You are on page 1of 16

1

330:155g
Finite Element Analysis
Nageswara Rao Posinasetti
2 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.
2 Stiffness Matrices
Review Matrix Algebra given in App A.
Direct stiffness method is used which
simple to understand
This can be used for spring, bar and beam
elements.
3 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.
2.1 Spring element (1-dim)
Parts are 3D
Some times 1D yields results that can be
applied to 3D under certain circumstances
Use one dimensional spring element
Obeys Hookes law
Deflection is linearly proportional to the force
within the spring divided by the spring rate
f =k u
2
4 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.
u Displacement
F - Force F =k u
Nodal point
5 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.
2.2 A single spring element
Stiffness matrix for the spring element
Spring rate, k
6 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.
3
7 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.
8 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.
[K] Stiffness matrix
9 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.
4
10 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.
11 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.
Example 2.1
5 -10 =-f
i
-5 +10 =-f
j
f
i
=5
f
j
=-5
12 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.
Let us consider an example with two
springs


1 1
1 1
k k
k k
and


2 2
2 2
k k
k k
5
13 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.
2.3 Assembling Total Structures
stiffness matrix
Sum of the internal forces should be equal
to the external forces applied at each node
k
1
u
1
k
1
u
2
=F
1
-k
1
u
1
+k
1
u
2
+k
2
u
2
k
2
u
3
=F
2
-k
2
u
2
+k
2
u
3
=F
3
14 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.

+

3
2
1
3
2
1
2 2
2 2 1 1
1 1
0
0
F
F
F
u
u
u
k k
k k k k
k k
[ ]{ } { } F u K =
Or more compactly as
15 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.
Number of rows =number of degrees of
freedom
6
16 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.

+
+

4
3
2
1
4
3
2
1
3 3
3 3 2 2
2 2 1 1
1 1
0 0
0
0
0 0
F
F
F
F
u
u
u
u
k k
k k k k
k k k k
k k
17 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.

+
+
+

5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
4 4
4 4 3 3
3 3 2 2
2 2 1 1
1 1
0 0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0 0
F
F
F
F
F
u
u
u
u
u
k k
k k k k
k k k k
k k k k
k k
18 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.
7
19 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.
20 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.
Interchange rows as well as columns in the same
sequence as the node element sequence
21 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.
Bandwidth
Such that the stiffness values (non-zero
elements) concentrated closer to the
diagonal
Bandwidth refers to the number of terms
we must move away from the main
diagonal before we encounter all zeroes.
8
22 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.
23 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.
2.4 Boundary conditions
These are the restrained movements of
the nodal points
Homogeneous type
Fixed
Non-homogeneous type
Specified displacement
24 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.
9
25 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.
26 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.

+
+

4
3
2
1
4
3
2
1
3 1 2 3
2 2 1 1
3 3
1 1
0
0
0 0
0 0
F
F
F
F
u
u
u
u
k k k k
k k k k
k k
k k
27 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.
10
28 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.
29 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.
30 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.
11
31 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.
32 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.
What is a DOF?
The unknowns in a finite element problem are
referred to as degrees of freedom (DOF).
Degrees of freedom vary by element and
analysis type.
Thermal Heat Flow
Rate
Temperature
Structural Force Displacement
Application Action DOF Type
Courtesy Algor Inc,
Pittsburgh
33 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.
What is a DOF?
Node
Uy
Rot x
Rot y
Uz
Rot z
Ux
Courtesy Algor Inc,
Pittsburgh
12
34 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.
Node
A node is a coordinate location in
space where the DOF are defined.
The DOF of this point represent
the possible response at this point
due to the loading of the structure.
Courtesy Algor Inc,
Pittsburgh
35 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.
Element
An element is a mathematical
relation that defines how the DOF of
a node relate to the next. These
elements can be lines (beams),
areas (2-D or 3-D plates) or solids
(bricks and tetrahedrals).
Courtesy Algor Inc,
Pittsburgh
36 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.
Nodes and Elements
A node has a given set of DOF, which characterize the
response. For structural analyses, these DOF include
translations and rotations in the three global directions.
The type of element being used will also characterize
which type of DOF a node will have.
Some analysis types have only one DOF at a node.
Examples of these analysis types are temperature in a
heat transfer analysis and velocity in a fluid flow
analysis.
Courtesy Algor Inc,
Pittsburgh
13
37 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.
Element Connectivity
Elements can only transfer loads to one
another via common nodes.
No Communication
Between the Elements
Communication
Between the Elements
Courtesy Algor Inc,
Pittsburgh
38 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.
Stress and Strain Review
The basic stress and strain equations:
=
F
A
=

E
=
FL
E
=
0
L
dx
Courtesy Algor Inc,
Pittsburgh
39 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.
Stress
Basic equations do not require the use of a
computer to solve.
Computer-based analysis is needed when
complexity is added as follows:
Geometric complexity makes the elasticity equation
difficult or impossible to solve.
Variations in material properties exist throughout
the part.
Multiple load cases and complex or combined
loading exists.
Dynamics are of interest.
Courtesy Algor Inc,
Pittsburgh
14
40 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.
General Case
The DOF components of each element
combine to form a matrix equation:
[K] {d}={A}
[K] =element stiffness components
{d}=DOF results (unknown)
{A}=action value (e.g., force, temperature)
Courtesy Algor Inc,
Pittsburgh
41 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.
Structural FEA Equation
To determine the displacement of a
simple linear spring under load, the
relevant equation is:
{f} = [K] {d}
Known Unknown
where {f}=force vector
[K] =stiffness matrix
{d}=displacement vector
Courtesy Algor Inc,
Pittsburgh
42 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.
FEA Equation Solution
This can be solved with matrix
algebra by rearranging the
equation as follows:
{d} = [K] {f}
-1
Courtesy Algor Inc,
Pittsburgh
15
43 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.
Calculation of and
Strains are computed based on
the classical differential equations
previously discussed.
Stress can then be obtained from
the strains using Hookes law (F =
kx).
Courtesy Algor Inc,
Pittsburgh
44 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.
Dynamic Equation
For a more complex analysis, more
terms are needed. This is true in
dynamic analysis, which is defined by
the following equation:
{f} = [K] {d} + [c] {v} + [m] {a}
where {f}=force vector
[K] =stiffness matrix
{d}=displacement vector
[c] =damping matrix
{v}=velocity vector
[m] =mass matrix
{a}=acceleration vector
Courtesy Algor Inc,
Pittsburgh
45 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.
Other Applications
FEA can be applied to a wide variety of
applications such as:
Dynamics
Nonlinear Materials
Heat Transfer
Fluid Flow
Electrostatics
Piping Design and Analysis
Courtesy Algor Inc,
Pittsburgh
16
Questions/ Comments?