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You are on page 1of 85

Slide 2 of 80 Contents

Introduction

The final design was the product of a long

evolution guided primarily by testing, supported

by simple linear strength of material methods.

Tools include simple spring-mass models, beam

element models, hybrid models and finite

element models.

In recent years - demand from customers,

regulators, and media to provide safer vehicles.

2

Slide 3 of 80 Contents

Introduction

Current Design Practice - reviews the current modeling and design

processes while identifying shortcomings for early design stages.

Crash/Crush Design Techniques for Front Structures - examines

techniques for analyzing the front-end system and to compute the

performance design objectives of subsystems and components.

Analytical Design Tools - introduces component design methods to

create structural concepts for energy absorption and strength.

Vehicle Front Structure Design for Different Impact Modes -

discusses strategy for designing structures for different frontal

impact modes, including vehicle-to vehicle crashes.

3

Slide 4 of 80 Contents

Current Design Practice

Lumped Mass-Spring Models

Limitations of LMS Models

Comparison Between LMS and FE-Based

crashworthiness Processes

Slide 5 of 80 Contents

Current Design Practice

The Design process relies on calculating the

crash pulse from either Lumped Mass-Spring

(LMS) models or Finite Element (FE) models

Two tasks:

Vehicle body structure and major components

packaged ahead of the front occupants, such as

the power-train.

Designing the occupant environment such as the

dummy, restraints and vehicle interior surfaces.

Slide 6 of 80 Contents

LMS based crash pulse estimation

Figures from Priya Prasad , 2005

Contents

Slide 7 of 80 Contents

FE Based Crash pulse Estimation

Figures from Priya Prasad , 2005

Slide 8 of 80 Contents

The LMS Model

Vehicle approximated

by a one-dimensional

lumped mass-spring

system.

acceptable for

modeling the basic

crash features.

requires a user with

extensive knowledge

Crush characteristics

from static crush set-

up.

Figures from Priya Prasad , 2005

Slide 9 of 80 Contents

Test set up

Kamals Lumped mass model

Crush Test setup

Figures from Priya Prasad , 2005

Slide 10 of 80 Contents

Acceleration vs Time

Figures from Priya Prasad , 2005

Simulated acceleration

histories with those obtained

from the test, and it shows a

very good agreement can be

achieved

Slide 11 of 80 Contents

Side Impact LMS Model

<#> of 78

Slide 12 of 80 Contents

LMS Models

Pros:

Quicker turnaround time parametric studies

at earlier design stages

Cons:

One dimensional

Requires prior knowledge of spring

characteristics

Contents Slide 13 of 79

3D models

Initial

After 80 ms

Figures from Priya Prasad , 2005

Results compare

well with full

scale crash tests

Contents Slide 14 of 79

Frame Models and FE Models

To overcome 1D, 3D

simulation in MADYMO

The model also includes

the power train external

surfaces to accurately

capture contact with

the barrier.

3D frame

FE model

Figures from Priya Prasad , 2005

Slide 15 of 80 Contents

Basic Principles of Designing for Crash

Energy Management

Figures from Priya Prasad , 2005

Contents

Match in 3D frame

and FE model

response for

FOOTWELL intrusion

Difficult to reproduce

by 1D LMS models

Slide 16 of 80 Contents

Crash/Crush Design Techniques for

Front Structures

Designing for crash is multidisciplinary - very

close interaction of

Biomechanics

Structures

Vehicle Dynamics

Packaging

Engineering analysis

Manufacturing

Slide 17 of 80 Contents

Basic Principles of Designing for Crash

Energy Management

Frontal offset Crash 40 kmph

Vehicle to vehicle crash 70 kmph Figures from Priya Prasad , 2005

Slide 18 of 80 Contents

Basic Principles of Designing for Crash

Energy Management

Desired Dummy Performance

Various occupant simulation models are used to study

interactions between dummy, restraint system and the

vehicle

A family of crash pulses or signatures that successfully

meet specific injury criteria are defined. These pulses,

in turn, define objective criteria for vehicle design

Desired crush sequence and mode will need to be

selected and crush zones identified to assure the

structural pulse

Several models are developed in parallel to study

Slide 19 of 80 Contents

Basic Principles of Designing for Crash

Energy Management

Stiff cage Structural Concept

Objective is to design a stiff passenger

compartment structure

Structure should have a peak load capacity to

support the energy absorbing members in

front of it, without exhibiting excessive

deformation (intrusion)

