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No Tax Relief
By Patrick Maitland,
he income tax relief that has been available to Ja-
maican farmers for over the past three decades ends in
January 2014 with the repealing of section 5(6) of the In-
come Tax Act by virtue of the passing of the Fiscal Incen-
tives (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act, 2013. Under section
5(6) of the Income Tax Act an approved farmer was re-
lieved from income tax on income derived exclusively
from prescribed agricultural activities.
In analyzing the Government new tax measures which
was announced on April 30, 2014, by Peter Phillips, Min-
ister of Finance and Planning, director of taxation at DGS
Chartered Accountants and Business Advisors, Patrick
Galbraith said the impact of the new taxes on agriculture
is “unappealing to say the least as farmers are now unable
to access certain tax benefits despite the perennial hazards
they faces and the vital role they play in the economy.”
The Act also repeals various capital allowances that
were designed to provide incentives to agriculture includ-
ing the sugar industry.
Galbraith further explains that the new Minimum Busi-
ness Tax (MBT) will be among the major tax issues for
farmers the year 2014. “Companies and individuals in
business now have to pay the MBT. This tax is at the rate
of $60,000 per year and payable in installments of $30,000
by June 15 and September 15 starting this year. An indi-
vidual whose annual gross revenue is at least $3M is li-
able to pay the MBT. The tax will act as a credit against
income tax payable by that individual in the subsequent
year or it will be refunded,” he added.
MBT is also payable by most companies including en-
tities designated approved farmers. Although companies
and individuals in business are liable for the same amount
of the MBT, there is no gross revenue threshold and no re-
fund of the MBT for companies.
As outlined in the Act, 2013, effective from the year
2014, tax loss sustained in a previous year of assessment
is restricted to set against taxable profits of up to 50% of
taxable profit. For example, if a farmer has tax losses of
$10 M prior to 2014, but made a profit of $2 M for the
year 2014, the loss that will be allowed to relief the profit
will be limited to $1 M. Tax would be payable on $1 M at
the rate of 25%. This is unlike previous years where all
the loss could have been set against the profit thus elimi-
nating taxable profit for 2014.
“This new tax measure will not be applicable to enti-
ties that have income of less than $3 million or that has
been in existence for less than 5 years,” he said.
Galbraith also noted that despite the repealed section,
a breathing space is provided, whereby a person or entity
that has been designated approved farmer before January
1, 2014 may continue to benefit under the repealed provi-
sion until the end of the period of designation.
Meanwhile, sections of the agriculture and fisheries in-
dustry say they will be negatively affected by the tax
measures proposed by Government including the increases
in General Consumption Tax (GCT) on electricity usage of
300 kWh and above from 10 per cent to 16.5 per cent ef-
fective June 1.
The farmers are not pleased with the 16.5 %. GCT on
eggs, raw foodstuff, certain types of processed and raw
seafood as well as the increases in property taxes more
than a year ago.
2 • THE AGRICULTURALIST • AUGUST 2014 WWW.THEAGRICULTURALIST.COM
WWW.THEAGRICULTURALIST.COM AUGUST 2014 • THE AGRICULTURALIST • 3
ny country or nation that is able to
feed its people is on the way to
prosperity. Providing enough food for
the people at an affordable price must be
part of Government’s mission.
While, most countries would make
every effort to producce a large amount
of their food locally, food importation
will always play an integral role in feed-
ing the people.
It may be more economical to import
most of our high-consumed products
such as corn, rice and wheat. However,
with the island’s food import bill, which
stands at a staggering one billion (US)
dollars, it appears that Jamaica’s food
policy is skewed towards importation.
As recorded by the latest agricultural
census, during the past 20 years almost
30% of our arable farmlands were
shifted into houses, other non-agricul-
tural activities or remain idled.
During the past two decades, we wit-
nessed overall poor growth in food pro-
duction, consequently, today,
agricultural contribution of the gross do-
mestic product (GDP) is about 5% and
export is just under US$200 M.
In the 1980s and 1990s, Jamaica im-
plemented extensive policy changes
under World Bank and IMF-led struc-
tural adjustment programmes, which
opened our markets to unfair competi-
tion, the removal of subsidies and re-
cently the imposition of additional taxes
on farming operations.
However, in my opinion the Govern-
ment should adopt a more open and
transparent food importation policy.
As it now, the Minister of Agriculture
frequently and quietly grant licenses to
companies and individuals who seek to
import various agricultural produce and
The importation of most agricultural
produce such as chicken back, eggs,
pork, and vegetables is a very lucrative
business that attracts high returns on in-
The Minister is therefore constantly
under pressure to issue more licenses as
some entrepreneurs seek to take advan-
tage of a tenuous situation.
As part of the solution, there should
be at least an annual public hearing with
all interested parties including other
stakeholders stating their positions - sup-
porting or objections to the importation
of certain items.
This process would eliminate the
perception that only selected persons
with connections are benefiting or prof-
iting from the lucrative food importation
The farmers could also benefit from
the information in planning their pro-
Publisher -The Agriculturalist
The opinions expressed in this newspaper, except for the above, do not necessarily reflect the views of The Agriculturalist and its publishers. Please send your com-
ments or suggestions to firstname.lastname@example.org. Responses should be no longer than 400 words. Not all articles will be published.
Wanted-An open and transparent food importation policy!
By: Donald Salmon
President, Jamaica Coffee
Over the years the Jamaica coffee industry
has been subjected to many changes.
Whilst death and taxes are certain, change
is constant. According to Spencer Johnson
author of “Who Moved My Cheese” the in-
dustry will have to find new cheese.
There are many factors that are threats
to our livelihood, and even our very exis-
tence as farmers.
Factors affecting farmers include dis-
eases, climate change, poverty, poor Edu-
cation, poor Infrastructures, policies and
programmes, low prices, devaluation and
Farmers are in need of chemicals to
treat coffee leaf rust disease, particularly
those farms that are in the low lying areas
and this has spread to higher elevation.
Farmers have tried with some amount
of success to combat the spread of the dis-
ease by organic means. However, assis-
tance is still needed especially for the small
and medium sized farmers.
It was reported in the media that the
Coffee Industry Board was on record of
saying that the sector "might not reach
200,000 boxes for the JBM (Jamaica Blue
Mountain) segment in 2014, due to the
devastation caused by the coffee leaf rust
It is no secret that we the coffee grow-
ers are not able to take advantage of grow-
ing world market prices due to this forced
reduction of capacity whether due to the ef-
fects of the rust or the berry borer.
Jamaican Blue Mountain Coffee is pre-
mium. A well known fact.
This brand is being affected and will be af-
fected by climate change. The cool tem-
peratures enjoyed by the blue mountain
will be affected by global warming and ex-
treme weather conditions.
In recent time we were affected by at
least 1 hurricane per year on average. The
sector suffers under these conditions due to
loss of crops
Coffee industry is still feeling the neg-
ative effects of hurricane Ivan and all other
subsequent hurricanes over the last decade.
In order for us to increase coffee produc-
tion these issues of climate change needs
to be researched and discussed. Mitigating
measures need to be applied before a dis-
aster especially in the absence of crop in-
Tighe Geoghegan and Noel Bennett in
a study on Forest Management committees
found in 2003 noted that: “The watershed’s
development needs are substantial. More
than half the population is living in or at
risk of falling into poverty, and the edu-
cated ‘middle class,’ most likely to be ac-
tive in community development, comprises
10% or less.
High levels of illiteracy (estimated at
close to 50%) and of migration by the bet-
ter educated impede economic advance-
Poverty is concentrated in the upper
watershed areas, where transportation and
communication infrastructure is poor and
watershed management issues most criti-
The causes of poverty in the watershed
are diverse, but typical of rural Jamaica.
