max
=
where
all
=allowable flexural stress of the sheet pile material
4. The sheet pile section can now be chosen from a table such as Table 6. 1.
Wales
1. Wales can be treated as continuous horizontal members if they are spliced properly.
Conservatively, they may also he treated as though they are pinned at the struts. For the section
shown in Figure 7.6a, the maximum moments for the wales (assuming the they are pinned at the
struts) are as follows:
where A, B
1
, B
2
, C
1
, C
2
, and D are the reactions under the struts per unit length of the wall (Step
2 of strut design).
2. Determine the section modulus of the wales:
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The wales are sometimes fastened to the sheet piles at points that satisfy the lateral support
requirements.
Example 7.1 The cross section of a long braced cut is shown in Figure 7.7a.
a. Draw the earth pressure envelope.
b. Determine the strut loads at levels A, B, and C.
c. Determine the section of the struts subjected to the largest load.
d. Determine the sheet pile section required.
e. Determine a design section for the wales at level B.
Note: The struts are placed at 3 m centertocenter in the plan.
Solution
Part a
Given: =18 kN/m
3
, c =35 kN/m
2
and H =6 m.
4 6 . 3
35
) 7 )( 18 (
< = =
c
H
So, the pressure envelope will he like the one in Figure 7.4c. This is plotted in Figure 7,7a with
maximum pressure intensity, p
= A
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or
A =54.02 kN/m
Also, vertical forces =0. Thus
2
1
(1.75)(37,8) +(37.8)(1.75) =A +B
1
33.08 +66.15  A =B
1
So
B
1
=45.2 kN/m
Due to symmetry
B
2
=45.2 kN/m
C =54.02 kN/m
Strut load at level
P
a
=54.02 x horizontal spacing, s =54.02 x 3 =162.06 kN
P
b
=(B
1
+B
2
)3 =(45.02 +45.2)3 =271.2 kN
P
c
=54.02 x3 =162.06 kN
Part C
The struts at level B are subjected to the largest loadthat is, P
B
=271.2 kN. For the struts,
effective length (KL: refer to the American lnstitute of Steel Construction, Manual of Steel
Construction, 1980, pp. 329) with respect to x and y axes is 6 m. Accordingly, the section W 250
mm X 49 kg/m (in English units, it is section W 10 X 33) will be more than sufficient. (Note: F
y
=
248.4 MN/m
2.
)
Part d
Refer to the left side of Figure 7.7b. For the maximum moment, the shear force should be zero.
The nature of variation of the shear force is shown in Figure 7.7c. The location of point E can be
given as
m
B at reaction
x 196 . 1
8 . 37
2 . 45 1
8 . 37
= = =
The magnitude of moment a
=
3
1
1
75 . 1
8 . 37
) 1 (
2
1
x A
l meterofwal m kN / 6 . 3 =
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The magnitude of moment at
=
2
196 . 1
) 196 . 1 8 . 37 ( ) 196 . 1 2 . 45 ( x x E
l meterofwal m kN / 03 . 27 03 . 27 06 . 54 = =
Because the loading on the left and right sections of Figure 7.7b are the same, the magnitude of
moments at F and C (Figure 7.7e) will be the same as E and A, respectively. Hence, the
maximum moment =27.03 kNm/meter of wall.
The section modulus of the sheet piles,
m m x
m kN x
m kN M
S
all
/ 10 9 . 15
/ 10 170
03 . 27
3 5
2 3
max
=
= =
of the wall
According to Table 6. 1, section PMA22 can he used.
Part e
The reaction at level B has been calculated in Part b. Hence
m kN
s B B
M =
+
=
+
= 7 . 101
8
3 ) 2 . 45 2 . 45 (
8
) 2 (
2 2
1
max
Section modulus,
) 1000 4 . 248 ( 6 . 0
7 . 101
6 . 0
7 . 101 7 . 101
x F
S
y all
x
= = =
3 3
10 682 . 0 m x
=
So, a section of W 310 mm x 54 kg/m (in English units, W 12 x 36) with an S
x =
0.754 x 10
3
m
3
can be used. (Note: L
c
=2.1 m and L
u
=4.085 m AISC Manuel.)