Slide 20 of 80 Contents

Basic Principles of Designing for Crash

Energy Management

Figures from Priya Prasad , 2005

Slide 21 of 80 Contents

Basic Principles of Designing for Crash

Energy Management

Controlled Progressive Crush or Deformation

With Limited Intrusion

Rear, roof, and side impact energy-absorbing

structures deform upon direct impact in a

mixed axial and bending mode

Bending dominant role low energy content

In designs where light weight is desirable, axial

mode will be a more appropriate candidate

for energy absorption

Slide 22 of 80 Contents

Controlled Progressive Crush or

Deformation With Limited Intrusion

(contd)

Primary crush zone - relatively uniform, progressive structural

collapse

Main energy absorbing structure- fore section of the power train

compartment

Secondary crush zone -structural interface between the energy

absorbing and occupant compartment structures

Avoid excessive load concentrations

Design strategy

soft front zone- to reduce the vehicles aggressivity in pedestrian-to-

vehicle and vehicle-to-vehicle collisions

Two stiffer zones - primary and secondary.

Primary main EA structure in the fore section

Secondary structural interface between absorber and compartment

Extends to the dash panel and toe board areas

Contents Slide 23 of 79

Design of structural topology /

architecture

Based on ability to design in the

crush mode for primary crush

zones

Based on simplified 3D models

Once a skeleton is ready design

loads can be estimated

Using Quasi Analytical studies

Sizing of thin shell components using

computer codes. (ex. SECOLLAPSE)

Crush criteria will dictate the

structural design.

NVH criteria and durability can be

easily met if designed for crash.

Model by Mahmood and Paluszny

Figures from Priya Prasad , 2005

Slide 26 of 80 Contents

3-D hybrid modelling of front end

system

Figures from Priya Prasad , 2005

Finite Element

Lumped Mass

3D hybrids and

collapsible beam elements

used

Possible to analyze

asymmetric impacts

The model grows

progressively

The designed structures

/ sub-structures are

readily analyzed in a

system environment

Slide 27 of 80 Contents

Evolving front-end system modelling

Figures from Priya Prasad , 2005

LMS model LMS + FE model

LMS + FE model ( increased FE)

Complete FE with

minimal LMS

Slide 28 of 80 Contents

Analytical Design Tools

Component Design

Column - axial load in compression

Beam - bending or combined bending and axial

compression

Types of Deformations:

Buckling/collapse of a structural component is called local

when the deformations (buckle/fold) are of local character

and the collapse is confined to an isolated area of the

component

It is global (an example is an Euler-type column buckling)

when the whole component becomes deformed and

subsequently collapses

Slide 29 of 80 Contents

Analytical Design Tools

Two Issues

Collapse Modes for Absorption of the kinetic

energy of the vehicle

Axial

Bending

Crash resistance or strength to sustain the crush

process and/or maintain passenger compartment

integrity

Slide 30 of 80 Contents

Axial / Bending Mode

Axial

Most Effective

Difficult to achieve

Bending

Local hinges are

formed

Structures designed for

axial mode can also fail

in this mode

<#> of 78

Slide 31 of 80 Contents

Axial Collapse Mathematical

Modelling

purely analytical / strictly experimental

approaches

Analytical

Modeling mechanics and kinematics of folding

Assumptions were limiting

Average or mean crush load estimated from the

energy balance

by equating the external work done by the crush load

with energies dissipated in different types of

deformation mechanisms in a folding process

Figures from Priya Prasad , 2005

Slide 32 of 80 Contents

Axial Collapse

P

m

= 38.27 M

o

C

1/3

t

-1/3

where

P

m

is the mean/average crush force

M

o

=

o

t

2

/ 4,the fully plastic moment,

o

, is the average flow stress (

o

= (0.9 to 0.95)

u

),

u

is the ultimate tensile strength of the material,

C = 1/2 (b+d) with b and d being the sides of a

rectangular box column,

t its wall thickness

Contents Slide 33 of 79

Variation of structural effectiveness

Experimental results

q = specific energy (SE)

