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APA Citation Style

APA citation style refers to the rules and conventions established by the American Psychological
Association for documenting sources used in a research paper. APA style requires both in-text
citations and a reference list. For every in-text citation there should be a full citation in the
reference list and vice versa.
The examples of APA styles and formats listed on this page include many of the most common
types of sources used in academic research. For additional examples and more detailed
information about APA citation style, refer to the Publication Manual of the American
Psychological Association and the APA tyle !uide to "lectronic #eferences.
Also, for automatic generation of citations in appropriate citation style, use a bibliographic
citation management program such as #ef$or%s or "nd&ote. 'ou can find more information on
this in our (itation Management page.
Reference Citations in Text
)n APA style, in-text citations are placed $ithin sentences and paragraphs so that it is clear $hat
information is being quoted or paraphrased and $hose information is being cited.
Examples:
Works by a single author
The last name of the author and the year of publication are inserted in the text at the appropriate
point.
from theory on bounded rationality (Simon, 1945)
)f the name of the author or the date appear as part of the narrative, cite only missing information
in parentheses.
Simon (1945) posited that

Works by multiple authors
*hen a $or% has t$o authors, al$ays cite both names every time the reference occurs in the
text. )n parenthetical material +oin the names $ith an ampersand ,-..
as has been shown (Leiter & Maslach, 199)
)n the narrative text, +oin the names $ith the $ord /and./
as Leiter and Maslach (199) demonstrated
*hen a $or% has three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs.
!ahneman, !netsch, and "haler (1991) found
)n all subsequent citations per paragraph, include only the surname of the first author follo$ed
by /et al./ ,0atin for /and others/. and the year of publication.
!ahneman et al# (1991) found

Works by associations, corporations, goernment agencies, etc!
The names of groups that serve as authors ,corporate authors. are usually $ritten out each time
they appear in a text reference.
($ational %nstitute of Mental &ealth '$%M&(, )**+)
*hen appropriate, the names of some corporate authors are spelled out in the first reference and
abbreviated in all subsequent citations. The general rule for abbreviating in this manner is to
supply enough information in the text citation for a reader to locate its source in the #eference
0ist $ithout difficulty.
($%M&, )**+)

Works "ith no author
*hen a $or% has no author, use the first t$o or three $ords of the $or%1s title ,omitting any
initial articles. as your text reference, capitali2ing each $ord. Place the title in quotation mar%s if
it refers to an article, chapter of a boo%, or *eb page. )talici2e the title if it refers to a boo%,
periodical, brochure, or report.
on climate chan,e (-.limate and /eather,- 199+)
Guide to Agricultural Meteorological Practices (191)

Anonymous authors should be listed as such follo$ed by a comma and the date.
on climate chan,e (0nonymous, )**)

Specific parts of a source
To cite a specific part of a source ,al$ays necessary for quotations., include the page, chapter,
etc. ,$ith appropriate abbreviations. in the in-text citation.
(Sti,ter & 1as, 191, p# 92)
1e /aal (1992) o3erstated the case when he asserted that -we seem to
be reachin, ### from the hands of philosophers- (p# )1)#
)f page numbers are not included in electronic sources ,such as *eb-based +ournals., provide the
paragraph number preceded by the abbreviation /para./ or the heading and follo$ing paragraph.
(M4nnich & Spierin,, )**, para# 9)