They include: marginal returns from farm-
ing, partly caused by poor land use on
steep slopes, lack of adequate farmland or
secure tenure, poor access to resources and
markets and limited educational opportu-
There is need to put in place policies
and programs to: address illiteracy in farm-
ing districts, rehabilitate road infrastruc-
ture, focus on the education of primary and
secondary school children of small farm-
ers and reduce transportation cost to chil-
dren living in these areas.
Low prices and Devaluation
Traditionally, coffee farmers do not bene-
fit from the devaluation of the Jamaican
dollar. Prices are fixed, by traders; hence
coffee farmers are price takers. The small
farmer is forced by necessity to forward
sell his crop to traders who are by nature
of the trade benefitting from the favorable
prices that they are able to obtain on the
The devaluation of the Jamaican dollar
is affecting the farmer adversely. Whilst
the price that farmers receive per box is
usually fixed, cost of production increases
with each slide of the Jamaican dollar in
relation to the US$.
The Jamaica Coffee Growers Associa-
tion will seek to take advantages of favor-
able prices and will pass on these gains to
its members “Bedrock of the Industry”.
Currently the farmers are faced with se-
vere issues with the government divest-
ment of two coffee entities.
The current arrangement is problematic
to say the least. The J.C.G.A. interprets the
arrangements as contrary to all previous
lease agreements between the Government
of Jamaica and small scale coffee farmers.
The J.C.G.A . is concerned about the im-
plications of these developments on the
livelihoods of our small farmers.
At this time the J.C.G.A. wants to place
on record its dissatisfaction and to seek as-
sistance in settling this stalemate in the na-
tional as well as our farmers’ interests.
This matter is critical to the harmony in the
coffee industry and ultimately the coun-
try’s development and cannot be brushed
We do so through taking advantage of
opportunities as such: Providing increased
employment through the Agro-Park con-
cept of creating 10,000 jobs per year over
the next five(5) years in the value chain.
The Challenges and Opportunities of Coffee
Publisher & Editor:
Vincent Wright, Jairzenho Bailey
Produced & Published by:
Agri Life Foundation Ltd
188 Spanish Town Road,
Kingston 11, Jamaica, W.I.
Tel: (876) 923-7471• 923-7428
Fax: (876) 923-7428
4 • THE AGRICULTURALIST • AUGUST 2014 WWW.THEAGRICULTURALIST.COM
By Marlon Tingling, JIS
he Rural Agricultural Development
Authority (RADA) is ramping up its
water harvesting programme in sections of
Deputy RADA Parish Manager, Mar-
vin Lawrence, said part of the drought mit-
igation programme being undertaken is the
construction of water harvesting ponds in
several farming communities. Lawrence
noted that water harvesting ponds have
been serving farmers well and in time to
come and with new ponds coming on
To help alleviate the challenges faced
by farmers annually in the farming areas of
St. Elizabeth, because of a lack of water,
the Rural Agricultural Development Au-
thority (RADA) is ramping up its water
harvesting programme in sections of the
Deputy RADA Parish Manager, Mar-
vin Lawrence, said part of the drought mit-
igation programme being undertaken is the
construction of water harvesting ponds in
several farming communities.
Speaking in an interview with JIS
News, Mr. Lawrence said the programme
is being undertaken with support from a
number of donor agencies. “We have been
partnering with some donor agencies to do
water harvesting ponds and this has been
successful. It is not yet at the level where
we are comfortable, but there are a number
of potential partners that we intend to
write, to see how best, with their support,
we can construct some more of these
ponds,” he said.
Lawrence noted that water harvesting
ponds have been serving farmers well and
in time to come and with new ponds com-
ing on stream, the challenges faced by
farmers during periods of drought should
be eased significantly.
He said RADA continues to assist
farmers who lose their crops as a result of
a sustained period of drought or even in
cases where there is flooding. “Whenever
the drought is on, we have a programme in
which seeds are given to the farmers to re-
plant lost crops. We are also engaged in the
trucking of water to such areas as Junction,
Southfield, Malvern and Pedro Plains. We
are also working with the farmers to ensure
that measures are put in place to eliminate
flooding of their farms, through the con-
struction of drains,” Mr. Lawrence said.
He added that RADA’s sensitization
programme regarding drought and flood
mitigation is continuing. “In order to get
the stakeholders to understand the effects
of these natural disasters and how they can
play a role in preventing (flooding) and
how to use the limited resources well in the
case of a drought, we continue our sensiti-
zation programme,” Mr. Lawrence noted.
“The parish is divided into thirteen ex-
tension areas and these are served by our
officers. We normally do two field days
across the parish each month, in which we
target issues directly related to agriculture.
A need assessment is done and the neces-
sary action is implemented to assist the
farmers,” he added.
St. Elizabeth, which is regarded as the
bread basket parish of Jamaica, produces
22 per cent of the national domestic food
needs, through fruits and vegetables, poul-
try, beef and tubers.
BANANAS FOR BRITAIN:
Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries , Roger Clarke; Janet Conie, General manager of the Banana Board and
Donovan Stanberry, Permanent Secretary discuss the resumption of banana exports to Britain at the Launch of
the Ministry's Export Market Platform held at the Ministry's Hope Gardens headquarters on June 17.
By Athaliah Reynolds-Baker
cting Minister of Agriculture and
Fisheries, Derrick Kellier, is assur-
ing the nation that there is adequate sup-
ply of food to meet demand, despite the
drought conditions affecting the island.
Some 4.7 million pounds of Irish po-
tatoes are currently in storage, with an-
other 50,000 pounds to be reaped from
the current crop, which is enough to sat-
isfy demand for the next two months.
The Ministry’s projection is that there
will be about a 20 per cent fall off in pro-
duction for the July to September quar-
Acting Minister of Agriculture and
Fisheries, Derrick Kellier, is assuring the
nation that there is adequate supply of
food to meet demand, despite the
drought conditions affecting the island.
Speaking at a press briefing at the
Ministry’s Hope Gardens offices in St.
Andrew on July 29, Kellier said that the
country has sufficient tubers, bananas,
In addition, some 4.7 million pounds
of Irish potatoes are currently in storage,
with another 50,000 pounds to be reaped
from the current crop, which is enough
to satisfy demand for the next two
He is therefore urging Jamaicans not
to panic. “Let me say categorically that
there is no need for the kind of hysteria
being perpetuated,” Minister Kellier
He noted however, that vegetables
will be more susceptible to the impact of
the drought, pointing out that the Min-
istry’s projection is that there will be
about a 20 per cent fall off in production
for the July to September quarter.
“Fortuitously, this happens to coin-
cide with the low demand period in the
hotel industry, which is a major con-
sumer of these products,” he said.
Kellier said within this context, the
Ministry is encouraging and incentivis-
ing farmers supplied by its irrigation sys-
tems and in areas with adequate rainfall
and other water resources to ramp up
RADA Ramps Up Water Harvesting
Program in St. Elizabeth
Deputy RADA Parish Manager,
Acting Minister of
Agriculture and Fisheries
WWW.THEAGRICULTURALIST.COM AUGUSTL 2014 • THE AGRICULTURALIST • 5
on Medical Leave
griculture Minister, Roger Clarke
leave the island last week-end for
the United States of America where he
will undergo surgery and medical treat-
ment for a back condition.
According to a release from the office
of the Prime Minister, the Minister has
assured Prime Minister Portia Simpson
Miller that based on the best advice of
his doctors and the nature of the opera-
tion to be performed he is expected to
make a full and timely recovery.
In the meantime, the Prime Minister
has assigned Labour and Social Security
Minister, Derrick Kellier to assume the
duties of the Agriculture Minister. While
overseas on medical leave, Minister
Clarke will maintain ongoing contact with
Minister Kellier in order to ensure that
there is full continuity of focus on the pri-
orities of the Agriculture Ministry.
