (Elaz), the Eastern Anatolia (Mu),
and theMediterranean (Adana) Regional Disaster Management Centers andSivas and Diyarbakir
Local Disaster Management Centers arecurrently staffed. There are also 5 staff from Elaz
Regional Disaster
2 staff from Mu Disaster Management Center and 3 staff fromErzurum Regional Disaster
Management Center have been deployedto the Van Province to conduct needs assessments.
Damage assessment is being conducted through the Turkish RedCrescent Branch Offices,
District Governorates, GendarmerieCommands, Security Departments in the town and cities, and
isbeing coordinated from the Disaster Management Center (HQ).
The TRCS alerted all its units in Turkey in order to meet the urgentshelter and food needs of
the victims, and dispatched the reliefitems from Ankara, Elaz, Erzurum, Adana, Mu and
ManisaRegional Disaster
Management Centers and also deployed 167 disaster specialists(including 30 volunteers), 37
vehicles. TRCS also deployedvolunteers, composed of mukhtars, clergies, police forces
andteachers that were trained within the framework of the project onOrganizing Community
Leaders for this kind of disaster situations.
Tent camps have been established and delivery of tents to affectedfamilies has also started.
The hospital in Ercis was badly damaged in the earthquake according toreports; medical tents
have been deployed toreplace the hospital. There were 179 hospital beds per 100,000


populationin Van Province as of 2007 (1851 total beds in the province), so mosthospital beds
were occupied at the time of the quake. Over 1300 peoplewere injured. Patients have already
been moved to Ankara and Erzurum.
As part of the overall coordination provided by the Prime Ministry Disasterand Emergency
Management Presidency, the Turkish Ministry of Health -Disaster and Emergency Coordination
Centre (SAKOM) is coordinating thehealth response and has deployed 6 helicopter ambulances,
4 planeambulances and 201 land ambulances to the Van province.
The Ministry of Health has prepared 1,700 hospital beds in Ar, Erzurum,Bitlis, Diyarbakr,
Mu, Idr and Ankara for further medical evacuations.
Air ambulances are transporting medical rescue teams to the earthquakeaffectedarea and are
evacuating patients.
Temporary tent hospitals have been established in Van and in Erci toprovide additional health
services in the affected areas.
Ministry of Health is continuing rapid public health assessmentof affected populations living
in camps and assessment ofrelated services.
Sheltering Activities: Tents, blankets, sleeping bags and heaters have beendispatched and
distributed in the disaster-affected area to cover the need foremergency shelter.
Turkish Red Crescent disaster response teams established three tent camps inthe Eris District
of Van
Two Mevlana House Camps (278 Mevlana pre-fabricated houses) are beingestablished both in
Van Central Province and Ercis District. 1,968 PrefabricatedMevlana Houses have already been
distributed to 48 villages which are locatedin higher altitude and colder areas.
The Government has ordered TOKI (governmental agency onconstruction) to construct houses
for the affected population asquickly as possible.
For temporary shelter purposes containers are being manufacturedand will be dispatched to the
earthquake as soon as possible.
The Government has allocated 600.000 TL ($322.580,00) tothe Batman Governorship for the
repair and maintenance of260 containers in its possession and delivered to the affectedareas in
Another 100 containers manufactured under themanagement of Kocaeli Governorship will be
delivered to theaffected area on 3 November.


The Ministry for EU Affairs, the EU and the Turkish Red Crescent aresigning a grant
agreement for the supply of some 1,200 temporaryhousing units accommodating 6,000.

The huge catastrophe that struck Japan in 2011 with an earthquake measuring 8.9 accompanied
by 10-metre tsunami waves created devastation and destruction of unprecedented levels. The
natural adversity gave no time for any preparation to the authorities even to shell out a warning
to its citizens. And a sudden impact swept away the entire north-eastern coastline of Japan. Huge
tidal waves swept away cars, buses, ships, boats and even houses. Over 4 million buildings were
damaged, electricity supply cut and drinking water pipes were destroyed. Such huge was the
impact of this natural disaster that Japans nuclear power plants were shut down so as to prevent
any radiation leakage. The earthquake destroyed the Japanese economy. A calamity of such
tremendous proportions requires disaster management of the highest level. And in such a case,
the authorities are as helpless as the citizens themselves.
Disaster management is being prepared for unforeseen circumstances. Disaster management
includes managing resources and providing basic amenities to citizens in case of rain-floods,
natural calamities, accidental tragedies etc. But to fight the disaster that occurred in Japan with
the destructive earthquake, global efforts would be required to restore normalcy.
The most important priority in managing the after effects of such a huge tragedy would be to find
people who are alive and stuck in destroyed debris. The authorities alongwith international
support, armed forces and with the help of civilians should consider rescue operations as the top
most priority. Evacuation of people living in precarious areas should also be undertaken so as to
prevent further loss of lives. All these things are easier said than done, but should be on the
priority list of the disaster management authorities.
Another priority and challenge would be to provide food, drinking water and shelter to millions
who have become homeless by this devastation. With the help of international aid, help from
armed forces and surrounding areas, it would be the responsibility of not only the Government
but of every individual to help in tackling this catastrophe. Also, providing medication to the
injured and avoiding the spread of an epidemic would require tremendous efforts from the


