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I.

SOME MATHEMATICAL TOOLS FOR GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM THEORY


A. A Few Useful General References
1. Microeconomics Background
-E. Silberberg (1990). The Structure of Economics. New York: McGraw Hill.
-H. Varian (1992). Microeconomic Analysis. New York: Norton.
-A. Mas-Colell, M. Whinston, and J. Green (1995). Microeconomic Theory. New York: Oxford
University Press.
2. General Overviews of Mathematics for Economists
-E.R. Weintraub (1982). Mathematics for Economists. Cambridge: CUP.
-A.C. Chiang (1984). Fundamental Methods of Mathematical Economics. New York: McGraw
Hill.
-K. Lancaster (1968). Mathematical Economics. New York: Dover.
-W. Novshek (1993). Mathematics for Economists. San Diego: Academic Press.
-C. Simon and L. Blume (1994). Mathematics for Economists. New York: Norton.
-A. Takayama (1985). Mathematical Economics. Cambridge: CUP.
-J. Moore (1999). Mathematical Methods for Economic Theory. (2 Vols.). Berlin: Springer.
-P. Berck and K. Sydster (1991). Economists' Mathematical Manual. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
B. Matrices, Linear Algebra and Linear Programming
1. Linear Algebra
-T. Banchoff and J. Wermer (1983). Linear Algebra through Geometry. Heidelberg: Springer-
Verlag.
-A. Ostraszewski (1990). "Linear Algebra". Part I of Advanced Mathematical Methods.
Cambridge: CUP.
-I.M. Gelfand (1961). Lectures on Linear Algebra. New York: Interscience Publishers.
-J.T. Scheick (1997). Linear Algebra with Applications. New York: McGraw-Hill.
-P. Halmos (1987). Finite-Dimensional Vector-Spaces. New York: Springer-Verlag.
-E. Klein (1973). "Vector Spaces and Vector-Space Homomorphisms". of Part II of Mathematical
Methods in Theoretical Economics. New York: Academic Press.
-M. Kemp and Y. Kimura (1978). Introduction to Mathematical Economics. Berlin: Springer-
Verlag.
2. Matrix Theory
-F. Gantmacher (1959). Matrix Theory. (2 vols.) New York: Chelsea Publishing Co.
-R. Bellman (1970). Introduction to Matrix Analysis. (2
nd
ed.). New York: McGraw Hill.
-A. Berman and R. Plemmons (1979). Nonnegative Matrices in the Mathematical Sciences. San
Diego: Academic Press.
-R. Bapat and T. Raghavan (1997). Nonnegative Matrices and Applications. Cambridge: CUP.
3. Linear Programming
-R. Dorfman, P. Samuelson and R. Solow (1958). Linear Programming and Economic Analysis.
New York: McGraw Hill.
-S. Karlin (1959). Mathematical Methods and Theory in Games, Programming, and Economics.
Reading: Addison-Wesley.
-D. Gale (1960). The Theory of Linear Economic Models. New York: McGraw Hill.
C. Basic Topology and Fixed Point Theory
-H. Nikaido (1970). Introduction to Sets and Mappings in Modern Economics. Amsterdam:
North-Holland.
-E. Klein (1973). "Point Set Topology". Part I of Mathematical Methods in Theoretical
Economics. New York: Academic Press.
-J. Munkres (1975). Topology: A First Course. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
-J. Dugundji (1966). Topology. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
-K. Binmore (1981). Topological Ideas. [Book 2 of Foundations of Analysis: A Straightforward
Introduction]. Cambridge: CUP.
-Y. Shashkin (1991). Fixed Points. Washington, DC: American Mathematical Society.
-D.R. Smart (1974). Fixed Point Theorems. Cambridge: CUP.
-K. Border (1985). Fixed Point Theorems with Applications to Economics and Game Theory.
Cambridge: CUP.
-J. Dugundji and A. Granas (1982). Fixed Point Theory. Warszawa : PWN-Polish Scientific
Publishers.
D. Calculus/Analysis
1. Calculus
-R.G.D. Allen (1938). Mathematical Analysis for Economists. New York: St. Martins.
-K. Binmore (1983). Calculus. Cambridge: CUP.
-A. Ostrazewski (1990). "Advanced Calculus". Part II of Advanced Mathematical Methods.
Cambridge: CUP.
-T. Apostol (1967/9). Calculus. 2
nd
Ed. V.I (1967), V.II. (1969). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
2. Real Analysis
-K. Binmore (1980). Mathematical Analysis: A Straightforward Approach. Cambridge: CUP.
-W. Rudin (1953/76). Principles of Economic Analysis. (3
rd
Ed.). New York: McGraw Hill.
-T. Apostol (1974). Mathematical Analysis. (2
nd
Ed.). Menlo Park: Addison Wesley.
-H. Royden (1988). Real Analysis. (3
rd
Ed.). New York: Macmillan.
-C. Aliprantis and K. Border (1994). Infinite Dimensional Analysis. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
3. Convex Analysis
-C. Berge (1963). Topological Spaces. Mineola: Dover.
-R.T. Rockafellar (1970). Convex Analysis. Princeton: PUP.
-H. Nikaido (1968). Convex Structures and Economic Theory. New York: Academic Press.
E. Optimization Theory and Nonlinear Programming
-A. Dixit (1991). Optimization in Economic Theory. Oxford: OUP.
-R. Sundaram (1996). A First Course in Optimization Theory. New York: Cambridge University
Press.
-H. Kuhn and A. Tucker (1951). "Nonlinear Programming". in J. Neyman ed. Proceedings of
the Second Berkeley Symposium on Mathematical Statistics and Probability. Berkeley:
University of California Press, pp. 481-492.
-H. Uzawa (1958). "The Kuhn-Tucker Theorem in Concave Programming". in K. Arrow, et al.,
eds. Studies in Linear and Non-Linear Programming. Stanford: Stanford University Press, pp.
32-37.
-O.L. Mangasarian (1969). Nonlinear Programming. New York: McGraw Hill.
-D. Luenberger (1969). Optimization by Vector Space Methods. New York: Wiley.
F. Duality Theory
-M.N. Darough and C. Southey (1977). "Duality in Consumer Theory Made Simple: The
Revealing of Roy's Identity". CJE; V.10-#2, pp. 307-317.
-J. Weymark (1980). "Duality Results in Demand Theory". EER; V.14-#?, pp. 377-395.
-E. Greenberg and A. Denzau (1988). "Profit and Expenditure Functions in Public Finance: An
Expository Note". EcInq; V.26-#1, pp. 145-158.
-H. Uzawa (1964). "Duality Principles in the Theory of Cost and Production". IER; V.5-#?, pp.
216-220.
-A.D. Woodland (1982). "Producer and Consumer Theory: A Duality Approach". Chapter 2 of
International Trade and Resource Allocation. Amsterdam: North-Holland, pp. 15-38.
-P. Samuelson (1983). "Duality and Dynamic Programming". Appendix C-3 in Foundations of
Economic Analysis [enlarged edition]. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, pp. 453-495.
-W. Diewert (1982). "Duality Approaches to Microeconomic Theory". in K. Arrow and M.
Intriligator, eds. Handbook of Mathematical Economics. Amsterdam: North-Holland, V.2, pp.
535-599.
-R. Cornes (1992). Duality and Modern Economics. Cambridge: CUP.
-C. Blackorby, D. Primont and R. Russell (1978). Duality, Separability and Functional
Structure: Theory and Economic Applications. Amsterdam: North-Holland.
G. Optimal Control Theory and Dynamic Programming
-D. Lonard (1992). Optimal Control Theory and Static Optimization in Economics. Cambridge:
CUP.
-M. Kamien and N. Schwartz (1981). Dynamic Optimization: The Calculus of Variations and
Optimal Control in Economics and Management. Amsterdam: North-Holland.
-A. Seierstad and K. Sydster (1987). Optimal Control Theory with Economic Applications.
Amsterdam: North-Holland.
-M. Harris (1987). Dynamic Economic Analysis. New York: Oxford University Press.
-P. Whittle (1982). Optimization over Time: Dynamic Programming and Stochastic Control.
Chichester: John Wiley and Sons.
-N. Stokey and R. Lucas, with E. Prescott (1989). Recursive Methods in Economic Dynamics.
Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
II. CLASSICAL MODELS OF GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM AND TRADE
A. Structure of Classical Models
1. Surveys/Overviews
-V. Walsh and H. Gram (1980). Classical and Neoclassical Theories of General Equilibrium:
Historical Origins and Mathematical Structure. Oxford: OUP.
-L. Pasinetti (1977). Lectures on the Theory of Production. New York: Columbia University
Press.
2. Adam Smith and the Canonical Classical Model
-A. Smith (1776). An Inquiry into the Nautre and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. New York:
Modern Library.
-S. Hollander (1973). The Economics of Adam Smith. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
-P. Samuelson (1977). "A Modern Theorist's Vindication of Adam Smith". AER; V.67-#1, pp.
42-49.
-P. Samuelson (1978). "The Canonical Classical Model of Political Economy". JEL; 16-#4, pp.
1415-1434.
-E. Sieper (1983). "Smith, Ricardo and the Bounty on Corn". ms.: Australian National
University.
3. Ricardian Models
a. Ricardian Models of General Equilibrium
-D. Ricardo (1821). The Principles of Political Economy and Taxation. Cambridge: CUP.
-F. Knight (1935). "The Ricardian Theory of Production and Distribution". CJEPS; V.1-#?, pp.
3-25 and 171-196.
-G. Stigler (1952). "The Ricardian Theory of Value and Distribution". JPE; V.60-#?, pp. 187-
207.
-P. Samuelson (1959). "A Modern Treatment of the Ricardian Economy: I. The Pricing of Goods
and of Labor and Land Services". QJE; V.73-#1, pp. 1-35.
-P. Samuelson (1959). "A Modern Treatment of the Ricardian Economy: II. Capital and Interest
Aspects of the Pricing Process". QJE; V.73-#?, pp. 217-231.
-L. Pasinetti (1960). "A Mathematical Formulation of the Ricardian System". REStud; V.27-#?,
pp. 78-98.
-R. Findlay (1974). "Relative Prices, Growth and Trade in a Simple Ricardian System". Eca;
V.41-#?, pp. 1-13.
-A. Burgstaller (1986). Unifying Ricardos Theories of Growth and Compaative Advantage.
Eca; V.53-#4, pp. 467-481.
-A. Burgstaller (1989). A Classical Model of Growth, Expectations and General Equilibrium.
Eca; V.56-#?, pp. 373-393.
-J. Hicks and S. Hollander (1977). "Mr. Ricardo and the Moderns". QJE; V.?-#?, pp. 351-369.
-S. Hollander (1979). The Economics of David Ricardo. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
-C. Casarosa (1978). "A New Formulation of the Ricardian System". OEP; V.?-#?, pp. 38-63.
(Comment by Hicks (1979) pp. 133-134)
-G. Caravale and D. Tosato (1980). Ricardo and The Theory of Value, Distribution and Growth.
London: RKP.
-G. Caravale, ed. (1985). The Legacy of Ricardo. Oxford: Blackwell.
-M. Morishima (1989). Ricardo's Economics: A General Equilibrium Theory of Distribution and
Growth. Cambridge: CUP.
b. Activity Analysis and the Ricardo-Leontief-Samuelson Model
-T. Koopmans (1951). "Analysis of Production as an Efficient Combination of Activities". in T.
Koopmans, ed. Activity Analysis of Production and Allocation. New York: Wiley, pp. 33-97.
-N. Georgescu-Roegen (1951). "Some Properties of a Generalized Leontief Model". in T.
Koopmans, ed. Activity Analysis of Production and Allocation. New York: Wiley, pp. 165-173.
-N. Georgescu-Roegen (1950). "Leontief's System in the Light of Recent Results". REStat; V.32-
#?, pp. 214-222.
-L. Metzler (1951). "Taxes and Subsidies in Leontief's Input-Output Model". QJE; V.65-#?, pp.
433-438.
-R. Dorfman, P. Samuelson and R. Solow (1958). "The Statical Leontief System". Chapters 9 and
10 in Linear Programming and Economic Analysis. New York: McGraw Hill, pp. 204-264.
-J. Melvin (1970). "The Production Set When Labor is Indispensable". IER; V.11-#2, pp. 305-
314. (Comment by Georgescu-Roegen follows, pp. 315-317.
-K. Suzumura (1973). "Boundedness of the Closed Economy with Samuelson-Leontief
Technology". Hitotsubashi Journal of Economics; V.13-#2, pp. 43-46.
-K. Arrow and D. Starrett (1973). "Cost-theoretical and Demand-theoretical Approaches to the
Theory of Price Determination". in J. Hicks and W. Weber, eds. Carl Menger and the Austrian
School of Economics. Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 129-148.
c. Nonsubstitution Theorems
-P. Samuelson (1951). "Abstract of a Theorem Concerning Substitutability in Open Leontief
Models". in T. Koopmans, ed. Activity Analysis of Production and Allocation. New York: Wiley,
pp. 142-146.
-T. Koopmans (1951). "Alternative Proof of the Substitution Theorem for Leontief Models in the
the Case of Three Industries". in T. Koopmans, ed. Activity Analysis of Production and
Allocation. New York: Wiley, pp. 147-154.
-K. Arrow (1951). "Alternative Proof of the Substitution Theorem for Leontief Models in the
General Case". in T. Koopmans, ed. Activity Analysis of Production and Allocation. New York:
Wiley, pp. 155-164.
-P. Samuelson (1961). "A New Theorem on Nonsubstitution". in H. Hegeland, ed. Money,
Growth and Methodology. Lind: C.W.K. Gleerup, pp. 407-453.
-E. Burmeister and E. Sheshinski (1969). "A Nonsubstitution Theorem in a Model with Fixed
Capital". SEJ;
-J. Mirlees (1969). "The Dynamic Nonsubstitution Theorem". REStud; V.36-#1, pp. 67-76.
-J. Stiglitz (1970). "Non-substitution Theorems with Durable Capital Goods". REStud; V.27-#?,
pp. 543-553.
-L. Johansen (1972). "Simple and General Nonsubstitution Theorems for Input-Output Models".
JET; V.5-#?, pp. 383-394.
-P. Chander (1974). "A Simple Proof of the Nonsubstitution Theorem". QJE; V.88-#?, pp. 698-
701.
-J. Melvin (1969). "Intermediate Goods in Production Theory: The Differentiable Case". REStud;
V.36-#1, pp. 124-131.
-J. Melvin (1974). "Samuelson's Substitution Theorem with Cobb-Douglas Production
Functions". Australian Economic Papers; V.13-#?, pp. 43-51.
-Y. Otani (1973). "Neo-Classical Technology Sets and Properties of Production Possibility Sets".
Etrica; V.41-#4, pp. 667-682.
-R. Manning (1981). "A Nonsubstitution Theorem with Many Primary Factors". JET; V.25-#?,
pp. 442-449.
-R. Manning (1982). "Nonsubstitution Over the Production-Possibility Frontier". in M. Kemp,
ed. Production Sets. San Diego: Academic Press, pp. 51-67.
-R. Manning, J. Markusen and J. Melvin (1993). "Dynamic Nonsubstitution and Long-run
Production Possibilities". in H. Herberg and N.V. Long, eds., Trade, Welfare and Economic
Policies. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, pp. 51-66.
4. Marxian Models
a. The Structure of Marxian Economic Models
-D. Foley (1986). Understanding Capital: Marx's Economic Theory. Cambridge: CUP.
-P. Samuelson (1957). "Wages and Interest: A Modern Dissection of Marxian Economic
Models". AER; V.47-#5, pp. 884-912.
-M. Morishima (1973). Marx's Economics: A Dual Theory of Value and Growth. Cambridge:
CUP.
-M. Morishima (1974). "Marx in the Light of Modern Economic Theory". Etrica; V.42-#?, pp.
611-632.
-P. Samuelson (1974). "Marx as Mathematical Economist: Steady-State and Exponential Growth
Equilibrium". in G. Horwich and P. Samuelson, eds. Trade, Stability and Macroeconomics. New
York: Academic Press, pp. 269-307.
-I. Steedman (1977). Marx after Sraffa. London: New Left Books.
-P. Samuelson (1983). "Leontief-Sraffa-Marx Input-Output Systems". Appendix C-9 in
Foundations of Economic Analysis (enlarged edition). Cambridge: Harvard University Press, pp.
561-584.
-J. Roemer (1981). Analytical Foundations of Marxian Economic Theory. Cambridge: CUP.
b. The Transformation Problem and Exploitation
-P. Samuelson (1971). "Understanding the Marxian Notion of Exploitation: A Summary of the
So-Called Transformation Problem between Marxian Prices and Competitive Prices". JEL; V.9-
#2, pp. 399-431.