/ specific ultimate

strength (SUS)

SE = maximum energy /

weight

SUS = US / density

| = material volume /

total volume

Figures from Priya Prasad , 2005

Plot for square and rectangular

thin wall columns

Slide 34 of 80 Contents

Axial Collapse

Experimental:

The expression for mean crush load is

obtained from the expression for specific

energy (E

s

=P

m

/A

o

) and is of the form:

P

m

=

u

A

o

being the density and A

o

the overall area of

the section as defined by its outer

circumference

Slide 35 of 80 Contents

Mahmud and Paluszny

Local buckling at critical loads

Leads to collapse and subsequent folding

For low t/b ratios

Large irregular folds

Crumpling

Global Buckling or

Bending type instability

<#> of 78

Folding pattern of thin-walled box with

very small thickness/width ratio

Contents Slide 36 of 79

Experimental Results

Folding pattern of thin-walled box with

large thickness/width ratios

Figures from Priya Prasad , 2005

For high t/b ratios

Buckling loads more than

material strength

Stable even with geomtrical /

loading imperfections

Limit for compactness

Similar formulations for

rectangular sections

* 2 0.5

( ) 0.48[ (1 ) / ]

y

t b E o u <

Contents Slide 37 of 79

Axial Collapse

Practical Curve

Theoretical curve

P

max

can be attenuated by

appropriate imperfections

To minimize load transferred to

other structures

Load Vs. Deflection plots for design in axial collapse

Slide 38 of 80 Contents

Methods of folding

Depends on the local

geometry

No of flat plates / flanges

at corners

Designed so as to initiate

appropriate folding

Angle / T / Y folds

Angle

folds

Slide 39 of 80 Contents

Stability of the Axial Collapse (Folding)

Process

All compressively loaded elements can loose stability

Leading to premature buckling

Loss of energy absorption

Presumably after critical collapse length has been reached

Experimental correlations have been developed

Figures from Priya Prasad , 2005

Slide 40 of 80 Contents

Bending Collapse

In most collision scenarios except, for side impact, mixed modes involving

axial compression and bending or sometimes even torsion.

Component failure triggered at the location where compressive stress

reaches critical value, the side or flange of the section to buckle locally,

which initiates formation of a plastic hinge-type mechanism.

The bending moment at the newly-created plastic hinge cannot increase

any more, the moment distribution changes and a further increase of the

external load creates additional hinges, until eventually, the number and

the distribution of hinges is such that they turn the structure into a

kinematically movable, linkage-type collapse mechanism

The overall collapse mechanism is controlled by hinge location and is

dependent on the instantaneous strength (load capacity) distribution,

which is a function of the loading state

Contents Slide 41 of 79

Bending modes

Local buckling initiates a plastic

hinge

When compressive stress reaches a

critical value

Further increase of load causes

more hinges

Overall collapse mechanism is

controlled by hinge locations

Contents Slide 42 of 79

Different Collapse modes

Compressively loaded

flange of a compact section

Flange collapse of non-

compact sections

Web collapse of stiffened or

narrow flange beams

<#>

Slide 43 of 80 Contents

Load-deflection characteristics of a

plastic hinge

Figures from Priya Prasad , 2005

Classic plastic

hinge

Hinge collapse with material separation

Thin walled beams

Taken from Kecmans thesis

Contents Slide 44 of 79

Stiffness of the hinge

Studies have been done to estimate

bending behaviour of hinges

Curve A: Plastic Hinge

Solid sections of very thick

walled beams of ductile

materials

B: Thin walled beams that

buckle locally

Drop off in stiffness depends

on

Section compactness

Stability of axial collapse

Smaller t/d, smaller

cr

/

y

steeper drop off

<#>

Contents Slide 45 of 79

Moment-rotation characteristics of

thin-walled beam

Very little energy

absorbed in that initial

deformation

Most of the collision

energy is converted into

the plastic deformation

energy of the hinge,

which corresponds to

the area under the tail

segment of the M-

curve

Figures from Priya Prasad , 2005

Contents Slide 46 of 79

Bending Collapse

The shape and geometry of

the collapsed mechanism

plays a significant role in

determining the amount of

energy absorbed

on closer examination,

distinct deformation

mechanisms such as

bending about stationary

hinge/yield lines and rolling

along specific yield lines can

still be identified.