disaster management teams. Communication systems, electricity and power supply are another
set of major issues which need to be tackled simultaneously.
Still Japan was highly well equipped to fight such earthquakes. It is being said that if such
quake would have struck any other south Asian country which wasn't as equipped as Japan, the
aftermath of earthquake would have been catastrophic.
Restoring infrastructure, making roads, getting businesses are minor issues as compared to
human life. Due to this calamity financial losses may reach figures of a billion dollars, but
restoring normal life would be the biggest challenge facing the government and disaster
management teams.
No matter how much progress a nation makes, no matter how many differences are their amongst
neighboring countries, no matter how different people are, there are times when the entire human
race needs to become one. And to fight the enormous tragedy of this magnitude, it would require
not only international aid and disaster management, but also prayer and hope for Japan.
A M 9.0 earthquake struck off the coast of Honshu, Japan's most populous island near Sendai,
the capital city of Miyagi Prefecture, on March 11, 2011 at 05:46:23 UTC (roughly 231 miles
Northeast of Tokyo), registering as the most powerful earthquake to hit Japan on record. The
earthquake occurred as a result of thrust plate faulting on or near the seduction zone interface
plate boundaries between the Pacific and North American plates. The earthquake had been
preceded by a series of large foreshocks over the previous two days, beginning on March 9th
with an M 7.2 event approximately 25 miles from the March 11 earthquake, and continuing with
three earthquakes greater than M 6 on the same day.
The earthquake churned up a devastating tsunami that swept over cities and farmland along the
northern part of Japan and threatened coastal areas throughout the Pacific. Walls of water
whisked away houses and cars as terrified residents fled the coast. A ship carrying more than 100
people was reportedly swept away by the tsunami.
The earthquake has killed at least 15,690 people, although the death toll is expected to rise. A
tsunami warning was extended across the Pacific to North and South America. The Red Cross
warned that the tsunami waves could be higher than some Pacific islands. A passenger train with
an unknown number of people aboard was missing in one coastal area
The massive earthquake and tsunami that struck Japan in March 2011, and the following release
of radiation from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station, represent one of the greatest
disasters to strike the nation of Japan in recent memory. An initial assessment of the Japanese
response in four critical areas suggests important lessons for the United States as it evaluates its
own capacity to deal with catastrophes. These four critical areas are:
Preparedness and response


Communicating the risk
International assistance
Critical infrastructure
The Heritage Foundations homeland security research team, in conjunction with a working
group of outside experts, identified key observations, findings, and recommendations that have
implications for short-term and long-term policies, and for preparing for catastrophic as well as
routine disasters in the United States. The key findings and recommendations of this report are:
Effective catastrophic planning, preparedness, and mitigation measures pay off. The federal
government should focus on catastrophic disaster preparedness and response as well as
decentralized plan execution.
A culture of preparedness is a vital component of disaster response. The U.S. needs to foster a
national culture of preparedness by focusing on building more self-reliant communities and
Community awareness and effective risk communication may have played a more decisive role
in saving lives than extensive technological protective measures, such as seawalls designed to
resist flooding from tsunamis. The Department of Homeland Security should continue to focus
on risk communication as part of its preparedness and response planning and exercise efforts.
Communicating the risks of low-dose radiation exposure in the aftermath of a disaster is
difficult; the U.S. should strengthen its communication of low-dose radiation exposure.
Accepting foreign aid in the wake of a major disaster has proven to be a complex and difficult
task for developed nations like the U.S. and Japan. While the U.S. has improved this process
since Hurricane Katrina, it needs to further increase its capacity to accept and apply foreign aid
efficiently in the event of a catastrophe.
The resiliency and recovery of critical infrastructure significantly impacts the response to
catastrophic disasters. It is therefore essential that the U.S. maintain its focus on the most vital
critical infrastructure: the U.S.Canadian electric grid.
The United States has built a robust and multifaceted regulatory infrastructure after its own
nuclear accident at Three Mile Island. It will be critical that both industry and federal regulators
work together to determine lessons to be learned from Fukushima and how they can best be
Observation: The nation of Japan organized a massive, speedy response.
Finding: Robust catastrophic planning, preparedness, and mitigation make a society more
resilient to disaster.


Recommendation: The federal government should focus on catastrophic disaster preparedness
and response and decentralized execution.
Catastrophic disasters are a game-changer in terms of preparedness and response efforts. Routine
disaster preparation is insufficient to accommodate the challenges of a catastrophic or black
swan disaster. The federal government should focus on catastrophic disaster preparedness and
response and decentralized execution:
Emphasize catastrophic disaster planning. The federal government, particularly in
coordination with states and major metropolitan areas, should emphasize catastrophic disaster
planning, which has languished in recent years Furthermore, it should ensure that ad hoc efforts
to plan for catastrophic disaster become more integrated.
Increase military preparedness. The U.S. should also place added emphasis on ensuring that
adequate military forces are available to support civil authorities. The Department of Defence
has cut the number of specially trained and equipped forces for dealing with radiological,
biological, and chemical threats. As the deployment of Japans SDF demonstrated, military
forces are a critical element of catastrophic disaster response.
End over-federalization. Congress and the White House need to end the practice of placing
too much emphasis on the federal governments role in dealing with routine disasters.
Decentralized execution should be encouraged. The increasing use of presidential disaster
declarations distracts federal agencies from preparing for catastrophic challenges and encourages
states to supplant their own response capacity with federal aid.
Observation: The Japanese people demonstrated a culture of preparedness.
The Japanese government had, prior to the disaster, worked to ensure that [a]ll of Japans
national territory is covered by early warning systems for storms, torrential rains, heavy snow,
sediment disasters, tsunamis, tidal waves, high surf, inundation and floods.Generally, the
Japanese population followed warnings issued before and during the alerts. For instance, 670,000
Japanese citizens participated in a national earthquake drill in September 2010.
Furthermore, in the aftermath of the disaster, the Japanese people demonstrated remarkable
resilience and discipline with no reports of rioting or large-scale disruptions. While municipal
authorities have been inundated with volunteers, for the most part the government has avoided
the problem of convergence, with citizens heeding government warnings not to rush to disaster
The character and resolve demonstrated by the population generally served the nation well. The
disciplined response did, however, also result in some shortfalls. In some coastal communities,
residents were so confident in their response measures for tsunamis they had become complacent
and were overwhelmed by the massive scale of destruction. Municipalities lacking the capacity