Reference #ist
#eferences cited in the text of a research paper must appear in a #eference 0ist or bibliography.
This list provides the information necessary to identify and retrieve each source.
$r%er: "ntries should be arranged in alphabetical order by authors1 last names. ources
$ithout authors are arranged alphabetically by title $ithin the same list.
Authors: *rite out the last name and initials for all authors of a particular $or%. 3se an
ampersand ,-. instead of the $ord /and/ $hen listing multiple authors of a single $or%.
e.g. mith, 4. 5., - 4ones, M.
Titles: (apitali2e only the first $ord of a title or subtitle, and any proper names that are
part of a title.
Pagination: 3se the abbreviation p. or pp. to designate page numbers of articles from
periodicals that do not use volume numbers, especially ne$spapers. These abbreviations
are also used to designate pages in encyclopedia articles and chapters from edited boo%s.
&n%entation': The first line of the entry is flush $ith the left margin, and all subsequent
lines are indented ,6 to 7 spaces. to form a /hanging indent/.
(n%erlining s! &talics': )t is appropriate to use italics instead of underlining for titles of
boo%s and +ournals.
T$o additional pieces of information should be included for $or%s accessed online.
&nternet A%%ress'': A stable )nternet address should be included and should direct the
reader as close as possible to the actual $or%. )f the $or% has a digital ob+ect identifier
,58)., use this. )f there is no 58) or similar handle, use a stable 3#0. )f the 3#0 is not
stable, as is often the case $ith online ne$spapers and some subscription-based
databases, use the home page of the site you retrieved the $or% from.
)ate: )f the $or% is a finali2ed version published and dated, as in the case of a +ournal
article, the date $ithin the main body of the citation is enough. 9o$ever, if the $or% is
not dated and:or is sub+ect to change, as in the case of an online encyclopedia article,
include the date that you retrieved the information.
' The APA has special formatting standards for the use of indentation and italics in manuscripts
or papers that $ill be typeset or submitted for official publication. For more detailed information
on these publication standards, refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological
Association, or consult $ith your instructors or editors to determine their style preferences.
;; ee the APA tyle !uide to "lectronic #eferences for information on ho$ to format 3#0s
that ta%e up more than one line.
Examples:
Articles in *ournals, maga+ines, an% ne"spapers
#eferences to periodical articles must include the follo$ing elements< author,s., date of
publication, article title, +ournal title, volume number, issue number ,if applicable., and page
numbers.
,ournal article, one author, accesse% online
!u, 5# ()**)# Learnin, to de6escalate7 "he effects of re,ret in
escalation of commitment# Organizational Behavior and Human
Decision Processes, 105()), ))16)8)#
doi71*#1*129:#obhdp#)**+#*#**)

,ournal article, t"o authors, accesse% online
Sanche;, 1#, & !in,6"oler, <# ()**+)# 0ddressin, disparities
consultation and outreach strate,ies for uni3ersity settin,s#
Consulting Psychology ournal! Practice and "esearch, 5#(4), )26
)95# doi71*#1*8+91*256 9)98#59#4#)2

,ournal article, more than t"o authors, accesse% online
=an =u,t, M#, &o,an, >#, & !aiser, ># ?# ()**)# Leadership,
followership, and e3olution7 Some lessons from the past#
American Psychologist, $%(8), 1)6192# doi71*#1*8+9***86
*22@#28#8#1)

Article from an &nternet-only *ournal
&irtle, A# ?# ()**, Buly60u,ust)# .opyri,ht renewal, copyri,ht
restoration, and the difficulty of determinin, copyri,ht status#
D&'i( Magazine, 1)(+9)# doi71*#1*459:uly)**6hirtle

,ournal article from a subscription %atabase .no )$&/
.ol3in, 5# ()**, Buly )1)# %nformation worth billions# *ortune,
15+()), +86+9# >etrie3ed from ?usiness Source .omplete, <?S.C#
>etrie3ed from http799search#ebscohost#com

0aga+ine article, in print
!lu,er, B# ()**, Banuary ))# /hy we lo3e# ,ime, 1-1(4), 5462*#

1e"spaper article, no author, in print
0s prices sur,e, "hailand pitches CA<.6style rice cartel# ()**, May
5)# ,he .all /treet ournal, p# 09#

1e"spaper article, multiple authors, %iscontinuous pages, in print
1elaney, !# B#, !arnitschni,, M#, & 5uth, ># 0# ()**, May 5)#
Microsoft ends pursuit of Dahoo, reassesses its online options#
,he .all /treet ournal, pp# 01, 01)#

2ooks
#eferences to an entire boo% must include the follo$ing elements< author,s. or editor,s., date of
publication, title, place of publication, and the name of the publisher.
1o Author or e%itor, in print
Merriam6/ebsterEs colle,iate dictionary (11th ed#)# ()**8)#
Sprin,field, M07 Merriam6 /ebster#

$ne author, in print
!idder, "# (191)# ,he soul o0 a ne1 machine# ?oston, M07 Little,
?rown & .ompany#

T"o authors, in print
FranG, ># &#, & ?ernanGe, ?# ()**+)# Princi2les o0 macro&economics
(8rd ed#)# ?oston, M07 Mc5raw6&ill9%rwin#