-M. Morishima and G. Catephores (1978). Value, Exploitation and Growth. New York: McGraw
Hill.
-A. Lipietz (1982). "The `So-Called Transformation Problem` Revisited". JET; V.26-#?, pp. 59-
88.
-D. Foley (1982). "The Value of Money, The Value of Labor Power, and the Marxian
Transformation Problem". Review of Radical Political Economy; V.14-#2, pp. 37-47.
-J. Roemer (1982). A General Theory of Exploitation and Class. Cambridge: Harvard University
Press.
c. Falling Rate of Profit and Economic Crisis
-N. Okishio (1961). "Technical Changes and the Rate of Profit". Kobe University Economic
Review; V.7-#?, pp. 85-99.
-N. Okishio (1963). "A Mathematical Note on Marxian Theorems". WA; V.91-#2, pp. 287-299.
-N. Okishio (1977). "Notes on Technical Progress and Capitalist Society". Cambridge Journal of
Economics; V.?-#?, pp. 93-100.
-J. Roemer (1977). "Technical Change and the Tendency of the Rate of Profit to Fall". JET;
V.16-#2, pp. 403-424.
-J. Roemer (1978). "The Effect of Technological Change on the Real Wage and Marx's Falling
Rate of Profit". Australian Economic Papers; V.?-#?, pp. 152-166.
-J. Roemer (1979). "Continuing Controversey on the Falling Rate of Profit: Fixed Capital and
Other Issues". Cambridge Journal of Economics; V.3-#?, pp. 379-398.
-S. Bowles (1981). "Technical Change and the Profit Rate: A Simple Proof of the Okishio
Theorem". Cambridge Journal of Economics; V.5-#1, pp. 183-186.
-W. Nordhaus (1974). "The Falling Share of Profits". BPEA; #1, pp. 169-208.
-M. Feldstein and L. Summers (1977). "Is the Rate of Profit Falling?". BPEA; #1, pp. 211-227.
-T. Weisskopf (1979). "Marxian Crisis Theory and the Rate of Profit in the Postwar US
Economy". Cambridge Journal of Economics; V.3-#4, pp. 341-378. (Comment by F. Munley
(1981), V.5-#2, pp. 159-173 and Response, pp. 175-182).
-E. Wolff (1979). "The Rate of Surplus Value, the Organic Composition, and the General Rate of
Profit in the US Economy, 1947-1967". AER; V.69-#3, pp. 329-341.
5. Neo-Ricardian Models
a. Neo-Ricardian General Equilibrium
-L. Mainwaring (1984). Value and Distribution in Capitalist Economies: An Introduction to
Sraffian Economics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
-P. Sraffa (1960). Production of Commodities by Means of Commodities. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.
-G. Harcourt (1972). "Mr. Sraffa's Production of Commodities by Means of Commodities".
Appendix to Chapter 4 in Some Cambridge Controversies in the Theory of Capital. Cambridge:
CUP, pp. 177-204.
-P. Garegnani (1970). "Heterogeneous Capital, The Production Function and the Theory of
Distribution". REStud; V.37-#3, pp. 407-436.
-L. Pasinetti (1974). Growth and Income Distribution. Cambridge: Cambrige University Press.
-L. Pasinetti (1981). Structural Change and Economic Growth. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.
-W. Darity (1981). "The Simple Analytics of Neo-Ricardian Growth and Distribution". AER;
V.71-#5, pp. 978-993.
-J. Blatt (1984). Dynamic Economic Systems: A Post-Keynesian Approach. Armonk: M.E.
Sharpe.
-M. Blaug (1975). The Cambridge Revolution: Success or Failure? London: Institute of
Economic Affairs.
-A. Dixit (1977). "The Accumulation of Capital Theory". OEP; V.29-#1, pp. 1-29.
b. Reswitching
-D. Levhari (1965). "A Nonsubstitution Theorem and Switching of Techniques". QJE; V.79-#?,
pp. 98-105.
-L. Pasinetti (1966). "Changes in the Rate of Profit and Switches of Technique". QJE; V.80-#?,
pp. 503-517.
-D. Levhari and P. Samuelson (1966). "The Nonswitching Theorem is False". QJE; V.80-#?, pp.
518-519.
-M. Morishima (1966). "Refutation of the Nonswitching Theorem". QJE; V.80-#?, pp. 520-525.
-M. Bruno, E. Burmeister and E. Sheshinski (1966). "The Nature and Implications of the
Reswitching of Techniques". QJE; V.80-#?, pp. 526-553.
-P. Garegnani (1966). "Switching of Techniques". QJE; V.80-#?, pp. 555-567.
-P. Samuelson (1966). "A Summing Up". QJE; V.80-#?, pp. 568-583.
-K. Bharadwaj (1970). "On the Maximum Number of Switches between Two Production
Systems". Schweizerische Zeitschrift fr Volkswirtschaft und Statistik; V.?-#?, pp. 409-429.
-G. Harcourt (1972). "A Child's Guide to the Double-Switching Debate". Chapter 4 of Some
Cambridge Controversies in the Theory of Capital. Cambridge: CUP, pp. 118-176.
-J. Metcalfe and I. Steedman (1972). "Reswitching and Primary Input Use". EJ; V.82-#?, pp.
140-157.
B. Classical Models of International Trade
1. Overviews
-J. Chipman (1965). "A Survey of the Theory of International Trade: Part 1, The Classical
Theory".Etrica; V.33-#3, pp. 477-519.
-M. Chacholiades (1973). "The Classical Theory". Part II of The Pure Theory of International
Trade. Chicago: Aldine.
-G. Gandolfo (1987). "The Classical (Ricardo-Torrens) Theory of Comparative Costs". Chapter 2
of International Economics, I: The Pure Theory of International Trade. Berlin: Springer-Verlag,
pp. 7-32.
-A. Takayama (1971). "The Classical Theory of Comparative Advantage and Its Modern
Developments". Part II of International Trade: An Approach to the Theory. New York: Holt,
Rinehart and Winston.
2. The Basic Ricardian Analysis of International Trade
-D. Ricardo (1821). "On Foreign Trade". Chapter 7 of The Principles of Political Economy and
Taxation. Cambridge: CUP.
-J.S. Mill (1917). "International Values". Book III, Chapter xviii, Principles of Political
Economy. London: Longmans.
-E.S. Mason (1926). "The Doctrine of Comparative Costs". QJE; V.41-#?, pp. 63-93.
-J. Bhagwati (1967). "The Proofs of the Theorems on Comparative Advantage". EJ; V.77-#?, pp.
75-83.
-J. Melvin (1969). "Mill's Law of International Value". SEJ; V.36-#?, pp.
-M. Harwitz (1972). "A Note on Professor Chipman's Version of Mill's Law of International
Value". JIE; V.2-#?, pp. 181-188.
-A. Ray (1977). "Gains from Trade and the Size of a Country". JIE; V.7-#?, pp. 67-71.
-W. Ethier and A. Ray (1979). "Gains from Trade and the Size of a Country, II". JIE; V.9-#?, pp.
127-129.
-J.M. Hartwick (1979). "Distribution of World Income in the Ricardo-Mill Model of International
Trade". JIE; V.9-#?, pp. 117-126.
-R. Jones (1979). "Technical Progress and Real Incomes in a Ricardian Trade Model". Chapter
17 of International Trade: Essays in Theory. Amsterdam: North-Holland.
-R. Jones (1980). "Demand Behavior and the Theory of International Trade". in J. Chipman and
C. Kindleberger, eds. Flexible Exchange Rates and the Balance of Payments. Amsterdam:
North-Holland, pp. 321-340.
-H. Myint (1977). Adam Smiths Theory of International Trade in the Perspective of Economic
Development. Eca; V.44-#?, pp. 231-248.
-T. Negishi (1982). "The Labor Theory Value in the Ricardian Theory of International Trade".
History of Political Economy; V.14-#?, pp. 199-10.
-A. Maneschi (1983). Dynamic Aspects of Ricardos International Trade Theory. OEP; V.35-
#?, pp. 67-80.
-A. Deardorff (1980). "The General Validity of the Law of Comparative Advantage". JPE; V.88-
#?, pp. 941-957.
-R. Jones (1980). "Comparative and Absolute Advantage". Schweiz. Zeitschrift fr
Volkswirtschaft und Statistik; V.116-#3, pp. 235-259.
-S. Rosen (1978). "Substitution and the Division of Labor". Eca; V.45-#?, pp. 389-402.
-G. MacDonald and J. Markusen (1985). "A Rehabilitation of Absolute Advantage". JPE; V.93-
#2, pp. 277-297.
-R. Ruffin (1988). "The Missing Link: The Ricardian Approach to the Factor Endowments
Theory of Trade". AER; V.78-#4, pp. 759-772.
-R. Ruffin (1990). "The Ricardian Factor Endowment Theory of Trade". IEJ;
-R. Ruffin (1992). "First- and Second-Best Factor Comparative Advantages and International
Trade". Eca; V.59-#4, pp. 453-563.
-R. Ruffin (1993). "Job Market Preferences and International Trade". in W. Ethier, E. Helpman
and J.P. Neary, eds. Theory, Policy and Dynamics in International Trade. Cambridge: CUP, pp.
75-90.
3. Frank Graham's Theory of International Values
-F. Graham (1923). "The Theory of International Values Reexamined". QJE; V.38-#1, pp. 54-86.
-F. Graham (1932). "The Theory of International Values". QJE; V.46-#4, pp. 581-616.
-F. Graham (1948). The Theory of International Values. Princeton: PUP.
-L. Metzler (1950). "Graham's Theory of International Values". AER; V.40-#3, pp. 301-322.
-G. Elliott (1950). "The Theory of International Values". JPE; V.58-#1, pp. 16-30.
-G. Becker (1952). "A Note on Multi-Country Trade". AER; V.42-#4, pp. 558-568.
-T. Whitin (1953). "Classical Theory, Graham's Theory and Linear Programming in
International Trade". QJE; V.67-#?, pp. 520-544.
-L. McKenzie (1954). "On Equilibrium in Graham's Model of World Trade and Other
Competitive Systems". Etrica; V.22-#2, pp. 147-161.
4. Activity Analysis and the Ricardo-Graham Model of International Trade
-W. Leontief (1946). "Exports, Imports, Domestic Output and Employment". QJE; V.60-#?, pp.
171-193.
-S. Reiter (1953). "Trade Barriers in Activity Analysis". REStud; V.20-#3, pp. 174-180.
-L. McKenzie (1954). "Specialization and Efficiency in World Production". REStud; V.21-#3,
pp. 165-180.
-L. McKenzie (1955). "Specialization in Production and the Production Possibility Locus".
REStud; V.23-#1, pp. 56-64.
-R. Jones (1961). "Comparative Advantage and the Theory of Tariffs: A Multi-Country, Multi-
Commodity Model". REStud; V.28-#3, pp. 161-175.
-A. Amano (1966). "Intermediate Goods and the Theory of Comparative Advantage: A Two
Country, Three Commodity Case". WA; V.96-#2, pp. 340-345.
-H. Kuhn (1968). "Lectures on Mathematical Economics". in G. Dantzig and A. Veinott, eds.
Mathematics of the Decision Sciences (V. II). Providence: American Mathematical Society, pp.
49-84 (esp. lectures 3 and 4).
-R. Jones (1985). "Ricardo-Graham World Transformation Surfaces". Osaka City University
Economic Review; #20, pp. 27-33. [Comment by Minabe follows]
-R. McKinnon (1966). "Intermediate Products and Differential Tariffs: A Generalization of
Lerner's Symmetry Theorem". QJE; V.80-#4, pp. 584-615.
-J. Melvin (1969). "Intermediate Goods, The Production Possibility Curve, and Gains From
Trade". QJE; V.83-#?, pp. 140-151.
-H. Houthaker (1976). "The Calculation of Bilateral Trade Patterns in a Ricardian Model with
Intermediate Products and Barriers to Trade". JIE; V.6-#?, pp. 251-288.
5. The Continuum of Goods Model
-R. Dornbusch, S. Fischer and P. Samuelson (1977). "Comparative Advantage, Trade and
Payments in a Ricardian Model with a Continuum of Goods". AER; V.67-#5, pp. 823-839.
-C. Wilson (1980). "On the General Structure of Ricardian Models with a Continuum of Goods:
Applications to Growth, Tariff Theory, and Technical Change". Etrica; V.48-#7, pp. 1675-1702.
-S. Collins (1985). "Technical Progress in a Three-Country Ricardian Model with a Continuum
of Goods". JIE; V.19-#?, pp. 171-179.
-M. Itoh and K. Kiyono (1987). "Welfare-Enhancing Export Subsidies". JPE; V.95-#1, pp. 115-
137.
-J. Gaisford (1991). "Asymmetric Effects of Endowment Changes on Foreign Investment in
Source and Host Countries". CJE; V.24-#4, pp. 940-957.
6. International Trade in Neo-Ricardian Models
a. Overviews
-I. Steedman (1979). Trade Amongst Growing Economies. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press.
-A. Dixit (1981). "The Export of Capital Theory". JIE; V.11-#?, pp. 279-294.
-I. Steedman (1999). Production of Commodities by Means of Commodities and the Open
Economy. Metroeconomica; V.50-#3, pp. 260-276.
b. Factor-Price Equalization with Heterogeneous Capital
-P. Samuelson (1965). "Equalization by Trade of the Interest Rate Along with the Real Wage". in
R. Baldwin, et al. eds. Trade, Balance of Payments and Growth. Chicago: Rand McNally, pp.
35-52.
-I. Steedman and J. Metcalfe (1973). "The Non-Substitution Theorem and International Trade
Theory". Australian Economic Papers; V.12-#?, pp. 267-269.
-L. Mainwaring (1976). "Relative Prices and "Factor Price" Equalization in a Heterogeneous
Capital Goods Model". Australian Economic Papers; V.12-#?, pp. 109-118.
-E. Burmeister (1978). "An Interest Rate and Factor Price Equalization Theorem with Non-
Traded Commodities". JIE; V.8-#?, pp. 1-9.
-L. Mainwaring (1978). "The Interest Rate Equalization Theorem with Non-Traded Goods". JIE;
V.8-#?, pp. 11-19.
-P. Samuelson (1978). "Interest Rate Equalization and Non-Equalization by Trade in Leontief-
Sraffa Models". JIE; V.8-#?, pp. 21-27.
c. Theorems on Trade with Heterogeneous Capital
-K. Acheson (1970). "The Aggregation of Heterogeneous Capital Goods and Various Trade
Theorems". JPE; V.78-#2, pp. 565-571.
-J. Metcalfe and I. Steedman (1972). "Heterogeneous Capital and the Heckscher-Ohlin-
Samuelson Theory of Trade". in J. Parkin and A. Nobay, eds. Essays in Modern Economics.
London: Longman, pp. 50-60.
-P. Samuelson (1975). "Trade Pattern Reversals in Time-Phased Ricardian Systems and
Intertemporal Efficiency". JIE; V.5-#?, pp. 309-363.
-I. Steedman and J. Metcalfe (1977). "Reswitching, Primary Inputs and the HOS Theory of
Trade". JIE; V.7-#?, pp. 201-208.
-M. Kemp (1973). "Heterogeneous Capital Goods and Long-Run Stolper-Samuelson Theorems".
Australian Economic Papers; V.12-#?, pp. 253-260.
-M. Kemp and C. Khang (1974). "A Note on Steady-State Price:Output Relationships". JIE; V.4-
#2, pp. 187-197.
-W. Ethier (1979). "The Theorems of International Trade in Time-Phased Economies". JIE; V.9-
#?, pp. 225-238. (Comment by Metcalfe and Steedman, and Response. JIE, V.11-#?, pp. 267-
277)
d. Gains From Trade
-I. Steedman and J. Metcalfe (1973). "'On Foreign Trade'". Economia Internazionale; reprinted
in I. Steedman, ed. Fundamental Issues in Trade Theory. New York: St. Martins, pp. 99-109.
-J. Metcalfe and I. Steedman (1974). "A Note on the Gain From Trade". EcRec; V.50-#?, pp.
581-595.
-L. Mainwaring (1974). "A Neo-Ricardian Analysis of International Trade". KYKLOS; V.27-#?,
pp. 537-553.
-P. Samuelson (1978). "Free Trade's Intertemporal Pareto-Optimality". JIE; V.8-#?, pp. 147-149.
-M.A.M. Smith (1979). "Intertemporal Gains from Trade". JIE; V.9-#?, pp. 239-248.
-L. Mainwaring (1979). "On the Transition from Autarky to Trade". in I. Steedman, ed.
