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OWJ100101 WCDMA
Radio Network Coverage
Planning
ISSUE1.0

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Upon completion of this course, you will be able to:


Know the contents and process of network planning.
Understand the uplink budget and its elements.
Understand the downlink budget and its elements.
Familiarize the coverage enhancement technologies.

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Section 1 Process of WCDMA Network Planning


Section 2 Uplink Budget
Section 3 Downlink Budget
Section 4 Coverage Enhancement Technologies

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Section 1 Process of WCDMA Network Planning


1.1 Overview of Radio Network Planning
1.2 Huawei Concept of Radio Network Planning
1.3 Process of Radio Network Planning

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Definition and Category of Network Planning


Definition:
Network planning means that proper network elements (NEs) are
selected according to the network target, network evolution
requirement, and cost, and then the quality, configuration, and
connection mode of the NEs are determined to facilitate engineering
implementation.
Categories:
Planning of core network
Planning of radio network
Planning of transmission network
Focus of the train:
Planning of radio network.

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Importance of Radio Network Planning in 3G

Importance:
The construction cost of the mobile
communications network mainly lies in the
equipment investment.
Among the three parts of the 3G network
(radio access network, transmission network,
and core network), the radio access network
occupies more than 70% investment.
The investment in the radio access network
depends on the number and configuration of
the BSs.

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Compare WCDMA Network Planning with that of GSM


In the GSM system, the structure and
frequency of the cellular network are planned
in order to ensure that the co-frequency and
adjacent-frequency interference meet the call
quality requirement.
If the interference requirement is met, the
number of supported subscribers can be
calculated based on the number of carrier
frequencies and the number of timeslots.
The coverage of the GSM system depends on
the transmit power of the transmitter and the
demodulation performance of the receiver.
The GSM mainly offers voice service, and the
GoS and design objective are relatively simple.
f1
f1
f2

f2

The capacity of each carrier in WCDMA is


"soft" because it is related to factors such as
environment and adjacent-cell interference.
The coverage of the WCDMA system is related
to the system load. If the system load
increases, the coverage will shrink.
The WCDMA system supports services with
different rate and QoS, including voice service,
and their coverage capacity is different. In the
network planning, the system performance
shall be optimized through reasonable
planning and radio resource management.

f2
f3
f1

f3
f1

WCDMA uses the spread spectrum technology,


so it can realize 11 frequency multiplexing
without frequency planning.

f2

f1
f2

f3

f1

f1

f1

f1

f3

f1

f1

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f1

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f1

f1
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Section 1 Process of WCDMA Network Planning


1.1 Overview of Radio Network Planning
1.2 Huawei Concept of Radio Network Planning
1.3 Process of Radio Network Planning

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Huawei Concept of Wireless Network Planning


Optimal coverage for profitable services
The 3G network is a multi-service network, so the network resources need be
distributed among different services. The cell radius and coverage scheme
should be determined after the profitable services and their coverage quality
are determined. At the early stage of the 3G network, if the planning focuses
on high-speed data service, it will result in waste of the BSs because there are
not enough services.
Competitive core service
Core service refers to the service that have a long-term effect on the network
development. It is possible that the core service is not profitable in a short
period, but is the attraction of the subscriber increase and service
development, for example, high-speed data service. Therefore, the quality of
the core service should be guaranteed in order to show the service and
performance advantages of the 3G network and promote the operator's brand.

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Huawei Concept of Wireless Network Planning

Highest capacity based on limited resources


The capacity of the 3G network is mainly affected
by interference. Reasonable parameter planning
may help to reduce intra-cell and inter-cell
interference, improve the cell capacity, and make
full use of the limited resources.

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Huawei Concept of Wireless Network Planning

Lowest overall cost of network construction


The construction of the radio network goes through
the lifecycle of the network. In the planning, further
development shall be considered, in order to
reduce the total cost of network construction.

