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Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater

PREFACE TO THE TWENTIETH EDITION


Selection and Approval of Methods
For each new edition both the technical criteria for selection of methods and the formal
procedures for their approval and inclusion are reviewed critically. In regard to the approval
procedures, it is considered particularly important to assure that the methods presented have
been reviewed and are supported by the largest number of qualified people, so that they may
represent a true consensus of expert opinion.
For the Fourteenth Edition a Joint Tas !roup was established for each test. This scheme
has continued for each subsequent edition. "ppointment of an individual to a Joint Tas !roup
generally was based on the expressed interest or recogni#ed expertise of the individual. The
effort in every case was to assemble a group having maximum available expertise in the test
methods of concern.
Each Joint Tas !roup was charged with reviewing the pertinent methods in the
$ineteenth Edition along with other methods from the literature, recommending the methods
to be included in the Twentieth Edition, and presenting those methods in the form of a
proposed section manuscript. %ubsequently, each section manuscript &except for 'art ()))*
was ratified by vote of those members of the %tandard +ethods ,ommittee who ased to
review sections in that part. Every negative vote and every comment submitted in the balloting
was reviewed by the Joint Editorial -oard. .elevant suggestions were referred appropriately
for resolution. /hen negative votes on the first ballot could not be resolved by the Joint Tas
!roup or the Joint Editorial -oard, the section was reballoted among all who voted
affirmatively or negatively on the original ballot. 0nly a few issues could not be resolved in
this manner and the Joint Editorial -oard made the final decision.
The general and quality assurance information presented in 'art ())) was treated
somewhat differently. "gain, Joint Tas !roups were formed, given a charge, and allowed to
produce a consensus draft. This draft was reviewed by the Joint Editorial -oard 1iaison and
subsequently by the Joint Editorial -oard. The draft sections were sent to the %tandard
+ethods ,ommittee and comments resulting from this review were used to develop the final
draft.
The methods presented here, as in previous editions, are believed to be the best available
and generally accepted procedures for the analysis of water, wastewaters, and related
materials. They represent the recommendations of specialists, ratified by a large number of
analysts and others of more general expertise, and as such are truly consensus standards,
offering a valid and recogni#ed basis for control and evaluation.
The technical criteria for selection of methods were applied by the Joint Tas !roups and
by the individuals reviewing their recommendations, with the Joint Editorial -oard providing
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"ssociation, /ater Environment Federation
Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater
only general guidelines. In addition to the classical concepts of precision, bias, and minimum
detectable concentration, selection of a method also must recogni#e such considerations as the
time required to obtain a result, needs for speciali#ed equipment and for special training of the
analyst, and other factors related to the cost of the analysis and the feasibility of its widespread
use.
Status of Methods
"ll methods in the Twentieth Edition are dated to assist users in identifying those methods
that have been changed significantly between editions. The year the section was approved by
the %tandard +ethods ,ommittee is indicated in a footnote at the beginning of each section.
%ections or methods that appeared in the $ineteenth Edition that are unchanged, or changed
only editorially in the Twentieth Edition, show an approval date of (335 or (336. %ections or
methods that were changed significantly, or that were reaffirmed by general balloting of the
%tandard +ethods ,ommittee, are dated (337 or (338. If an individual method within a
section was revised, that method carries an approval date different from that of the rest of the
section.
+ethods in the Twentieth Edition are divided into fundamental classes9 '.0'0%E:,
%'E,I"1I;E:, %T"$:".:, "$: !E$E."1. $one of the methods in the Twentieth
Edition have the speciali#ed designation. .egardless of assigned class, all methods must be
approved by the %tandard +ethods ,ommittee. The four classes are described below9
1. '.0'0%E:<" '.0'0%E: method must undergo development and validation that
meets the requirements set forth in %ection ()6)" of Standard Methods.
2. %'E,I"1I;E:<" procedure qualifies as a %'E,I"1I;E: method in one of two
ways9 a* The procedure must undergo development and validation and collaborative testing that
meet the requirements set forth in %ection ()6)- and , of Standard Methods, respectively= or
b* The procedure is the >>+ET40: 0F ,40I,E?? of the members of the %tandard +ethods
,ommittee actively conducting the analysis and it has appeared in T/0 '.E@I0A%
E:ITI0$% of Standard Methods.