to absorb volunteers found their existing ranks exhausted, meaning that while there were plenty
of potential helpers, there was no one to lead or direct them.
Thus, a large number of volunteers sat idle because they had received no call to action. Finally,
because Japanese citizens were so well-prepared for known threats (earthquakes and tsunamis),
they were incredibly unprepared for unforeseen disasters, such as the nuclear power plants
release of low-dose radiation.
Finding: A culture of preparedness is a vital component of disaster response.
Recommendation: Empower a national culture of preparedness by focusing on building more
self-reliant communities and individuals.
Training the trainer. The Department of Homeland Security can help state and local
communities develop a culture of preparedness by helping them to establish training programs
for state and local leaders.
Prepare the leadership of response organizations to respond together to catastrophic
events. Expose political leaders, public-sector senior leadership, and senior leadership of private-
sector entities with major roles in maintaining and restoring services to situations requiring them
to collaborate and coordinate responses to simulated catastrophes.
Employ community-based planning. Planning that includes input from the community
produces not only higher quality plans, but also much higher levels of community approval and
confidence in the plans.
Organize community needs assessments and situational awareness networks. Community
residents can often be the most important source for collecting and disseminating important
Getting down to business. U.S. private-sector engagement has been dismal at best. While there
has been some work done to effectively communicate and plan beforehand with large companies,
small and medium-sized businesses are wholly unprepared for disasters. The right solution will
be for the Department of Homeland Security to form relationships with these companies and
encourage them to make preparations before the next disaster strikes. The government should
support the Voluntary Private Sector Preparedness Accreditation and Certification Program (PS-
Establish community-based mental health responses. One of the most significant and under-
appreciated aspects of disaster response is responding to mental health issues caused by stress
and trauma. The 1996 University of Delaware Disaster Research Center report Disasters and
Mental Health: Therapeutic Principles Drawn from Disaster Studies found that when
community ties are strong, supportive, and responsive to the individuals physical and
emotional needs, the capacity to withstand and overcome stress is heightened.


2. Communicating the Risk
Official communications that effectively identify risks to the public mitigate disasters by
promoting measures and behaviors that avoid, minimize, prepare for, or respond to threats. For
such risk communication to be effective it must understandable, credible, and actionable.
Observation: Japan relied heavily on formal early warning systems, evacuation plans, and
alerts to limit loss of life.
Finding: As one assessment of the disaster concluded, soft measures, such as community
awareness and effective risk communications, may have played a more decisive role in saving
lives than extensive protective measures, such as seawalls designed to withstand flooding from
Recommendation: The Department of Homeland Security should continue to emphasize
effective risk communication.
Continue to develop the National Terrorism Advisory System and expand the procedures and
methods to create risk-communication frameworks for other homeland security-related activities,
particularly for use in responding to unanticipated dangers.
Develop methods and capabilities to ensure the legitimacy of government communication
through social networking.
Integrate risk communication in state and local train the trainer programs aimed at building
community preparedness.
Observation: Great confusion persists over the risks of low-dose radiation.
Finding: Communicating the risks of low-dose radiation exposure and other technical matters in
the aftermath of a disaster is very difficult.
Recommendation: The U.S. government should strengthen its capacity to communicate the risk
of low-dose radiation exposure.
Press the IAEA to reform the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale to more
effectively educate the public on the actual radiation risks associated with a particular number
Develop more effective publicprivate partnerships in critical risk communication, such as on
low-dose radiation exposure, through the Department of Homeland Securitys critical
infrastructure partnership advisory council.
3. International Assistance


Other nations, international organizations, non-governmental agencies, and foreign
philanthropists and volunteers routinely offer aid and assistance in the wake of disasters.
However, it is less common for the most developed and wealthy nations to require or request
foreign aid.
Observation: The government of Japan has a mixed record in applying foreign aid.
Finding: Accepting foreign aid in the wake of major disaster is a complex and difficult task.
Recommendation: The U.S. should improve its capacity to accept foreign aid in the event of
Implement the Government Accountability Offices (GAO) post-Katrina recommendations
for improving assessment of international aid. Some progress has been made in implementing the
recommendations detailed in the GAO report. Some of the recommendations remain highly
relevant todayand have not been implemented. Congress should revisit Katrina
recommendations pertaining to international cooperation and assistance, and should work with
the Department of Homeland Security to implement them.
Consider international disaster exercises to increase the ability of countries friendly with the
United States to readily accept aid from one another when disaster strikes.
Establish an industry-led, multinational rapid-response capability. Such a capability should
be able to respond to major nuclear accidents worldwide. Nations with commercial nuclear
plants could seamlessly integrate this capability into their response plans. This integration would
minimize the hesitation that emerged in Japan to accept foreign technical assistance and give
nuclear operators a better sense of available resources. Further, it could provide an effective
mechanism to share best practices, integrate responses, and to ensure that all nations have access
to the latest nuclear-response technology. This capability should be funded and controlled by the
private sector using existing institutions like the Institute for Nuclear Power Operations, which
has made similar recommendations, and the World Association of Nuclear Operators.
4. Critical Infrastructure
A nations physical assets serve as the foundation for effective governance, economic vitality,
and a resilient civil society. Agriculture, food, water, public health, emergency services,
government, the industrial base, information and telecommunications, energy, transportation,
banking and finance, and other key assets, such as nuclear power plants, dams, government
buildings, and commercial facilities, are vital to everyday life. Ensuring their resilience and
recovery in the face of catastrophic disaster is critical.
Observation: Parts of Japan experienced loss of critical infrastructure on a catastrophic scale.


Finding: The resilience and recovery of critical infrastructure significantly affects responses to
catastrophic disasters.

The Maharashtra floods of 2005 refers to the flooding of many parts of the Indian state
of Maharashtra including large areas of the metropolis of Mumbai(formerly Bombay), a city
located on the coast of the Arabian Sea, on the western coast of India, in which at least 1,000
people died. It happened just one month after similar flooding in Gujarat. The floods were
caused by the eighth heaviest ever recorded 24-hour rainfall figure of 944mm (37.2inches) which
lashed the metropolis on26 July 2005, and intermittently continued for the next day. 644 mm
(25.4 inches) was received within the 12-hr period between 8am and 8pm. The highest 24-hour
period in India was 1,168 mm (46.0 inches) in Aminidivi in the Union Territory of Lakshadweep
on 6 May 2004 although some reports suggest that it was a new Indian record. The previous
record high rainfall in a 24-hour period for Mumbai was 575 mm (22.6 inches) in 1974. Other
places to be severely affected were Raigad, Chiplun, Ratnagiri and Kalyan in Maharashtra and
the southern state of Goa. The rains slackened between the 28th and 30th of July but picked up in
intensity on July 31. The Maharashtra state government declared 27 and 28 as a state holiday for
the affected regions. The government also ordered all schools in the affected areas to close on
August 1 and August 2. Mumbai Police commissioner Anami Narayan Roy requested all
residents to stay indoors as far as possible on July 31 after heavy rains disrupted the city once
again, grounding all flights for the day.
The 2005 monsoon proved to be extremely erratic for Maharashtra. In the beginning, aserious
deficiency of rainfall, particularly in the western Vidarbha and Marathwada, created a drought-
like situation with shortage of drinking water and fodder. The situation changed dramatically in
the course of a week from July 21, when unusually heavy rains lashed the coastal areas of
Konkan and Western Ghats. It caused extensive flooding in Raigad and Ratnagiri districts, with
many towns and villages under waters. On July 26, when the highest ever rainfall recorded in the
last 100 years in the country battered the sub-urban Mumbai and Thane, Maharashtra
experienced one of the worst floods in its history. The downpour was heavy in other parts of the
state too, particularly in Nanded and Parbhani. Soon the Godavari was in space, flooding a large
number of towns and villages. No sooner did the flooding recede in Konkan and Marathwada,
their lease of water from the Koyana and Ujani dams flooded Sangli, Kolhapur, and Solapur