Fundamental Issues in Trade Theory. New York: St. Martins, pp. 131-141.
e. Distribution, Growth and Trade in a Neo-Ricardian World
-I. Steedman (1979). "The von Neumann Analysis and the Small Open Economy". in I.
Steedman, ed. Fundamental Issues in Trade Theory. New York: St. Martins, pp. 142-158.
-S. Parinello (1979). "Distribution, Growth and International Trade". in I. Steedman, ed.
Fundamental Issues in Trade Theory. New York: St. Martins, pp. 159-187.
-J. Metcalfe and I. Steedman (1979). "Growth and Distribution in an Open Economy". in I.
Steedman, ed. Fundamental Issues in Trade Theory. New York: St. Martins, pp. 201-227.
7. International Trade in Marxian and Neo-Marxian Models
-A. Emmanuel (1972). Unequal Exchange: A Study of the Imperialism of Trade. New York:
Monthly Review.
-S. Amin (1974). Accumulation on a World Scale: A Critique of the Theory of
Underdevelopment. New York: Monthly Review.
-S. Amin (1977). Imperialism and Unequal Development. New York: Monthly Review.
-G. Arrighi (1978). The Geometry of Imperialism. London: New Left Books.
-A. Shaikh (1979). "Foreign Trade and the Law of Value". Science and Society; V.43-#3, pp.
281-302; (1980) V.44-#1, pp.
-A. Shaikh (1980). "The Laws of International Exchange". in E. Nell, ed. Growth, Profits and
Prosperity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 204-235.
-J. Roemer (1983). "Unequal Exchange, Labor Migration, and International Capital Flows: A
Theoretical Synthesis". in P. Desai, ed. Marxism, Central Planning, and the Soviet Economy.
Cambridge: MIT Press, pp. 34-60.
-D. Schweickart (1991). "The Politics and Morality of Unequal Exchange". Economics and
Philosophy; V.7-#1, pp.
-D. Evans (1975). "Unequal Exchange and Economic Policies: Some Implications of the Neo-
Ricardian Critique of the Theory of Comparative Advantage". in I. Livingstone, ed.
Development Economics and Policy: Readings. London: Allen and Unwin.
-P. Samuelson (1976). "The Illogic of the Neo-Marxian Doctrine of Unequal Exchange". in D.
Belsley, et al., eds. Inflation, Trade and Taxes. Columbus: Ohio University Press.
-A. DeJanvry and F. Kramer (1979). "The Limits of Unequal Exchange". Review of Radical
Political Economics; V.11-#4, pp. 3-15.
-B. Gibson (1980). "Unequal Exchange: Theoretical Issues and Empirical Findings". Review of
Radical Political Economics; V.12-#3, pp. 15-35.
-L. Mainwaring (1980). "International Trade and the Transfer of Labour Values". Journal of
Development Studies; V.17-#1, pp. 22-31.
-R. Sau (1984). Underdeveloped Capitalism and the General Law of Value. Atlantic Highlands:
Humanities Press.
-E. Bacha (1978). "An Interpretation of Unequal Exchange from Prebisch-Singer to Emmanuel".
JDevE; V.5-#4, pp. 319-330.
-P. Krugman (1981). "Trade, Accumulation and Uneven Development". JDevE; V.8-#?, pp. 149-
161.
-D. Evans (1984). "A Critical Assessment of Some Neo-Marxian Trade Theories". Journal of
Development Studies; V.20-#2, pp. 202-226.
-A.K. Dutt (1986). "Vertical Trading and Uneven Development". JDevE; V.20-#?, pp. 339-359.
-A.K. Dutt (1988). "Monopoly Power and Uneven Development: Baran Revisited". Journal of
Development Studies; V.24-#2, pp. 161-176.
-S. Barrientos (1990). "The Classical Foundations of Unequal Exchange: A Critical Analysis".
British Review of Economic Issues; V.13-#29, pp. 61-86.
C. Testing the Classical Model
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of Comparative Costs, I". EJ; V.61-#244, pp. 697-724.
-G.D.A. MacDougall (1952). "British and American Exports: A Study Suggested by the Theory
of Comparative Costs, II". EJ; V.62-#247, pp. 487-521.
-A. Harberger (1957). "Some Evidence on the International Price Mechanism". JPE; V.65-#6,
pp. 506-521.
-R. Stern (1962). "British and American Productivity and Comparative Costs in International
Trade". OEP; V.14-#?, pp. 275-296. (comment by MacDougall, et al. follows)
-B. Balassa (1963). "An Empirical Demonstration of Classical Comparative Cost Theory".
REStat; V.45-#?, pp. 231-238.
-A.Y.C. Koo (1967). "Competition of American and Japanese Textiles in the World Market: An
Empirical Test of the Theory of Comparative Cost". in Essays in Mathematical Economics in
Honor of Oskar Morgenstern. Princeton: PUP, pp. 299-312.
-J. Bhagwati (1969). "The Pure Theory of International Trade". in J. Bhagwati, Trade, Tariffs
and Growth. Cambridge: MIT, pp. 3-122. [Discussion of empirical tests on the Ricardian model,
including original results, see pp. 7-23.]
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Comparisons of Prices and Output. New York: Columbia University Press/NBER, pp. 85-123.
[esp. pp. 96-103, and response by Balassa (123-131) and Bhagwati (131-137)]
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Internazionale; V.22-#?, pp. 662-674.
-H. Glejser (1972). "Empirical Evidence on Comparative Cost Theory from the European
Common Market Experience". EER; V.3-#?, pp. 247-258.
-J. McGilvray and D. Simpson (1973). "The Commodity Structure of Anglo-Irish Trade".
REStat;; V.55-#?, pp. 451-458.
-S. Golub (1994). "Comparative Advantage, Exchange Rates, and Sectoral Trade Balances of
Major Industrial Countries". IMFSP; V.41-#2, pp. 286-313.
-C. Noussair, C. Plott, and R. Riezman (1995). An Experimental Investigation of the Patterns of
International Trade. AER; V.85-#3, pp. 462-491.
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Review of Income and Wealth; V.35-#?, pp. 335-355.
III. NEOCLASSICAL MODELS OF GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM AND TRADE
A. Structure of the Neoclasscial Model
1. Background
a. Some Classical References
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(1950): Principles of Economics. Glencoe: Irwin.
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London: Allen and Unwin.
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Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (second edition 1946)
-P. Samuelson (1947). Foundations of Economic Analysis. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
(Enlarged edition, 1983)
-G. Debreu (1959). Theory of Value. New York: Wiley.
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Debreu. Cambridge: CUP/Econometric Society Monograph, pp. 1-29.
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#2, pp. 565-598.
b. Textbook treatments of GE Theory
-P. Newman (1965). The Theory of Exchange. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.
-J. Quirk and R. Saposnik (1968). Introduction to General Equilibrium Theory and Welfare
Economics. New York: McGraw Hill.
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Edgeworth and Walras. Amsterdam: North-Holland.
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Equilibrium. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
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-K. Arrow and F. Hahn (1971). General Competitive Analysis. Amsterdam: North-Holland.
-A. Kirman, ed. (1998). Elements of General Equilibrium Analysis. Oxford: Blackwell.
c. History and Philosophy of GE Modeling
(1) Reflections of Major Contributors
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56-66.
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Society (Gibbs Lecture); V.60-#3, pp. [also cptr 3 in Leontief, Essays in Economics: Theories,
Theorizing, Facts, and Policies. New Brunswick: Transaction Press, pp. 22-44.]
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Review; V.61-#1, pp. 1-7.
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Empirical Sciences. Synthese; V.12-#?, pp. 287-301.
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Choice. Nobel Lecture. [reproduced in K. Arrow (1983). Collected Papers, V.2: General
Equilibrium. Boston: Harvard University Press, pp. 199-226.]
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in Hahn, ed. (1984). Equilibrium and Macroeconomics. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 43-71.]
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Economic Theory. New York: Basic Books. [reproduced in Hahn, ed. (1984). Equilibrium and
Macroeconomics. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 72-87.]
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[reproduced in Hahn, ed. (1984). Equilibrium and Macroeconomics. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 111-
133.]
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-G. Debreu (1986). Theoretic Models: Mathematical Formalism and Economic Content.
Etrica; V.54-#6, pp. 1259-1270.
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Clothes. EJ; V.99-Conference, pp. 126-139.
(2) Positivist/Neo-Positivist Perspectives and Critiques
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Positive Economics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 3-43.
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pp. 1155-1164.
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1164-1172.
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313-325.
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pp. 366-374.
-A. Musgrave (1981). Unreal Assumptions in Economic Theory: The F-Twist Untwisted.
KYKLOS; V.34-#3, pp. 377-387.
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pp.
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Philosophy in Economics. Dordrecht: D. Reidel, pp. 5-15.
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Philosophy in Economics. Dordrecht: D. Reidel, pp. 17-32.
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A. Rosenberg (1989). Are Generic Predictions Enough?. Erkenntnis; V.30-#1/2, pp. 43-68.
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ed.. Economics, Culture and Education: Essays in honour of Mark Blaug. Aldershot: Elgar, pp.
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Cambridge: CUP.
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Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
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Economic Methodology. Totowa: Rowman & Littlefield.
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Press.
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Totowa: Rowman & Littlefield.
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Heat Than Light. Durham: Duke University Press.
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D.W. Hands (1993). Thirteen Theses on Progress in Economic Methodology. in D.W. Hands,
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M. Blaug (1994). Why I Am Not a Constructivist: Confessions of an Unrepentant Popperian.
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Edward Elgar.
(3) Lakatosian Perspectives and Critiques
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and Sub-Disciplinary Growth. History of Political Economy; V.11-#1, pp. 30-63.
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1-16.
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Post Keynesian Economics; V.3-#3, pp.539-558.
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Keynesian Economics; V. 5-#2, pp. 295-303. [Rejoinder by Dow follows, pp. 304-308.]
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Knowledge. History of Political Economy; V.16-#1, pp. 59-67.
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Philosophy; V.3-#1, pp. 23-37.
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deMarchi, ed. The Popperian Legacy in Economics. Cambridge: CUP, pp. 213-227.
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Equilibrium Theory. Journal of Economic Issues; V.22-#1, pp. 127-155.
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Economics and Philosophy; V.1-#2, pp.303-335.
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2. Technology and Opportunity Cost in the Neoclassical Model
a. Neoclassical Technology
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b. Production Sets
(1) Geometric Analysis for the 2x2 Case
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pp. 919-923.
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(2) General Analysis of Production Sets
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Interindustry Flows: The Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for its Strict Convexity". JIE; V.3-
#?, pp. 283-390.
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Intermediate Goods". JIE; V.3-#?, pp. 291-296.
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Production Conditions". Zeitschrift fr die Gesamte Staatswissenschaft; V.129-#2, pp. 205-214.
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Resource Allocation. Amsterdam: North-Holland, pp. 38-65.
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V.37-#?, pp. 375-381.
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than Primary Factors". IER; V.25-#2, pp. 409-424.
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V.27-#3, pp. 727-737.
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and Two Primary Factors with and Without Capital Mobility". IER; V.27-#3, pp. 707-726.
3. Demand, Preference Aggregation and Community Welfare
a. Preference, Choice and Utility Functions
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pp. 243-253.
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945-973.
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385.
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114-148.
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eds. Handbook of Mathematical Economics. Amsterdam: North-Holland, pp.
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b. Preference Aggregation: Problems and Resolutions
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Chapter IV of General Equilibrium of International Discrimination. Cambridge: Harvard
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350.
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V.4-#1, pp. 1-56.
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575.
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Preferences". JET; V.21-#?, pp. 157-172.
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V.42-#?, pp. 525-543.
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V.12-#?, pp. 33-61.
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699.
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Economic Theory; V.2-#3, pp. 359-388
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pp. 37-52.
c. General Properties of Excess Demand Functions
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Community Excess Demand Functions?". JET; V.6-#?, pp. 345-354.
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348-353.
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Functions". in M. Intriligator, ed. Frontiers of Quantitative Economics, V.IIIA. Amsterdam:
North-Holland, pp. 111-126.
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V.12-#?, pp. 197-201.
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Functions". Etrica; V.48-#?, pp. 315-331.
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Chapter 14 in K. Arrow and M. Intriligator, eds. Handbook of Mathematical Economics.
Amsterdam: North-Holland, pp. 671-693.
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Clothes. EJ; V.99-Conference, pp. 126-139.
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Macrosystems: Some Impossibility Theorems. in J.-P. Aubin, D. Saari, and K. Sigmund, eds.
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C. Aliprantis, O. Burkinshaw, and N. Rothman, eds. Advances in Equilibrium Theory. Berlin:
Springer.
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Organization; V.16-#1/2, pp. pp. 3-35.
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Markets. JET; V.68-#1, pp. 49-63.
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with Incomplete Markets and Nominal Assets. Economic Theory; V.13-#2, pp. 287-308.
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in Incomplete Markets. Journal Of Mathematical Economics; V.31-#1, pp. 111-129.
[Corrigendum, (2000), V.33-#4, pp. 531-532.]
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Excess Demand on the Grassmanian. Journal of Mathematical Economics; V.33-#4, pp. 463-
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4. Topological Approaches to General Equilibrium
a. Existence
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V.21-#1, pp. 1-39.
-K. Arrow and G. Debreu (1954). "Existence of an Equilibrium for a Competitive Economy".
Etrica; V.22-#?, pp. 265-290.
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169.
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V.4-#?, pp. 143-156.
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Second Symposium on Linear Programming. Washington, DC: National Bureau of Standards and
Department of the Air Force.
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Etrica; V.27-#?, pp. 54-71.
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257-273.
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V.49-#4, pp. 819-841.
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Preferences". JMathE; V.1-#?, pp. 237-246.
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Equilibrium". JET; V.11-#?, pp. 83-93.
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Intriligator, eds. Handbook of Mathematical Economics. Amsterdam: North-Holland, pp. 697-
743.
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Becker, M. Boldrin, R. Jones and W. Thomson, eds. General Equilibrium, Growth, and Trade II.
San Diego: Academic Press, pp. 3-50.
b. Computation of Equilibrium
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Irving Fisher. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
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University Press.
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Studies in Mathematical Economics. Washington, DC: American Mathematical Association, pp.
199-218.
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J. Shoven and J. Whalley, Applying General Equilibrium. Cambridge: CUP, pp. 37-68.
c. Uniqueness
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General Competitive Analysis. Amsterdam: North-Holland, pp. 207-244.
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Unbounded Demand". Econometrica; V.41-#?, pp. 817-828.
-I. Pearce and J. Wise (1974). "On the Uniqueness of Competitive Equilibrium: Part II, Bounded
Demand". Econometrica; V.42-#?, pp. 921-932.
d. Core
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Radner, eds. Decision and Organization. Amsterdam: North-Holland.
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pp. 265-281.
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of Mathematical Economics, V.II. Amsterdam: North-Holland, pp. 831-877.
5. Differentiability, Global Analysis and General Equilibrium
a. Characterization and Existence
-G. Debreu (1976). "The Application to Economics of Differential Topology and Global
Analysis: Regular Differentiable Economies". AER; V.66-#?, pp. 280-287.
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eds. Handbook of Mathematical Economics. Amsterdam: North-Holland, pp. 331-370.
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Handbook of Mathematical Economics. Amsterdam: North-Holland, pp. 795-830.
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Economic Equilibrium". in S. Reiter, ed. Studies in Mathematical Economics. Washington, DC:
American Mathematical Association, pp. 160-198.
-E. Dierker (1974). Topological Methods in Walrasian Economics. Berlin: Springer Verlag.
-A. Mas-Colell (1985). The Theory of General Equilibrium: A Differentiable Approach.
Cambridge:CUP/Econometric Society.
-Y. Balasko (1988). Foundations of the Theory of General Equilibrium. San Diego: Academic
Press.
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Virginia.
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-S. Lang (1972). Differential Manifolds. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
b. Number/Finiteness/Uniqueness of Equilibria
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-E. Dierker (1972). "Two Remarks on the Number of Equilibria of an Economy". Etrica; V.40-
#5, pp. 951-953.
-H. Varian (1975). "A Third Remark on the Number of Equilibria of an Economy". Etrica; V.43-
#?, pp. 985-986.
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V.19-#?, pp. 679-685.
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#2, pp. 117-126.
-Y. Balasko (1979). "Economies with a Finite but Large Number of Equilibria". JMathE; V.6-#2,
pp. 145-147.
-S. Smale (1974). "Global Analysis and Economics, IIA: Extension of a theorem of Debreu".
JMathE; V.1-#1, pp. 1-14.
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Economies". JMathE; V.5-#?, pp. 245-253.
-G. Fuchs (1974). "Private Ownership Economies with a Finite Number of Equilibria". JMathE;
V.1-#2, pp. 141-148.