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Section 1 Process of WCDMA Network Planning


1.1 Overview of Radio Network Planning
1.2 Huawei Concept of Radio Network Planning
1.3 Process of Radio Network Planning

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Process of Wireless Network Planning


Radio Network Dimensioning (RND)
At the early stage of the project planning, the future
network is preliminarily planned, and the configuration and
the number of RAN NEs are output for preliminary project
negotiation and for cost estimation in contract signing.
Pre-planning of radio network
At the mid stage of project planning, based on the
dimensioning output, the future network is planned in
detail, and the accurate network scale and theoretical site
location are determined. A pre-planning report will be
output for mid-stage project and cost estimation in
contract signing.

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Process of Wireless Network Planning


Cell planning of radio network
At the later stage of project planning, based on the
pre-planning output, each selected site is surveyed,
and the related cell parameters are determined. If the
result is quite different from the planning, the cell
parameters and planning effect should be checked
through simulation, and the output report would be
the final radio network planning scheme that can
guide the project implementation.

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Process of Radio Network Planning

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Radio Network Dimensioning


Radio network dimensioning is a simplified analysis of
the future network.
Objective:
To obtain the network scale (Approximate BS
quantity and configuration), to obtain the
construction period, and to obtain information such
as electronical cost and human resource cost.
Method:
Select a proper propagation model, and subscriber
mobility, distribution, and traffic models, and then
estimate the site quantity, cell quantity, coverage
size and capacity.

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Requirement of RND parameters


Information of coverage area
The engineers of RNP should know exact information
about coverage area ,for example :
Area , economy, population
Distribution of cluster
The information of mobile communication market
Target of network
The target of network should include several factors:
Service
Coverage area & Coverage quality
Network Capacity
Target load of cell
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Requirement of RND parameters

Limited by network scale & Building plan in different phase


Base on commercial contract
Base on RND result if there is no commercial contract

Information of available site


For a new operator who doesnt have abundant 2G mobile
communication network sites, the RNP engineer should
collect exact information about available site.

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Radio Network dimensioning


Input

Output

Coverage information
System scale

Coverage area
Coverage probability
Capacity information

Site quantity

Coverage dimensioning

System configuration

Traffic model

Sector structure

Service model

Carrier quantity

Subscriber density

Network construction cost

Quality information
QoS requirement

Capacity dimensioning

Site cost
Equipment cost

GoS requirement
Demodulation threshold

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Radio Network Pre-planning


Based on radio network
dimensioning, the network preplanning intends to determine
the initial layout and theoretical
location of the BSs and select
engineering parameters (BS
location, network hierarchy,
transmit power, antenna
layout/type/direction/tilt angle,
and so on) and some cell
parameters (common channel,
transmit power of traffic
channel, orthogonal factor, cell
scrambling code, and so on) .
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Radio Network Pre-planning


Based on the result of RND,
theoretical location of site,
parameters of project, parameters of
cell, We should carry out coverage
simulation.
We should carry out more detailed
adjustment (for example amount of
NodeB, configuration of NodeB,
antenna altitude, antenna azimuth)
after analyzing the results of
coverage simulation.
Finally ,we should get perfect
coverage result.

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Radio Network Pre-planning


Radio Network Pre-planning report
We should output Radio Network Pre-planning report after finishing
previous jobs. Radio Network Pre-planning report should include
following factors:
Introduce of project background
Information of planning area :area, population, cluster
Project of radio network pre-planning: site distribution map, site list
( include site name, latitude ,longitude, parameters)
Performance of project :based on the simulation result
Appendix: statistical diagram about performance

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Radio Network Cell Planning


Flowchart of cell planning
Wireless network
pre-planning
report

Wireless network
pre-planning
report

Yes
Search
Rings

Output Search

Site list

Noise test

Site survey

2G2Gsite?

Site survey
report

Noise test report

Rings

Site selection

No

New site (prefix:

NewSite)?
NewSite

Yes

N
N

Obtain
candidate sites

No

Site conditions

determined?

No

Site survey

No

System

emulation

Site survey report

Yes

Design

objective

met?

