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330:155g
Finite Element Analysis
Nageswara Rao Posinasetti
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2 Stiffness Matrices
Review Matrix Algebra given in App A.
Direct stiffness method is used which
simple to understand
This can be used for spring, bar and beam
elements.
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2.1 Spring element (1-dim)
Parts are 3D
Some times 1D yields results that can be
applied to 3D under certain circumstances
Use one dimensional spring element
Obeys Hookes law
Deflection is linearly proportional to the force
within the spring divided by the spring rate
f =k u
2
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u Displacement
F - Force F =k u
Nodal point
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2.2 A single spring element
Stiffness matrix for the spring element
Spring rate, k
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[K] Stiffness matrix
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Example 2.1
5 -10 =-f
i
-5 +10 =-f
j
f
i
=5
f
j
=-5
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Let us consider an example with two
springs

1 1
1 1
k k
k k
and

2 2
2 2
k k
k k
5
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2.3 Assembling Total Structures
stiffness matrix
Sum of the internal forces should be equal
to the external forces applied at each node
k
1
u
1
k
1
u
2
=F
1
-k
1
u
1
+k
1
u
2
+k
2
u
2
k
2
u
3
=F
2
-k
2
u
2
+k
2
u
3
=F
3
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+

3
2
1
3
2
1
2 2
2 2 1 1
1 1
0
0
F
F
F
u
u
u
k k
k k k k
k k
[ ]{ } { } F u K =
Or more compactly as
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Number of rows =number of degrees of
freedom
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+
+

4
3
2
1
4
3
2
1
3 3
3 3 2 2
2 2 1 1
1 1
0 0
0
0
0 0
F
F
F
F
u
u
u
u
k k
k k k k
k k k k
k k
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+
+
+

5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
4 4
4 4 3 3
3 3 2 2
2 2 1 1
1 1
0 0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0 0
F
F
F
F
F
u
u
u
u
u
k k
k k k k
k k k k
k k k k
k k
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Interchange rows as well as columns in the same
sequence as the node element sequence
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Bandwidth
Such that the stiffness values (non-zero
elements) concentrated closer to the
diagonal
Bandwidth refers to the number of terms
we must move away from the main
diagonal before we encounter all zeroes.
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2.4 Boundary conditions
These are the restrained movements of
the nodal points
Homogeneous type
Fixed
Non-homogeneous type
Specified displacement
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+
+

4
3
2
1
4
3
2
1
3 1 2 3
2 2 1 1
3 3
1 1
0
0
0 0
0 0
F
F
F
F
u
u
u
u
k k k k
k k k k
k k
k k
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What is a DOF?
The unknowns in a finite element problem are
referred to as degrees of freedom (DOF).
Degrees of freedom vary by element and
analysis type.
Thermal Heat Flow
Rate
Temperature
Structural Force Displacement
Application Action DOF Type
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What is a DOF?
Node
Uy
Rot x
Rot y
Uz
Rot z
Ux
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34 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.
Node
A node is a coordinate location in
space where the DOF are defined.
The DOF of this point represent
the possible response at this point
due to the loading of the structure.
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Element
An element is a mathematical
relation that defines how the DOF of
a node relate to the next. These
elements can be lines (beams),
areas (2-D or 3-D plates) or solids
(bricks and tetrahedrals).
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Nodes and Elements
A node has a given set of DOF, which characterize the
response. For structural analyses, these DOF include
translations and rotations in the three global directions.
The type of element being used will also characterize
which type of DOF a node will have.
Some analysis types have only one DOF at a node.
Examples of these analysis types are temperature in a
heat transfer analysis and velocity in a fluid flow
analysis.
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37 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.
Element Connectivity
Elements can only transfer loads to one
another via common nodes.
No Communication
Between the Elements
Communication
Between the Elements
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Stress and Strain Review
The basic stress and strain equations:
=
F
A
=

E
=
FL
E
=
0
L
dx
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Stress
Basic equations do not require the use of a
computer to solve.
Computer-based analysis is needed when
complexity is added as follows:
Geometric complexity makes the elasticity equation
difficult or impossible to solve.
Variations in material properties exist throughout
the part.
Multiple load cases and complex or combined
Dynamics are of interest.
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40 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.
General Case
The DOF components of each element
combine to form a matrix equation:
[K] {d}={A}
[K] =element stiffness components
{d}=DOF results (unknown)
{A}=action value (e.g., force, temperature)
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Structural FEA Equation
To determine the displacement of a
simple linear spring under load, the
relevant equation is:
{f} = [K] {d}
Known Unknown
where {f}=force vector
[K] =stiffness matrix
{d}=displacement vector
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FEA Equation Solution
This can be solved with matrix
algebra by rearranging the
equation as follows:
{d} = [K] {f}
-1
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43 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.
Calculation of and
Strains are computed based on
the classical differential equations
previously discussed.
Stress can then be obtained from
the strains using Hookes law (F =
kx).
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Dynamic Equation
For a more complex analysis, more
terms are needed. This is true in
dynamic analysis, which is defined by
the following equation:
{f} = [K] {d} + [c] {v} + [m] {a}
where {f}=force vector
[K] =stiffness matrix
{d}=displacement vector
[c] =damping matrix
{v}=velocity vector
[m] =mass matrix
{a}=acceleration vector
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Other Applications
FEA can be applied to a wide variety of
applications such as:
Dynamics
Nonlinear Materials
Heat Transfer
Fluid Flow
Electrostatics
Piping Design and Analysis
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