The Prime Minister has extended every good wish to Minister Clarke for
a successful treatment and a speedy return to active duties.
leaves the island for the
medical treatment in the
United States of America
he opposition Jamaica Labour Party’s
(JLP), spokesperson on Agriculture,
JC Hutchinson, says there is a shortage of
some agricultural produce despite a pro-
nouncement by acting Agriculture Minis-
ter Derrick Kellier on Tuesday.
According to Hutchinson these include
escallion, thyme, onion, cabbage, lettuce,
pepper, pumpkin and pineapple.
“Because there is a shortage of quite a
number of products, when you look at the
amount of produce produced around here
(St. Elizabeth) and when you are finding
nothing, there has to be a shortage.”
He said this has led to price increases.
“It’s supply and demand, once there is
a glut, prices go down, once there is a
shortage, the process go up. For the prices
to be going up there has to be a shortage –
that’s logic! But I don’t think this acting
Minister understands the situation."
Hutchinson has also questioned reports
of growth in the agricultural sector.
“How can there be growth and produc-
tion has fallen so rapidly. St. Elizabeth is
the breadbasket and St. Elizabeth is hardly
producing anything at this time, how can
you have growth.”
President of the Jamaica Agricultural
Society (JAS) Senator Norman Grant, on
Tuesday revealed that despite the chal-
lenges the sector grew by 18 percent dur-
ing the January to March quarter.
Meanwhile, the National Environment
and Planning Agency (NEPA) will use the
Denbigh Agricultural and Industrial Show
to share practical ways in which the agri-
cultural sector can cope with drought con-
NEPA says a major component of its
display will be a demonstration plot fea-
turing drought resistant crops and infor-
mation for farmers and backyard
The importance of water conservation
and rainwater harvesting will also be high-
food shortage - JLP
JLP spokesperson on Agriculture
amaica's Ministry of Agriculture has con-
cluded an assessment, which confirms a
shortage of several food items, including
vegetables, due to the protracted dry spell.
Checks were carried out by teams from
the Ministry, following reports that farming
areas have been hit hard by the sharp de-
cline in rainfall.
Donovan Stanberry, Permanent Secre-
tary in the Agriculture Ministry, disclosed
some of the findings of the assessment, dur-
ing an interview with RJR News. He listed
carrot, lettuce, tomato, onion and zucchini
among the vegetables now in short supply.
This, according to Stanberry, was
“somewhat inevitable, due to the length and
severity of the drought.” He suggested that,
in light of the current shortage of some pro-
duce, consumers might have to consider
food substitutes, as a short term measure.
Meanwhile, despite the shortage, Stan-
berry disclosed that no application has been
received for permits to import agricultural
produce. This, he has attributed to the pro-
hibitive price of some imported items, and
the fact that the tourism sector, which is the
largest consumer of vegetables in Jamaica,
is currently in its off-peak season.
In the interim, the Agriculture Ministry
is pursuing strategies to ease the impact of
the dry spell on agricultural production.
This “drought mitigation strategy” is
aimed, not only at “preserving and recover-
ing the crops in drought stricken areas," but
also to expand production in areas across
the country "which are getting adequate
supply of rainfall," he said.
The intention was to make up for the
shortfall that might occur in the drought
stricken areas, as much as possible, he
Courtesy of radiojamaica.com
6 • THE AGRICULTURALIST • AUGUST 2014 WWW.THEAGRICULTURALIST.COM
U.S. Ackee Ban Remains In Effect
By NAN STAFF WRITER
hile many Jamaican nationals may
look forward with longing to ackee
and saltfish this Easter weekend, the U.S.
Food and Drug Administration is recom-
mending seizure or import refusal of
canned, frozen and other ackee products.
The ackee fruit which is harvested
from the ackee tree (Blighia sapida), is na-
tive to West Africa, but is also found in
Central and South America, many
Caribbean countries including Jamaica,
and southern Florida.
It contains the toxin hypoglycin A,
which drops to negligible levels in the ed-
ible portion of the fruit when it is fully
ripe,, making them safe to consume . How-
ever, the rind and seeds still have high lev-
els of hypoglycin A when the fruit is fully
ripe and should not be consumed.
When the product is improperly
processed, concentrations can rise above
100 parts per million (ppm) and pose a
health risk. The ingestion of hypoglycin A
may result in no symptoms or symptoms
that range from some vomiting to severe
vomiting with profound hypoglycemia,
drowsiness, muscular exhaustion, prostra-
tion, and possibly coma and death.
In issuing final guidance on enforce-
ment criteria for Ackee, the FDA said its
district offices may detain, without physi-
cal examination, all ackee products offered
The exception will be for those firms
that are identified on a “Green List,” which
according to the FDA have demonstrated
that they have food safety controls in place
to ensure that only properly ripened ack-
ees, without seeds or rind, are included in
They are Fruit Processors Ltd. of Be-
lize, Antillean Canning S.A. of Haiti and
from Jamaica: Ashman Food Products
Ltd., Canco Limited, Central Food Pack-
ers Ltd., Double Deuce Jamaica Ltd., Ex-
otic Products Jamaica Limited, Island
Packers, Southern Fruits & Food Proces-
sors Ltd., Stanmark Processors Company
Limited, Tijule Company Ltd. and West
Best Foods Limited.
Canned, frozen and other ackee prod-
ucts are marketed in the U.S., largely to
people from Caribbean cultures, and most
of the products are imported from Jamaica,
Belize and Haiti.
In recent years, there has been interest
by a processor in Florida to market ackee
products in interstate commerce.
Persons wishing to comment on the
final Compliance Policy Guide (CPG) rul-
ing may submit electronic or written com-
ments to the FDA at 12420 Parklawn
Drive, Rockville, MD 20857.
Ackee and salt fish is
a delicacy in Jamaica.
Starbucks lags in coffee
buying despite market dip
tarbucks revealed it had remained behind
last year in fixing ahead its coffee costs,
despite the retreat in prices since April,
adding that a boost from lower values was
near its end.
The US-based group, the world's biggest
coffee-shop chain, said that it had priced
ahead some 60% of its bean needs for its
next financial year, which begins in October.
That is above the 40% it had priced in as
of its last investor update, in April, when it
revealed it had slowed its purchases as fu-
tures soared, lifted by drought in Brazil
which cut sharply expectations for this year's
harvest from the top producing country.
However, it is behind the 80% it had
priced forward, for the 2013-14 financial
year, as of a year ago.
New York Arabica coffee futures have
fallen some 14%, on a front contract basis,
since Starbucks' April update, but remain
some 40% higher year on year.
Starbucks said that its coffee costs for its
next financial year were, thus far, around the
levels of a year before, although the final bill
would depend on the future course of prices.
"We have about 60% of our coffee needs
price locked for next year, and those prices
are roughly flat to this year, up perhaps little
bit," Scott Maw, the group's chief financial
"Where we actually end up for the year,
we still think that it will be roughly neutral,
but it will depend on how we lock in that last
"So right now, we're thinking neutral,
perhaps up to a little bit. If coffee prices
come down, there may be an opportunity to
ease that a bit."
A return to flat coffee costs would end a
period of lower bean bills which have sup-
ported a rise in group profits.
The group's channel development busi-
ness reported a 13% rise to $375.3m in sales
in the April-to-June quarter, but a 45% jump
to $139.5m in operating profits, as "operat-
ing margin increased 800 basis points to
37.1%, primarily due to lower coffee costs
and improved inventory management".
Group earnings rose 23% to $512.6m,
equivalent to $0.67 per share, marginally
ahead of Wall Street expectations on rev-
enues up 11% at $4.15bn, helped also by in-
creased US food sales.
produced 1/2 M
tonnes of sugar
s the 2013/2014 sugar crop in the
Caribbean winds down, Jamaica,
Belize, Barbados and Guyana have pro-
duced just under 500,000 tonnes of the
commodity, up to the end of June. The
Sugar Association of the Caribbean
(SAC) says year-to-date production fig-
ure is 499,272 tonnes.