Noise test

Noise test report

Wireless network
planning report

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Site

requirement

met?

Yes
Yes

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Radio Network Cell Planning site survey


In fact , perfect site position could not be acquired. We must select some backup
site. But how can we select the backup site?
Based on experience , backup site is selected in SEARCH RING scope ,
SEARCH RING =1/4*R, at the same time ,we still consider its height.
We still pay attention to some other factors when we select the backup sites :
Radio propagation
Site position
Site height
Surrounding
Job implementation
Space of room
Antenna installation
Transmission
Power
Commercial factor
Rent
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Radio Network Cell Planning System Simulation


System Simulation class

Static simulation
Static simulation would gain the
performance of radio network based
on snapshot

The example of Monte Carlo


simulation

Dynamic simulation
Dynamic simulation would gain the
performance of radio network based
on analysis of mobile subscribers.

At present, Static simulation is in common


use. Monte Carlo simulation is one type of
static simulations
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The example about Monte Carlo simulation


Access ratio

100% 20%

0%
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75%
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60% 100%
60%

40%

Distribution of NodeBs

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Simulation diagram pilot coverage intensity

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Simulation diagram pilot coverage quality (Ec/Io)

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Coverage probability of 12.2k voice service

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Coverage probability of 64k video phone service

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Coverage probability of 144k Net Meeting service

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Coverage probability of 384k HTTP service

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Simulation result about pilot pollution

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Summary of the Section


This Section covers the following:

Categories of radio network planning


Huawei concept of radio network planning
Differences between GSM network planning and WCDMA
network planning
Process of radio network planning
Input and output requirements of the radio network pre-planning

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Section 1 Process of WCDMA Network Planning


Section 2 Uplink Budget
Section 3 Downlink Budget
Section 4 Coverage Enhancement Technologies

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CapacityCoverageQuality
Relation between capacity, coverage, and quality of the WCDMA
system
The WCDMA system is a self-interference system, and its
capacity, coverage, and quality closely related to each other.
Capacitycoverage (e.g. cell breath)
If the load increases, the capacity and interference also
interference, and the coverage shrinks.
Capacityquality (e.g. outer loop power control)
The system capacity may increase by lowering the quality of
some connections.

Coveragequality (e.g. AMRC)

The coverage may increase by lowering the quality of some


connections.

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Process of Coverage Budget


Create
Create link
link budget
budget
Maximum path loss
Obtain
Obtain cell
cell radius
radius
Minimum cell radius

Environment features of the


planned area
Site capacity
Indoor coverage
Coverage probability
Propagation model

Calculate
Calculate site
site area
area

Equipment performance

Maximum site
coverage area
Specify
Specify site
site quantity
quantity
of
of the
the area
area

Site quantity=planned area/site coverage area


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Fundamental Principle
NodeB
TX

Ga_BS

Pout_BS
Lf_BS
Lc_BS
Combiner
Duplexer

Feeder
_
PL
DL

L
_U
PL

RX

Ga_UE
UE
Fading
Margin

Pout_UE
TX

Combiner
Duplexer
Body Loss

Penetration
Loss

RX

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Link Budget: Link


Budget intends to
estimate the
system coverage
by analyzing the
factors of the
propagation of the
forward signal
and reverse
signal, in order to
obtain the
maximum
propagation loss
after certain
communications
quality is ensured.

Algorithm Introduction
Uplink (reverse)
PL_UL=Pout_UE +Ga_BS+Ga_UE Lf_BS+Ga_SHO Mpc Mf
MI Lp Lb S_BS
PL_UL: Maximum propagation loss of the Uplink
Pout_UE: Maximum transmit power of the traffic channel of the UE
Lf_BS: Cable loss
Ga_BS: Antenna gain of the BS; Ga_UE: Antenna gain of the MS
Ga_SHO: Gain of soft handover
Mpc: Margin for fast power control
Mf: Slow fading margin (related to the propagation environment)
MI: Interference margin (related to the designed system capacity)
Lp: Penetration loss of a building (used if indoor coverage is required)
Lb: Body loss
S_BS: Sensitivity of BS receiver (related to factors such as service and
multi-path condition)
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Elements of WCDMA Uplink Budget