It has indeed been a state-wide disaster, leaving a trail of destruction and devastation in many
districts. People have lost enormously, and they are struggling to cope with its impact.
Excessive Rainfall and Flash Flooding
The rainfall data for 24 hours from 0830 of July 26 to 0830 of July 27, provided by the Indian
Meteorological Department, is presented as below:
Rainfall in the city of Mumbai Santacruz (in mm.) Colaba (in mm.) shows that within a
period of 18 hours, there was a precipitation of 944 mm. in Mumbai sub-urban area, a
phenomenon which never occurred before. Thane district also received more than 700mm. of
rains in a single day. The exceptional rainfall coincided with high tide, which brought a large
area in Mumbai and Thane under massive inundation.
Mumbai: It was a case of urban flash flooding. Water levels rose rapidly within three-four
hours, submerging the roads and railway tracks. The traffic was completely immobilized. All the
low-lying areas in the city were heavily flooded. The poor who lived in Jhugg is in these areas
were the worst victims. It also hit the middle and upper class segments. All the ground floor flats
were under water, and the people lost all their possessionselectronic goods, furniture, clothes
and utensils. Flooding crippled the basic services and lifelines in the city. There was no
electricity in Mumbai sub-urban and Thane districts. As the telephone exchanges came under
water, the phones stopped working. Mobile phones were also not accessible. As a result, the
people who were stranded could not access information, and were subjected to terrible hardship.
The Western and Central Railways did not run their local services for a number of days. The
local services on the Central line have not yet been fully restored even today. All the long-
distance trains run by the Central Railways were cancelled. The tracks on the Konkan Railways
are badly damaged, and it would take many days before the trains could run again on these
tracks. The national and international flights at the Sahar and Santacruz were disrupted for a
number of days.
Thane: In Thane district, the flooding affected all the urban centers. Kalyan, Dombivali,
Ambarnath, Ulhasnagar, and Bhiwandi, which are part of the urban agglomeration, were under
flood waters. Heavy rainfall in the catchment area filled up almost all the reservoirs in Thane
district. The release of water from these reservoirs caused the water levels to rise further and
aggravate the flooding. Despite a respite from the rains, the water level in these towns did not
reduce. The Mumbai-Goa National Highway was cut off at many points due to large tracts came
underwater. As a result, the traffic on this highway was completely disrupted. The Konkan
Railways had also come under submergence at many places. A number of trains were stranded at
different stations. The Government made the arrangements for evacuating the passengers from
these trains.


THREAT TO PUBLIC HEALTH Epidemiological Surveillance in Mumbai
Name of the disease Admission in EARLY 24 hrs. Total admissions since 29 July Number
of deaths
Gastroenteritis 154 1318 1 Hepatitis 27 194 Enteric fever, Typhoid 5 53 Malaria 62 406 2
Dengue 5 49 Leptospirosis 56 197 10 Fever (Unknown cause) 597 1,044 45
Total 906 3,261 57
The rain water caused the sewage system to overflow and all water lines were contaminated. The
Government ordered all housing societies to add chlorine to their water tanks while they
decontaminate the water supply. Thousands of animal carcasses floated in the flood waters,
raising concerns about the possibility of disease. Reports in the media warned of the threat of
waterborne diseases, and hospitals and health centers geared up to distribute free medicines to
check any outbreak.
On August 11, the state government declared an epidemic of leptospirosis in Mumbai and its
outskirts, later clarifying that there was no such threat anywhere in Maharashtra. 66 people have
died of fever suspected to be leptospirosis. 749 people have been admitted with such fever with
41cases "unstable" and in an advanced stage of the disease. The BMC declared three zones - P
South(Goregaon)ward, L ward (Kurla) and H East (Bandra-Kalina) - as criticial areas for being
"hygienically sensitive". India's western coast receives high rainfall due to the presence Western
Ghats which lies at about 50 km (30 miles) from the coast. The hill range runs parallel to the
Indian coast at an average altitude of 1,200 metres (3,900 ft). Rain bearing clouds generally
deposit much of their moisture through orographic rainfall along India's western coast which lies
on the windward side of the hills.
The financial cost of floods was unprecedented and these floods caused a stoppage of
entire commercial, trading, and industrial activity for days. Preliminary indications indicate that
the floods caused a direct loss of about Rs.450 crores (80 million or US$100 million). The
financial impact of the floods was manifested in a variety of ways:
The banking transactions across the counters were adversely affected and many branche sand
commercial establishments were unable to function from late evening of 26 July 2005.The state
government declared the 27th (and later, 28th) of July as a public holiday. ATMnetworks of
several banks, which included the State Bank of India, the largest bank of India; ICICI
Bank ,HDFC Bank , and several foreign banks like Citibank and HSBC, stopped functioning
from the afternoon of 26 July 2005at all the centers of Mumbai. ATM transactions could not be
carried out in several parts of India on26 July 2005or27 July 2005due to failure of the
connectivity with their central systems located in Mumbai.