7.4 Stability of Braced Cuts
Heave of the Bottom of the Cut in Clay
Braced cuts in clay may become unstable as a result of the heaving of the bottom of the
excavation. Terzaghi (1943b) has analyzed the factor of safety of braced excavations against
bottom heave. The failure surface for such a case is shown in Figure 7.8. The vertical load per
unit length of the cut at the level of the bottom of the cut along the line bd and af is equal to
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Q =HB
1
 cH (7.8)
where B
1
=0.7B
c =cohesion ( =0 concept)
This load Q can he treated like a load per unit length on a continuous foundation at the level of
bd (and af) having a width of B
1
=0.7B. Based on Terzaghis bearing capacity theory, the net
ultimate loadcarrying capacity per unit length of this foundation can be given by the equation
[Chapter 3; see Eqs. (3.3) and (3.34)]
Q
u
=cN
c
B
1
=5.7cB
1
Hence, from Eq. (7.8), the factor of safety against bottom heave can he given as
= =
B
c
c
H cH HB
cB
Q
Q
FS
u
7 . 0
7 . 5 1 7 . 5
1
1
(7.9)
The preceding factor of safety [Eq. (7.9)] has been derived based on the assumption that the
clay layer is homogeneous, at least up to a depth of 0.7B below the bottom of the cut. However,
if a hard layer of rock or rocklike material is located at a depth D <0.7B, the failure surface will
he modified to some extent. In such a case, the factor of safety can be modified to the form
=
D c
c
H
FS
/
7 . 5 1
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Bjerrum and Eide (1956) also studied the problem of bottom heave for braced cuts in clay, and
they proposed the following equation for the factor of safety
H
cN
FS
c
=
The bearing capacity factor N
c
varies witli the ratio of H/B and also L/B (where L =length of the
cut). For infinitely long cuts (B/L =0), N
c
=5.14 at H/B =0 and increases to a value of N
c
=7.6 at
H/B =4. Beyond thatthat is, for H/B >4  the value of N
c
remains constant. For cuts square in
plan (B/L =1), N
c
=6.3 at H/B =0, and N
c
=9 for H/B 4. In general, at any given H/B
+ =
L
B
N N
square c gle rec c
16 . 0 84 . 0
) ( ) tan (
(7.12)
Figure 7.9 shows the variation of the value of N
c
for L/B =1, 2, 3, and . In any case, a factor of
safety of 1.25 to 1.5 is desired.
Stability of the Bottom of the Cut in Sand
The bottom of a cut in sand is generally stable. When the ground water table is encountered, the
bottom of the cut is stable as long as the water level inside the excavation is higher than the
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ground water level. lf the water level inside the cut is lowered below the ground water level by
pumping, instability may be created as a result of the upward seepage of water into the cut.
Section 7.5 discusses this problem in more detail.
Lateral Yielding of Sheet Piles
In braced cuts, some lateral movement of sheet pile walls may be expected (Figure 7. 10). Of
course, the lateral yield will depend on several factors, the
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most important of which is time elapsed after excavation that is required for the placement of
wales and struts, Mana and Ciotigh (1981) analyzed the field records of several braced cuts in
clay from the San Francisco, Oslo (Norway), Boston, Chicago, and Bowline Point (New York)
areas. Under ordinary construction conditions, it was found that the maximum lateral wall yield
[
H(max
)] has a definite relationship with the factor of safety against heave. This is shown in Figure
7. 10. Note that the factor of safety against heave as plotted in Figure 7. 10 has been calculated
by using Eqs. (7. 9) and (7. 10).
In several instances, the sheet piles (or the soldier piles as the case may be) are driven to a
certain depth below the bottom of the excavation. This is done to reduce the lateral yielding of
the walls during the last stages of excavation. The lateral yielding of the walls will cause
settlement of the ground surface surrounding the cut. The degree of lateral yielding, however,
depends mostly on the soil type below the bottom of the cut. lf clay below the cut extends to a
great depth and H/c is less than about 6, extension of the sheet piles or soldier piles below the
bottom of the cut will help considerably in reducing the lateral yield of the walls. However, under
similar circumstances, if H/c is about 8, the extension of sheet piles into the clay below the cut
does not help to a great extent. In such circumstances, one nay expect a great degree of wall
yielding that may result in the total collapse of the bracing systems. lf a hard soil layer is located
below a clay layer at the bottom of the cut, the piles should be embedded in the stiffer layer. This
will have a great effect in reducing the lateral yield.
Ground Settlement
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The lateral yielding of walls will generally induce ground settlement (
v
) around a braced cut.
This is generally referred to as ground loss. Based on several field observations, Peck (1969)
has provided curves for prediction of ground settlement in various types of soil (see Figure 7.11).
The magnitude of ground loss varies extensively; however, Figure 7. 11 can be used as a
general guide.
Based on the field data obtained from various exits in the areas of San Francisco, Oslo, and
Chicago, Mana and Clough (1981) have provided a correlation between the maximum lateral
yield of sheet piles [
H(max)
] and the maximum ground settlement [
V(max)
] This is shown in Figure
7.12. It can be seen that
V(max)
0.5 to 1
H(max)
(7.13)
7.2 Example
Refer to Example Problem 7.1. Determine the factor of safety against bottom heave using Eqs.
(7.9) and (7.11)
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Solution
In Example Problem 7. 1, =18 kN/m
3
, c =35 kN/m
2
, and H =7 m.
95 . 2
) 6 )( 7 . 0 (
35
18
) 35 )( 7 . 5 (
7
1
7 . 0
7 . 5 1
=
1
1
1
1
]
1
=




\

=
B
c
c
H
FS
Factor of Safety from Eq. (7.9)
H
cN
FS
c
=
Factor of Safety from Eq. (7.11)
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According to Figure 7.9, for H/B =7/6 =1. 16 and B/L 0, the value of Nc is equal to 6.46. Thus
79 . 1
) 7 )( 18 (
) 46 . 6 )( 35 (
= = FS