-S. Smale (1974). "Global Analysis and Economics, IV: Finiteness and Stability of Equilibria
with General Consumption Sets and Production". JMathE; V.1-#2, pp. 119-127.
-A. Mas-Colell (1975). "On the Continuity of Equilibrium Prices in Constant-Returns Production
Economies". JMathE; V.2-#1, pp. 21-33.
-G. Fuchs (1977). "Continuity of Equilibria for Production Economies: New Results". Etrica;
V.45-#8, pp. 1777-1796.
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V.48-#5, pp. 1211-1232.
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-T. Kehoe (1985). "Multiplicity of Equilibrium and Comparative Statics". QJE; V.100-#?, pp.
119-148.
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eds. Equilibrium Theory and Applications. Cambridge: CUP, pp. 275-296.
c. Optimality
-S. Smale (1973). "Optimizing Several Functions". in A. Hattori, ed. Manifolds--Tokyo, 1973.
pp. 69-75.
-S. Smale (1974). "Sufficient Conditions for an Optimum". in A. Manning ed. Dynamical
Systems--Warwick 1974. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
-C. Simon (1986). "Scalar and Vector Maximization: Calculus Techniques with Economic
Applications". in S. Reiter, ed. Studies in Mathematical Economics. Washington, DC: American
Mathematical Association, pp. 62-159.
-S. Smale (1973). "Global Analysis and Economics, I: Pareto Optimum and a Generalization of
Morse Theory". in M. Peixoto, ed. Dynamical Systems. New York: Academic Press, pp. 531-544.
-S. Smale (1974). "Global Analysis and Economics, III: Pareto Optima and Price Equilibria".
JMathE; V.1-#2, pp. 107-117.
-S. Smale (1974). "Global Analysis and Economics, V: Pareto Theory with Constraints".
JMathE; V.1-#?, pp. 213-221.
-S. Smale (1976). "Global Analysis and Economics, VI: Geometric Analysis of Pareto Optima
and Price Equilibria under Classical Hypotheses". JMathE; V.3-#1, pp. 1-14.
-G. Chichilnisky (1993). Topology and Economics: The Contribution of Stephen Smale. in M.
Hirsch, J. Marsden, and M. Shub, eds. From Topology to Computation: Proceedings of the
Smalefest. New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. 147-161.
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-C. Simon and C. Titus (1975). "Characterization of Optimal in Smooth Pareto Economic
Systems". JMathE; V.2-#2, pp. 297-330.
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d. Computation of Equilibrium
-S. Smale (1976). "A Convergent Process of Price Adjustements and Global Newton Methods".
JMathE; V.3-#1, pp. 1-14.
-S. Smale (1976). "Exchange Processes with Price Adjustment". JMathE; V.3-#?, pp. 211-226.
-S. Smale (1977). "An Approach to the Analysis of Dynamic Processes in Economic Systems". in
G. Schwdiauer, ed. Equilibrium and Disequilibrium in Econmic Theory. Dordrecht: D. Reidel,
pp. 363-367.
-H. Varian (1977). "A Remark on Boundary Restriction in the Global Newton Method". JMathE;
V.4-#?, pp. 127-130.
6. No-Arbitrage and Equilibrium Existence
a. No-Arbitrage Conditions in Financial Economics
-H. Varian (1987). The Arbitrage Principle in Financial Economics. Journal of Economic
Perspectives; V.1-#2, pp. 55-72
-P. Dybvig and S. Ross (1987). Arbitrage. The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics. V.I.
London: Macmillan, pp. 100-106.
-S. Ross (1976). Return, Risk, and Arbitrage. in I. Friend and J. Bicksler eds. Risk and Return
in Finance, Vol. 1. Cambridge: Ballinger, pp. 189-218.
-S. Ross (1976). The Arbitrage Theory of Capital Asset Pricing. JET; V.13-#3, pp. 341-360.
-S. Ross (1978). A Simple Approach to the Valuation of Risky Streams. JBus; V.51-#3, pp.
453-475.
-G. Huberman (1982). A Simple Approach to Arbitrage Pricing. JET; V.28-#?, pp. 183-191.
b. No-Arbitrage and Equilibrium Existence in GE Models with Asset Markets
-O. Hart (1974). On the Existence of Equilibrium in a Securities Model. JET; V.9-#?, pp. 293-
311.
-P. Hammond (1983). Overlapping Expectations and Harts Conditions for Equilibrium in a
Securities Market. JET; V.31-#?, pp. 170-175.
-F. Page (1987). On Equilibrium in Harts Securities Exchange Model. JET; V.41-#?, pp. 392-
404.
-J. Werner (1987). Arbitrage and the Existence of Competitive Equilibrium. Etrica; V.55-#6,
pp. 1403-1418.
-L. Nielsen (1989). Asset Market Equilibrium with Short-Selling. REStud; V.56-#?, pp. 467-
474.
-L. Kousougeras (1998). A Two-stage Core with Applications to Asset Market and Differential
Information Economies. ET; V.11-#3, pp. 563-584.
-G. Chichilnisky (1993). Intersecting Families of Sets and the Topology of Cones in
Economics. Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society; V.29-#2, pp. 189-207.
-G. Chichilnisky (1994). Social Diversity, Arbitrage, and Gains from Trade: A Unified
Perspective on Resource Allocation. AER; V.84-#2, pp. 427-434.
-G. Chichilnisky (1995). Limited Arbitrage is Necessary and Sufficient for the Existence of a
Competitive Equilibrium with or without Short Sales. ET; V.5-#?, pp. 79-108.
-P. Monteiro, F. Page, and M. Wooders (1997). Arbitrage, Equilibrium, and Gains from Trade:
A Counterexample. JMathE; V.28-#?, pp. 481-501.
-G. Chichilnisky (1997). Limited Arbitrage is Necessary and Sufficient for the Existence of an
Equilibrium. JMathE; V.28-#?, pp. 470-479.
-G. Chichilnisky (1997). Market Arbitrage, Social Choice and the Core. SC&W; V.14-#?, pp.
161-198.
-P. Monteiro, F. Page, and M. Wooders (1997). Arbitrage and Global Cones: Another
Counterexample. SC&W; V.16-#?, pp. 337-346.
-F. Page (1996). Arbitrage and Asset Prices. MathSocSci; V.31-#?, pp. 183-208.
-F. Page and M. Wooders (1996). A Necessary and Sufficient Condition for the Compactness of
Individually Rational and Feasible Outcomes and the Existence of an Equilibrium. EcLets;
V.52-#?, pp. 153-162.
-F. Page and M. Wooders (1996). The Partnered Core of an Economy and the Partnered
Competitive Equilibrium. EcLets; V.52-#?, pp. 143-152.
-G. Chichilnisky (1997). A Topological Invariant for Competitive Markets. JMathE; V.28-#?,
pp. 445-469.
-G. Chichilnisky and G. Heal (1998). A Unified Treatment of Finite and Infinite Economies:
Limited Arbitrage is Necessary and Sufficient for the Existence of Equilibrium and the Core.
ET; V.12-#?, pp. 163-176.
-R. Page and M. Wooders (1999). Arbitrage with Price-Dependent Preferences: Equilibrium and
Market Stability. in M. Wooders, ed. Topics in Mathematical Economics and Game Theory.
Providence: American Mathematical Society, pp. 189-212.
-R.-A. Dana, C. Le Van, and F. Magnien (1999). Asset Equilibrium in Asses Markets with and
without Short-selling. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications; V206-#?, pp. 567-
588.
-R.-A. Dana, C. Le Van, and F. Magnien (1999). On the Different Notions of Arbitrage and
Existence of Equilibrium. JET; V.87-#1, pp. 169-193.
-R.-A. Dana and C. Le Van (2000). Arbitrage, Duality and Asset Equilibria. JmathE; V.34-#?,
pp. 397-413.
7. Stability
a. Overviews
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-D. Davies (1963). "A Note on Marshallian versus Walrasian Stability Conditions". CJE; V.29-
#4, pp. 535-540.
-T. Negishi (1962). "The Stability of a Competitive Economy: A Survey Article". Etrica; V.30-
#?, pp. 635-669.
-F. Fisher (1976). "The Stability of General Equilibrium: Results and Problems". in M. Artis and
Nobay, eds. Essays in Economic Analysis. Cambridge: CUP.
-F. Hahn (1982). "Stability". in K. Arrow and M. Intriligator, eds. Handbook of Mathematical
Economics. Amsterdam: North-Holland, pp. 745-793.
b. Excess Demand Functions and Stability
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Employment. pp. 91-109.
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277-292.
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University Press.
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Mathematical Methods in the Social Sciences. Stanford: Stanford University Press, pp. 47-62.
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Henn and O. Moeschlin, eds. Mathematical Economics and Game Theory. Berlin: Springer-
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c. The Correspondence Principle
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Econometrica; V.9-#?, pp. 97-120.
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Econometerica; V10-#1, pp. 1-25.
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6.4). Chapter 6 of Introduction to General Theory Equilibrium and Welfare Economics. New
York: McGraw Hill.
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General Competitive Analysis. Amsterdam: North-Holland, pp. 320-321.
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Analysis. Journal of Economic Issues; V.5-#1, pp. 47-56.
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Theory: Application of Samuelson's Correspondence Principle. Quarterly Journal of
Economics; V.91-#2, pp. 289-314.
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American Economic Review; V.68-#4, pp. 671-682.
-Herberg, Horst and Murray Kemp (1980). In Defense of some Paradoxes of Trade Theory.
American Economic Review; V.70-#4, pp. 812-814.
-Neary, J. Peter (1980). This Side of Paradox, or, in Defense of the Correspondence Principle: A
Reply to Herberg and Kemp. American Economic Review; V.70-#4, pp. 815-818.
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Economics, Vol. 1. Pp. 678-679.
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Principle: A Critique. South African Journal of Economics; v46 n4 Dec. 1978, pp. 307-25.
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of Economics; v48 n1 March 1980, pp. 87-88.
-Magill, Michael J. P.; Scheinkman, Jose A. Stability of Regular Equilibria and the
Correspondence Principle for Symmetric Variational Problems. International Economic Review;
v2 n2 June 1979, pp. 297-315.
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Review of Economic Studies; V.47-#5, pp. 987-997.
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Applications of Recent Results on the Asymptotic Stability of Optimal Control to the Problem of
Comparing Long Run Equilibria. in H. Sonnenschein, ed.. Models of economic dynamics.
Lecture Notes in Economics and Mathematical Systems series, vol. 264. New York: Springer-
Verlag, pp. 86-116.
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Principle: A Generalization. American Economic Review; V.77-#1, pp. 124-132.
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Principle. Economics Letters; V.34-#1, pp. 1-4.
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Principle in the Theory of International Trade. Economics Letters; V.33-#4, pp. 301-308.
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Journal of Economics; V.75-#3, pp. 302-304.
d. Individual Behavior, Gross Substitutes and Stability
-J. Hicks (1939). Value and Capital. Oxford: OUP.
-P. Samuelson (1944). "The Relation between Hicksian and True Dynamic Stability". Etrica;
-M. Morishima (1957). "Notes on the Theory of Stability of Multiple Exchanges". REStud; V.24-
#?, pp. 203-208.
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V.26-#?, pp. 169-170.
-K. Arrow and L. Hurwicz (1958). "On the Stability of Competitive Equilibrium, I". Etrica;
V.26-#?, pp. 522-552.
-K. Arrow, H. Block and L. Hurwicz (1959). "On the Stability of Competitive Equilibrium, II".
Etrica; V.27-#1, pp. 82-109.
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Substitutability". IER; V.?-#?, pp. 233-255.
-T. Negishi (1972). "Stability and the Gross Substitutability". Chapter 13 in General Equilibrium
Theory and International Trade. Amsterdam: North-Holland, pp. 191-206
-H. Scarf (1960). "Some Examples of Global Instability of Competitive Equilibrium". IER; V.1-
#3, pp. 157-172.
-D. Gale (1963). "A Note on Global Instability of Competitive Equilibrium". Naval Research
Logistics Quarterly; V.10-#?, pp. 81-87.
-M. Morishima (1953-4). "A Note on a Point in Value and Capital." REStud; V.21-#3, pp. 214-
217. (Reply by Hicks and response by Morishima).
-D.V.T. Bear (1965). "Inferior Inputs and the Theory of the Firm". JPE; V.73-#3, pp. 287-289.
-T. Rader (1968). "Normally, Factor Inputs are Never Gross Substitutes". JPE; V.73-#?, pp. 38-
43.
-M. Ohyama (1972). "On the Stability of Generalized Metzlerian Systems". REStud; V.39-#?, pp.
e. Non-Ttonnement Stability
-T. Negishi (1961). "On the Formation of Prices". IER; V.2-#?, pp. 122-126.
-H. Uzawa (1962). "On the Stability of Edgeworth's Barter Process". IER; V.3-#?, pp. 218-232.
-L. Hurwicz, R. Radner and S. Reiter (1975). "A Stochastic Decentralized Resource Allocation
Process, I and II". Etrica; V.43-#?, pp. 187-221, 363-393.
-F. Hahn (1962). "On the Stability of Pure Exchange Equilibrium". IER, V.3-#?, pp. 206-213.
-M. Morishima (1962). "The Stability of Exchange Equilibrium: An Alternative Approach". IER;
V.3-#?, pp.
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pp. 463-469.
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Theory and International Trade. Amsterdam: North-Holland, pp. 207-227.
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#?, pp. 907-938.
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Becker, M. Boldrin, R. Jones and W. Thomson, eds. General Equilibrium, Growth, and Trade II.
San Diego: Academic Press, pp. 181-202.
B. Reciprocal Demand and Trade in The Neoclassical Model
1. Overviews
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Theory". Etrica; V.33-#4, pp. 685-760.
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Trade--A Survey of Some Recent Developments in the Theory of International Trade". KES.
V.19-#?, pp. 1-37.
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Production and Trade". KES; V.24-#?, pp. 43-62.
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Dictionary of Ecnomics. London: Macmillan, pp. 922-955.
-G. Gandolfo (1987). "The Neoclassical Theory of International Trade". Chapter 3 of
International Economics, I: The Pure Theory of International Trade. Berlin: Springer-Verlag,
pp. 33-175.
2. Basic Analysis
a. Opportunity Cost
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Trade". Eca; V.12-#?, pp. 346-356.
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Trade". WA; V.32-#?, pp. 349-370.
-J. Viner (1937). "Gains from Trade: The Doctrive of Comparative Costs". Chapter 8 in Studies
in the Theory of International Trade. Clifton: A.M. Kelley, pp. 437-526.
-J. Vanek (1959). "An Afterthought on the Real Cost-Opportunity Cost Dispute and Some
Aspects of General Equilibrium under Conditions of Variable Factor Supplies". REStud; V.26-#?,
pp. 198-208.
-M. Chacholiades (1973). "Opportunity Cost". Chapter 4 of The Pure Theory of International
Trade. Chicago: Aldine, pp. 81-117.
b. Demand in Neoclassical Trade Theory
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V.48-#?, pp. 493-503.
-A. Lerner (1934). "The Diagrammatical Representation of Demand Conditions in International
Trade". Eca; V.1-#?, pp. 319-334.
-M. Chacholiades (1973). "Community Indifference and Comparative Advantage". Chapter 5 of
The Pure Theory of International Trade. Chicago: Aldine, pp. 118-140.
c. International Equilibrium
-A. Marshall (1879). The Pure Theory of Foreign Trade. London: LSE&PS
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-F.Y. Edgeworth (1894). "The Theory of International Values". EJ; V.4-#?,pp. Part I: 35-56; Part
II: 424-443; Part III: 606-638.
-T.O. Yntema (1932). A Mathematical Reformulation of the General Theory of International
Trade. Chicago: University of Chicagoe Press.
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Monograph #7.
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#?, pp. 135-145.
-R. Baldwin (1948). "Equilibrium in International Trade: A Diagrammatic Analysis". QJE;
V.62-#?, pp. 748-762.
-J. Meade (1952). A Geometry of International Trade. London: Allen and Unwin.
-J. Bhagwati and H.G. Johnson (1960). "Notes on Some Controversies in the Theory of
International Trade". EJ; V. 70-#?, pp. 74-93.
-R. Mundell (1960). "The Pure Theory of International Trade". AER; V.60-#1, pp. 67-110. [also
Chapters 2 and 3 of Mundell's (1968) International Economics.]
-M. Chacholiades (1973). "International Equilibirum". Chapter 5 of The Pure Theory of
International Trade. Chicago: Aldine, pp. 141-169.
-R. Jones and E. Berglas (1977). "Import Demand and Export Supply: An Aggregation
Theorem". AER; V.67-#2, pp. 183-187.