Guyana was the lead producer with
218,708 tonnes, followed by Jamaica
with 152,868 tonnes. Belize was in third
place with 113,337 tonnes and Barbados
Last month Belize was the lead pro-
ducer followed by Jamaica.
The crop in Jamaica is expected to
end this month.
In the meantime, the SAC has re-
vealed that, for the current sugar crop,
regional producers have exported
291,524 tonnes of the sweetener. The
bulk of the exports went to the European
Union, followed by CARICOM and
Jamaica will this month dispatch its
final cargo to the EU for 2013/2014.
Karl James, Chairman of the SAC,
says Caribbean producers are now con-
sidering how they will dispose of sugar
produced in the future, in light of the de-
pressed EU market.
amaica's coffee production target this
year could be derailed due to the ef-
fects of the worsening dry spell.
There had been a forecast of a 15 per
cent increase in production this year, but
according to Senator Norman Grant,
President of the Jamaica Agricultural
Society (JAS), the circumstances have
He said that a meeting will be held
next month with stakeholders to reassess
the situation. This, he said, will allow
members to "look at all our numbers,
and then we will be able to inddicate ex-
actly what the crop size will be."
Having done that, he said, it will then
be possible to estimate "what sort of cost
or loss is associated with the long
drought we are experiencing."
Food import dips
amaica's food import bill dipped by
five per cent in the first quarter of the
According to the Statistical Institute of
Jamaica (Statin) food imports for the
quarter were valued at US$252 million.
That was $14 million less than was spent
during the similar period last year.
Te decline was due to lower imports
of cereals, dairy products, eggs, coffee,
tea, cocoa, spices, vegetables and fruits.
onsanto, a company best noted for ge-
netically modified seed, has made
quite a flourish from engineering its balance
The world's biggest seed group has been
pressed by shareholders to stop running at a
net cash position, and run with borrowings,
like most of its peers.
It is not difficult to see why. Introducing
a net debt target of 1.5 times earnings before
interest, tax, depreciation and amortisation
(ebitda) has put shareholders in line for quite
Cash to spend
To get a measure of it, consider that
Monsanto ran in its last financial year with a
net cash positioning equivalent to 0.4 times
Adjusting to its new target means the re-
lease of some $10bn, assuming the ebitda of
$5.3bn next year that analysts have factored
And that's before the net cash flows of
some $3bn a year that the company is throw-
ing off. The new share buyback of $10bn
that these funds are supporting should win it
quite a few friends.
Of course, there is the risk their loyalty
may wane as the buyback pot - to be spent
over the next two years - runs dry. But Mon-
santo has helped give them an incentive to
hang on by spending funds on buying
shares, rather than splashing out on, say, a
The group also on Wednesday revealed a
target to double, at least, its profits by 2019
- a feat not nearly so tricky when earnings
are measured per share, and Monsanto is
buying its stock by the hatful.
Monsanto's financial revamp
looks better than Syngenta deal
WWW.THEAGRICULTURALIST.COM AUGUST 2014 • THE AGRICULTURALIST • 7
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‘To Make The Best Better’
Providing Training For
TheNation's Youths (Age 5-25)
Leaders For Tomorrow
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95 Old Hope Road, Kingston 6, Jamaica WI
Tel: 927-4050-2 • Fax: 978-3209
• Website: www.jamaica4hclubs.com
.• Attorney-at-law Aaron Parke
and former permanent secre-
tary, Ministry of Agriculture
chairs and IICA Representative
in Trinidad and Tobago was re-
cently appointed to chair the
Agri Investment Corporation
Limited board of directors, re-
placing Dennis Hickey.
•Agricultural consultant, Hugh
Graham, is the CEO, Jamaica
Dairy Development Board.
People in Agriculture
• Dermon Spence, Chief Technical
Director at the Ministry of Agricul-
ture and Fisheries. He previously
served as National Programme Di-
rector at Heart.
• Christopher Gentles the former
CEO of Coffee Board has been the
General Manager-Farms of JP
Tropical- Farms, a subsidiary Ja-
maica Producers Group Limited.
• Ronald Blake, executive director
Jamaica 4-H Clubs replacing
Lenworth Fulton who is now the
CEO of Rural Agriculturl Develop-
ment Authority (RADA).
Send staff info:
enator Norman Grant President of the
JAS says, “The Jamaica Agricultural
Society’s Board of Management and our
over 220,000 farmers in Jamaica salute the
work and life of the late Most Honorable
Sir Howard Cooke, who served as Gover-
nor General of Jamaica between 1991-
2006 and an extended period of service to
the country numbering well over 65 years.
His work to country and his commitment
to the Agricultural sector has made him a
beloved son of Jamaica Land in whom we
as Jamaican here and aboard are well
“As President of the Jamaica Agricul-
tural Society (JAS) and Chairman of the
Denbigh Show Committee, I will recom-
mend to the Board of the JAS and the Na-
tional Denbigh Show Committee that our
Late Governor General, for his sterling
work to the Agricultural Sector, be in-
ducted in the JAS Hall of Fame and also
be recognized with the Denbigh Lifetime
Achievement Award during the upcoming
Denbigh Show” Senator Grant committed.
“This gesture of appreciation dims in com-
parison to his sterling contribution to the
JAS and its activities, as for all the 15
years as Governor General, he never
missed any staging of the Denbigh Agri-
cultural, Industrial and Food Show. He has
truly remained very committed to the Den-
bigh product and Experience.”
Senator Grant says, “Sir Howard
Cooke placed a very important role on the
re-introduction of the Kingston and St An-
drew Agricultural Show in 1992 after 25
years of absence. He provided guidance
and support to very President of the JAS
during his tenure as Governor General and
was an inspiration to the farmers of Ja-
maica. He was also very instruct mental in
the introduction of rabbit wearing in the
Jamaica 4 H Movement by donation rab-
bits to the Jamaica 4 H Clubs to wearied
and use in the rabbit revolving problem for
young clubites. His farm at Kings House
was an inspiration to the farmers and a
great example as Head of State. ’Sir
Howard truly believed that the children
are Jamaica’s future and he therefore
demonstrated this at the very highest level.
Senator Grant relayed that the Eat
What We Grow Campaign, launched in
2003 under his leadership, was not only
endorsed by Sir Howard Cooke but was
supported by him in subsequent years. For
his dedication to the JAS and the farmers,
his commitment to the campaign and as a
public sign of recognition and apprecia-
tion for his invaluable support, he was rec-
ognized at the 10thAnniversary of the
launch of the campaign, through the pres-
entation of Eat Jamaican Campaign 10th
JAS/farmers salute the
late Sir Howard Cooke
Howard Felix Hanlan Cooke,
(November 13, 1915 – July 11, 2014)
Former Governor-General of Jamaica
August 1, 1991- February 15, 2006
8 • THE AGRICULTURALIST • AUGUST 2014 WWW.THEAGRICULTURALIST.COM
THE DAIRY SECTOR
The Dairy Sector Revitalization Programme has given
critical support to the industry since its launch in 2008.
Making available low cost loans and grants to farmers through the DBJ/PC Bank network for working capital
Beef and dairy farmers have benefited from loans totaling $64 M for pasture development; purchasing breeding
stock; and upgrading farm equipment.
CAPACITY BUILDING COMPONENT
Assistance provided through farmers’ organizations include: The re-introduction of a National Milk Recording
Programme in collaboration with the Jamaica Hope Cattle Breeders’ Society; Allocationof mastitis testing kits
and computers to aid participating farmers in National Milk Recording Programme.
