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Professional Flight Safety


Dan Gurney
2004 ATS Operators Conference
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Professional Flight Safety

Professionalism ?

Airmanship
Management
Mechanicsmanship
Design & Engineering
Cabin - people interface
Airmanship

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Professional Flight Safety
Airmanship ?

What is it ?
Personal Qualities
Taught or Acquired
Improved or enhanced
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What is Airmanship ?
Airmanship is the consistent use of good judgment and well
developed skills to accomplish flight objectives. This consistency is
founded on a cornerstone of uncompromising flight discipline and is
developed through systematic skill acquisition and proficiency. A high
state of situation awareness completes the airmanship picture and is
obtained through knowledge of ones self, aircraft, environment, team
and risk.
Tony Kern
Discipline
Skill
Proficiency
Knowledge
Situation Awareness
Judgement
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An Inherent and Necessary Qualities
Self Aircraft Risk
Team Environment
Mission
Pillars of Knowledge
Situation Awareness
Judgement
Proficiency
Discipline
Skill
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The Elements of Airmanship
Discipline
Skill
Proficiency
Knowledge
Situation Awareness
Judgement
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Discipline
The ability and will-power to fly safely

Comply with the rules, follow all Procedures
Regulatory,
Organisational,
Operational
Common sense

Failed to follow SOPs
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Discipline
Follow the rules. They are usually right.
Understand the rules and the reasons for them.
Do not accept that rules will have to be bent to get the work done.

Not so fast. Think first.
Do you really understand the problems.
Reject opportunities for short cuts or to do things that appear to be better.

It could happen to you.
Carelessness and overconfidence are much more dangerous than the calculated
acceptance of risk.

Taking chances is foolish.
Everyone can, and will make errors. Human error is part of human nature.
Control the feeling that you have the ability and experience to do the job without
following the procedures.

You are not helpless. You can make a difference.
Plan and prepare for problems before they arise; think ahead.

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The Elements of Airmanship
Discipline
Skill
Proficiency
Knowledge
Situation Awareness
Judgement
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Skill and Proficiency
Physical
Communication
Decision making
Team
Self assessment
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Skill - An ability that comes from training and practice
Unskilled
Basic training only provides those skills necessary to be safe.
Precision
Precise technical and non-technical
skills result from personal endeavour.
Efficient
An aircraft commander controls the
aircraft and leads a team.
Safe
Continuing training, experience, and greater awareness will
enable you to operate effectively as a crew member.
Effective
Broader, non-technical skills, and
experience gives efficient operation.
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The Elements of Airmanship
Discipline
Skill
Proficiency
Knowledge
Situation Awareness
Judgement
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Knowledge
Self
Medical, fatigue, stress, workload, error
Team
Management and subordinates, workload, error management
Aircraft
What to know, how to learn
Environment
Physical, day / night, VFR / IFR, Regulatory, Organizational
Risk
Perception of risk, attitude to risk, risk v regulation, culture
Mission
Corporate culture, safety management, policies

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A Surprise test !
Test your skills and
knowledge

3 questions
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Test 1 Writing skill
Your Name
Signature
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Test 2 Drawing skill
Copy this shape into
each corner of the paper
5 5
5
5
Your Name
Signature
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Test 3 - A mind game, thinking skill
You and your opponent, take alternate turns to select a number
from the set of 1 to 9, announce the number chosen.

Objective:- to achieve a total of 15 using three numbers; the first
person with three numbers totalling fifteen, wins.

Each number can only be selected once, thus if your opponent
has selected a number you cannot use it.

Remember you need three numbers, and you are trying to block
your opponent reaching a total of 15.
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Aim to win
This is a mind game

No pencils or paper !
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Results
No right or wrong


Just understanding
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Test 1 Routine
An automatic skill; once learnt, easy to repeat.
Landing, Takeoff
Go around, RTO
EGPWS Pull Up
May need additional training for unusual situations
i.e. landing in a limiting x-wind, - signature in turbulence

Your Signature
Routine Automatic
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Test 2 Non-Normal
A procedural skill
Infrequent, but not an exceptional situation
Requires a well prepared procedure
Turn the paper upside down and write 5 in each corner
Identify the situation (understand the question)
Refer to the checklist
Follow procedures

Practice these skills for familiarity
i.e. hydraulic failure, engine shutdown
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Test 3 Exceptional
Situations beyond normal expectations
Novel, not normally encountered in flight.
Understand the extent and nature of the problem
Communicate; verbal, not visual
Form a common mental model
procedural solution unlikely to be available
8 1 6
3 5 7
4 9 2
X X O
O
O X
but easy if there is time for sufficient
thought and practice
Tic Tac Toe
Requires conscious thought
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Situation - Behaviour
Knowledge
Rule
Skill
S
i
t
u
a
t
i
o
n
s

Novel
Routine
Trained
Mental Control
X O
O
O X X
X O
O
O X X
X O
O
OXX
X O
O
OXX
Signature
5
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Standard Operating Procedures
Knowledge
Rule
Skill
S
i
t
u
a
t
i
o
n
s

Novel
Routine
Trained
Thinking Control
SOPs are rule based,
but not limited to
trained for situations
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Behaviour Danger Areas
Knowledge
Rule
Skill
S
i
t
u
a
t
i
o
n
s