The Bombay Stock Exchange and the National Stock Exchange of India, the premier
stock exchanges of India could function only partially. As most of the trading are eTrading,
trading terminals of the brokerage houses across the country remained largely in operative.
Ironically, in partial trading, sensex, the most tracked equity index of India surpassed an all time
high and had closed at 7605.03 on27 July 2005. The Exchanges remained closed for the
following day.

For the first time ever, Mumbai's domestic and international airports (including
Chatrapati Shivaji International Airport, Sahar and Juhu aerodrome) were shut for more than 30
hours due to heavy flooding of the runways and extremely poor visibility. Over 700 flights were
cancelled or delayed. The airports reopened on the morning of 28 July 2005.Rediff . Within24
hours of the airports becoming operational, there were 185 departures and 184 arrivals, including
international flights. Again from early morning of 31st July, with increase in waterlogging of the
runways and different parts of Mumbai, most of the flights were indefinitelycancelled.
Rail links were disrupted, and reports on late evening of 30th Julyindicated cancellation
of several long distance trains up to6th August, 2005.
Mumbai-Pune Expressway, which witnessed a number of landslides, was closed, for the firsttime
ever, for 24 hours.
According toHindustan Times, an unprecedented 5 million mobile and 2.3
millionMTNL landlineusers were hit for over four hours.
According to the .in registrar (personal communication), the .in DNS servers in Mumbai hadto
be reconfigured because the servers were not operational.
Transport stats
52 local trains damaged 37,000autorickshawsspoilt 4,000 taxis 900BESTbuses damaged 10,000
trucks and tempos grounded
Human tragedy
On28 July 2005, theBBC reportedthat the death toll to be at least 430 in the state of Maharashtra.
By31 July 2005this hadrisento at least 1,000.Deaths in the city were due to
Total: 406
Drowning: 233


Landslide: 120 ; 65 alone were killed by a landslide at Saki Naka. The fire brigadearrived after
15 hours. On July 31, boulders are still being cleared and the count of thedead is rising.
mandatory for large urban construction projects in northern Mumbai. Officials in the
environmentministry claimed that it was not practical to impose new guidelines with
retrospective effect "asthere are millions of buildings".

Destruction ofmangrove ecosystemsFig : Powai Lake, Mumbai on the verge of overflowing
Mangrove ecosystemswhich exist along theMithi Riverand Mahim Creek are beingdestroyed and
replaced with construction. Hundreds of acresof swamps in Mahim creek have beenreclaimed
and put to use for construction by builders. These ecosystems serve as a buffer betweenland and
sea. It is estimated that Mumbai has lost about 40% of its mangroves between1995and2005,
some to builders and some to encroachment (slums). Sewage and garbage dumps have
alsodestroyed mangroves. TheBandra-Kurla complexin particular was created by replacing
As we all know the Mumbai is along the shore and flooding due to cloudburst and tsunamican
damage Mumbai port considerably , we also know that we cant avoid natural disasters relatedto
coast of Mumbai . I recommend the use of geosystems for protection of shore to
reduce damageand protection of shore line
Geotubes are a cost effective alternative when compared to traditional marine
constructionmaterials and methods.Fabrication. Geotubes are fabricated from a high strength
woven geotextile with specialhigh strength seaming techniques to resist pressures during
pumping operations.They have engineering characteristics that make them ideal for geotechnical
and hydraulicapplications.They can be utilized in permanent civil structures due to their
composition of highlydurable polymersThey are easy to install.Minimum impact on the
environment while providing a beneficial use for dredge material.Artificial geosynthetic is more
durable, i.e life is very long.Time required for installation is very less.They protect chargo ships
from damageThey can be easily transportable.Geotube is cost effective.No special equipment is
required in the use of this disposing technique.Due to effective high volume containment, it is
useful in sewage disposing process.


Flood disaster reduction in India having a large network of rivers is a challenging task.or flood
or flood mitigation Judicious combination of structural and non-structural measures is the only
option f disaster mitigation.

Capacity building for flood mitigation
Proper organization at project level
Proper planning of flood management schemes.
Setting up control rooms for proper co-ordination
Ngos involvements in non-structural measures, e.g., flood fighting, flood relie
Provision of adequate fund for maintenance of existing flood management measures.

Lessons learnt from past attempts
A number of reservoirs constructed with flood cushion to provide protection to
ts provide immediate protection but create water logging on
ep the floodwaters away from development and populated
ility of flood damage by keeping people and development subject to
e loss burden by reducing the financial and social impact of flood through such

Strategy for flood mitigation should include :
downstream areas.Flood embankmencountryside, raise the riverbed.Modify the floods in order to
keareas by decreasing runoff, by increasing channel capacity or by containing, diverting
orstoring floodwaters.Modify the susceptibdamage, out of the flood hazard areas or by making
such developments resistant todamage.Modify thmeasures as post flood assistance and
insurance.Bearing the losses, i.e. living with foods.gement approach.ent.sion


Basin-wise integrated water resources mana
Enforcing for specific flood space in reservoir.
Minimization of ill effects created by embankm
Scientific approach with proper planning for anti ero
Drainage improvement.
Soil conservation measur
Flood forecasting and warninPeoples participation
Along with rectifying above points following measures can be considered
1. Firstly, the deeply embedded attitude of postponing things and not taking anythingseriously,
the chalta hai & jab hoga tab dekha jayegaa attitude must be changed
2. Disaster management courses and education must be encouraged. Making disastermanagement
a compulsory subject for C.B.S.E students is a good move.
3. Stimulate awareness of risk among national and regional planners to reflect disastermitigation
measures in national development plan.
4. Personal computers have a growing potential for application in developing countries asthey
become more powerful and relatively inexpensive. They can be used to store andpresent
geographical data employing GIS techniques for preparation of hazard maps andfor hazard
5 .Re-examining the urban governance, planning and service delivery framework andinstitutional
arrangements for Greater Mumbai and the Mumbai Metropolitan Region(MMR) with a focus on
linking urban renewal and development with risk mitigation.
6 .Developing a structure plan for the MMR that links strategic urban services(transportation,
energy, water supply, sewerage, sanitation, drainage and solid wastemanagement), land-use
planning and strategic risk mitigation.