GRANT SUPPORT PROGRAMME
Assist in building local capacity in Embryo Transfer Technique; Capacity building support to BDPAJ in the de-
velopment of an operational plan for the management of cluster farms and engagement of pre-project consul-
tancy; Initiation of a collaborative research project with UWI, St Augustine to develop an island-wide nutritional
profile of Jamaica pastures, upgrade the Forage Analytical Laboratory at Bodles; and Approval of grants fund-
ing to enable restoration of milk collection facility at Rhymesfield Cooperative. Support the establishment of a
milk testing reference laboratory at the Bodles Research Station.
For further information contract:
JAMAICA DAIRY DEVELOPMENT BOARD
Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries
Hope Gardens, Kingston 6
• Tel: (876) 618-7107 • Fax (876)977-9230
• Email: email@example.com
WWW.THEAGRICULTURALIST.COM AUGUST 2014 • THE AGRICULTURALIST • 9
Over $1B in Economic Benefits from Denbigh 62
An important feature of Den-
bigh 2014 will be a salute to the
late former Governor-General,
Chairman of the Denbigh
Planning Committee, Senator
Norman Grant, is predicting over
$1 billion in economic benefits
from Denbigh 2014.
The 62nd staging of the Den-
bigh Agricultural, Industrial and
Food Show will take place from
Friday, August 1 to Sunday, Au-
gust 3 under the theme: ‘Grow
What We Eat…Eat What We
Grow’, with the sub-theme:
Addressing a JIS Think Tank
on Monday, July 28, Grant, who
is also President of the Jamaica
Agricultural Society (JAS), said
approximately $75 million will be
spent to stage the three-day event,
which is the largest of its kind in
the English-speaking Caribbean.
It is money that the Senator be-
lieves will be well spent.
drought, there will be adequate
supplies of produce from right
across the island to have a major
show. This year, we have the
greenhouse competition; so we
are looking to the greenhouse and
the irrigated farming areas,” he
Patrons will be given the op-
portunity to experience the Den-
bigh Hubs formerly called
These will include the
Tourism Linkage Hub, which will
highlight and promote the collab-
oration between the agriculture
and tourism sectors. There will
also be a Health and Wellness
Hub, with over eight participating
entities offering medical services
free of cost.
An important feature of Den-
bigh 2014 will be a salute to the
late former Governor-General,
the Most Hon. Sir Howard
Cooke, who died on July 11. A
condolence book will be opened
to allow patrons to sign and pay
their respects to Sir Howard, who
was a regular show attendee.
Senator Grant also informed
that there will be a strong interna-
tional contingent at the show this
year. Over 50 delegates from the
United States of America,
Canada, and the Caribbean, are
expected to participate in the
Denbigh Symposium, among
The inaugural Denbigh Float
and Torch will take place on
Thursday, July 31, starting in Half
-Way- Tree and travelling through
Portmore, Spanish Town, and
Mandeville, culminating at the
The main objectives of the
Denbigh Agricultural, Industrial
and Food Show are: to promote
the agricultural sector; display the
best foods produced in Jamaica;
and highlight the importance of
agriculture to food security, busi-
ness development and nation
Allen, is expected to attend the
August 1 opening; Acting Minis-
ter of Agriculture and Fisheries,
Derrick Kellier will be in atten-
dance on August 2; and Prime
Minister, Portia Simpson Miller is
scheduled to attend on August 3.
Gates will open daily at 8:00
a.m. each day and admission is
$800 for adults and $300 for chil-
By Judith A. Hunter, JIS
hairman of the Denbigh Planning Committee, Senator Nor-
man Grant, is predicting over $1 billion in economic benefits
from Denbigh 2014. The 62nd staging of the Denbigh Agricul-
tural, Industrial and Food Show will take place from Friday, Au-
gust 1 to Sunday, August 3 under the theme: ‘Grow What We
Eat…Eat What We Grow.’
10 • THE AGRICULTURALIST • AUGUST 2014 WWW.THEAGRICULTURALIST.COM
s patron of the Jamaica Agricultural
Society I take great pleasure in wel-
coming everyone to the Sixty-Second An-
nual Denbigh Agricultural Show.
The JAS’s rich tradition of promoting
agriculture through shows and fairs dates
back to the Kendal Show held in Man-
chester in 1895.
This has kept the spotlight on the local
agricultural sector and promoted aware-
ness of its ongoing significance to our eco-
Parish shows and agro-festivals are
held throughout the year, but the Denbigh
Agricultural Show is the ‘crème of the
crop.’ It is at this time of year that locals as
well as Jamaicans in the Diaspora flock to
the Denbigh Show Ground in Clarendon
for this delightful family event.
We pay tribute to the champions of
agriculture in the parish of Clarendon who
worked tirelessly to establish the founda-
tion on which this agricultural show was
I believe the Denbigh Agricultural
Show is in many respects a display of re-
silience, achievement and justifiable pride
by our local farmers who year after year
defy the odds to meet the growing demand
for agricultural produce. On behalf of all
Jamaicans I extend gratitude to our farmers
and applaud their contribution to the de-
velopment of our nation. Let us honour
them and help make development happen,
by heeding the call of the Jamaica Agri-
cultural Society to "Eat What We...Grow
What We Eat."
A rich tradition of promoting agriculture
et me say how pleased I am that as a
country we are able to once again or-
ganize the largest and most renowned agri-
cultural show in the English-speaking
Caribbean. The magnitude and significance
of the Denbigh Agricultural Show, now in
its 62nd annual staging is neither to be un-
derestimated nor taken for granted.
We are indeed proud that the Denbigh
Agricultural Show has become a national
excellence brand and highly anticipated and
significant feature of our Emancipation and
I have every confidence that as we
gather on these famous Clarendon show-
ground for this year’s staging, the expecta-
tions of exhibitors and patrons alike will be
surpassed by the rich variety of activities
and displays of home-ground produce and
services which we have come to associate
with the Denbigh brand. The Show theme
‘grow what we eat and eat what we grow’
remains as relevant today as ever.
With agriculture a most significant pil-
lar, to the extent that Jamaicans heed this
call can only serve to positively impact the
pursuit of our strategic growth and devel-
opment priorities. With its high level of in-
tegration, significant linkages to other
sectors, and multiplier effect, agriculture
provides sustenance and stability to the na-
tional economy and society, the well-being
of our rural communities, and importantly,
to the lives and livelihoods of thousands of
I congratulate all the stakeholders,
among them the Jamaica Agricultural Soci-
ety, the Ministry of Agriculture and our
famers, who year after year, put in so much
time, effort and energy to ensure the Den-
bigh Agricultural Show is a success, as you
continue to open new doors of opportuni-
ties in areas of global trade; tourism link-
ages, health and wellness, the environment
and the involvement of youth.
With every good wish for a successful
2014 Denbigh Agricultural Show.
-Prime Minister Portia Simpson Miller
The most renowned agricultural show
ach year during our emancipation and
independence celebrations we pause to
recognise and highlight the work of our
over 200,000 farmers as they showcase
their products at the Denbigh Agricultural
This event, known as the premier agri-
cultural show in the Caribbean, provides us
with an opportunity to focus attention on
the agricultural sector, which is critical to
the well-being of ourselves and our nation.
As we all know, the agricultural sector
is critical to the national drive for sustain-
able growth and development.
In fact, Jamaica’s current economic en-
vironment has placed even more emphasis
on the agricultural sector. The sector re-
mains an important contributor to the
country’s gross domestic product.
I wish to commend all our farmers, es-
pecially our small farmers, who have been
resilient in the face of the many challenges
the sector has been facing, including the
extended drought, and have contributed
significantly to the 14% increase in do-
mestic food crops in the last quarter of
On behalf of the Ministry of Agricul-
ture and Fisheries, I congratulate the farm-
ers, the Jamaica Agricultural Society and
all the participants in this the 62nd An-
niversary of the Denbigh Agricultural
Minister of Agriculture
Prime Minister Portia Simpson Miller pets day-old
chicks with JAS president Norman grant
he Denbigh Agricultural and Indus-
trial Show is a hallmark event that
has been embedded in the unique culture
and the broad fabrics of the Jamaican
people from as early as 1953 to present.
