Stiffness Matrices

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Stiffness Matrices

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330:155g

Finite Element Analysis

Nageswara Rao Posinasetti

2 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.

2 Stiffness Matrices

Review Matrix Algebra given in App A.

Direct stiffness method is used which

simple to understand

This can be used for spring, bar and beam

elements.

3 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.

2.1 Spring element (1-dim)

Parts are 3D

Some times 1D yields results that can be

applied to 3D under certain circumstances

Use one dimensional spring element

Obeys Hookes law

Deflection is linearly proportional to the force

within the spring divided by the spring rate

f =k u

2

4 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.

u Displacement

F - Force F =k u

Nodal point

5 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.

2.2 A single spring element

Stiffness matrix for the spring element

Spring rate, k

6 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.

3

7 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.

8 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.

[K] Stiffness matrix

9 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.

4

10 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.

11 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.

Example 2.1

5 -10 =-f

i

-5 +10 =-f

j

f

i

=5

f

j

=-5

12 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.

Let us consider an example with two

springs

1 1

1 1

k k

k k

and

2 2

2 2

k k

k k

5

13 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.

2.3 Assembling Total Structures

stiffness matrix

Sum of the internal forces should be equal

to the external forces applied at each node

k

1

u

1

k

1

u

2

=F

1

-k

1

u

1

+k

1

u

2

+k

2

u

2

k

2

u

3

=F

2

-k

2

u

2

+k

2

u

3

=F

3

14 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.

+

3

2

1

3

2

1

2 2

2 2 1 1

1 1

0

0

F

F

F

u

u

u

k k

k k k k

k k

[ ]{ } { } F u K =

Or more compactly as

15 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.

Number of rows =number of degrees of

freedom

6

16 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.

+

+

4

3

2

1

4

3

2

1

3 3

3 3 2 2

2 2 1 1

1 1

0 0

0

0

0 0

F

F

F

F

u

u

u

u

k k

k k k k

k k k k

k k

17 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.

+

+

+

5

4

3

2

1

5

4

3

2

1

4 4

4 4 3 3

3 3 2 2

2 2 1 1

1 1

0 0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0 0

F

F

F

F

F

u

u

u

u

u

k k

k k k k

k k k k

k k k k

k k

18 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.

7

19 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.

20 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.

Interchange rows as well as columns in the same

sequence as the node element sequence

21 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.

Bandwidth

Such that the stiffness values (non-zero

elements) concentrated closer to the

diagonal

Bandwidth refers to the number of terms

we must move away from the main

diagonal before we encounter all zeroes.

8

22 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.

23 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.

2.4 Boundary conditions

These are the restrained movements of

the nodal points

Homogeneous type

Fixed

Non-homogeneous type

Specified displacement

24 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.

9

25 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.

26 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.

+

+

4

3

2

1

4

3

2

1

3 1 2 3

2 2 1 1

3 3

1 1

0

0

0 0

0 0

F

F

F

F

u

u

u

u

k k k k

k k k k

k k

k k

27 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.

10

28 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.

29 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.

30 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.

11

31 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.

32 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.

What is a DOF?

The unknowns in a finite element problem are

referred to as degrees of freedom (DOF).

Degrees of freedom vary by element and

analysis type.

Thermal Heat Flow

Rate

Temperature

Structural Force Displacement

Application Action DOF Type

Courtesy Algor Inc,

Pittsburgh

33 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.

What is a DOF?

Node

Uy

Rot x

Rot y

Uz

Rot z

Ux

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Pittsburgh

12

34 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.

Node

A node is a coordinate location in

space where the DOF are defined.

The DOF of this point represent

the possible response at this point

due to the loading of the structure.

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Pittsburgh

35 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.

Element

An element is a mathematical

relation that defines how the DOF of

a node relate to the next. These

elements can be lines (beams),

areas (2-D or 3-D plates) or solids

(bricks and tetrahedrals).

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Pittsburgh

36 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.

Nodes and Elements

A node has a given set of DOF, which characterize the

response. For structural analyses, these DOF include

translations and rotations in the three global directions.

The type of element being used will also characterize

which type of DOF a node will have.

Some analysis types have only one DOF at a node.

Examples of these analysis types are temperature in a

heat transfer analysis and velocity in a fluid flow

analysis.

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Pittsburgh

13

37 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.

Element Connectivity

Elements can only transfer loads to one

another via common nodes.

No Communication

Between the Elements

Communication

Between the Elements

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38 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.

Stress and Strain Review

The basic stress and strain equations:

=

F

A

=

E

=

FL

E

=

0

L

dx

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Pittsburgh

39 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.

Stress

Basic equations do not require the use of a

computer to solve.

Computer-based analysis is needed when

complexity is added as follows:

Geometric complexity makes the elasticity equation

difficult or impossible to solve.

Variations in material properties exist throughout

the part.

Multiple load cases and complex or combined

loading exists.

Dynamics are of interest.

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14

40 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.

General Case

The DOF components of each element

combine to form a matrix equation:

[K] {d}={A}

[K] =element stiffness components

{d}=DOF results (unknown)

{A}=action value (e.g., force, temperature)

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Pittsburgh

41 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.

Structural FEA Equation

To determine the displacement of a

simple linear spring under load, the

relevant equation is:

{f} = [K] {d}

Known Unknown

where {f}=force vector

[K] =stiffness matrix

{d}=displacement vector

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Pittsburgh

42 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.

FEA Equation Solution

This can be solved with matrix

algebra by rearranging the

equation as follows:

{d} = [K] {f}

-1

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Pittsburgh

15

43 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.

Calculation of and

Strains are computed based on

the classical differential equations

previously discussed.

Stress can then be obtained from

the strains using Hookes law (F =

kx).

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Pittsburgh

44 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.

Dynamic Equation

For a more complex analysis, more

terms are needed. This is true in

dynamic analysis, which is defined by

the following equation:

{f} = [K] {d} + [c] {v} + [m] {a}

where {f}=force vector

[K] =stiffness matrix

{d}=displacement vector

[c] =damping matrix

{v}=velocity vector

[m] =mass matrix

{a}=acceleration vector

Courtesy Algor Inc,

Pittsburgh

45 J anuary23, 2008 Rao, P.N.

Other Applications

FEA can be applied to a wide variety of

applications such as:

Dynamics

Nonlinear Materials

Heat Transfer

Fluid Flow

Electrostatics

Piping Design and Analysis

Courtesy Algor Inc,

Pittsburgh

16

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