Max Power of TCH

SHO Gain over Fast Fading

Body Loss

Fast Fading Margin

Gain of UE Tx Antenna
EIRP

Minimum Signal Strength


Required

Gain of BS Rx Antenna

Penetration Loss

Cable Loss

Std. dev. of Slow Fading

Noise Figure (BS)

Edge coverage Probability

Required Eb/No (BS)

Slow Fading Margin

Sensitivity of BS Receiver

SHO Gain over Slow Fading

UL Cell Load
Interference Margin
Background Noise Level
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Elements of WCDMA Uplink Budget


1.Max Power of TCH (dBm)
For a UE, the maximum power of each traffic channel is usually the
nominal total transmit power. There are many types of UE in a
commercial network, so this parameters should be reasonably set in
the link budget according to the specifications of a mainstream
commercial cell phone and the requirement of the operator.
Grade of UE power TS 25.101 v3.7.0 2001-066.2.1
Power Class

Nominal maximum output power

Tolerance

+33dBm

+1/-3dB

+27dBm

+1/-3dB

+24dBm

+1/-3dB

+21dBm

+2/-2dB

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Elements of WCDMA Uplink Budget


2. Body Loss (dB)
For voice service, the body loss is 3 dB.
Because the data service mainly involves reading and video,
so the UE is relatively far from body, and the body loss is 0
dB.
3. Gain of UE Tx Antenna (dBi)
In general, assume that the receiver gain and transmitter
gain of the UE antenna are both 0 dBi.
4. EIRP(dBm)
UE EIRP (dBm)
= UE Tx Power (dBm) - Body Loss (dB)
+ Gain of UE Tx Antenna (dBi)
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Elements of WCDMA Uplink Budget


5. Gain of BS Rx Antenna (dBi)
Kathrein 741794

Frequency range

Kathrein 741790

1710~2170MHz (dual
band for DCS and
UMTS)

Frequency range

1920~2170MHz

Polarization

Vertical

Polarization

+45, -45

Gain

11dBi

Gain

18.5dBi

HPBW

Vertical: 7

Horizontal: 63

Electrical tilt

Fixed, 0

dimensioning (Height)

1387 mm

Weight

5kg

HPBW (1920~2170MHz)

Vertical:6.5

Electrical tilt

Fixed, 2

Side lobe suppression for 1st side


lobe above horizon

>14dB

Front-to-back ratio, co-polar

>30dB

dimensioning (Height / Width /


Depth)

1302 mm / 155 mm / 69
mm

Weight

6.6kg

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Elements of WCDMA Uplink Budget


6. Cable Loss (dB)
Bracket

It includes the loss of the feeders and


connectors between the cabinet top and
the antenna connector.

Tilt adjuster

Antenna

Lower jumper
Connector

Bracket
Upper jumper

Feeder
Upper jumper
Feeder

Etc.

Lightning arrester
Feeder fixing clip

Except for the feeder, the loss is


relatively constant. Assume that the
connecter loss is 0.8 dB.

Lower jumper
Feeder grounding clip

7/8-inch feeder: 6.1 dB / 100m for 2GHz


5/4-inch feeder: 4.5 dB / 100m for 2GHz
Feeder installation

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Feeder window

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Elements of WCDMA Uplink Budget


7. Noise Figure (dB)
Noise figure (NF): It is used to measure the noise
performance of an amplifier. It refers to the ratio of the input
SNR to the output SNR of the antenna.