Uniaxial bending collapse section and a combined

bending (bending about non-principal axis) of a

rectangular section

Figures from Priya Prasad , 2005

Slide 47 of 80 Contents

Combined Loading

SECOLLAPSE ( software)

The strength of each sub-element of a component

section is related to the total applied stress

When one of the sub-elements reaches its maximum

(crippling) strength, the geometry of the section is

distorted in such a way that the collapse of the sub-

element induces the collapse of the whole component.

Thus, SECOLLAPSE automatically generates a failure

surface appropriate to the component and the loading

case investigated

Verification of analytical models is normally done in

well-controlled laboratory tests.

Slide 48 of 80 Contents

Structural Joints

Structural joints define the end conditions and

constraints for structural load carrying elements

such as beams and columns.

control, to a considerable degree, the stiffness of

the vehicle structural systems

Till recently, joints designed for NVH and

manufacturability

Crash energy requirements are more demanding

The tools most likely to be used in their design

and development rely on non-linear FE plate and

shell analysis, supported with appropriate tests

Contents Slide 49 of 79

Design of Substructures

After designing components it is necessary to check the complete

structure / sub structure

Collapse sequence in a convoluted design

Figures from Priya Prasad , 2005

Structure collapses in stages

Slide 50 of 80 Contents

Analytical Design Tools for Crash

Energy Management

Hybrid Models

Combination of LMS and FE like methods

Complete front end of a vehicle is modeled using multiple types of

elements such as shells, beams, springs and masses.

Uses Explicit FE crash codes for simulation

KRASH (explicit dynamic code developed for aircraft crash simulation) -

Structure is deformable beam element with collapse characteristic from

actual testing.

Quick analysis of different design alternatives

Poor co-relation with experimental tests

The crush characteristics generally non-isotropic

Internal effects alter mode of collapse

extensive exp. & understanding of crash needed by user

Slide 51 of 80 Contents

Analytical Design Tools .

Collapsible Beam Finite Element

Elastic-Plastic Beam With Plastic-Hinge Model

extensively to model the bending collapse of beams, large

rotation angles (deep collapse)

Severe limitations when designing for energy absorption by

axial folding

Earlier S frame in Crush:

limited to a planar frame.

also modeled with rigid beams and rotational springs

elastic-plastic beam with a plastic-hinge at the end is a more

accurate method of modelling

Slide 52 of 80 Contents

Collapsible Beam FE EP Beam with

Plastic Hinge

Figures from Priya Prasad , 2005

Simulation of elastic-plastic hinge in beams using

rotational springs

Slide 53 of 80 Contents

Super-Collapsible Beam Element

capable of handling combined axial loads in the

presence of multi-plane bending

useful in analyzing the crush behavior of front and

rear vehicle structures

rails first fold axially, then deform in bending

VCRUSH - a specialized computer program with

this element formulation

Slide 54 of 80 Contents

Design of Substructures

Super-Collapsible Beam

Automotive components are generally made of thin-walled sheet

metal that can be divided into many sub-elements

A sub-element is a four-node plate or shell supported by the

adjacent sub-element

In the crippling and folding stages, the plane section-remain-plane

assumption is no longer valid because of the large distortion.

For moderate thin-walled sub-elements,

cr

>

y

where

y

is the yield stress.

In this case, yielding occurs earlier than buckling and the second

stage should be yielding stage

Slide 55 of 80 Contents

Design of Substructures

elastic: <

cr

buckled:

cr

<

max

crippling:

max

min

folding:

cor

min

Figures from Priya Prasad , 2005

min

max

cor

are the maximum, minimum and

corner crushing stresses

Slide 56 of 80 Contents

Design of Substructures

Thin-Walled Finite Beam Element

Failure mode of the beam element is complicated

Caused due to the crippling of the thin plates

The element stiffness formulation after sub-element buckling is important

Extensive test observations, however, give indications that failure modes

follow certain rules, making the failure mode predictable

The first crippled sub-element buckles inboard and the adjacent ones buckle

outboard.