3. Stability
-R. Jones (1961). "Stability Conditions in International Trade: A General Equilibrium Analysis".
IER; V.2-#2, pp. 199-209.
-M. Kemp (1964). "A Trading World--Stability Conditions". Chapter 5 of The Pure Theory of
International Trade. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, pp. 59-71.
-A. Amano (1968). "Stability Conditions in the Pure Theory of International Trade: A
Rehabilitation of the Marshallian Approach". QJE; V.82-#2, pp. 326-339.
-T. Negishi (1972). "The Stability of Foreign Exchange". Chapter 15 in General Equilibrium
Theory and International Trade. Amsterdam: North-Holland, pp. 228-243.
-A. Takayama (1972). "The Marshall-Lerner Condition and the Neoclassical System of
International Trade Policy". Chapter 8 of International Trade. New York: Holt, Rinehart and
Winston, pp. 215-250.
-A. Amano (1971). "Stability Conditions in the Real and Monetary Models of International
Trade". in L. DiMarco, ed. International Economics and Development. New York: Academic
Pres, pp. 47-59.
-M. Tawada (1989). "The Stability Properties of Trade Equilibrium". Production Structure and
International Trade. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pp. 5-20.
-M. Tawada (1989). "The Stability of Dynamic Processes Allowing for Instantaneous
Adjustment". Appendix 1 of Production Structure and International Trade. Berlin: Springer-
Verlag, pp. 104-111.
-S. Katayama, M. Okamura and M. Tawada (1991). "The Stability of Dynamic Processes with
Instantaneous Adjustment and the Pure Theory of International Trade". in A. Takayama, M.
Ohyama and H. Ohta, eds. Trade, Policy and International Adjustments. San Diego: Academic
Press, pp. 285-294.
4. Modelling Import Demand and Supply
a. Aggregate Import Demand
-S.P. Magee (1975). Prices, Incomes, and Foreign Trade. in P. Kenen, ed. International Trade
and Finance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.
-M. Goldstein and M.S. Khan (1985). Income and Price Effects in Foreign Trade. in Jones and
Kenen, eds. Handbook of International Economics. Amsterdam: North-Holland, II: pp. 1041-
1105.
-G. Orcutt (1950). Measurement of Price Elasticities in International Trade. REStat; V.32-#?,
pp.
-D. Morgan and W. Corlett (1951). The Influence of Price in International Trade: A Study in
Method. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society--Series A; V.
-M. Kemp (1962). Errors of Measurement and Bias in Estimates of Import Demand
Parameters. EcRec; V.38-#?, pp. 369-372.
-N. Kakwani (1972). On the Bias in Estimates of Import Demand Parameters. EcRec; V.38-#?,
pp. 239-244.
-M. Kreinin (1967). Price Elasticities in International Trade. REStat; V.49-#?, pp. 510-516.
-H. Houthaker and S.P. Magee (1969). Income and Price Elasticities in World Trade. REStat;
V.51-#?, pp. 111-125.
-R.J. Ball and K. Marwah (1962). The US Demand for Imports, 1948-1958. REStat; V.44-#?,
pp. 395-401.
-M. Khan and K. Ross (1977). The Functional Form of the Aggregate Import Demand
Equation. JIE; V.7-#?, pp. 149-160.
-M. Goldstein and M. Khan (1978). The Supply and Demand for Exports: A Simultaneous
Approach. REStat; V.60-#?, pp. 275-286.
-R. Stern, C. Baum and M. Greene (1979). Evidence on Structural Change in the Demand for
Aggregate US Imports and Exports. JPE; V.87-#1, pp. 179-192.
-T. Boylan, M. Cuddy and I. OMuircheartaigh (1980). The Functional Form of the Aggregate
Import Demand Equation: A Comparison of Three European Economies. JIE; V.10-#?, pp. 561-
566.
-B. Zilberfarb (1980). Domestic Demand Pressure, Relative Prices and the Export Supply
Equation. Eca; V.47-#?, pp. 443-450.
-U. Kohli (1982). Relative Price Effects and Demand for Imports. CJE; V.15-#?, pp. 205-219.
-P.A. Volker (1982). On the US Import Demand Function: A Comment. JPE; V.90-#?, pp.
1295-1299.
-S. Haynes and J. Stone (1983). Secular and Cyclical Responses of US Trade to Income: An
Evaluation of Traditional Models. REStat; V.65-#?, pp. 87-95.
-S. Haynes and J. Stone (1983). Specification of Supply Behavior in International Trade.
REStat; V.65-#?, pp. 626-632.
-D. Warner and M. Kreinin (1983). Determinants of International Trade Flows. REStat; V.65-
#?, pp. 96-104.
-K. Maskus (1983). Evidence on Shifts in the Determinants of US Manufacturing Foreign
Trade. REStat; V.65-#?, pp. 415-422.
-J. Thursby and M. Thursby (1984). How Reliable are Simple, Single Equation Specifications of
Import Demand. REStat; V.66-#?, pp. 120-128.
-J. Marquez and C. McNeilly (1988). Income and Price Elasticities for Exports of Developing
Countries. REStat; V.70-#?, pp. 306-314.
-R. Faini, L. Pritchett, and F. Clavijo (1992). Import Demand in Developing Countries. in M.
Dagenais and P. Muett, eds. International Trade Modeling. New York: Chapman and Hall, pp.
279-297.
-R. Clarida (1994). Cointegration, Aggregate Consumption, and the Demand for Imports: A
Structural Econometric Investigation. AER; V.84-#1, pp. 298-308.
-A. Senhadji (1998). Time-Series Estimation of Structural Import Demand Equations: A Cross-
Country Analysis. IMFSP; V.45-#2, pp. 236-268.
b. Disaggregated Import Elasticities
-R. Frisch (1959). A Complete Scheme for Computing All Direct and Cross Elasticies in a
Model with Many Sectors. Etrica; V.27-#?, pp. 177-196.
-P. Armington (1969). A Theory of Demand for Products Distinguished by Place of Production.
IMFSP; V.16-#?, pp. 159-176.
-B. Hickman and L. Lau (1973). Elasticities of Substitution and Export Demands in a World
Trade Model. EER; V.4-#?, pp. 347-380.
-J. Price and J. Thornblade (1972). US Import Demand Functions Disaggregated by Country
and Commodity. SEJ; V.39-#?, pp. 46-57.
-M. Kreinin (1973). Disaggregated Foreign Demand Functions--Further Results. SEJ; V.40-#?,
pp. 19-25.
-J.D. Richardson (1976). Some Issues in the Structural Determination of International Price
Responsiveness. in H. Glejser, ed. Quantitative Studies in International Economic Relations.
Amsterdam: North-Holland, pp.
-R. Stern, J. Francis, and B. Schumacker (1976). Price Elasticities in International Trade.
London: Basingstoke.
-J. Mutti (1977). The Specification of Demand Equations for Imports and Domestic
Substitutes. SEJ; V.44-#?, pp. 68-73.
-J. Stone (1979). Price Elasticities of the Demand for Imports and Exports: Industry Estimates
for the US, the EEC, and Japan. REStat; V.61-#?, pp. 306-312.
-C. Hamilton (1980). Import Elasticities at a Disaggregated Level: The Case of Sweden.
ScanJE; V.4-#?, pp. 449-463.
-G.M. Grossman (1982). Import Competition from Developed and Developing Countries.
REStat; V.64-#?, pp. 271-281.
-D. Rousslang and S. Parker (1984). Cross-Price Elasticities of US Import Demand. REStat;
V.66-#?, pp. 518-523.
-U. Lchler (1985). The Elasticity of Substitution between Imported and Domestically Produced
Goods in Germany. WA; V.121-#?, pp. 74-96.
-C. Shiells, R. Stern and A. Deardorff (1986). Estimates of Elasticities of Substitution between
Imports and Home Goods for the US. WA; V.122-#?, pp. 497-519. [Comment by D. Rousslang
and response, WA; 1989, V.125-#?, pp. 366-374.]
-K. Reinert and D. Roland-Holst (1992). Armington Elasticities for US Manufacturing Sectors.
Journal of Policy Modelling; V.14-#?, pp. 631-639.
-C. Shiells and K. Reinert (1993). Armington Models and Terms-of-Trade Effects: Some
Econometric Evidence for North America. CJE; V.26-#2, pp. 299-316.
-D. Tarr (1990). A Modified Cournot Aggregation Condition for Obtaining Cross-Elasticities of
Demand. Eastern Economic Journal; V.16-#3, pp. 257-264.
-L.A. Winters (1984). Separability and the Specification of Foreign Trade Functions. JIE;
V.17-#?, pp. 239-263.
-P. DeBoer, R. Harkema and B. vanHeeswijk (1987). Estimating Foreign Trade Functions: A
Comment and a Correction. JIE; V.22-#?, pp. 369-373.
-L.A. Winters (1985). Separability and the Modelling of International Economic Integration:
U.K. Exports to Five Industrial Countries. EER; V.27-#?, pp. 335-353.
-P. Brenton (1989). The Allocation Approach to Trade Modelling: Some Tests of Separability
between Imports and Domestic Production and between Different Imported Commodity Groups.
WA; V125-#?, pp. 230-251.
-J. Alston, C. Carter, R. Green, and D. Pick (1990). Whither Armington Trade Models?.
American Journal of Agricultural Economics; V.72-#?, pp. 455-467.
-R. Green and J. Alston (1990). Elasticities in AIDS Models. American Journal of Agricultural
Economics; V.72-#?, pp. 442-445.
-P. DeBoer, C. Martinez, and R. Harkema (2000). Trade Liberalization and the Allocation Over
Domestic and Foreign Supplies: A Case Study for Spanish Manufacturing. Applied Economics;
V.32-#?, pp. 789-799.
5. Duality and Estimation of Neoclassical Models of International Trade
-A.D. Woodland (1982). Empirical Studies. Chapter 12 in International Trade and Resource
Allocation. Amsterdam: North-Holland, pp. 365-399.
-U. Kohli (1991). Technology, Duality and Foreign Trade. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan
Press.
-D.F. Burgess (1974). Production Theory and the Derived Demand for Imports. JIE; V.4-#2,
pp. 103-107.
-D.F. Burgess (1974). A Cost Minimization Approach to Import Demand Equations. REStat;
V.56-#2, pp. 225-234.
-U. Kohli (1978). A Gross National Product Function and the Derived Demand for Imports and
Supply of Exports. CJE; V.11-#2, pp. 167-182.
-U. Kohli (1983). Technology and the Demand for Imports. SEJ; V.50-#?, pp. 137-150.
-U. Kohli (1981). Nonjointness and Factor Intensity in US Production. IER; V.22-#1, pp. 3-18.
-U. Kohli (1983). Nonjoint Technologies. REStud; V.50-#?, pp. 209-219.
-U. Kohli (1983). The le Chatelier Principle and Demand for Imports in the Short run and the
Medium Run, Australia 1959/60-1978/79. EcRec; V.59-#?, pp. 149-165.
-U. Kohli (1985). US Imports by Origin: A System Approach. WA; V.121-#?, pp. 741-754.
-U. Kohli and E. Morey (1988). U.S. Imports by Origin: A Characteristics Approach.
KYKLOS; V.41-#1, pp. 51-74.
-U. Kohli (1990). Price and Quantity Elasticities in US Foreign Trade. EcLets; V.33-#?, pp.
277-281.
-B. Apostolakis (1984). Substitution between Imports and Primary Inputs in the Netherlands,
1953-1977. Eastern Economic Journal; V.10-#1, pp. 43-50.
-B. Apostolakis (1984). A Translogarithmic Cost Function Approach: Greece, 1953-1977.
Empirical Economics; V.9-#?, pp. 247-262.
-B.Y. Aw and M. Roberts (1985). The Role of Imports from the Newly-Industrializing Countries
in U.S. Production. REStat; V.67-#1, pp.109-117.
-W.E. Diewert and C. Morrison (1988). Export Supply and Import Demand Functions: A
Production Theory Approach. in R. Feenstra, ed. Empirical Methods for International Trade.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press/NBER, pp. 207-222.
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of Economics and Statistics; V.128-#1, pp. 3-20.
-U. Kohli (1993). A Symmetric Normalized Quadratic GNP Function and the U.S. Demand for
Imports and Supply of Exports. IER; V.34-#1, pp. 243-255.
-U. Kohli (1994). Canadian Imports and Exports by Origin and Destination: A Semi-Flexible
Approach. CJE; V.27-#3, pp. 580-603.
-U. Kohli (1998). The Geographical Composition of Swiss Foreign Trade: A Semiflexible
Approach. Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Volkswirtschaft und Statistik/Swiss Journal of
Economics and Statistics; V.134-#1, pp. 41-62.
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Group. International Review of Economics and Finance; V.7-#1, pp. 1-21.
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for Primary Factors. REStat; V.80-#?, pp. 480-483.
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V.62-#3, pp. 351-356.
-C. Tombazos (1999). The Role of Imports in Expanding the Demand Gap Between Skilled and
Unskilled Labour in the U.S.. Applied Economics; V.31-#4, pp. 509-517.
-R. Lpez (1995). Synergy and Investment Efficiency Effects of Trade and Labor Market
Distortions. EER; V.39-#7, pp. 1321-1344.
-U. Kohli (1994). Technological Biases in U.S. Aggregate Production. Journal of Productivity
Analysis; V.5-#1, pp. 5-22.
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Review of Economics and Statistics; V.79-#4, pp. 620-630.
-E. Appelbaum and U. Kohli (1998). Import-Price Uncertainty, Production Decisions, and
Relative Factor Shares. RIE; V.6-#3, pp. 345-360.
-J. Chipman (1978). "Towards the Construction of an Optimal Aggregate Model of International
Trade: West Germany, 1963-1975". Annals of Economic and Social Measurement, V.6-#??, pp.
535-554.
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and Exports to External Prices: An Aggregation Theorem". in G. Bamberg and O. Opitz, eds.
Methods of Operations Research, V.44. Knigstein: Verlag Anton Hain, pp. 43-56.
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1979". Zeitschrift fr die gesamte Staatswissenschaft; V.137-#?, pp. 612-637.
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Republic of Germany, 1958-1979: An Application of Rank-Reduced Distributed-Lag Estimation
by Spline Functions". in W. Eichorn, et al. Quantitative Studies on Production and Prices.
Wurzburg: Physica Verlag, Rudolf Liebing, pp. 195-230.
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Theory and an Empirical Test". in K. Jungenfelt and D. Hague, eds. Structural Adjustment in
Developed Open Economies. New York: St. Martins, pp. 395-454.
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Germany, 1959-1982". in H. Giersch, ed. Probleme und Perspektiven der weltwirtschaftlichen
Entwicklung. Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 197-213.
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German Imports and Exports". in European Integration in the World Economy. Berlin: Springer-
Verlag, pp. 574-601.
-K.-y. Wong (1988). "International Factor Mobility and the Volume of Trade: An Empirical
Study". in R. Feenstra, ed. Empirical Methods in International Trade. Cambridge: MIT Press,
pp. 231-250.
-D. Lawrence (1989). An Aggregator Model of Canadian Export Supply and Import Demand
Responsiveness. CJE; V.22-#?, pp. 503-521.
-J. Newman, V. Lavy and P. de Vreyer (1995). Export and Output Supply Functions with
Endogenous Domestic Prices. JIE; V.38-#1/2, pp. 119-141.
-J. Harrigan (1997). Technology, Factor Supplies, and International Specialization: Estimating
the Neoclassical Model. AER; V.87-#4, pp. 475-494.
-B. Skoora (2000). Measuring Market Distortion: International Comparisons, Policy and
Competitiveness. Applied Economics; V.32-#?, pp. 253-264.
-W.E. Diewert and C. Morrison (1986). Adjusting Output and Productivity Indexes for Changes
in the Terms of Trade. EJ; V.96-#?, pp. 659-679.
-C. Morrison and W. E. Diewert (1990). Productivity Growth and Changes in the Terms of
Trade in Japan and the US. Productivity Growth in Japan and the US. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press/NBER, pp. 201-227.
-A. Cas, W.E. Diewert and L. Ostensoe (1988). Productivity Growth and Changes in the Terms
of Trade in Canada. in R. Feenstra, ed. Empirical Methods in International Trade. Cambridge:
MIT Press, pp. 279-294.
-U. Kohli (1990). Growth Accounting in the Open Economy: Parametric and Nonparametric
Estimates. Journal of Economic and Social Measurement; V.16-#3, pp. 125-136.
-U. Kohli (1993). GNP Growth Accounting in the Open Economy: Parametric and
Nonparametric Estimates for Switzerland. Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Volkswirtschaft und
Statistik/Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics; V.129-#4, pp. 601-615.