NF = SNRi / SNRo
= (Si / Ni) / (So / No)
Thermal noise of receiver (unit bandwidth):
PN = KTBWNF
= -174 (dBm/Hz) + 10lg(3.84MHz / 1Hz) + NF(dB)
= -108 (dBm/3.84MHz) + NF (dB)

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Elements of WCDMA Uplink Budget


8. Eb/No Required (dB)
It is obtained through link simulation. It is related to the following:
Configuration of receiver diversity
Multi-path channel condition
Bearer type
9. Sensitivity of BS Receiver (dBm)
Sensitivity of Receiver (dBm)
= -174 (dBm/Hz) + NF (dB) + 10lg(3.84MHz/1Hz)
+ required Eb/No (dB) - 10lg[3.84MHz/Rb(kHz)]
= -174 (dBm/Hz) + NF (dB) + 10lg[1000 * Rb (kHz)] + Eb/No (dB)

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Elements of WCDMA Uplink Budget


10. Background Noise Level (dBm)
External electromagnetic interference sources:
Wireless transmitters (GSM, microwave, radar,
television station, and so)
Automobile ignition
Lightning

For the planning for a specific area, it is


recommended to estimate the local interference
through noise test.

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Elements of WCDMA Uplink Budget


11. Penetration Loss (dB)
Indoor penetration loss refers to the difference between the
average signal strength outside the building and the average signal
strength of one layer of the building.
The penetration loss is related to building type, arrive angle of the
radio wave, and so on. In the link budget, assume that the
penetration loss is subject to the lognormal distribution. The
penetration loss is indicated by average penetration loss and
standard deviation.
It is uneconomical to provide better indoor coverage through an
outdoor BS. The indoor coverage shall be provided through a
reasonable indoor coverage solution.
In the actual construction of a commercial network, the penetration
loss margin is usually specified by the operator in order to compare
the planning results of different manufacturers.
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Elements of WCDMA Uplink Budget


12. Fast Fading Margin (dB)
In the link budget, the demodulation performance of the used receiver is
the simulation result based on the assumed ideal power control. In an
actual system, because of the limited transmit power of the transmitter,
non-ideal factors are introduced in the closed loop power control.
Effect of power control margin on the uplink demodulation performance:
The simulation shows the following: When the HeadRoom is large,
the target Eb/No set in the outer loop power control is appropriate to
the simulation result under the ideal power control. As the power
margin decreases, the Eb/No gradually increases (if the power
margin decreases by 1 dB, the required Eb/No increases by about 1
dB). If power control performance is almost not available, the
BER/BLER cannot be ensured.
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Elements of WCDMA Uplink Budget


13. Edge coverage Probability
When the transmit power of a UE hits the threshold, but the path loss does
not meet the requirements for the lowest receive level, the link will be
disconnected.
For a UE at a distance of d, the link disconnection probability is as follows:
Pr_ outage

( d ) = Pr{ P max _ UE PL ( d ) < S min }


= Pr{ P max _ UE 10 lg( d ) < S min }
= Pr{ P max _ UE S min 10 lg( d ) < }
= Pr{ ( d ) < }

(d) = Pmax_UE S_min 10lg(d)It refers to the difference between


the average loss of the paths at a distance of d and the allowed maximum
path loss for ensuring the connection.
The average fading component is 0, and the standard variation is

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Elements of WCDMA Uplink Budget


14. Slow Fading Margin (dB)

Key point: Property of normal distribution.


SF( x, ) := dnorm( x, 0 , )

SF_M ( x, ) := pnorm( x, 0 , )

1
0.9
0.8

0.06

0.7

SF( x, 8)

SF_M ( x, 8)

SF( x, 10) 0.04

SF_M ( x, 10) 0.5

SF( x, 12)

SF_M ( x, 12) 0.4

0.6

0.3

0.02

0.2
0.1

30

20

10

10

20

30

20

16

12

Slow Fading Margin (dB) = required edge coverage ProbabilityStd.


dev. of Slow Fading (dB)
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12

16

20

Elements of WCDMA Uplink Budget


15. Uplink Cell Load
N

UL = (1 + i ) L j = (1 + i )

(EbvsNo )

R jv j

Uplink cell load is used to measure the uplink load of a cell.