Situated on twenty nine hectares of
picturesque lands at May Pen, Claren-
don, the Denbigh Show comes to life for
three days of pulsating activities offering
wholesome entertainment to over sixty
thousand patrons that have been attend-
ing the event on an annual basis.
Spirits have been lifted and enthusi-
asm built for the unforgettable experi-
ence of the grand Exposition that has
been renowned for promoting the farm-
ers livelihood, i.e. the finest quality agri-
cultural produce from varied commodity
groups, its value added products, indus-
trial and technological equipment from
main stakeholders affiliated within the
As is traditionally expected, each day
of the show is especially dedicated to a
particular Government Official who ad-
dresses the audience or patrons.
Many of these invited guests who
have made valid contributions to the
Show’s experience include: Governor of
Puerto Rico in 1955, the former Gover-
nor Generals – Sir Clifford Campbell, Sir
Florizel Glasspole, Sir Howard Cooke,
Professer Sir Kenneth Hall and the pres-
ent Governor General Sir Patrick Allen.
Heads of Governments who also at-
tended the show were Sir Alexander
Bustamante, Rt. Hon. Norman Manley,
Rt. Hon. Hugh Shearer, Sir Donald
Sangster, Rt. Hon. Michael Manley, Rt.
Hon. Edward Seaga, The Most. Hon. P.J
Patterson, Most Hon. Portia Simpson
Miller and Most Hon. Bruce Golding
have all supported and assisted in the
promotion of this historical event.
Special attention has consistently
been placed on the Champion Farmer
and Young Champion Farmer’s Compe-
tition that showcases farmers who have
excelled in cutting edged farm practices.
The National Farm Queen Competi-
tion is another main event that provides
a “spark of elegance and class” to the
event and the promotion of women in
For sustainable growth and development
‘Reaches More Farmers’
Book your advert
WWW.THEAGRICULTURALIST.COM AUGUST 2014 • THE AGRICULTURALIST • 11
he National Farm Queen
Competition is an event that
occurs during the annual Denbigh
Agricultural & Industrial Show.
Over the years the show has expe-
rienced tremendous growth.
The National Farm Queen
epitomizes grace, personality, in-
telligence, the right values, and at-
titudes all capsulated by
She represents the agricultural
sector for one year and therefore
must be cognizant of the issues af-
fecting the sector.
The competition begins at the
parish level, where a parish queen
is selected based on the following
Every contestant must be a
current member of a JAS branch
within the parish she is represent-
Should have attained at the
very least a high school certificate.
Should be a resident for at least
2 years in the parish from which
she is competing; but should not
be confined to the job location.
Discretion must be used
Should be involved in the op-
eration of the home and farm and
at the same time have fair knowl-
Should not be less than 18
years or more than 35 years at the
time of parish judging and who
may be single or married
Should be a Jamaican citizen
At the national level the ladies are
judged in three stages by three sets
Technical Judging (Agricul-
tural & Home Economics knowl-
Social Graces, Deportment and
Culture and Current Affairs.
‘Eat what we grow…..Grow what we eat’
Over the past five years Noranda Jamaica Bauxite Partners has been leading the
charge to transform agriculture by sharing greenhouse technology and spearheading
the building of fifty greenhouses for small farmers in our mining areas.
We call it the ‘greenhouse revolution’ – helping to feed our nation
Noranda Jamaica Bauxite Partner
Discovery Bay, St. Ann, Jamaica WI
Phone: (876) 973-2221-5
FARM QUEENS: National Queen Nordia Lewin (c) with (l-r) 2nd place runner-up, Tahera Brown and
1st place runner-up Lashaun Lugg
Farm queens epitomize,
12 • THE AGRICULTURALIST • AUGUST 2014 WWW.THEAGRICULTURALIST.COM
WWW.THEAGRICULTURALIST.COM AUGUST 2014 • THE AGRICULTURALIST • 13
14 • THE AGRICULTURALIST • AUGUST 2014 WWW.THEAGRICULTURALIST.COM
Denbigh Show Photos
Livestock farmers with trophies Children with goats
In photo (l-r) Chris Levy, CEO, Jamaica Broilers Group, JAS president Norman Grant and Minister
Roger Clarke with other members of the Jamaica Broilers/ACE team.
Juicing sugar cane
Agri Life Foundation has been established as a non-profit
organization to foster and encourage farmers to become
more self-sufficient and competitive in a free market economy.
For further information:
Executive Chairman, Agri Life Foundation Limited
188 Spanish Town Road, Kingston 11, Jamaica WI
Tel: 923-7471; 923-7428 • firstname.lastname@example.org
WWW.THEAGRICULTURALIST.COM AUGUST 2014 • THE AGRICULTURALIST • 15
Here’s what you need:
1. Carbon-rich “brown” materi-
als, such as fall leaves, straw,
dead flowers from your garden,
and shredded newspaper.
2. Nitrogen-rich “green” mate-
rials, such as grass clippings,
plant-based kitchen waste (veg-
etable peelings and fruit rinds,
but no meat scraps), or barnyard
animal manure (even though its
color is usually brown, manure
is full of nitrogen like the other
“green” stuff). Do not use ma-
nure from carnivores, such as
cats or dogs.
3. A shovelful or two of garden
4. A site that’s at least 3 feet
long by 3 feet wide.
Here’s what to do:
Start by spreading a layer
that is several inches thick of
coarse, dry brown stuff, like
straw or cornstalks or leaves,
where you want to build the
Top that with several inches of
Add a thin layer of soil.
Add a layer of brown stuff.
Moisten the three layers.
Continue layering green
stuff and brown stuff with a lit-
tle soil mixed in until the pile is
3 feet high. Try to add stuff in a
ratio of three parts brown to one
part green. (If it takes awhile be-
fore you have enough material
to build the pile that high, don't
worry. Just keep adding to the
pile until it gets to at least 3 feet
Every couple of weeks, use
a garden fork or shovel to turn
the pile, moving the stuff at the
center of the pile to the outside
and working the stuff on the
outside to the center of the pile.
Keep the pile moist, but not
soggy. When you first turn the
pile, you may see steam rising
from it. This is a sign that the
pile is heating up as a result of
the materials in it decomposing.
If you turn the pile every couple
of weeks and keep it moist, you
will begin to see earthworms
throughout the pile and the cen-
ter of the pile will turn into
black, crumbly, sweet-smelling
When you have enough fin-
ished compost in the pile to use
in your garden, shovel out the
finished compost and start your
next pile with any material that
hadn’t fully decomposed in the
You don’t need a compost
bin to make compost. You sim-
ply need a pile that is at least 3
by 3 by 3 feet. A pile this size
will have enough mass to de-
compose without a bin.
Many gardeners buy or build
compost bins, however, because
they keep the pile neat. Some
are designed to make turning
the compost easier or protect it
from soaking rains.
Turn kitchen scraps into
super-fertile soil! Learn more.
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How to Build a Compost Pile
Turning the compost
ollow these simple instructions and start composting
today. Adding a balanced mix of "greens" and
"browns" to the compost pile is essential.
16 • THE AGRICULTURALIST • AUGUST 2014 WWW.THEAGRICULTURALIST.COM
By Jonathan Benson
staff writer, NaturalNews
he basic human rights protections estab-
lished by the Nuremberg Code, which
was adopted immediately after the end of
World War II, continue to serve as a global
template for how human beings are to be
treated by the scientific community.