Corporate author, author as publisher, accesse% online
0ustralian ?ureau of Statistics# ()***)# ,asmanian year (oo3 4000
($o# 18*1#2)# .anberra, 0ustralian .apital "erritory7 0uthor#
>etrie3ed from
http799www#ausstats#abs#,o3#au9ausstats9subscriber#nsf9*9.0)52+1
***299### HFile918*12I)***#pdf

E%ite% book
5ibbs, B# "#, & &uan,, L# $# (<ds#)# ()**1)# Children o0 color!
Psychological interventions 1ith culturally diverse youth# San
Francisco, .07 Bossey6?ass#

)issertations
#eferences for dissertations should include the follo$ing elements< author, date of publication,
title, and institution ,if you accessed the manuscript copy from the university collections.. )f
there is a 3M) number or a database accession number, include it at the end of the citation.

)issertation, accesse% online
Doun,, ># F# ()**+)# Crossing (oundaries in ur(an ecology! Path1ays
to sustaina(le cities (1octoral dissertation)# 03ailable from
AroJuest 1issertations & "heses database# (KM% $o# 8)+21)

Essays or chapters in e%ite% books
#eferences to an essay or chapter in an edited boo% must include the follo$ing elements< essay
or chapter authors, date of publication, essay or chapter title, boo% editor,s., boo% title, essay or
chapter page numbers, place of publication, and the name of the publisher.
$ne author
Laba:o, B# ()**8)# ?ody and 3oice7 "he construction of ,ender in
flamenco# %n "# Ma,rini (<d#), Music and gender! 2ers2ectives
0rom the Mediterranean (pp# 2+62)# .hica,o, %L7 Kni3ersity of
.hica,o Aress#

T"o e%itors
&ammond, !# >#, & 0delman, L# (192)# Science, 3alues, and human
:ud,ment# %n &# ># 0rGes & !# ># &ammond (<ds#), udgement and
decision ma3ing! An interdisci2linary reader (pp# 1)+6148)#
.ambrid,e, <n,land7 .ambrid,e Kni3ersity Aress#

Encyclope%ias or %ictionaries an% entries in an encyclope%ia
#eferences for encyclopedias must include the follo$ing elements< author,s. or editor,s., date of
publication, title, place of publication, and the name of the publisher. For sources accessed
online, include the retrieval date as the entry may be edited over time.

Encyclope%ia set or %ictionary
Sadie, S#, & "yrrell, B# (<ds#)# ()**))# ,he ne1 Grove dictionary o0
music and musicians ()nd ed#, =ols# 16)9)# $ew DorG, $D7 5ro3e#

Article from an online encyclope%ia
.ontaineri;ation# ()**)# %n 5ncyclo26dia Britannica# >etrie3ed May
2, )**, from http799search#eb#com

Encyclope%ia article
!inni, "# ?# ()**4)# 1isney, /alt (19*161922)7 Founder of the /alt
1isney .ompany# %n 5ncyclo2edia o0 'eadershi2 (=ol# 1, pp# 8456
849)# "housand CaGs, .07 Sa,e Aublications#

Research reports an% papers
#eferences to a report must include the follo$ing elements< author,s., date of publication, title,
place of publication, and name of publisher. )f the issuing organi2ation assigned a number ,e.g.,
report number, contract number, or monograph number. to the report, give that number in
parentheses immediately after the title. )f it $as accessed online, include the 3#0.

3oernment report, accesse% online
K#S# 1epartment of &ealth and &uman Ser3ices# ()**5)# Medicaid drug
2rice com2arisons! Average manu0acturer 2rice to 2u(lished
2rices (C%5 publication $o# C<%6*56*56 **)4*)# /ashin,ton, 1.7
0uthor# >etrie3ed from http799www#oi,#hhs#,o39oei9reports9oei6*56
*56**)4*#pdf

3oernment reports, 3P$ publisher, accesse% online
.on,ressional ?ud,et Cffice# ()**)# 500ects o0 gasoline 2rices on
driving (ehavior and vehicle mar3ets! A CBO study (.?C
Aublication $o# )8)# /ashin,ton, 1.7 K#S# 5o3ernment Arintin,
Cffice# >etrie3ed from
http799www#cbo#,o39ftpdocs9LL9doc989*161465asolineArices#pdf

Technical an%4or research reports, accesse% online
1emin,, 1#, & 1ynarsGi, S# ()**)# ,he lengthening o0 childhood
($?<> /orGin, Aaper 141)4)# .ambrid,e, M07 $ational ?ureau of
<conomic >esearch# >etrie3ed Buly )1, )**, from
http799www#nber#or,9papers9w141)4