10.4 CASE STUDY4: MUMBAI 26/11
The 2008 Mumbai attacks (sometimes referred to as 26/11) were more than 10
coordinated shooting and bombing attacks across Mumbai, India's largest city,
by Islamist attackers who came from Pakistan. The attackers received reconnaissance assistance
before the attacks; Ajmal Kasab later claimed upon interrogation that the attacks were conducted
with the support of Pakistan's ISI. The attacks, which drew widespread global condemnation,
began on Wednesday, 26 November and lasted until Saturday, 29 November 2008, killing 164
people and wounding at least 308.
Eight of the attacks occurred in South Mumbai: at Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, the Oberoi
Trident, the Taj Mahal Palace & Tower, Leopold Cafe, Cama Hospital (a women and children's
hospital), the Nariman House Jewish community centre, the Metro Cinema, and a lane behind
the Times of India building and St. Xavier's College. There was also an explosion at Mazagaon,
in Mumbai's port area, and in a taxi at Vile Parle. By the early morning of 28 November, all sites
except for the Taj hotel had been secured by Mumbai Police and security forces. On 29
November, India's National Security Guards (NSG) conducted Operation Black Tornado to
flush out the remaining attackers; it resulted in the death of the last remaining attackers at the Taj
hotel and ending all fighting in the attacks.
Ajmal Kasab, the only attacker who was captured alive, disclosed that the attackers were
members of Lashkar-e-Taiba, the Pakistan-based militant organisation, considered a terrorist
organisation by India, Pakistan, the United States, the United Kingdom, and the United Nations,
among others. The Indian government said that the attackers came from Pakistan, and
their controllers were in Pakistan. On 7 January 2009, Pakistan's Information Minister Sherry
Rehman officially accepted Ajmal Kasab's nationality as Pakistani. On 12 February 2009,
Pakistan's Interior Minister Rehman Malik asserted that parts of the attack had been planned in
Pakistan. A trial court on 6 May 2010 sentenced Ajmal Kasab to death on five counts.
There have been many bombings in Mumbai since the 13 coordinated bomb explosions that
killed 257 people and injured 700 on 12 March 1993. The 1993 attacks are believed to have been
in retaliation for the Babri Mosque demolition.
On 6 December 2002, a blast in a BEST bus near Ghatkopar station killed two people and
injured 28. The bombing occurred on the tenth anniversary of the demolition of the Babri
Mosque in Ayodhya. A bicycle bomb exploded near the Vile Parle station in Mumbai, killing
one person and injuring 25 on 27 January 2003, a day before the visit of the Prime Minister of
India Atal Bihari Vajpayee to the city. On 13 March 2003, a day after the tenth anniversary of
the 1993 Bombay bombings, a bomb exploded in a train compartment near the Mulund station,
killing 10 people and injuring 70. On 28 July 2003, a blast in a BEST bus in Ghatkopar killed 4
people and injured 32. On 25 August 2003, two bombs exploded in South Mumbai, one near
the Gateway of India and the other at Zaveri Bazaar in Kalbadevi. At least 44 people were killed
and 150 injured. On 11 July 2006, seven bombs exploded within 11 minutes on the Suburban
Railway in Mumbai. 209 people were killed, including 22 foreigners and over 700


injured. According to the Mumbai Police, the bombings were carried out by Lashkar-e-
Taiba and Students Islamic Movement of India (SIMI).
The first events were detailed around 20:00 Indian Standard Time (IST) on 26 November, when
10 men in inflatable speedboats came ashore at two locations in Colaba. They reportedly told
local Marathi-speaking fishermen who asked them who they were to "mind their own business"
before they split up and headed two different ways. The fishermen's subsequent report to police
received little response.
Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus
The Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (CST) was attacked by two gunmen, one of whom, Ajmal
Kasab, was later caught alive by the police and identified by eyewitnesses. The attackers killed
58 people and injured 104 others. Security forces and emergency services arrived shortly
afterwards. The two gunmen fled the scene and fired at pedestrians and police officers in the
streets, killing eight police officers. The attackers then headed towards Cama Hospital with an
intention to kill patients, but the hospital staff locked all of the patient wards. A team of
the Mumbai Anti-Terrorist Squad led by police chief Hemant Karkare searched the Chhatrapati
Shivaji Terminus and then left in pursuit of Kasab and Khan.
Leopold Cafe
The Leopold Cafe, a popular restaurant and bar on Colaba Causeway in South Mumbai, was one
of the first sites to be attacked. Two attackers opened fire on the cafe on the evening of 26
November, killing at least 10 people (including some foreigners), and injuring many more. The
attackers fired into the street as they fled the scene.
Bomb blasts in taxis
There were two explosions in taxis caused by timer bombs. The first one occurred at Vile Parle,
killing the driver and a passenger. The second explosion took place at Wadi Bunder. Three
people including the driver of the taxi were killed, and about 15 other people were injured.
Taj Mahal Hotel and Oberoi Trident
Two hotels, the Taj Mahal Palace & Tower and the Oberoi Trident, were amongst the four
locations targeted. Six explosions were reported at the Taj hotel and one at the Oberoi Trident.
At the Taj Mahal, fire-fighters rescued 200 hostages from windows using ladders during the first
CNN initially reported on the morning of 27 November 2008 that the hostage situation at the Taj
had been resolved and quoted the police chief of Maharashtra stating that all hostages were
freed; however, it was learned later that day that there were still two attackers holding hostages,
including foreigners, in the Taj Mahal hotel.
During the attacks, both hotels were surrounded by Rapid Action Force personnel and Marine
Commandos (MARCOS) and National Security Guards (NSG) commandos. When reports