The higher the uplink cell load, the higher the uplink interference.
If the uplink load is about 100% , the uplink interference becomes infinite,
and the corresponding capacity is the limit capacity.

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Elements of WCDMA Uplink Budget


I TOT
NoiseRise
=
=
16. Uplink Interference Margin (dB)
PN

1
N

1 Lj

1
1 UL

50% Load 3dB


60% Load 4dB
75% Load 6dB

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Elements of WCDMA Uplink Budget


17. SHO Gain over Fast Fading (dB)
The soft handover gain includes two parts:
Multiple related soft handover branches lower the
required margin for fading, which results in multi-cell
gain.
Gain for the link demodulation of the soft handover
macro diversity combining gain.
The SHO Gain over Fast Fading refer to the macro
diversity combination gain.
This value is obtained through simulation. The typical
value is 1.5 dB.

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Elements of WCDMA Uplink Budget


18.SHO Gain over Slow Fading (dB)
As mentioned above, the soft handover gain
includes two parts:
Multiple irrelevant soft handover branches lower
the required margin for fading, which results in
multi-cell gain.
Gain for the link demodulation of the soft
handover marco diversity combination gain.
The SHO Gain over Fast Fading refers to the macro
diversity combining gain.
This value is obtained through simulation.

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Elements of WCDMA Uplink Budget


19. Minimum Signal Strength Required (dBm)
After the interference factors and the factors
degrading the performance are considered, the signal
strength required by the correct demodulation is
receiver sensitivity in the network.
Minimum Signal Strength Required
= Sensitivity of Receiver (dBm) - Gain of Antenna (dBi)
+ Body Loss (dB) + Interference Margin (dB)
+ Margin for Background Noise (dB) - SHO Gain over
fast fading (dB) + Fast Fading Margin (dB)

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Elements of WCDMA Uplink Budget


Summary: Cell edge path loss
Based on the maximum path loss allowed by the link,
the path loss at the cell edge can be calculated if the
fading margin and soft handover gain for providing the
required edge/area coverage probability and the
penetration loss of indoor coverage are considered.
Path Loss (dB) = [ EiRP (dBm) - Minimum Signal
Strength Required (dBm) ]- Penetration Loss (dB) Slow Fading Margin (dB) + SHO Gain over Slow
Fading (dB)

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Section 1 Process of WCDMA Network Planning


Section 2 Uplink Budget
Section 3 Downlink Budget
Section 4 Coverage Enhancement Technologies

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Fundamental Principle
NodeB
TX

Ga_BS

Pout_BS
Lf_BS
Lc_BS
Combiner
Duplexer

Feeder
_
PL
DL

L
_U
PL

RX

Ga_UE
UE
Fading
Margin

Pout_UE
TX

Combiner
Duplexer
Body Loss

Penetration
Loss

RX

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Link Budget: Link


Budget intends to
estimate the system
coverage by
analyzing the factors
of the propagation
of the forward signal
and reverse signal, in
order to obtain the
maximum
propagation loss after
certain
communications
quality is ensured.

Algorithm
Downlink (forward)
PL_DL=Pout_BS Lf_BS+Ga_BS+Ga_UE +Ga_SHO Mpc Mf MI Lp
Lb S_UE
PL_DL: Maximum propagation loss of the downlink
Pout_UE: Maximum transmit power of the traffic channel of the BS
Lf_BS: Cable loss
Ga_BS: Antenna gain of the BS; Ga_UE: Antenna gain of the MS
Ga_SHO: Gain of soft handover
Mpc: Margin for fast power control
Mf: Slow fading margin (related to the propagation environment)
MI: Interference margin (related to the designed system capacity)
Lp: Penetration loss of a building (used if indoor coverage is required)
Lb: Body loss
S_UE: Sensitivity of UE receiver (related to factors such as service and
multi-path condition)
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Elements of WCDMA Downlink Budget


Max Power of TCH
Cable Loss
Gain of BS Tx Antenna
EIRP
Gain of UE Rx Antenna
Body Loss
Noise Figure (UE)
Required Eb/No (UE)