-K. Fox and U. Kohli (1998). GDP Growth, Terms-of-Trade Effects, and Total Factor
Productivity. Journal of International Trade and Economic Development; V.7-#1, pp. 87-110.
-U. Kohli (1997). Accounting for Recent Economic Growth in Southeast Asia. Review of
Development Economics; V.1-#3, pp. 245-256.
-U. Kohli and A. Werner (1998). Accounting for South Korean GDP Growth: Index-Number
and Econometric Estimates. Pacific Economic Review; V.3-#2, pp. 133-152.
IV. SPECIFIC FACTORS AND TRADE: THE RICARDO-VINER MODEL
A. Structure of the RV Model
1. The Basic RV Model
-R. Jones (1971). "A Three-Factor Model in Theory, Trade and History". in J. Bhagwati, et al.
Trade, Balance of Payments and Growth. Amsterdam: North-Holland, pp. 3-21.
-P. Samuelson (1971). "An Exact Hume-Ricardo-Marshall Model of International Trade". JIE;
V.1-#1, pp. 1-18.
-P. Samuelson (1971). "Ohlin was Right". SwedJE; V.73-#4, pp. 365-384.
-W. Mayer (1974). "Short-run and Long-run Equilibrium for a Small Open Economy". JPE;
V.82-#5, pp. 955-967.
-J.P. Neary (1978). "Short-Run Capital Specificity and the Pure Theory of International Trade".
EJ; V.88-#?, pp. 488-510.
-A.G. Schweinberger (1980). "Medium Run Resource Allocation and Short-Run Capital
Specificity". EJ; V.90-#?, pp. 330-340.
-U. Kohli (1993). "US Technology and the Specific-Factors Model". JIE; V.34-#1/2, pp. 115-
136.
-K. Okuguchi (1977). "Factor Specificity and the Rybczynski Theorem". in T. Fuji and R. Sato,
eds. Resource Allocation and the Division of Space. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.
-W. Mayer and J. Li (1993). "Production Indivisibilities in a Short-Run Trade Model". in W.
Ethier, E. Helpman and J.P. Neary, eds. Theory, Policy and Dynamics in International Trade.
Cambridge: CUP, pp. 91-106.
-R. Findlay (1993). "International Trade and Factor Mobility with an Endogenous Land
Frontier". in W. Ethier, E. Helpman and J.P. Neary, eds. Theory, Policy and Dynamics in
International Trade. Cambridge: CUP, pp. 38-54.
2. The Gruen-Corden Model
-F. Gruen and W.M. Corden (1970). A Tariff that Worsens the Terms of Trade. In I.
McDougall and R. Snape, eds. Studies in International Economics. Amsterdam: North-Holland.
-R. Falvey (1978). "Trade Policies and Industrialization". EcRec; V.?-#?, pp. 256-260.
-R. Jones and S. Marjit (1992). "International Trade and Endogenous Production Structures". in
W. Neuefeind and R. Riezman, eds. Economic Theory and International Trade. New York:
Springer, pp. 173-195.
-S. Marjit (1990). "A Simple Production Model in Trade and Its Applications". EcLets; V.32-#?,
pp. 257-260.
-S. Marjit (1993). "Uniform Tariffs in General Equilibrium--A Simple Model". ZfN; V.57-#2, pp.
189-196.
3. Imperfect Factor Mobility in the RV Model
-M. Mussa (1982). "Imperfect Factor Mobility and the Distribution of Income". JIE; V.12-#?, pp.
125-141.
-G. Grossman (1983). "Partially Mobile Capital": A General Approach to Two-Sector Trade
Theory". JIE; V.15-#?, pp. 1-17.
-J. Hill and J. Mendez (1983). "Factor Mobility in the General Equilibrium Model of
Production". JIE; V.15-#?, pp. 19-25.
-F. Casas (1984). "Imperfect Factor Mobility: A Generalization and Synthesis of Two-Sector
Models of International Trade". CJE; V.17-#4, pp. 745-761.
-E.S.H. Yu and A. Parai (1989). "Factor Immobility and the Gains from Trade". SEJ; V.?-#?, pp.
601-609.
-H. Beladi and A. Parai (1993). "Sluggish Intersectoral Factor Movements and Alternative Trade
Policies". SEJ; V.59-#4, pp. 760-767.
4. Dynamic Analysis and Stability
-M. Kemp and H. Wan (1974). "Hysteresis of Long-Run Equilibrium from Realistic Adjustment
Costs". in G. Horwich and P. Samuelson, eds. Trade, Stability and Macroeconomics. New
York: Academic Press, pp. 221-242.
-H. Lapan (1976). "International Trade, Factor Market Distortions, and the Optimal Dynamic
Subsidy". AER; V.66-#3, pp. 335-346. (Comments by Cassing/Ochs AER V.68-#5, pp. 950-959,
and Ray V.69-#4, pp. 715-720.)
-K. Okuguchi (1976). "Product Price Change and Inter-sectoral Re-Allocation of Specific
Factors". EcRec; V.?-#?, pp. 496-504.
-M. Kemp, Y. Kimura and K. Okuguchi (1977). "Monotonicity Properties of a Dynamical
Version of the Heckscher-Ohlin Model of Production". ESQ; V.28-#3, pp. 249-253.
-Y. Kimura, H. Kondo and M. Tawada (1993). "A Little More on the Dynamic Properties of a
Heckscher-Ohlin Model". in H. Herberg and N.V. Long, eds., Trade, Welfare and Economic
Policies. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, pp. 37-50.
-M. Mussa (1978). "Dynamic Adjustment in the HOS Model". JPE; V.86-#5, pp. 775-791.
-J.P. Neary (1978). "Dynamic Stability and the Theory of Factor-Market Distortions". AER;
V.68-#4, pp. 671-682. (comment by Herberg and Kemp, with response, AER, V70-#4, pp. 812-
818.)
-J. Bhagwati, ed. (1982). Import Competition and Response. Chicago: University of Chicago
Press. (Section I, papers by Neary, Mussa, and Diamond)
-A. Drazen (1985). "State Dependence and Optimal Factor Accumulation". QJE; V.?-#?, pp.
357-372.
-S. Landon (1990). "The Two-Sector Model and Production Technique in the Short Run and the
Long Run". OEP; V.42-#?, pp. 429-445.
-Y. Takeoka (1991). "The Adjustment Cost and the Market Price of Factors of Production".
Osaka Economic Papers; V.40-#3/4, pp. 393-402.
-R. Jones and P. Neary (1991). "Wage Sensitivity Rankings and Temporal Convergence". in E.
Helpman and A. Razin, eds. International Trade and Trade Policy. Cambridge: MIT Press, pp.
270-287.
-T. Ide and A. Takayama (1988). "Marshallian Stability and Factor-Market Distortions in a
Small Open Economy". ms: Southern Illinois University.
-T. Ide and A. Takayama (1988). "Marshallian Stability, Long-Run Equilibrium and the Pattern
of Specialization Under Factor-Market Distortions in the Pure Theory of International Trade".
EcLets; V.27-#?, pp. 265-270.
-J. Markusen and R. Manning (1993). "Long-run Production Frontiers for the Jones Specific
Factors Model with Optimal Capital Accumulation". in W. Ethier, E. Helpman and J.P. Neary,
eds. Theory, Policy and Dynamics in International Trade. Cambridge: CUP, pp. 252-267.
-A. Dixit (1989). "Intersectoral Capital Reallocation Under Price Uncertainty". JIE; V.26-#?, pp.
309-325.
-A. Dixit (1993). "Prices of Goods and Factors in a Dynamic Stochastic Economy". in W. Ethier,
E. Helpman and J.P. Neary, eds. Theory, Policy and Dynamics in International Trade.
Cambridge: CUP, pp. 175-190.
B. Trade Policy in the RV Model
1. Tariffs and Income Distribution
-M. Mussa (1974). "Tariffs and the Distribution of Income: The Importance of Specificity,
Substitutability, and Intensity in the Short and Long Run". JPE. V.82-#5, pp. 1191-1203.
-R. Jones (1975). "Income Distribution and Effective Protection in a Multicommodity Trade
Model". JET; V.11-#1, pp. 1-15.
-R. Ruffin and R. Jones (1977). "Protection and Real Wages: The Neoclassical Ambiguity". JET.
V.14-#?, pp. 337-348.
-J. Cassing (1986). "A Note on the Welfare Cost of a Tariff". Eastern Economic Journal; V.12-
#2, pp. 144-148.
-E. Berglas and A. Razin (1974). "Protection and Real Profits". CJE; V.7-#4, pp. 655-664.
-D.G. Ferguson (1982). "Protection, Real Incomes and Aggregate Factor Substitution". IER;
V.23-#3, pp. 735-743.
-H. Thompson (1989). "Do Tariffs Protect Specific Factors". CJE. V.22-#2, pp. 406-412.
-D. Burgess (1980). "Protection, Real Wages, and the Neoclassical Ambiguity with Interindustry
Flows". JPE. V.88-#4, pp. 783-802.
-A. Hosios (1982). "Short-Run and Long-Run Equilibrium for a Small Open Economy with an
Intermediate Good". JIE. V.13-#?, pp. 143-161.
-P.J. Lloyd (1987). "Protection Policy and the Assignment Rule". in H. Kierzkowski, ed.
Protection and Competition in International Trade. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 4-21.
-A.K. Parai (1991). "Tariffs and Income Distribution under Domestic Monopoly". JIEI; V.6-#1,
pp. 52-63.
-R. Jones (1996). International Trade, Real Wages, and Technical Progress: The
Specific-Factors Model. International Review of Economics and Finance; V.5-#2, pp. 113-124.
2. Unemployment and Trade in the RV Model
-R. Batra and H. Beladi (1988). "Specific Factors, Unemployment and Trade Theory". WA;
V.124-#?, pp. 435-443.
-R. Batra and H. Beladi (1990). "Pattern of Trade Between Underemployed Economies". Eca;
V.57-#?, pp. 485-493.
-H. Beladi, B. Biswas and G. Tribedy (1990). "Optimum Trade Intervention in a Labour-Surplus
Economy". Scottish Journal of Political Economy; V.37-4; pp. 396-404.
-R. Batra (1992). "The Fallacy of Free Trade". RIE; V.1-#1, pp. 19-31.
-R. Batra and D. Slottje (1993). "Trade Policy and Poverty in the US: Theory and Evidence,
1947-1990". RIE; V.1-#3, pp. 189-208.
3. Dynamics of Trade Liberalization Policy
-E. Leamer (1980). "Welfare Computations and the Optimal Staging of Tariff Reductions in
Models with Adjustment Costs". JIE; V.10-#?, pp. 21-36.
-J. Aizenman (1983). "Dynamics of Trade Liberalization Policy". JDevEc; V.13-#?, pp. 133-142.
-E. Buffie (1984). "The Macroeconomics of Trade Liberalization". JIE; V.17-#?, pp. 121-137.
-M. Mussa (1986). "The Adjustment Process and the Timing of Trade Liberalization". in A.
Choksi and D. Papageorgiou, eds. Economic Liberalization in Developing Countries. Oxford:
Blackwell, pp. 68-124.
4. Dutch Disease
-R. Eastwood and A. Venables (1982). "The Macroeconomic Implications of a Resource
Discovery in an Open Economy". EJ; V.92-#?, pp. 285-299. [Comment by Neary and
Wijnbergen, EJ; V.94-#?, pp. 390-395.
-K. Norman and R. Jones (1980). "A Model of Trade and Unemployment". in J. Green and J.
Scheinkman, eds. General Equilibrium, Growth and Trade. New York: Academic Press, pp. 297-
322.
-W.M. Corden and J.P. Neary (1982). "Booming Sector and Deindustrialization in a Small Open
Economy". EJ; V.92-#?, pp. 825-848.
-W. Buiter and D. Purvis (1982). "Oil, Disinflation and Export Competitiveness: A Model of the
Dutch Disease". in J. Bhandari and B. Putnam, eds. Economic Interdependence and Flexible
Exchange Rates. Cambridge: MIT.
-J.P. Neary and D. Purvis (1982). "Sectoral Shocks in a Dependent Economy: Long-run
Adjustment and Short-run Accomodation". ScanJE; V.84-#2, pp. 229-253.
-J.P. Neary and D. Purvis (1983). "Real Adjustment and Exchange Rate Dynamics". in J.
Frenkel, ed. Exchange Rates and International Macroeconomics. Chicago: University of Chicago
Press, pp. 285-308.
-N.V. Long (1983). "The Effect of a Booming Export Sector on the Rest of the Economy".
EcRec; V.59-#1, pp. 57-60.
-S. Wijnbergen (1984). "The Dutch Disease: A Disease After All". EJ; V.94-#?, pp. 41-45.
-J.P. Neary (1984). "Real and Monetary Aspects of the Dutch Disease". in K. Jungenfeld, ed.
Structural Adjustment in Developed Open Economies. London: Macmillan, pp.
-J. Cassing and P. Warr (1985). "The Distributional Impact of a Resource Boom". JIE; V.15-#?,
pp.
-W.M. Corden (1984). "Booming Sector and Dutch Disease Economics: Survey and
Consolidation". OEP; V.35-#?, pp. 359-380.
-R. Jones (1986). "The Dutch Disease: A Trade Theoretic Perspective". in J.P. Neary and S. van
Wijnbergen, eds. Natural Resources and the Economy. Oxford: Blackwell
-R. Jones, J.P. Neary and F. Ruane (1987). "Interntational Capital Mobility and the Dutch
Disease". in H. Kierzkowski, ed. Protection and Competition in International Trade. Oxford:
Blackwell, pp. 86-98.
V. FACTOR PROPORTIONS AND THE HECKSCHER-OHLIN-SAMUELSON THEORY
A. Structure of the HOS Model
1. Surveys/Overviews
-J. Chipman (1966). "A Survey of the Theory of International Trade: Part 3, The Modern
Theory". Etrica; V.34-#1, pp. 18-76.
-E. Leamer (1984). "Theories of International Trade". Chapter 1 of Sources of International
Comparative Advantage: Theory and Evidence. Cambridge: MIT, pp. 1-44.
-R. Jones (1987). "Heckscher-Ohlin Trade Theory". in J. Eatwell, M. Milgate and P. Newman,
eds. The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. New York: Stockton Press, pp. 620-627.
-W. Ethier (1987). "The Theory of International Trade". in L. Officer, ed. International
Economics. Boston: Kluwer, pp. 1-57.
-B. Hamminga (1983). Neoclassical Theory Structure and Theory Development: An Emprirical-
Philosophical Case Study Concerning the Theory of International Trade. Berlin: Springer-
Verlag.
2. The 2x2 Model
-K. Lancaster (1957). "The Heckscher-Ohlin Trade Model: A Geometric Treatment". Eca; V.?-
#?, pp. 19-39.
-H.G. Johnson (1971). The Two-Sector Model of General Equilibrium. London: Allen and
Unwin.
-A. Takayama (1972). "The Mathematical Structure of a Two-Sector Economy". Chapter 2 of
International Trade. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, pp. 43-68.
-M. Kemp (1969). "A Simple Closed Economy". Chapter 1 of The Pure Theory of International
Trade and Investment. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, pp. 5-29.
-R. Jones (1965). "The Structure of Simple General Equilibrium Models". JPE; V.73-#6, pp.
557-572.
-R. Jones (1965). "Duality in International Trade: A Geometric Note". CJE; V.31-#3, pp. 390-
393.
-A. Woodland (1977). "A Dual Approach to Equilibrium in the Production Sector in
International Trade Theory". CJE; V.10-#1, pp. 50-68.
-M. Ikema (1978). On the Factor-Price Frontier in the Pure Theory of International Trade.
Hitotsubashi Journal of Economics; V.18-#2, pp. 62-75.
-M. Mussa (1979). "The Two Sector Model in Terms of its Dual: A Geometric Exposition". JIE;
V.9-#4, pp. 513-526.
-U. Kohli (1983). "Production in the Heckscher-Ohlin-Samuelson Model of International Trade
Theory: A Simple Mathematical Treatment". Journal of Economic Studies; V.10-#2, pp. 42-49.
-U. Kohli (1995). Stolper-Samuelson-Like and Rybczynski-Like Results in 2 x 2 Production
Models. Journal of International Trade and Economic Development; V.4-#1, pp. 63-79.
-R. Jones (1977). Two-ness in Trade Theory: Costs and Benefits. Special Papers in
International Economics #12.
3. Dimensional Generalizations of the 2x2 Model
-W. Ethier (1984). "Higher Dimensional Issues in Trade Theory". in R. Jones and P. Kenen, eds.
Handbook of International Economics--Vol. 1. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 131-184.
-A. Dixit and V. Norman (1980). "Comparative Statics". Chapter 4 of Theory of International
Trade. Cambridge: CUP, pp. 127-164.