emerged that attackers were receiving television broadcasts, feeds to the hotels were
blocked. Security forces stormed both hotels, and all nine attackers were killed by the morning of
29 November. 32 hostages were killed at the Oberoi Trident.
A number of European Parliament Committee on International Trade delegates were staying in
the Taj Mahal hotel when it was attacked, but none of them were injured
Nariman House
Nariman House, a Chabad Lubavitch Jewish center in Colaba known as the Mumbai Chabad
House, was taken over by two attackers and several residents were held hostage. Police
evacuated adjacent buildings and exchanged fire with the attackers, wounding one. Local
residents were told to stay inside. The attackers threw a grenade into a nearby lane, causing no
casualties. NSG commandos arrived from Delhi, and a Naval helicopter took an aerial survey.
During the first day, 9 hostages were rescued from the first floor. The following day, the house
was stormed by NSG commandos fast-roping from helicopters onto the roof, covered by snipers
positioned in nearby buildings. After a long battle, one NSG commando and both perpetrators
were killed.
According to radio transmissions picked up by Indian intelligence, the attackers "would be told
by their handlers in Pakistan that the lives of Jews were worth 50 times those of non-Jews."
Injuries reported on some of the bodies indicate they may have been tortured.
End of the attacks
By the morning of 27 November, the army had secured the Jewish outreach center at Nariman
House as well as the Oberoi Trident hotel. They also incorrectly believed that the Taj Mahal
Palace and Towers had been cleared of attackers, and soldiers were leading hostages and holed-
up guests to safety, and removing bodies of those killed in the attacks. However, later news
reports indicated that there were still two or three attackers in the Taj, with explosions heard and
gunfire exchanged. Fires were also reported at the ground floor of the Taj with plumes of smoke
arising from the first floor. The final operation at the Taj Mahal Palace hotel was completed by
the NSG commandos on 29 November, killing three attackers and resulting in the conclusion of
the attacks. The security forces rescued 250 people from the Oberoi, 300 from the Taj and 60
people from Nariman House. In addition, police seized a boat filled with arms and explosives
anchored at Mazgaon dock off Mumbai harbour.

Negotiations with Pakistan
Pakistan initially denied that Pakistanis were responsible for the attacks, blaming plotters in
Bangladesh and Indian criminals, a claim refuted by India, and saying they needed information
from India on other bombings first. Pakistani authorities finally agreed that Ajmal Kasab was a
Pakistani on 7 January 2009, and registered a case against three other Pakistani nationals. The
Indian government supplied evidence to Pakistan and other governments, in the form of
interrogations, weapons, and call records of conversations during the attacks. In addition, Indian
government officials said that the attacks were so sophisticated that they must have had official
backing from Pakistani "agencies", an accusation denied by Pakistan.


Under US and UN pressure, Pakistan arrested a few members of Jamaat ud-Dawa and briefly put
its founder under house arrest, but he was found to be free a few days later. A year after the
attacks, Mumbai police continued to complain that Pakistani authorities are not cooperating by
providing information for their investigation. Meanwhile, journalists in Pakistan said security
agencies were preventing them from interviewing people from Kasab's village. Home Minister P.
Chidambaram said the Pakistani authorities had not shared any information about American
suspects Headley and Rana, but that the FBI had been more forthcoming. An Indian report,
summarising intelligence gained from India's interrogation of David Headley, was released in
October 2010. It alleged that Pakistan's intelligence agency (ISI) had provided support for the
attacks by providing funding for reconnaissance missions in Mumbai. The report included
Headley's claim that Lashkar-e-Taiba's chief military commander, Zaki-ur-Rahman Lakhvi, had
close ties to the ISI. He alleged that "every big action of LeT is done in close coordination with
[the] ISI."
Police looking for attackers outside Colaba
According to investigations, the attackers traveled by sea from Karachi, Pakistan, across
the Arabian Sea, hijacked the Indian fishing trawler 'Kuber', killed the crew of four, then forced
the captain to sail to Mumbai. After murdering the captain, the attackers entered Mumbai on
a rubber dinghy. The captain of 'Kuber', Amar Singh Solanki, had earlier been imprisoned for six
months in a Pakistani jail for illegally fishing in Pakistani waters. The attackers stayed and were
trained by the Lashkar-e-Taiba in a safehouse at Azizabad near Karachi before boarding a small
boat for Mumbai.

The attackers had planned the attack several months ahead of time and knew some areas well
enough for the attackers to vanish, and reappear after security forces had left. Several sources
have quoted Kasab telling the police that the group received help from Mumbai residents. The
attackers used at least three SIM cards purchased on the Indian side of the border with
Bangladesh. There were also reports of a SIM card purchased in the US state New Jersey. Police
had also mentioned that Faheem Ansari, an Indian Lashkar operative who had been arrested in
February 2008, had scouted the Mumbai targets for the November attacks. Later, the police
arrested two Indian suspects, Mikhtar Ahmad, who is from Srinagar in Kashmir, and Tausif
Rehman, a resident of Kolkata. They supplied the SIM cards, one in Calcutta, and the other in
New Delhi.
Type 86 Grenades made by China's state-owned Norinco were used in the attacks.
Blood tests on the attackers indicate that they had taken cocaine and LSD during the attacks, to
sustain their energy and stay awake for 50 hours. Police say that they found syringes on the
scenes of the attacks. There were also indications that they had been taking steroids. The gunman
who survived said that the attackers had used Google Earth to familiarise themselves with the
locations of buildings used in the attacks.