The fold length of the first crippled sub-element controls the length of the

hinge

Deformation pattern is approximately proportional to the stress pattern at

crippling

Contents Slide 57 of 79

Thin-Walled Finite Beam Element

Possible to predict the shown failure

mode

For each fold, the axial deformation

at section C.G. and the rotation can

be calculated as:

= dl/d2

n

= artg(

n

/d

2

)

where

n

is the fold length at first

crushed node, dl, is the distance from

the C.G. to the neutral axis and d

2

is

the distance from the first crushed

node to the neutral axis.

Failure happens in 4 stages

Figures from Priya Prasad , 2005

Contents Slide 58 of 79

Failure in stages

Bending Crash Mode Axial Crash Mode

Figures from Priya Prasad , 2005

Each cycle represents a fold process

Points 1,2,3,4 can be pre-determined

Energy better predicted than P or M

Slide 59 of 80 Contents

Incorporating Dynamic Effects

In LMS models through a single dynamic

factor

Usually related to a crash rate

Vary with the construction of the vehicle b cause

the collapse modes and inertial effects vary with

vehicle

In FE models through effect of strain rate on

tensile (compressive) properties of materials

<#> of 78

Slide 60 of 80 Contents

Effect of strain rate on steels

Change in strength given by

.

where k

r

is experimental determined and V

1

, V

2

are the strain rates.

Also, strain rate sensitivity exponent is given

by

<#> of 78

2

1

log( )

r

V

k

V

o A =

2 2

1 1

ln( ) / ln( ) m

o c

o c

=

Slide 61 of 80 Contents

Dynamic Effects

Two sources:

The effects of strain-rate on the yield and flow

strengths of the material.

The inertia effects on the internal load distribution

that may affect both the overall and local collapse

modes.

How to incorporate Dynamic Effects in the

models

Slide 62 of 80 Contents

Structural Programming

The buckling-crippling-folding process involves severely large deformation

and the element stiffness formulation should consider this effect.

The resultant stiffness can be derived as:

[K] = [K

e

] + [K

a

] + [K

b

] + [K

g

]

where

[K

e

] is the small deformation stiffness

[K

a

] and [K

b

] are the axial and bending stiffness due to large deformation and

[K

g

] is the bending stiffness due to axial force, usually called geometric

stiffness

*Ka+ and *Kb+ are the functions of displacement y

[Kg] is function of axial force.