)ocument aailable on uniersity program or %epartment site
=ictor, $# M# ()**)# Gaz2rom! Gas giant under strain# >etrie3ed
from Stanford Kni3ersity, Aro,ram on <ner,y and Sustainable
1e3elopment /eb site7
http799pesd#stanford#edu9publications9,a;promI,asI,iantIunderIstr
ain9

Au%io-isual me%ia
#eferences to audio-visual media must include the follo$ing elements< name and function of the
primary contributors ,e.g., producer, director., date, title, the medium in brac%ets, location or
place of production, and name of the distributor. )f the medium is indicated as part of the
retrieval )5, brac%ets are not needed.
5i%eocassette4)5)
0chbar, M# (1irector9Aroducer), 0bbott, B# (1irector), ?aGan, B#
(/riter), & Simpson, ?# (Aroducer) ()**4)# ,he cor2oration '1=1(#
.anada7 ?i, Aicture Media .orporation#

Au%io recor%ing
$hat &anh, "# (SpeaGer)# (199)# Mind0ul living! a collection o0
teachings on love7 mind0ulness7 and meditation '.assette
>ecordin,(# ?oulder, .C7 Sounds "rue 0udio#

0otion picture
5ilbert, ?# (Aroducer), & &i,,ins, .# (Screenwriter91irector)#
(19*)# 8ine to 0ive 'Motion Aicture(# Knited States7 "wentieth
.entury FoL#

Teleision broa%cast
0nderson, >#, & Mor,an, .# (Aroducers)# ()**, Bune )*)# $0 Minutes
'"ele3ision broadcast(# /ashin,ton, 1.7 .?S $ews#

Teleision sho" from a series
/hedon, B# (1irector9/riter)# (1999, 1ecember 14)# &ush '"ele3ision
series episode(# %n /hedon, B#, ?erman, 5#, 5allin, S#, !u;ui,
F#, & !u;ui, !# (<Lecuti3e Aroducers), Bu00y the 9am2ire /layer#
?urbanG, .07 /arner ?ros##

0usic recor%ing
BacGson, M# (19))# ?eat it# Cn ,hriller '.1(# $ew DorG, $D7 Sony
Music#

(n%ate% Web site content, blogs, an% %ata
For content that does not easily fit into categories such as +ournal papers, boo%s, and reports,
%eep in mind the goal of a citation is to give the reader a clear path to the source material. For
electronic and online materials, include stable 3#0 or database name. )nclude the author, title,
and date published $hen available. For undated materials, include the date the resource $as
accessed.

2log entry
0rrin,ton, M# ()**, 0u,ust 5)# "he 3iral 3ideo ,uy ,ets H1 million
in fundin,# Messa,e posted to http799www#techcrunch#com

Professional Web site
$ational >enewable <ner,y Laboratory# ()**)# Bio0uels# >etrie3ed
May 2, )**, from http799www#nrel#,o39learnin,9reIbiofuels#html

)ata set from a %atabase
?loomber, L#A# ()**)# "eturn on ca2ital 0or He1itt Pac3ard 14:%1:#0
to 0#:%0:0+# >etrie3ed 1ec# 8, )**, from ?loomber, database#
.entral Statistics Cffice of the >epublic of ?otswana# ()**)# Gross
domestic 2roduct 2er ca2ita 0$:01:1##) to 0$:01:400+
'statistics(# 03ailable from .<%. 1ata database#

Entire Web site
*hen citing an entire *eb site ,and not a specific document on that site., no #eference 0ist entry
is required if the address for the site is cited in the text of your paper.
/itchcraft %n <urope and 0merica is a site that presents the full
teLt of many essential worGs in the literature of witchcraft and
demonolo,y (http799www#witchcraft#psmedia#com9)#


For more detailed information on APA citation style such as information on articles in press,
+ournal special issues and supplements, translations, et cetera, see the Publication Manual of the
American Psychological Association and the APA tyle !uide to "lectronic #eferences.

8ther citation guides and useful *eb sites<
American Psychological Association1s Web site
Purdue 3niversity 8nline *riting 0ab1s APA 6ormatting an% Style 3ui%e
5iana 9ac%er1s Research an% )ocumentation $nline
0andmar%1s Son of Citation 0achine