B. Basic Results from the HOS Model
1. Factor-Price Equalization (FPE)
-F. Rassekh and H. Thompson (1991). "The Status of the FPE Theorem". JEI; V.8-#1, pp. 1-32.
a. Basic Analysis
-P. Samuelson (1948). "International Trade and the Equalization of Factor-Prices". EJ; V.58-
#230, pp. 163-184.
-P. Samuelson (1949). "International FPE Once Again". EJ; V.59-#234, pp. 181-197.
-A. Lerner (1952). "Factor-Prices in International Trade". Eca; V.19-#73, pp. 1-15. [Comment
by Pearce on pp. 16-18.]
-J. Meade (1950). "The Equalization of Factor Prices: The Two-Country, Two-Factor, Three-
Product Case". Metroeconomica; V.2-#?, pp. 129-133.
-I. Pearce (1951-52). "The FPE Myth". REStud; V.19-#2, pp. 111-119. [Comment by Samuelson,
V.19-#2, pp. 121-122.]
-H.G. Johnson (1957). "Factor Endowments, International Trade and Factor Prices". MS; V.25-
#3, pp. 270-283.
-R. Harrod (1958). "Factor-Price Relations under Free Trade". EJ; V.68-#?, pp. 245-255.
-I. Pearce (1959). "A Further Note on Factor-Commodity Price Relationships". EJ; V.69-#?, pp.
725-732.
-A.H. Land (1959). "Factor Endowments and Factor Prices". Eca; V.26-#?, pp. 137-142.
(mathematical appendix by H. Kuhn, pp. 142-144).
-H.G. Johnson (1967). "The Possibility of FPE when Commodities Outnumber Factors". Eca;
V.34-#?, pp. 282-288.
-T. Bertrand (1970). "On FPE when Commodities Outnumber Factors: A Note". Eca; V.?-#?, pp.
86-88.
-J. Melvin (1968). "Production and Trade with Two Factors and Three Goods". AER; V.58-#5,
pp. 1249-1268.
-J. Vanek and T. Bertrand (1971). "Trade and Factor Prices in a Multi-Commodity World". in J.
Bhagwati, et al. eds., Trade, Balance of Payments and Growth. Amsterdam: North-Holland, pp.
49-65.
-W.P. Travis (1972). "Production, Trade and Protection When There are Many Commodities and
Two Factors". AER; V.72-#?, pp. 87-106.
-W. Mayer (1976). "A Small Open Economy with More Produced Commodities than Factors".
Etrica; V.44-#3, pp. 561-573.
-D. Stewart (1976). "Can Trade Widen the Difference Between Factor Rewards? Another Look at
the More-Goods-than-Factors Case". AER; V.66-#4, pp. 671-674.
-W.P. Travis (1964). "The Equalization Region". Chapter 1 of The Theory of Trade and
Protection. Cambridge: Harvard, pp. 1-38.
-A. Dixit and V. Norman (1980). "Trade, Specialization, and Factor Prices". Chapter 4 in Theory
of International Trade. Cambridge: CUP, pp. 93-125.
-J. Chipman (1985). "Product Diversification, Equalization of Factor Rentals, and Consumer
Preferences". in H. Milde and H. Monissen, eds. Rational Wirtschaftspolitik in komplexen
Gesellschaften. Stuttgart: Verlag W. Kohlhammer, pp. 284-295.
-P. Joshi (1987). "The Heckscher-Ohlin Model and the FPE Theorem Under Alternative
Conditions: A Geometrical Exposition". Indian Economic Journal; V.34-#3, pp. 92-108.
-G. McMahon (1988). "Dual FPE: Elements of a Theory". World Development; V.16-#8, pp.
903-912.
-E.V. Morgan and G. Rees (1954). "Non-Traded Goods and FPE". Eca; V.21-#?, pp. 334-339.
-N.F. Laing (1961). "FPE in International Trade and Returns to Scale". EcRec; V.37-#?, pp. 339-
351.
b. Dimensional Generalizations
(1) Global Univalence
-P. Samuelson (1953). "Prices of Factors and Goods in General Equilibrium". REStud; V.21-#54,
pp. 1-20.
-D. Gale and H. Nikaido (1965). "The Jacobian Matrix and the Global Univalence of Mappings".
Mathematische Annalen, V.159-#2, pp. 81-93.
-I. Pearce (1967). "More about FPE". IER; V.8-#3, pp. 255-270.
-L. McKenzie (1967). "The Inversion of Cost Functions: A Counter-Example and Theorem and
Counter-Example". IER; V.8-#3, pp. 271-285.
-P. Samuelson (1967). "Summary on FPE". IER; V.8-#3, pp. 286-295.
-I. Pearce (1967). "Rejoinder to Professor Samuelson's Summary". IER; V.8-#3, pp. 300-306.
-I. Pearce (1970). "The FPE Controversey". Chapter 16 in International Trade. New York:
Norton, pp. 476-529.
-H. Nikaido (1972). "Relative Shares and Factor Price Equalization". JIE; V.2-#?, pp. 257-263.
-A. Mas-Colell (1979). "Homeomorphisms of Compact, Convex Sets and the Jacobian Matrix".
SIAM Journal of Mathematical Analysis; V.10-#6, pp. 1105-1109.
-A. Mas-Colell (1979). "Two Propositions on the Global Univalence of Systems of Cost
Functions". in J. Green and J. Schienkaman, eds. General Equilibrium, Growth and Trade. San
Diego : Academic Press, pp. 323-331.
-T. Bandyopadhyay and T. Biswas (1994). Global Univalence when Mappings are not
Necessarily Continuous. JMathE; V.23-#?, pp. 435-450.
(2) Cones of Diversification
-L. McKenzie (1955). "Equality of Factor Prices in World Trade". Etrica; V.23-#3, pp. 239-257.
-H. Uzawa (1959). "Prices of the Factors of Production in International Trade". Etrica; V.27-#3,
pp. 448-468.
-H. Kuhn (1959). "Factor Endowments and Factor Prices: Mathematical Appendix. Eca; V.26-
#?, pp. 142-144.
-J. Chipman (1966). Specialization and Diversification: The Kuhn Condition. Etrica, V.34-#1,
pp. 25-29. [section 3.3 in Part III of Chipmans survey]
-W. Hong (1970). "The Heckscher-Ohlin Theory of FPE and the Indeterminacy of International
Specialization". IER; V.11-#2, pp. 328-333.
-K. Suzumura (1971). International Equalization of Factor Prices in Leontief Model with
Variable Coefficients. Metroeconomica; V.23-#1, pp. 1-15.
-A. Takayama (1971). "The Factor Price Equalization Theorem and the Stolper-Samuelson
Theorem Revisited". Chapter 18 of International Trade. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston
-P. Maiti (1973). "FPE Theorem in Linear Programming". JIE; V.3-4, pp. 367-378
-L. Wegge (1974). "Independent Domestic Production Cones and Uniqueness of Domestic
Prices". JIE; V.4-#2, pp. 163-175.
-T. Rader (1978). "On FPE". JMathE; V.5-#?, pp. 71-82.
-T. Rader (1979). "FPE with More Industries than Factors". in J. Green and J. Schienkman, eds.
General Equilibrium, Growth and Trade. San Diego: Academic Press, pp. 347-354.
-K. Nishimura (1981). "Kuhn's Intensity Hypothesis Revisited". REStud; V.48-#?, pp. 351-354.
-K. Nishimura (1991). "FPE". in A. Takayama, M. Ohyama and H. Ohta, eds. Trade, Trade
Policy and International Adjustments. San Diego: Academic Press, pp. 275-284.
-L. Qi (1997). The Problem of FPE. The Japanese Economic Review; V.48-#4, pp. 445-452.
(3) Necessary and Sufficient Conditions
-S. Reiter (1961). "Efficient International Trade and the Equalization of Factor Prices". IER; V.2-
#?, pp. 29-64.
-K. Kuga (1972). "The FPE Theorem". Etrica; V.40-#?, pp. 723-736.
-C. Blackorby, W. Schworm and A. Venables (1993). "Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for
FPE". REStud; V.60-#2, pp. 413-434.
(4) Global Equilibrium and FPE
-H. Wu (1987). The Equalization of Factor Prices in General Equilibrium when Commodities
Outnumber Factors. JIE; V.23-#3/4, pp. 343-356.
-A. Deardorff (1986). FIRless FIRwoes: How Preferences Can Interfere with the Theorems of
International Trade. JIE; V.20-#1/2, pp. 131-142.
-A. Deardorff (1994). The Possibility of FPE. JIE; V.36-#1/2, pp. 167-175.
-U. Demiroglu and K.K. Yun (1999). The Lens Condition for Factor Price Equalization. JIE;
V.47-#?, pp. 449-456.
-R. Falvey (1999). Trade Liberalization and Factor Price Convergence. JIE; V.49-#?, pp. 195-
210.
c. Testing FPE
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An Empirical Test Across Countries". in R. Feenstra, ed. Empirical Methods for International
Trade. Cambridge: MIT, pp. 23-47.
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REStat; V.71-#?, pp. 636-642.
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S. Collins, ed. Imports, Exports and the American Worker. Washington, DC: Brookings, pp. 305-
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[Includes comment by B. Balassa]
2. Price Change and Real Income: The Stolper-Samuelson Theorem
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Long, eds., Trade, Welfare and Economic Policies. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press,
pp. 21-36.
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Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
a. Basic Analysis
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of Political Economy; V.57-#1, pp. 1-29.
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V.28-#3, pp. 215-242.
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Samuelson Theorem. JIE; V.1-#4, pp. 401-415.
-W. Ethier (1984). Protection and Real Incomes Once Again. QJE; V.?-#?, pp. 193-200.
-U. Kohli (1995). Stolper-Samuelson-Like and Rybczynski-Like Results in 2 x 2 Production
Models. Journal of International Trade and Economic Development; V.4-#1, pp. 63-79.
b. Dimensional Generalizations
(1) The 2 Good 3 Factor Neoclassical Model
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Record; V.49-#126, pp. 300-305.
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Comment. Economic Record; V.59-#164, pp. 88-90.
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of International Trade". JIE; V.6-#?, pp. 21-38. (comment by K. Suzuki, JIE, V.14-#?, pp. 141-
144.
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V.7-#?, pp. 177-182.
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Equilibrium". JIE; V.15-#?, pp. 65-99.
-R. Jones (1985). "A Theorem on Income Distribution in a Small Open Economy". JIE; V.18-#?,
pp. 171-176.
-H. Thompson and D. Clark (1983). "Factor Movements with Three Factors and Two Goods in
the US Economy". EcLets; V.12-#?, pp. 53-60.
-H. Thompson (1985). "Complementarity in a Simple General Equilibrium Production Model".
CJE; V.18-#3, pp. 616-621.
-H. Thompson (1986). "Free Trade and Factor Price Polarization". EER; V.30-#?, pp. 419-425.
-H. Thompson (1990). "Industrial Shut-downs and Medium-run Factor Intensity Reversals".
CJE; V.23-#2, pp. 446-453.
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V.30-#2, pp. 57-64.
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V.41-#?, pp. 434-442.
(2) The M Good 3 Factor Model
-E. Leamer (1987). Paths of Development in the Three-factor, N-good General Equilibrium
Model. JPE; V.95-#?, pp. 961-999.
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Produced Mobile Factor Structure". in A. Takayama, et al. eds. Trade, Policy, and International
Adjustments. San Diego: Academic Press, pp. 95-107.
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Model". JIEI; V.7-#1, pp. 1-19.
-E. Leamer (1994). "Commemorating the Fiftieth Birthday of the Stolper-Samuelson Theorem".
in A. Deardorff and R. Stern, eds, The Stolper-Samuelson Theorem: A Golden Jubilee. Ann
Arbor: University of Michigan Press, pp. 289-307.
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Dynamics of the Krueger-Deardorff-Leamer Model. RIE; V.2-#3, pp. 268-283.
(3) Minimal Conditions on Even Technology
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Heckscher-Ohlin Theory of Trade Pattern and Factor-Price Equalization: The Case of Many-
Commodity, Many Factor Country". CJEPS; V.33-#?, pp. 401-419.
-H. Kuhn (1967). On Two Theorems in International Trade. B. DeFinetti, ed. Economia
Matematica. Rome: Edizioni Cremonese, pp. 105-117.
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V.10-#3, pp 399-406.
-M. Kemp and L. Wegge (1969). "On the Relation Between Commodity Prices and Factor
Rewards". IER; V.10-#3, pp. 407-413.
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Rybczynski Theorems in Terms of Conditional Input-Output Coefficients". IER; V.10-#3, pp.
414-425.
-Y. Uekawa (1971). "Generalization of the Stolper-Samuelson Theorem". Etrica; V.39-#2, pp.
197-217.
-K. Inada (1971). "The Production Coefficient Matrix and the Stolper-Samuelson Condition".
Etrica; V.39-#2, pp. 219-239.
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Matrices, and Generalizations of the Stolper-Samuelson and Samuelson-Rybczynski Theorems".
JIE; V.3-#?, pp. 53-76.
-I. Egawa (1978). "Some Remarks on the Stolper-Samuelson and Rybczynski Theorems". JIE;
V.8-#?, pp. 525-536.
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Prices and Factor Rewards". in J. Green and J. Schienkman, eds. General Equilibrium, Growth
and Trade. New York: Academic Press, pp. 333-346.
-R. Jones and S. Marjit (1985). "A Simple Production Model with Stolper-Samuelson
Properties". IER; V.26-#3, pp. 565-567.
-R. Jones, S. Marjit and T. Mitra (1993). "The Stolper-Samuelson Theorem: Links to Dominant
Diagonals". Becker, et al. eds. General Equilibrium, Growth and Trade, II. San Diego: Academic
Press, pp. 429-441.
-R. Jones and T. Mitra (1995). "Share Ribs and Income Distribution". RIE; V.3-#1, pp. 36-52.
-K. Shimomura (1997). A Geometric Approach to the Stolper-Samuelson Theorem. IER; V38-
#3, pp. 647-656.
-P.J. Lloyd and A. Schweinberger (1997). Conflict Generating Product Price Changes: The
Imputed Output Approach. EER; V.41-#?, pp. 1569-1587.
(4) Correlation Generalizations
-W. Ethier (1982). The General Role of Factor Intensity in the Theorems of International
Trade. EcLets; V.10-V.?, pp. 337-342.
-A. Deardorff and R. Staiger (1988). "An Interpretation of the Factor Content of Trade". JIE;
V.24-#?, pp. 93-107.
(5) Friends and Enemies Generalizations
-W. Ethier (1974). "Some Theorems of International Trade with Many Goods and Factors". JIE;
V.4-#?, pp. 199-206.
-M. Kemp and H. Wan (1976). "Relatively Simple Generalizations of the Stolper-Samuelson and
Samuelson-Rybczynski Theorems". in M. Kemp ed. Three Topics in the Theory of International
Trade. Amsterdam: North Holland, pp. 49-59.
-W.E. Diewert and A. Woodland (1977). "Frank Knight's Theorem in Linear Programming".
Etrica; V.45-#2, pp. 375-398.
-R. Jones and J. Schienkman (1977). "The Relevance of the Two-Sector Production Model in
Trade Theory". JPE; V.85-#5, pp. 909-935.
-W. Chang (1979). "Some Theorems of Trade and General Equilibrium with Many Goods and
Factors". Etrica, V.47-#3, pp. 709-726.
-J. Cassing (1981). "On the Relationship between Commodity Price Changes and Factor-Owners
Real Positions". JPE; V.89-#?, pp. 593-595.
-R. Jones (1985). "Relative Prices and Real Factor Rewards: A Reinterpretation". EcLets; V.19-
#1, pp. 47-49.
(6) Aggregation Conditions and Block Generalizations
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Relationships in Terms of Specific-Factor and Specific-Product Blocks". EcRec; V.?-#?, pp. 219-
226.
-J.P. Neary (1985). "Two-by-Two International Trade Theory with Many Goods and Factors".
Etrica; V.53-#5, pp. 1233-1247.
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eds. Demand, Equilibrium and Trade. London: Macmillan, pp. 57-76.
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Deardorff and R. Stern, eds, The Stolper-Samuelson Theorem: A Golden Jubilee. Ann Arbor:
University of Michigan Press, pp. 235-270.
c. Empirical Testing/Application of Stolper-Samuelson
(1) Overviews
-A. Deardorff and D. Hakura (1994). Trade and Wages: What are the Questions?. In J.
Bhagwati and M. Kosters, eds. Trade and Wages: Leveling Wages Down? Washington, DC:
AEI, pp. 76-107.