Slide 63 of 80 Contents

Vehicle Front Structure Design for

Different Impact Modes

Vehicle Front Structure Design for Different Impact Modes

Vehicle Front Structure Design for Current Standards

FMVSS 208

NCAP Test

IIHS Test

Vehicle-to-Vehicle Frontal Collisions

Preliminary Relationships in Head-on Frontal Collision

Strategies for Designing Front Structures for Head-on Impact

Assessment of Analytical Tools

Slide 64 of 80 Contents

Vehicle Front Structure Design for

Different Impact Modes

The vehicle structure, along with its restraint system, is

designed to provide optimum protection to its occupants

with no regard to occupants safety of the colliding vehicle

Research published in the recent years point out that

severe injuries occur in incompatible vehicle-to vehicle

crashes

Ultimate goal of research in both the U.S. and in Europe is

to develop a test procedure that ensures occupants safety

real-world collisions involving single vehicles striking objects

such as trees, bridge abutments, roadside structures and

buildings

Slide 65 of 80 Contents

Vehicle Front Structure Design for

Current Standards

FMVSS 208

The standard sets performance requirements for

occupant protection in frontal crash, which are

measured using anthropomorphic test devices

(dummies) located in the front seat

Either a passive restraint (air bag) or a

combination of air bag and lap/shoulder belt

system may restrain the dummies

Vehicle is launched to impact a rigid barrier from

30 mph at 90 degrees to the barrier surface

Slide 66 of 80 Contents

Vehicle Front Structure Design for

Current Standards

NCAP

It is identical to FMVSS 208, except for increasing

the impact speed to 35 mph and restraining the

front dummies by lap/shoulder belts in addition

to the passive air bag

Regardless of the vehicle mass, the decelerations

of these vehicles during crash are approximately

the same

Designing vehicles for NCAP testing promotes the

stiffness of the structure to be proportional to

the mass of the vehicle

Slide 67 of 80 Contents

Deceleration of light and heavy

vehicles: NCAP testing

Figures from Priya Prasad , 2005

Slide 68 of 80 Contents

Vehicle Front Structure Design for

Current Standards

IIHS Test

When designing vehicle front structure for offset

impact with deformable barrier, both the light and

heavy vehicles cause bottoming of the barrier material

Test promotes a stiffer front structure for heavy

vehicles

Figures from Priya Prasad , 2005

Contents Slide 69 of 79

Vehicle-to-Vehicle Frontal Collisions

Only frontal collision are

considered, and only

the case of head-on

impact between two

vehicles

It is still complex

because of different

masses, geometries,

and stiffness.

Figures from Priya Prasad , 2005

Slide 70 of 80 Contents

Preliminary Relationships in Head-on

Frontal Collision

Conservation of Momentum

if v

1

and m

1

are the velocity and mass of the

heavier vehicle and v

2

& m

2

are the velocity

and mass of the lighter vehicle, and the

velocity after the crash is assumed to be the

same for both vehicles V

f

, then:

V

f

= (m

1

v

1

+ m

2

v

2

) / (m

1

+m

2

)

= m

2

V

c

/ (m

1

+m

2

) = m

1

V

c

/ (m

1

+m

2

)

Contents Slide 71 of 79

Conservation of Momentum

Knowing (V

f

) helps to calculate the change of vehicle

velocity during impact, which is a good indicator of the

severity of impact on each vehicle, from the following:

v

1

= V

f

- v

1

and, v

2

= V

f

- v

2

An expression of the vs ratio in terms of = ( m

1

/ m

2

)

> 1, the mass ratio of the two vehicles:

( v

2

/ v

1

) = (m

1

/(m

2

) =

For the special case where v

2

= - v

1

= v

0

, the expression

for the velocity after impact,

Slide 72 of 80 Contents

Conservation of Momentum

V

f

= [(m

1

- m

2

)/(m

1

+m

2

)] v

0

When m

1

= m

2

, V

f

= 0. But, when m

1

m

2

, i.e. = (

m

1

/ m

2

) > 1 , and defining V

c

as pre-impact closing

velocity between the two vehicles, that is,

V

c

= v

1

- v

2

,

The above equations may be written as follows:

V

f

= * ( - 1 )/( + 1)+ v

0

v

1

= V

c

/( + 1)

v

2

= * ( )/( + 1)+ V

c

Slide 73 of 80 Contents

Delta V2 for mass ratios and closing

velocities

Figures from Priya Prasad , 2005

The figure shows that

for vehicles designed for

NCAP testing, Vc=70

mph is too severe of a

case to handle,

regardless of the mass

ratios of the vehicles

involved.

However, in theory, a

Vc=50mph is

manageable for up to

approximately = 2.1.

But a Vc= 60 mph, the

critical mass ratio at

which v2 is 35 mph is

1.4

Slide 74 of 80 Contents

Conservation of energy

By applying conservation of energy theorem,

the total energy absorbed by both vehicles

(through deformation) during crash can be

computed from the following equation :

E

def.

= [(m

1

m

2

)/(m

1

+m

2

)] (Vc

2

)

The deformation energy depends on the two

masses and the closing velocity V

c

of the two

colliding vehicles. In terms of () and (m2)

E

def.

= [(m

2

) () / (1+()] (Vc

2

)

Slide 75 of 80 Contents

Conservation of energy

Figures from Priya Prasad , 2005

When two vehicles are

individually designed to

absorb the energy during

frontal rigid barrier

impact, they are capable

of absorbing the energy of

that crash.

The analysis is valid

regardless of the mass

ratio of the two vehicles.

