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Prepared by:
Jerhenze Andrew S. de Luna
College Instructor, Psychology Unit
CASED, CCJEF,CEA
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OLOGY?
OUTLINE
Define
Social
Psychology
Major
themes in
Social
Psychology
Values and
Social
Psychology
Is Social
Psychology
Just
Common
Sense?
Research
Methods
What is Social
Psychology?
Giving the word social, justice
WHAT IS IT?
Systematic body of knowledge
Scientific method
Science
That influence us
Our
situations
to how we view and affect one
another
With special
attention
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OPERANT DEFINITION OF THE FIELD
The systematic study of how people
think about influence relate
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each other across different situations
DEEPER IN THE FIELD
SocPsy lies at psychologys
boundary with sociology
Sociologys
focus is on
people
In groups
and societies
Social Psychology is
grounded towards
individuals
How ones
social world
influence
Empirical
data
SocPsy is a young
Science
Experiments:
more than a
century ago
(1898)
First texts:
before or
after 1900
IMPORTANCE OF INQUIRES
Inquiries that have intrigued us all
Social World
Thinking Influence Relationships
THE WILL TO QUESTION
How much
social
world is in
our hands
Peace vs
cruelty
To help
others or
oneself?
Social Psychologys
Big Ideas
Some of the social worlds lessons? BIG
THE DICHOTOMY OF THE FIELD
BIG IDEAS
Social Thinking
We construct Our Social Reality
Our social intuitions are powerful
but sometimes perilous
Attitudes shape, and are
shaped by, behavior
Social Influences
Social influences shape our
behavior
Dispositions shape behavior
Social Relations
Social behavior is also biological
behavior
Feelings and actions toward
people are sometimes negative
and sometimes positive
THE BIG IDEA?
Principles are
applicable to
everyday life
Social Psychology
and Human Values
The impact of being human
Values: piercing borders
Obvious
ways in
which
values enter
Not-so-
obvious
ways in
which
values enter
Values can penetrate that way we
examine our social world
Burden of proof
Objectification
Obvious ways in which values enter
Values enter when we choose research
topics
Respond to the interest of how diverse our social world is
A reflection of social history
A multicultural understanding of values that
transcends beyond time
Differ not only across time but with culture
Obvious ways in which values enter
Values influence the types of people who are
attracted to various disciplines
Polarities of how people form together
Values as the object of interest
Understanding how values form, change, and how it
influence attitudes and actions
Obvious ways in which values enter
Does not tell us
which values are
right
Hidden Values in Psychology
Values
has that characteristic of entering our
objective domain
Subtle not-so-obvious masquerade
Hidden Values in Psychology
The subjective aspects of science
Science is not purely subjective
We view the world through a lens of
our preconceptions
Hidden Values in Psychology
The subjective aspects of science
Blind ourselves from having a common viewpoint or the
same culture
Assumptions then become unchallenged
We take for granted our social representations
Socially shared beliefs that help us make sense of our
world
Hidden Values in Psychology
Naturalist fallacy
assuming that what is
common, is correct or
good
Hidden Values in Psychology
contain hidden values
Psychological
concepts
Affect our understanding of the world
play an important part in the theories and judgment
we support
Realization that
our own values
Mature or immature
Well adjusted or poorly adjusted
Mentally healthy or mentally ill
Hidden Values in Psychology
Stating
facts vs.
making
value
judgments
Defining the Good Life
Professional Advice
Forming Concepts
Labeling
So, what to do?
Values exist and
affect the
objectivity of the
science
The Answer?
Check
our ideas
against
reality
Systematic
observation
experimentation
I Knew It All Along: Is
Social Psychology
Simply Common Sense?
A thin line between novel insights or just the obvious
The Event Horizon
Psychological facts may have occurred to
you
Psychology is everywhere!
We constantly observe
Predicting the expression, actions, thinking of others
Persuasion and Evaluation
Common Sense vs Systematic
The aspect of being just using common
sense
Stating the obvious
Deliberate faade of fancy words
Common Sense Psychology
The tendency to exaggerate,
after learning an outcome,
ones ability to have foreseen
it
Hindsight bias
Hindsight Bias
I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon
(20/20) bias
tendency to think you could have predicted an outcome,
after having learned the outcome
Bias leads to overconfidence and increase
blame towards others
Hindsight Bias
It is easy to be
wise after the
event
Everything
important has
been said
before
The Hindsight Bias
Or that
Two heads are
better than
one
Actions speak
louder than
words
Youre never
too old t o
learn
Many kinfolk,
few friends
Look before
you leap
Dont cross the
bridge until
you come to it
Is it more true that
Too many
cooks spoil the
broth
The pen is
mightier than
the sword
You cant
teach an old
dog new tricks
Blood is thicker
than water
He who
hesitates is lost
Forewarned is
forearmed
Reseach Methods:
How We Do Social
Psychology
The power of investigation and wonder
Generic understanding of behavior
Amateur
social
psychologist
We people watch as a kind of
hobby
Observe people
We form ideas about how human beings
think, influence, and relate to one another
The Field of Social Research
What?
Theory
Hypotheses
Where?
Field
Laboratory
How?
Correlational
Experimental
Correlational Research
Detecting
Natural
Associations
Study naturally occurring
relationships among variables
Allow prediction
Does NOT infer causation
Correlational Research
Field
Research
Naturalistic
observations
conducted in
natural, real-life
settings
Survey
Research
self-report
measures of
attitudes and
behaviors
Sampling methods
Structure of the
survey
Influences that affect Surveys
Unrepresentative Samples
samples that dont accurately reflect the
population
Order effects
order of questions may bias results
Influences that affect Surveys
Response options
open ended vs. forced choice questions
Linguistic biases
wording effects
85% lean vs. 15% fat
restrict vs. forbid
Correlation vs Causation
Correlation
does NOT equal
Causation
Experimental Research
Random Assignment
Experimental groups Control groups
Variables
Independent Variables (IV) Dependent Variables (DV) Extraneous variables (EV)
Laboratory simulations that test cause and effect relationships
Construct social situations Simulations reared from the field
Understanding Experiments
Experimental Ethics
Mundane vs.
Experimental
Realism
experiments that mimic real life vs. ones
that absorb the participant
Deception
Used to achieve
experimental realism
Mislead about the nature
of the study
Demand
characteristics
cues that tell a participant
what is expected
APA Ethical Guidelines
Informed Consent
Use deception
sparingly
Protect participants
Ensure confidentiality Debriefing
Field vs Laboratory Experiments
Correlational vs Experimental
Things to Consider in Social
Psychological Research
Theory
Hypothesis
Population
Sample
Representative sample
Random sample
Random assignment
Blind procedures
Independent variable
Dependent variable
Survey
Placebo effects
Third variables
Causation
Reliability
Validity
Social Psychologists study:
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The activities of
individuals in the
presence of
others
The processes of
social interaction
between people
The relationship
between
individuals and
groups.
The nature an
causes of social
behavior.
Social behavior
in a systematic
fashion.