But the modern equivalent of the Holo-
caust is now taking form under the guise of
feeding the world and saving the planet, with
Monsanto and others in the biotech industry
routinely testing their chemicals and faux
foods on the public without informed con-
sent, just like amoral scientists did in the
As far as medical experiments go, every
individual has the right under the Code to
consent, or not, to being used in scientific tri-
als or tests that involve toying around with
new or unusual substances. This constitutes
the essence of the Code, which expressly pro-
hibits human experimentation unless the per-
son being experimented on first gives his or
her permission, with full disclosure of any
potential adverse events.
"The voluntary consent of the human sub-
ject is absolutely essential," states the first
point of the Nuremberg Code.
"This means that the person involved
should have legal capacity to give consent;
should be so situated as to be able to exercise
free power of choice, without the intervention
of any element of force, fraud, deceit, duress,
over-reaching, or other ulterior form of con-
straint or coercion; and should have sufficient
knowledge and comprehension of the ele-
ments of the subject matter involved as to en-
able him/her to make an understanding and
enlightened decision," it adds.
Unlabeled GMOs are a clear
violation of the Nuremberg Code
As far as genetically modified organisms
(GMOs), which are still not properly labeled
in North America, the ongoing use of these
untested additives in the food supply without
full disclosure represents a blatant violation
of the dictates of the Code. Since not a single
long-term study has ever verified that GMOs
are safe for human consumption, these sub-
stances are, by their very nature, experimen-
This suggests that in order for them to
justifiably exist as "food," GMOs must, at the
very least, be properly labeled so that people
who consume them know they are present.
There also must be full disclosure about the
potential risks of consuming GMOs if the
technology is to meet the moral obligations
outlined in the Nuremberg Code.
But neither of these criteria is being met,
as GMOs have remained hidden in the Amer-
ican food supply since the mid-1990s, with-
out consequence. Even though copious
independent research has raised major ques-
tions about GMOs and their effects on human
health, practically nothing has been done to
address this deliberate lack of transparency.
In fact, as you may already well know,
Monsanto has been given a free pass to es-
sentially lie to the public about the nature of
GMOs, with false claims that they are mate-
rially identical to real food. Such claims only
apply to concerns about food safety that af-
fect the public, of course -- as far as patents
go, Monsanto will be the first to tell you that
its "intellectual property" is most certainly
not the same as natural seed.
Deadly crop chemicals like Roundup,
2,4-D spreading disease and death
to unwitting public
Not only are GMOs themselves a prob-
lem as far as the Nuremberg Code is con-
cerned, but so are the chemicals used to grow
them. It is the official position of Monsanto
that its popular Roundup formula, which con-
tains glyphosate as its active ingredient, is
completely safe. And the American govern-
ment affirms this, allowing Roundup to be
sprayed at volumes of up to 200 million
pounds per year.
But again, this approval is based on the
biased "science" coming directly from the
chemical lobby, which has a vested interest
in portraying its products in the best light.
There is plenty of independent science, in-
cluding a 2013 study published in the journal
Entropy, that point to major health problems
such as infertility and cancer that can emerge
from exposure to Roundup, yet none of this is
considered in light of Roundup's continued
Residential lawns, city planters, public
parks, agricultural fields and much more are
quietly and routinely doused in Roundup, ex-
posing families and young children to chem-
ical compounds that could damage their
nervous systems and make them infertile. But
few people know about this because, once
again, full disclosure is not taking place. The
American public simply isn't being given the
option to consent or refuse these chemical ex-
posures before encountering them -- these ex-
posures, in other words, represent nothing
more than weapons in a global chemical war.
"[S]ome in the bioethics movement seek
to undermine this crucial human subject pro-
tection," wrote Wesley J. Smith for National
Review about this departure from the Nurem-
berg Code in our modern context.
Inhumane Experiments on Humans
Monsanto and biotech companies violate the Nuremberg Code
By Karehka Ramey
echnology has played a big role in de-
veloping the agricultural industry. Today
it is possible to grow crops in a desert by use
of agricultural biotechnology. With this tech-
nology, plants have been engineered to sur-
vive in drought conditions.
Through genetic engineering scientists
have managed to introduce traits into exist-
ing genes with a goal of making crops re-
sistant to droughts and pests.
Lets take a good example. A bacterium
known as ”Bacillus Thuringiensis” acts like
a reservoir, it enables crops to be insect-re-
sistant, so these genetically modified crops
will grow without any interference from
pests. The invention of this technology is
being used in developing countries to grow
cash crops like cotton, since this genetically
engineered cotton plants are pest resistant,
they grow better than the normal cotton
plants hence yielding good results.
Technology has turned farming into a
real business, now farmers have electrified
every process, a consumer can place an order
directly online, and the product will be trans-
ported from the farm to the consumer in time
when it’s still fresh. This saves the farmer
money and it cuts out mediators who tend to
buy low from farmers and sell high to end
Use of machines on farms.
Now a farmer can cultivate on more than 2
acres of land with less labor. The use of
planters and harvesters makes the process so
easy. In agriculture, time and production are
so important; you have to plant in time, har-
vest in time and deliver to stores in time.
Modern agricultural technology allows a
small number of people to grow vast quanti-
ties of food and fiber in a shortest period of
This helps in making products available on
markets in time from the farm. With modern
transportation, consumers in Dubai will con-
sume a fresh carrots from Africa with in the
same day that carrot lives the garden in
Africa. Modern transportation technology fa-
cilities help farmers easily transport fertiliz-
ers or other farm products to their farms, and
it also speeds the supply of agricultural prod-
ucts from farms to the markets where con-
sumers get them on a daily basis.
These are used buy farmers to deliver toma-
toes and other perishable crops to keep them
fresh as they transport them to the market.
These cooling facilities are installed in food
transportation trucks, so crops like tomatoes
will stay fresh upon delivery. This is a win-
win situation for both the consumers of these
agricultural products and the farmers. How?
the consumers gets these products while still
fresh and the farmer will sell all their prod-
ucts because the demand will be high.
Genetically produced plants
Genetically produced plants like potatoes,
can resist diseases and pests, which rewards
the farmer with good yields and saves them
time. These crops grow very fast they pro-
duce healthy yields. Since they are resistant
to most diseases and pests, the farmer will
spend less money on pesticides, which in re-
turn increases on their (RIO) return on in-
Development of animal feeds.
This has solved the problem of hunting for
grass to feed animals, now these feeds can
be manufactured and consumed by animals.
The price of these feed is fair so that a low
income farmer can afford them. Most of
these manufactured animal feeds have extra
nutrition which improve on the animals
health and the out put of these animals will
also increase. In agriculture , the health of an
animal will determine its output. Poorly feed
animals are always unhealthy and they pro-
duce very little results in form of milk, meet
, or fur.
Breeding of animals which
are resistant to diseases.
Most of these genetically produced animals
will produce more milk or fur compared to
normal animals. This benefits the farmer be-
cause their production will be high. Cross
breeding is very good in animal grazing,
cross breed animals are more strong and pro-
Irrigation of plants.
In dry areas like deserts, farmers have em-
braced technology to irrigate their crops. A
good example is in Egypt, were farmers use
water pumps to collect water from river Nile
to their crops. Most of these farmers grow
rice which needs a lot of water, so they man-
age to grow this rice using irrigation methods
enhanced by advanced technology. Ad-
vanced water sprinklers are being used to ir-
rigate big farms and this helps the crops get
enough water which is essential in their
growth. Some farmers mix nutrients in this
water, so also improves on the growth of
Use of Technology In Agriculture
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Dr. Peter Nelson,
PhD at age 25
Secondary Dry Season
The period July to September annually
represents the island’s secondary dry sea-
son, with the primary dry season span-
ning the months of December through
March. As the island continues to experi-
ence a protracted period of minimal no
rainfall, the Office of Disaster Prepared-
ness and Emergency Management
(ODPEM) wishes to remind the public
that water storage, conservation and pu-
rification are critical.