This finding shows that

the design of compatible

structures is possible, and

over-crush of the light

vehicle can be avoided

Slide 76 of 80 Contents

Distribution of Energy and

Deformation

Formulae give energy absorbed by the two

vehicles, and they do not help in determining the

way that total energy is shared by the individual

vehicle

Many researchers used a linearization technique

to approximate the dynamic crushing

characteristics of the vehicle during rigid barrier

crashes

The linear approach has been found to be very

crude.

Contents Slide 77 of 79

Linear approximation of vehicle

deceleration vs. crush

Figures from Priya Prasad , 2005

Contents Slide 78 of 79

Strategies for Designing Front

Structures for Head-on Impact

Comparison: head-on collision and rigid

wall impact

Linear approximation of crash pulse

unsuitable for simplified analysis

Figures from Priya Prasad , 2005

Contents Slide 79 of 79

Strategies for Designing Front

Structures for Head-on Impact

The Mass Ratio () &

Closing Speed (vc)

Vehicles are designed

for ratio of 1.36 to 1.6

Closing speed is taken

from 60 to 70 mph

Figures from Priya Prasad , 2005

Slide 80 of 80 Contents

Strategies for Designing Front

Structures for Head-on Impact

Energy and crush distribution targets

Many researchers express the opinion that during head-on

collision, each of the vehicles involved should absorb an

amount of energy that is proportional to its mass

For the heavy vehicle of mass m

1

, E

1

should be

E

1

= m

1

E

def

/ (m

1

+m

2

)

For the light vehicle of mass m2, the energy would be E2

E

2

= m

2

E

def

/ (m

1

+m

2

)

Contents Slide 81 of 79

Assessment of Analytical Tools

The most simplistic model

was the use of two rigid

masses and two linear

springs to model the

complete system impact

Others modeled the

power-train of both

vehicles to capture their

interface and how it

might influence the

behaviour

Mass-spring model of two colliding cars

Schematic model of crush system

Figures from Priya Prasad , 2005

Contents Slide 82 of 79

Assessment of Analytical Tools

Simulation of head-on impact

of two cars had been

conducted with 1-D lumped

spring mass approach as early

as the 1970s.

It proved to be very useful in

understanding fundamental

mechanics of collision and the

factors which influence the

behavior such as closing

speed, mass ratio and

structural stiffness of each

vehicle

Application of 1-D LMS models for head-on

impact simulation

Figures from Priya Prasad , 2005

Contents Slide 83 of 79

Assessment of Analytical Tools

To manage the vehicle-

to-vehicle offset impact

and possibly the

mismatch in geometry

of the colliding vehicles,

the three-dimensional

lumped masses and

springs with MADYMO

have been used

Car-to-car full frontal impact

Figures from Priya Prasad , 2005

Contents Slide 84 of 79

Assessment of Analytical Tools

Another 3D simplified

modeling technique,

implemented advanced

beam elements, has been

used for studying the

factors influencing

compatibility between

vehicles

Beam elements combined

with shell elements and

other rigid body masses,

hybrid modeling

Beam element model of body structure

Figures from Priya Prasad , 2005

Slide 85 of 80 Contents

Conclusions

A test to check occupants safety in vehicle-to-

vehicle collision will inevitably emerge. In fact,

some vehicle manufacturers have already

provided plans to check their designs for this

impact mode in their product development

process.

Current design standards (the rigid barrier and

offset deformable barrier tests) promote not

readily crushable in a head-on collision

Slide 86 of 80 Contents

Conclusions

Several simplified models are used, but the hybrid

technique may be the most promising, since it combines

features that are suitable and easy to apply by engineers. It

also overcomes the oversimplification in 1-D modeling that

may not be correct for vehicle-to-vehicle simulation.

Designing the back-up and compartment structures of a

small light vehicle for approximately 30 gs average force in

a two-level crash pulse would significantly improve its

safety in head-on collision with a heavier full-size vehicle

with closing velocity of 60 mph and mass ratio of 1.33.

Slide 87 of 80 Contents

Reference

VEHICLE CRASHWORTHINESS AND

OCCUPANT PROTECTION edited by Priya

Prasad et al. , 2004, American Iron and Steel

Institute 2000, Town Centre, Southfield,

Michigan 48075

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