Novel
Routine
Trained
Thinking Control
Headless chicken
Rush, Hurry
Act without thinking
I know better
I will do it this way
Poor or inadequate
training / knowledge
8 1 6
3 5 7
4 9 2
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Behaviour Danger Areas
Knowledge
Rule
Skill
S
i
t
u
a
t
i
o
n
s

Novel
Routine
Trained
Thinking Control
X O
O
O X
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Professional Flight Safety
An example of Airmanship
(and CRM, and safety management)
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CFIT Avoided Just happened
Ajaccio
DME Arc
ILS 02
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CFIT Avoided What happened
PULL UP
PULL UP
Ajaccio
DME Arc
ILS 02
Used ILS DME not AJO

Chart design - 11
nm from AJO and ILS
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CFIT Avoided Why it happened
New First Officer rostered to Cat B airport
Trng Capt fatigued, max sim hrs / month
First Officers training disjointed
Jump seat occupied

Late
High, Fast
Descending ARC
Briefing not understood
Non Std instrument
setup no AJO
Used AC DME
Chart design 11 DME
from AJO and AC
Late departure, catch up during cruise
Catch up during descent, high at IAF
ATC cleared a descending procedure
First Officers flying background GA
No FMS procedure, EFIS map not selected, P1 was
to use VOR2 for the ARC
The ILS DME was pre-selected on NAV 1
But NAV 2 was also on ILS DME, the instrument
display looked correct at 11 nm
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CFIT Avoided Human Factors
Fatigue
Rush, wish to please
Mental models of the briefing
Confirmation bias, the approach looked all right
Crew cross-monitoring, student - instructor relationship

Followed procedures Pull Up, Go Around
3
3
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CFIT Avoided Lessons learnt 1
Do not roster F/O in Line Training into Category B restricted
airports. (Company procedures.)
All new pilots must be taught a standard instrument set up with
special attention to use of the VOR on the DBI. (Training)
Only use company trained Simulator Instructors for new
recruits. (Company procedures.)
Do not allow jump seat passengers during Line Training.
(Company procedures.)
Publish an Airport Qualification Briefing on Ajaccio.
(Operating procedures.)
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CFIT Avoided Lessons learnt 2
Plan simulator time at Ajaccio for all LOFT and recurrent
training. (Company procedures.)
Give basic CRM course for F/O's. Briefing, listening and
intervention techniques. (Training)
GPWS Standard Crew procedure - Pull up immediately.
(Training)
Install Enhanced GPWS on all aircraft in the fleet.
EGPWS would have warned the crew miles ahead of their
proximity to terrain. (Management decision.)
This operator has a no blame reporting culture.
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The Elements of Airmanship
Discipline
Skill
Proficiency
Knowledge
Situation Awareness
Judgement
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Situation Awareness
Gathering information
Understanding
Planning ahead
is accurately knowing where you are
and what is going on.

Perception
Comprehension
Projection
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Mental model (situation model)

A description of
The current and future states
of a system or situation

Provides
Knowledge of the relevant elements of the system that demand
attention
An excellent method of combining information to give meaning
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Situation Awareness
Cognitive skills thinking

If something doesnt look or feel right, then it probably isnt right
Things that take longer are less likely to get done right
Its hard to detect something that isnt there
Reliable systems arent always reliable
Watch out when you are busy or bored
Expectations can reduce awareness
Distractions come in many forms
Habits are hard to break
Murphy is patient
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An Example of Airmanship
A Professional Pilot
Airmanship
(and CRM,)
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Airmanship - the approach
Runway 08, wind 020/10kts,
QNH 1013, OAT +32C,
Few at 7000ft, -
Visibility 10km +
Light rain -
ADF (DME)
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Airmanship the recovery
35 ft
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Airmanship the consequences
Flew through trees at 35-50 ft
Nose gear hydraulics cut; gear up OK
Green hydraulic system failed, Yellow system overheats
No flaps, air brake, spoilers; only emergency gear & brakes,
- - - -
Emergency wheels up landing
Emergency evacuation
Minimum emergency services at the airport
Land a.s.a.p. or divert

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Airmanship the safe landing
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The Elements of Airmanship
Discipline
NPA, used constant angle stabilised descent
Checked range vs altitude
Skill & Proficiency
Flew wind-shear recovery profile
Use all crew resources excellent CRM
Knowledge
Aircraft, procedures, systems failure conditions,
Environment, airfield services, diversion airport
Situation Awareness
Gathered information, understanding, planned ahead
Judgement
Recognized and analyzed all available information, rational
evaluation of alternatives, a timely decision, maximized safety
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The Elements of Airmanship
Discipline
Skill
Proficiency
Knowledge
Situation Awareness
Judgement
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Judgement

Recognition

Evaluation

Decision

Management

Personal attitudes

A judgment decision always involves a problem or choice,
an unknown element,
usually a time constraint, and stress.

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The Elements of Airmanship
Discipline
Skill
Proficiency
Knowledge
Situation Awareness
Judgement
Professional Behaviour
Professional Flight Safety
Airmanship is a personal attitude to flying, why we do
it, how we do it. Airmanship must grow with training,
experience, and personal exposure. It is not just about staying
alive or not bending the airplane or yourself, it is about walking
off the airfield knowing that you have both performed and
crafted an activity. You have been totally aware of what you
have done and why you enjoyed it, and at that point you owe
nothing to anyone.

Tony Hayes, CFI Brisbane Valley Leisure Aviation Centre.
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Professional Flight Safety
Owe nothing to anyone
Dan Gurney
Professional Flight Safety
Airmanship