Water conservation for indoor and out-
door activities, especially during the sum-
mer when children are home on holidays
Water Conservation tips
• Turn the faucet/tap off while you are
brushing your teeth, shaving, washing
your hands and doing dishes
• Wait until you have a full load of clothes
before you wash a load.
• Check your plumbing for leaks. A silent
toilet leak could waste from 30 to 500
gallons every day
• Take shorter showers. Challenge your-
self to cut down your showering time
• Use waste water or gray water from the
bath and washing machines on the gar-
• Make sure to use your toilet appropri-
ately. Don't flush every time.
• Report any leaks you observed in the
Water Purification Tips
• Bleach – For each liter of water, add 2
drops of chlorine bleach, stir thoroughly
and allow to sit for 30 minutes before
• Boiling – bring water to boil for at least
5 minutes, allow to cool, then consume
• Purification Tablets – prepackaged
water purification tablets (available from
local pharmacies) can be added to tap
water to remove impurities
• Bottled Water is also a reliable source of
• Water can be stored for a very long time
if prepared properly.
• It is recommended that you have two
gallons of water per person per day. Try to
store a minimum of a 3-day supply.
• Light and air are not good for water. For
long term storage, always try to use
opaque, airtight containers and store them
in cool, dark spaces.
• It is recommended that you rotate your
water for freshness and check on your
water supply every month to ensure that
leaks or contamination have not occurred.
• Water containers can be stored in many
different places such as closets, cup-
boards, underneath tables, etc.
Contact- Cheryl NIchols, ODPEM;
Gets PhD at 25
By Sonja Simms
ecently the nation was introduced to our
latest shining star, Dr. Peter Nelson, a
young man who obtained his PhD at 25
years old and has gone on to pursue further
research work in Israel.
It was only in 2005 that Dr. Nelson
graced the hallowed grounds of the College
of Agriculture, Science and Education
(CASE), pursuing his Associate of Science
degree in Natural Science before continuing
to attain this great feat.
The college community joins Dr. Nel-
son, his family and the nation in celebrating
this achievement and would like the record
to reflect the distinguish tradition of excel-
lence of the CASE.
The College is known to perpetuate a
tradition of excellence steeped in a rich his-
torical legacy of predecessor institutions,
dating back to 1910 and started at the Uni-
versity of Technology in Papine, St. Andrew
and was then known as the Government
In 1942 the institution was relocated to
the site of the Police Academy at Twicken-
ham Park in Spanish Town and named the
Jamaica School of Agriculture (JSA), by
1981 it moved to its current location in Pass-
ley Gardens, Portland and re-named the Col-
lege of Agriculture (COA).
The metamorphosis continued in 1995
when it became prudent for the Government
of Jamaica, at the time, to merge the College
of Agriculture with, the then, Passley Gar-
dens Teachers College (PGTC) that was just
next door and founded in 1981. At the
merger the Faculty of Science was added
and all faculty and staff were on-board for
the renewed ethos of offering a world-class
education to the people of Jamaica, the
Caribbean and those beyond these shores.
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• Alcohol is metabolized differ-
ently than other foods and bever-
ages. Under normal conditions,
your body gets its energy from the
calories in carbohydrates, fats and
proteins, which are slowly digested
and absorbed within the gastroin-
testinal system. However, this di-
gestive process changes when
alcohol is present. When you drink
alcohol, it gets immediate attention
(because it is viewed by the body
as a toxin) and needs no digestion.
• On an empty stomach, the alco-
hol molecules diffuse through the
stomach wall quickly and can
reach the brain and liver in min-
utes. This process is slower when
you have food in your stomach, but
as soon as that food enters the
small intestine, the alcohol grabs
first priority and is absorbed
quickly into the bloodstream.
• As the alcohol reaches the liver
for processing, the liver places all
of its attention on the alcohol. If
you drink very slowly, all the alco-
hol is collected by the liver and
all other body systems. If you drink
more quickly, the liver cannot keep
up with the processing needs and
the alcohol continues to circulate in
the body until the liver is available
to process it.
• When the body is focused on pro-
cessing alcohol, it is not able to
properly break down foods con-
taining carbohydrates and fat.
Therefore, these calories are con-
verted into body fat and are carried
away for permanent storage on
• Alcohol is a diuretic, meaning
that it causes water loss and dehy-
dration. Along with this water loss
you lose important minerals, such
as magnesium, potassium, calcium
and zinc. These minerals are vital
to the maintenance of fluid bal-
ance, chemical reactions, and mus-
cle contraction and relaxation.
•Alcohol contains 7 calories per
gram and offers NO nutritional
value. It only adds empty calories
to your diet. Why not spend your
calorie budget on something
• Alcohol affects your body in
other negative ways. Drinking may
help induce sleep, but the sleep you
get isn't very deep. As a result, you
get less rest, which can trigger you
to eat more calories the next day.
• Alcohol can also increase the
amount of acid that your stomach
produces, causing your stomach
lining to become inflamed. Over
time, excessive alcohol use can
lead to serious health problems, in-
cluding stomach ulcers, liver dis-
ease, and heart troubles.
• Alcohol lowers your inhibitions,
which is detrimental to your diet
plans. Alcohol actually stimulates
your appetite. While you might be
full from a comparable amount of
calories from food, several drinks
might not fill you up. On top of
that, research shows that if you
drink before or during a meal, both
your inhibitions and willpower are
reduced. In this state, you are more
likely to overeat—especially
greasy or fried foods—which can
add to your waistline. To avoid
this, wait to order that drink until
you're done with your meal.
• Many foods that accompany
drinking (peanuts, pretzels, chips)
are salty, which can make you
thirsty, encouraging you to drink
even more. To avoid overdrinking,
sip on a glass of water in between
each alcoholic beverage.
Alcohol and Weight Loss
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By Raw Michelle
he juicy, tropical flavor of mangos are
enjoyed by many, but there are other
benefits of eating the fruit beyond its fla-
vor. In fact, June is National Fresh Fruits
and Vegetables month, and according to
Mango.org, June is also National Mango
Month. All the more reason to hone in on
this healthy fruit!
Aside from the delicious taste, man-
gos are full of health benefits.
1) May prevent certain cancers. Discov-
eries have found that mangos contain a
large amount of polyphenols, which play a
role in fighting free radicals and protecting
against cell damage, which could lead to
cancer (1). Specifically, it's been found that
many of its compounds have the ability to
combat breast and colon cancer cells. Fur-
thermore, mangos have high levels of
flavonoids like beta-carotene and alpha-
carotene, which help protect against oral
cavity and lung cancers (2).
2) Help eye and skin health. Mangos
have a high vitamin A content, which is
good for helping to keep bones, skin and
eyes healthy. Eating one cup of mangos
provides the body with approximately 35
percent of the vitamin A needed for opti-
mal functioning (3).
3) Help reduce blood pressure. Because
this fruit has good potassium levels, yet is
low in sodium, it's considered ideal for
those looking to lower blood pressure (2).
4) Boost brain health. Improve mood and
overall brain ability with mangos. They
have large amounts of the vitamin B-6 as
well as glutamine acid which helps to im-
prove neurotransmitter function, so the
brain remains healthy while also benefit-
ing from improved memory and concen-
5) Better heart health. According to the
Institute of Medicine, women should have
25 g of fiber daily, at a minimum (3). One
cup of mango as more than 2.5 g of dietary
fiber, and eating it along with other fiber-
rich foods contribute toward meeting that
goal. As with all high fiber diets, heart dis-
ease risks are lessened.
Mango fun facts
It's also interesting to note that there's more
to the mango that what's ingested. Many
fun facts abound when it comes to this fruit
including legend that says Buddha used to
meditate under a mango tree, are thought
to be a gesture of friendship in India, and
that they're related to pistachios (5).
Mangos are brimming with health and fun history!
Top 5 health benefits of eating mangos
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