3. %T"$:".:<" procedure qualifies as a %T"$:".: method in one of two ways9 a*
The procedure must undergo development and validation and collaborative testing that meet
the requirements set forth in %ection ()6)- and , of Standard Methods, respectively, and it
is >>/I:E1B A%E:?? by the members of the %tandard +ethods ,ommittee= or b* The
procedure is >>/I:E1B A%E:?? by the members of the %tandard +ethods ,ommittee and it
has appeared in T/0 '.E@I0A% E:ITI0$% of Standard Methods.
4. !E$E."1<" procedure qualifies as a !E$E."1 method if it has appeared in T/0
'.E@I0A% E:ITI0$% of Standard Methods.
"ssignment of a classification to a method is done by the Joint Editorial -oard. /hen
maing method classifications, the Joint Editorial -oard evaluates the results of the survey on
method use by the %tandard +ethods ,ommittee that is conducted at the time of general
balloting of the method. In addition, the Joint Editorial -oard considers recommendations
offered by Joint Tas !roups and the 'art ,oordinator.
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"ssociation, /ater Environment Federation
Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater
+ethods categori#ed as >>'.0'0%E:,?? >>%'E,I"1I;E:,?? and >>!E$E."1?? are so
designated in their titles= methods with no designation are >>%T"$:".:.??
Technical progress maes advisable the establishment of a program to eep Standard
Methods abreast of advances in research and general practice. The Joint Editorial -oard has
developed the following procedure for effecting interim changes in methods between editions9
1. "ny method given proposed status in the current edition may be elevated by action of
the Joint Editorial -oard, on the basis of adequate published data supporting such a change as
submitted to the -oard by the appropriate Joint Tas !roup. $otification of such a change in
status shall be accomplished by publication in the official Cournals of the three associations
sponsoring Standard Methods.
2. $o method may be abandoned or reduced to a lower status during the interval between
editions.
3. " new method may be adopted as proposed, speciali#ed, or standard by the Joint
Editorial -oard between editions, such action being based on the usual consensus procedure.
%uch new methods may be published in supplements to editions of Standard Methods. It is
intended that a supplement be published midway between editions.
Even more important to maintaining the current status of these standards is the intention of
the sponsors and the Joint Editorial -oard that subsequent editions will appear regularly at
reasonably short intervals.
Reader comments and questions concerning this manual should be addressed to:
Standard Methods Manager, American Water Works Association, 6666 West Quincy Avenue,
Denver, ! "#$%&'
Acknowledgments
For the wor in preparing the methods for the Twentieth Edition, the Joint Editorial -oard
gives full credit to the %tandard +ethods ,ommittees of the "merican /ater /ors
"ssociation and of the /ater Environment Federation and to the ,ommittee on 1aboratory
%tandards and 'ractices of the "merican 'ublic 4ealth "ssociation. Full credit also is given to
those individuals who were not members of the sponsoring societies. " list of all committee
members follows these pages. 4erbert J. -rass, A.%. Environmental 'rotection "gency, served
as a liaison from E'" to the Joint Editorial -oard= thans are due for his interest and help.
The Joint Editorial -oard expresses its appreciation to Fernando +. Trevino, former
Executive :irector, and +ohammad $. "hter, +.:., current Executive :irector, "merican
'ublic 4ealth "ssociation, to John -. +annion, former Executive :irector, and Jac /.
4offbuhr, current Executive :irector, "merican /ater /ors "ssociation, and to Duincalee
-rown, Executive :irector, /ater Environment Federation, for their cooperation and advice in
the development of this publication. %teven J. 'osavec, %tandard +ethods +anager and Joint
Editorial -oard %ecretary, provided a variety of important services that are vital to the
preparation of a volume of this type. Ellen +eyer, :irector of 'ublications, "merican 'ublic
4ealth "ssociation, functioned as publisher. Judy ,astagna, also with "'4", served as
2 ,opyright (333 by "merican 'ublic 4ealth "ssociation, "merican /ater /ors
"ssociation, /ater Environment Federation
Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater
production manager. %pecial recognition for her valuable services is due to +ary "nn 4.
Franson, +anaging Editor, who discharged most efficiently the extensive and detailed
responsibilities on which this publication depends.
(oint )ditorial *oard
1enore %. ,lesceri, /ater Environment Federation, ,hair
"rnold E. !reenberg, "merican 'ublic 4ealth "ssociation
"ndrew :. Eaton, "merican /ater /ors "ssociation
"t several places in this text, a manufacturer?s name or trade name of a product, chemical, or
chemical compound is referenced. The use of such a name is intended only to be a shorthand
reference for the functional characteristics of the manufacturer?s item. These references are not
intended to be an endorsement of any item by the copublishers, and materials or reagents with
equivalent characteristics may be used.