There were ten gunmen, nine of whom were subsequently shot dead and one captured by security
forces. Witnesses reported that they looked to be in their early twenties, wore black t-shirts and
jeans, and that they smiled and looked happy as they shot their victims.
It was initially reported that some of the attackers were British citizens, but the Indian
government later stated that there was no evidence to confirm this. Similarly, early reports of
twelve gunmen were also later shown to be incorrect.
On 6 April 2010, the Home minister of Maharashtra State, which includes Mumbai, informed the
assembly that the bodies of the nine killed Pakistani gunmen from the 2008 attack on Mumbai
were buried in a secret location in January 2010. The bodies had been in the mortuary of a
Mumbai hospital after Muslim clerics in the city refused to let them be buried on their grounds.
Ajmal Kasab was the only attacker arrested alive by police and is currently under arrest. Much of
the information about the attackers' preparation, travel, and movements comes from his
confessions to the Mumbai police.
On 12 February 2009 Pakistan's Interior Minister Rehman Malik said that Pakistani national
Javed Iqbal, who acquired VoIP phones in Spain for the Mumbai attackers, and Hamad Ameen
Sadiq, who had facilitated money transfer for the attack, had been arrested. Two other men
known as Khan and Riaz, but whose full names were not given, were also arrested. Two
Pakistanis were arrested in Brescia, Italy (north-west of Milan), on 21 November 2009, after
being accused of providing logistical support to the attacks and transferring over US$200 to
internet accounts using a false ID. They had Red Corner Notices issued against them
by Interpol for their suspected involvement and it was issued after the last year's strikes.
In October 2009, two Chicago men were arrested and charged by the FBI for involvement in
terrorism abroad, David Coleman Headley and Tahawwur Hussain Rana. Headley, a Pakistani-
American, was charged in November 2009 with scouting locations for the 2008 Mumbai
attacks. Headley is reported to have posed as an American Jew and is believed to have links with
militant Islamist groups based in Bangladesh. On 18 March 2010, Headley pled guilty to a dozen
charges against him thereby avoiding going to trial.
In December 2009, the FBI charged Abdur Rehman Hashim Syed, a retired major in
the Pakistani army, for planning the terror attacks in association with Headley.
On 15 January 2010, in a successful snatch operation R&AW agents nabbed Sheikh Abdul
Khwaja, one of the handlers of the 26/11 attacks, chief of HuJI India operations and a most
wanted terror suspect in India, from Colombo, Sri Lanka, and brought him over to Hyderabad,
India for formal arrest.
Casualties and compensation
At least 166 victims (civilians and security personnel) and nine attackers were killed in the
attacks. Among the dead were 28 foreign nationals from 10 countries. One attacker was
captured. The bodies of many of the dead hostages showed signs of torture or disfigurement. A
number of those killed were notable figures in business, media, and security services.
The government of Maharashtra announced about 500,000 (US$10,140) as compensation to the
kin of each of those killed in the terror attacks and about 50,000 (US$1,014) to the seriously
injured. In August 2009, Indian Hotels Company and the Oberoi Group received about


$28 million USD as part-payment of the insurance claims, on account of the attacks on Taj
Mahal and Trident, from General Insurance Corporation of India.
Aftermath of the 2008 Mumbai attacks
The attacks are sometimes referred to in India as "26/11", after the date in 2008 that they began
and the nomenclature behind the 9/11 attacks (akin to that of the 3/11 attack in Madrid).
The Pradhan Inquiry Commission, appointed by the Maharashtra government, produced a report
that was tabled before the legislative assembly over one year after the events. The report said the
"war-like" attack was beyond the capacity of any police force, but it also found fault with the
Mumbai Police Commissioner Hasan Gafoor's lack of leadership during the crisis.
The Maharashtra government planned to buy 36 speed boats to patrol the coastal areas and
several helicopters for the same purpose. It also planned to create an anti-terror force called
"Force One" and upgrade all the weapons that Mumbai police currently have. Prime
Minister Manmohan Singh on an all-party conference declared that legal framework would be
strengthened in the battle against terrorism and a federal anti-terrorist intelligence and
investigation agency, like the FBI, will be set up soon to coordinate action against terrorism. The
government strengthened anti-terror laws with UAPA 2008, and the federal National
Investigation Agency was formed.
The attacks further strained India's slowly recovering relationship with Pakistan. External Affairs
Minister Pranab Mukherjee declared that India may indulge in military strikes against terror
camps in Pakistan to protect its territorial integrity. There were also after-effects on the United
States relationships with both countries, the US-led NATO war in Afghanistan, and on
the Global War on Terror.sss FBI chief Robert Mueller praised the "unprecedented cooperation"
between American and Indian intelligence agencies over Mumbai terror attack
probe. Interpol secretary general Ronald Noble indicated Indian intelligence agencies did not
share any information with them.
Movement of troops
Pakistan moved troops towards the border with India border voicing concerns about the Indian
government's possible plans to launch attacks on Pakistani soil if it did not cooperate. After days
of talks, the Pakistan government, however, decided to start moving troops away from the
Reactions Reactions to the 2008 Mumbai attacks
Candlelight vigils at the Gateway of India in Mumbai
Indians criticised their political leaders after the attacks, saying that their ineptness was partly
responsible. The Times of India commented on its front page that "Our politicians fiddle as
innocents die." Political reactions in Mumbai and India included a range of resignations and
political changes, including the resignations of Minister for Home Affairs Shivraj Patil, Chief
Minister Vilasrao Deshmukh and Deputy Chief Minister R. R. Patil for controversial reactions to
the attack including taking the former's son and Bollywood director Ram Gopal Verma to tour
the damaged Taj Mahal and the latters remarks that the attacks were not a big deal in such a large
city. Prominent Muslim personalities such as Bollywood actor Aamir Khan appealed to their


community members in the country to observe Eid al-Adha as a day of mourning on 9
December. The business establishment also reacted, with changes to transport, and requests for
an increase in self-defence capabilities. The attacks also triggered a chain of citizens' movements
across India such as the India Today Group's "War Against Terror" campaign. There were vigils
held across all of India with candles and placards commemorating the victims of the attacks. The
NSG commandos based in Delhi also met criticism for taking 10 hours to reach the 3 sites under
International reaction for the attacks was widespread, with many countries and international
organisations condemning the attacks and expressing their condolences to the civilian victims.
Many important personalities around the world also condemned the attacks.
Media coverage highlighted the use of new media and Internet social networking tools,
including Twitter and Flicker, in spreading information about the attacks. In addition, many
Indian bloggers and Wikipedia offered live textual coverage of the attacks. A map of the attacks
was set up by a web journalist using Google Maps. The New York Times, in July 2009,
described the event as "what may be the most well-documented terrorist attack anywhere."



In a way to put a full stop to our discussion in a alarming way, we the people
present here must promise towards making our future safe in the sake of what left before
our eyes. We cant stop natural disasters but we can take preventive measures for this
situation not to create, because even though it is a natural disaster but we are somehow
related to it to make it happen. On the other hand manmade disasters are totally
responsible for our deeds. Now we are paying for this and talking of managing the
disasters. To how much extent we will be successful is a matter of great concern. So, its
our earth, ours own sweet home where we have to live and to keep it safe for our future
ones in which hand our earth will be. At last,





Modh Satish, Introduction to Disaster Management, published by Macmillan
Publishers India Ltd., 1
published 2010

Websites retrieved on 30/09/11 at 14:20 retrieved on 04/11/11 at 20:21 retrieved on 25/11/11 at 18:35