SHO Gain over Fast Fading


Fast Fading Margin
Minimum Signal Strength
Required
Penetration Loss
Std. dev. of Slow Fading

Sensitivity of UE Receiver

Edge coverage Probability

DL Cell Loading

Slow Fading Margin

Interference Margin

SHO Gain over Slow Fading

Background Noise Level


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Page 62

Elements of WCDMA Downlink Budget


1.Downlink Cell Load
Downlink cell load factor is defined in two ways:
Downlink cell load at the receiver:
N

DL = (1 j + i j ) (EbvsNo ) j

vj
W

Rj

This definition is similar to that of the uplink cell load:


The higher the downlink cell load, the higher the cell transmit power,
and the higher the receiver interference.
When the downlink cell load is 100% , the corresponding capacity is
the limit capacity of the downlink.
Downlink cell load at the receiver: The ratio of the current cell transmit
power to the maximum BS transmit power. Characteristics:
The higher the downlink cell load, the higher the cell transmit power.
The downlink cell load is related to service type, UE receiver
performance, cell size, and BS capability.

Currently, the later definition is used in the link budget tool.


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Page 63

Elements of WCDMA Downlink Budget


2.Downlink Interference Margin (dB)
Downlink interference at UE receiver:
NoiseRise

( j) =

I total
=
PN

PT
(1 j )
+ PT
PL j

n =1

1
+ PN
PL j , n

PN

N PL
The Jdownlink load factor is:
j ,own
(
)
E
/
N
V
R
b

o j
j
j
f

((1 j ) + f DL , j ) ,where DL , j = n=1 PL j ,n


DL =
j =1
W

The link budget tool uses the following typical values:


orthogonal factor : j It is obtained through simulation. It is related to
environment type and cell radius.
Cell edge adjacent-cell interference factor : 1.78

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Page 64

Section 1 Process of WCDMA Network Planning


Section 2 Uplink Budget
Section 3 Downlink Budget
Section 4 Coverage Enhancement Technologies

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Page 65

Tower Mounted Amplifier (TMA)

TMA
A TMA locate the position
under the antenna
A TMA is Low noise amplifier
A TMA helps to improve the
uplink receive sensitivity and
enhances the uplink coverage
A TMA usually has 0.7dB loss
in the downlink.

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Academic calculation about TMA


Academic calculation about TMA improve the uplink receive sensitivity

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The example of academic calculation about TMA


The example of academic calculation about TMA
improve the uplink receive sensitivity
Equipment

Noise Figure

Gain

TMA

1.45

12

7/8"Cable30m + 0.6dB Connector


Loss

2.433

-2.433

NodeB

2.2

Gain 3.063dB for uplink when using TMA


Receiver Chain Noise Figure
Without TMA: 2.433+2.2 dB
With TMA 1.57 dB
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Page 68

4-antennas Reception Diversity


4Antenna reception diversity
4Antenna reception diversity has
two types
Two Cross-polarization
antennas
Four antennas
4Antenna reception diversity
helps to improve the uplink
reception performance
Improve the uplink coverage and
capacity performance
4Antenna reception diversity
need equipment support

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Page 69

4-antennas Reception Diversity


4RxDiv principle diversity gain

Resist fast fading


Correlation combination
Gain relates to multipath ,service ,speed, antenna
performance

2RxDiv> 4RxDiv
Reduce the requirement of
Eb/No

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4-antennas Reception Diversity


Compared with a double-antenna reception diversity, 4-antenna
reception diversity requires lower Eb/No.
Gain of 4-antenna reception diversity (compared with doubleantenna reception diversity)

Area

Channel

Eb/No improvement

Capacity-based
gain

Coverage-based
gain

High-density
urban area

TU3

2.4

1.73

1.37

Common urban
area

TU3

2.4

1.73

1.37

Suburb

RA120

2.5

1.77

1.39

Rural area

RA120

2.5

1.77

1.39

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Page 71

Thank You
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