-R. Baldwin (1995). The Effects of Trade and Foreign Direct Investment on Employment and
Relative Wages. OECD Economic Studies, #23, pp. 7-54.
-J.D. Richardson (1995). Income Inequality and Trade: How to Think, What to Conclude.
Journal of Economic Perspectives, V.9-#3, pp. 33-55.
-R. Lawrence (1996) Single World, Divided Nations? Globalization and OECD Labor Markets.
Washington, DC: Brookings\OECD.
-E. Leamer (1999). Competition in Tradables as a Driving Force of Rising Income Inequality.
in H. Siebert, ed. Globalization and Labor. Tbingen: Mohr Siebeck/Institut fr Weltwirtschaft,
pp. 119-152.
(2) Checking Consistency of Data with Low-Dimensional Models
-R. Lawrence and M. Slaughter (1993). Trade and US Wages: Giant Sucking Sound or Small
Hiccup?. BPEA; V.1993-#2, pp. 161-210.
-P. Krugman and R. Lawrence (1994). Trade, Jobs and Wages. Scientific American; April, pp.
44-49.
-J. Bhagwati and V. Dehejia (1994). International Trade Theory and Wages of the Unskilled.
In J. Bhagwati and M. Kosters, eds. Trade and Wages: Leveling Wages Down? Washington,
DC: AEI, pp. 36-75.
-R. Cooper (1994). Foreign Trade, Wages and Unemployment. In H. Giersch, ed. Fighting
Europes Unemployment in the 1990's. Berlin: Springer, pp. 93-117.
-M. Slaughter (199?). The Impact of Internationalisation on US Income Distribution. Finance
and the International Economy. AMEX Prize Essays, pp. 145-158.
-P. Krugman (1997). Trade and Wages. in D. Kreps and K. Wallis, eds. Advances in
Economics and Econometrics: Theory and Applications. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, pp. 1-18.
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Exports and the American Worker. Washington, DC: Brookings, pp. 49-99.
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Workers: Some New Evidence. SEJ; V.65-#3, pp. 472-472.
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V.32-#2, pp. 129-40.
(3) Factor-Content Studies
(a) Theory and Method
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of International Economics; V.24-#1/2, pp. 93-107.
-E. Leamer (2000). Whats the Use of Factor Contents. JIE, V50-#1, pp. 17-49.
-P. Krugman (2000). Technology, Trade and Factor Prices. JIE, V50-#1, pp. 51-71.
-A. Deardorff (2000). Factor Prices and the Factor Content of Trade Revisited: Whats the Use.
JIE, V50-#1, pp. 73-90.
-A. Panagariya (2000). Evaluating the Factor-Content Approach to Measuring the Effect of
Trade on Wage Inequality. JIE, V50-#1, pp. 91-116.
-R. Baldwin (2000). Inferring Relative Factor Price Changes from Quantitative Data. in M.
Blomstrm and L. Goldberg, Eds. Topics in Empirical International Economics: A Festschrift in
Honor of Bob Lipsey. Chicago: University of Chicago Press/NBER, pp.
-W. Kohler (1999). Trade and Wages: What Can Factor Contents Tell Us?. ms: Department of
Economics, University of Linz.
-A. Wood (1991). The Factor Content of North-South Trade in Manufactures Reconsidered.
WA; V.127-#4, pp. 719-743.
(b) Applications
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M. Kosters, ed. Workers and Their Wages: Changing Patterns in the US. Washington, DC: AEI,
pp. 39-69.
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-L. Katz and K. Murphy (1992). Changes in Relative Wages, 1963-1987: Supply and Demand
Factors. QJE; V.107-#1, pp. 35-78.
-J. Bound and G. Johnson (1992). "Changes in the Structure of Wages in the 1980's: An
Evaluation of Alternative Explanations". AER; V.82-#3, pp. 371-392.
-G. Johnson and F. Stafford (1993). International Competition and Real Wages. AER; V.83-#2,
pp. 127-131.
-A. Wood (1994). North-South Trade, Employment and Inequality. New York: OUP.
-E. Berman, J. Bound, and Z. Griliches (1994). Changes in the Demand for Skilled Labor
within US Manufacturing Industries: Evidence from th Annual Survey of Manufacturing. QJE;
V.109-#?, pp. 367-398.
-J. Sachs and H. Shatz (1994). Trade and Jobs in U.S. Manufacturing. BPEA; #1, pp. 1-69.
-J. Sachs and H. Shatz (1998). International Trade and Wage Inequality in the US: Some New
Results. in S. Collins, ed. Imports, Exports and the American Worker. Washington, DC:
Brookings, pp. 215-254.
-G. Borjas, R. Freeman, and L. Katz (1992). On the Labor Market Effects of Immigration and
Trade. in G. Borjas and R. Freeman, eds. Immigration and the Workforce. Chicago: Univeristy
of Chicago Press/NBER, pp. 213-244.
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Market Outcomes?. BPEA; #1, pp. 1-67.
-E. Berman, J. Bound and S. Machin (1998). Implications of Skill-Biased Technological
Change: International Evidence. QJE; V.113-#4, pp. 1245-1279.
-M. Rebick (1999). Trade and Wage Structure in the Presence of Price Differentials in the
Product Market: The Japanese Labor Market 1965-1990. Journal of the Japanese and
International Economies; V.13-#1, pp. 22-43.
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Prospects for the Future. World Economy; V.23-#8, pp. 1005-1029.
(4) The Jones-Baldwin Decomposition: Mandated Wage Regressions
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From Their Differences?. in R. Feenstra, ed. The Impact of International Trade on Wages.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press/NBER, pp. 129-165.
-R.S. Hilton (1984). Commodity Trade and Relative Return to Factors of Production. JIE;
V.16-#3/4, pp. 259-270.
-R. Baldwin and R.S. Hilton (1984). A Technique for Indicating Comparative Costs and
Predicting Changes in Trade Ratios. Review of Economics and Statistics; V.66-#1, pp. 105-110.
-R. Baldwin and G. Cain (1997). Shifts in US Relative and Absolute Wages: The Role of Trade,
Technology and Factor Endowments. NBER Working Paper, #5934.
-E. Leamer (1996). In Search of Stolper-Samuelson Effects on US Wages. in S. Collins, ed.
Imports, Exports and the American Worker. Washington, DC: Brookings, pp. 141-214.
-A. Courakis, K. Maskus, and A. Webster (1997). Occupational Employment and Wage
Changes in the UK: Trade and Technology Effects. in J. Borkakoti and C. Milner, eds.
International Trade and Labour Markets. London: Macmillan, pp. 169-202.
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wages: Estimates for the United States, 1979-1990. QJE; V.114-#3, pp. 907-940.
-A. Krueger (1997). Labor Market Shifts and the Price Puzzle Revisited. NBER Working
Paper, #5924.
-J. Schmitt and L. Mishel (1996). Did International Trade Lower Less-Skilled Wages During
the 1980s? Standard Trade Theory and Evidence. Economic Policy Institute Technical Paper.
-M. Slaughter (1998). What are the Results of Product-Price Studies and What Can we Learn
from Their Differences?. NBER Working Paper, #6591.
-J. Adams (1997). Technology, Trade, and Wages. NBER Working Paper, #5940.
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Working Paper; #6978. [forthcoming EJ]
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the Trade Based Explanation of Changing Skill Structures be Resurrected?. ScanJE; V.101-#4,
pp. 533-554.
-M. Lcke (1999). Trade with Low-income Countries and the Relatives Wages and Employment
Opportunities of the Unskilled: An Exploratory Analysis for West Germany and the UK. in P.
Brenton and J. Pelkmans, eds. Global Trade and European Workers. London: Macmillan, pp.
69-95.
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Impact of International Competition on Change in U.S. Manufacturing. in R. Feenstra, ed. The
Impact of International Trade on Wages. Chicago: University of Chicago Press/NBER, pp. 197-
219.
(5) Duality Approach via National Product Functions
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1995. in R. Feenstra, ed. The Impact of International Trade on Wages. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press/NBER, pp. 171-193.
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of Trade, Technology, and Factor Supplies, 1963-1991. NBER Working Paper; #6981.
-D. Burgess (1976). Tariffs and Income Distribution--Some Empirical Evidence for the US.
JPE; V.84-#1, pp. 17-45.
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International Trade: West Germany, 1963-1975. Annasl of Economic and Social Measurement;
V.6-#?, pp. 535-554.
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Press.
-E. Leamer (1993). Wage Effects of a US-Mexican Free Trade Agreement. In P. Garber, ed.
The Mexico-US Free Trade Agreement. Cambridge: MIT, pp. 57-125
(6) CGE Approaches: Simple and Complex
(a) Simple CGE Models
-H. Thompson (1990). Simulating a Multifactor General Equilibrium Model of Production and
Trade. IEJ; V.4-#2, pp. 21-34.
-H. Thompson (1997). Free Trade and Income Redistribution across Labor Groups:
Comparative Statics for the U.S. Economy. International Review of Economics and Finance;
V.6-#2, pp. 181-192.
-H. Thompson (1997). Free Trade and Income Redistribution in a Three Factor Model of the
U.S. Economy. Southern Economic Journal; V.63-#4, pp. 1074-1083.
-H. Thompson (1995). Factor Intensity versus Factor Substitution in a Specified General
Equilibrium Model. Journal of Economic Integration; V.10-#3, pp. 283-297.
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362.
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Feenstra, G. Grossman, and D. Irwin, eds. The Political Economy of Trade Policy. Cambridge:
MIT Press, pp. 33-49.
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Working Paper; #5633.
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General Equilibrium Approach to Policy Options. OEP; V.49-#3, pp. 483-503.
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Economy, 1970-1990: A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis. Journal of Development
Studies; V.34-#2, pp. 1-34. [Corrigendum and Addendum, 1999, V.35-#6, pp. 153-155.]
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Mechanics. Economic Journal, V.108-#450, pp. 1483-1499.
-R. Falvey, R. Tyers, and R. McDonald (1997). Trade Shocks and the Magnitude of Transmitted
Wage Adjustments. Working Papers in Economics and Econometrics (ANU), #318.
-R. Tyers, R. Duncan, and W. Martin (1998). Trade and Wages: Integrating Theory and
Numerical Analysis. ms: ANU.
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Decompositions. RIE; V.?-#3, pp.
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Debate. NBER Working Paper; #7674.
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Economic History; V.9-#?, pp. 375-421.
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Economic History; V.27-#2, pp. 123-156.
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V.57-#4, pp. 775-801.
(b) Complex CGE Models
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Three Archetype Developing Economies. JDevE; V.10-#?, pp. 67-92.
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of Economics and Statistics; V.64-#2, pp. 261-270.
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Trade Area: Migration versus Stolper-Samuelson Effects. in J. Francois and C. Shiells, eds.
Modeling Trade Policy: Applied General Equilibrium Assessments of North American Free
Trade. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 195-222.
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Reinert, eds. Applied Methods for Trade Policy Analysis: A Handbook. Cambridge: CUP, pp.
435-478.
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and K. Reinert, eds. Applied Methods for Trade Policy Analysis: A Handbook. Cambridge: CUP,
pp. 479-516.
-R. Tyers and Y. Yang (1997). Trade with Asia and Skill Upgrading: Effects on Labor Markets
in the Older Industrial Countries. WA; V.133-#3, pp. 383-417.
-R. McDougall and R. Tyers (1997). Developing country expansion and relative wages in
industrial countries", Ch.7 in T.Hertel (ed.), Global Trade Analysis Using the GTAP Model. New
York: Cambridge University Press, pp 279-313.
-R. Tyers, R. Duncan, and W. Martin (1999). Trade, Technology and Labor Markets: General
Equilibrium Perspectives. Journal of Economic Integration; V.14-#2, pp. 226-264.
-W. Cline (1997). Trade and Income Distribution. Washington, DC: IIE. [Chapters 3 & 4]
-K. Reinert and D. Roland-Holst (1998). North-South Trade and Occupational Wages: Some
Evidence from North America. RIE; V.6-#1, pp. 74-89.
-A. Smith (1998). The Labour Market Effects of Trade: A Computable General Equilibrium
Approach. in Mathias Dewatripont, Andr Sapir, and Khalid Sekkat, eds. Trade and Jobs in
Europe: Much Ado About Nothing? Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 95-112.
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Unskilled Labour? An Applied General Equilibrium Approach. in P. Brenton and J. Pelkmans,
eds. Global Trade and European Workers. London: Macmillan, pp. 96-122.
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Decomposition Analysis in a General Equilibrium Framework, 1970-1992. ms: CEPII.
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Contributions of WorldScan. in P. Brenton and J. Pelkmans, eds. Global Trade and European
Workers. London: Macmillan, pp. 123-146.
(7) Other
-S. Magee (1980). Three Simple Tests of the Stolper-Samuelson Theorem. in P. Oppenheimer,
ed. Issues in International Economics. Oxford: Oriel Press, pp. 138-153.
-J. Chung (1980). Trade Liberalization and Factor-Prices--Application to the US Manufacturing
Sector. JPolMod; V.2-#?, pp. 101-120.
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Evidence. RIE; V.5-#1, pp. 20-31.
-N. Gaston and D. Trefler (1994). "Protection, Trade and Wages: Evidence for US
Manufacturing". Industrial and Labor Relations Review; V.47-#4, pp. 574-593.
3. Static Analysis of Factor Growth and Migration: The Rybczynski Theorem
-T.N. Rybczynski (1955). "Factor Endowments and Relative Commodity Prices". Eca; V.22-#88,
pp. 336-341.
-K-L Shea (1981). A Graphical Analysis of Factor Accumulation in a Three-Sector, Three-
Factor Model of International Trade. EJ; V.91-#?, pp. 1020-1025.
-F. Fisher (1982). ""On Perfect Aggregation and in the National Output Deflator and Generalized
Rybczynski Theorems". IER; V.23-#1, pp. 43-60.
-J. Hicks (1953). An Inaugural Lecture. OEP; V.5-#?, pp. 117-135.
-M. Kemp (1955). Technological Change, the Terms of Trade and Welfare. EJ; V.65-#?, pp.
457-473.
-W.M. Corden (1956). Economic Expansion and International Trade: A Geometric Approach.
OEP; V.8-#?, pp. 223-228.
-H. G. Johnson (1954). Increasing Productivity, Income-Price Trends and the Trade Balance.
EJ; V.64-#255, pp. 462-485.
-H.G. Johnson (1955). Economic Expansion and International Trade. MS; V.23-#2, pp. 95-
112.
-H.G. Johnson (1959). Economic Development and International Trade. Nationalkonomisk
Tidsskrift; V.97-#5/6, pp. 253-272.
-V.K. Ramaswami (1960). The Effects of Accumulation on the Terms of Trade. EJ; V.70-#?,
pp. 514-518.
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pp. 66-69.
-M. Kemp and K. Shimomura (1988). The Impossibility of Global Absolute Advantage in the
HO Model of Trade. OEP; V.40-#?, pp. 575-576.
-K. Shimomura (1991). A Note on the Hicks-Ikema-Kemp Proposition. Kobe Economic and
Business Review; V.36-#?, pp. 27-32.
-M. Kemp, Y.-K. Ng and K. Shimomura (1993). The International Diffusion of the Fruits of
Technical Progress. IER; V.34-#2, pp. 381-385.
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145-155.
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to the Agricultural Sector. Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics; V.21-#2, pp.
325-340.
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U.S. Agriculture. Agricultural Economics; V.21-#2, pp. 131-144.
4. Comparative Advantage: The Heckscher-Ohlin Theorem
a. Basic Analysis
-E. Heckscher (1949). The Effect of Foreign Trade on the Distribution of Income". in H. Ellis
and L. Metzler, eds. Readings in the Theory of International Trade. Philadelphia: Blakiston, pp.
272-300. (Translation of a paper published in Swedish in 1919).
-H. Flam and M.J. Flanders, eds. (1991). Heckscher-Ohlin Trade Theory. Cambridge: MIT Press.
[Contains a complete translation of Heckscher (1919) and of Ohlins Ph.D. dissertation of 1924.]
-B. Ohlin (1933). Interregional and International Trade. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
-R. Robinson (1956). "Factor Proportions and Comparative Advantage: Parts I and II". QJE;
V.70-#2, pp. 169-192 and V.70-#3, pp. 246-263.
-R. Jones (1956). "Factor Proportions and the Heckscher-Ohlin Theorem". REStud; V.24-#63,
pp. 1-10.
-H.G. Johnson (1957). "Factor Endowments, International Trade and Factor Prices". MS; V.25-
#?, pp. 270-283.
-K. Inada (1967). "A Note on the Heckscher-Ohlin theorem". EcRec; V.43-#?, pp. 88-96.
-T. Rader and P. Van Moeseke (1973). "Heckscher-Ohlin Hypothesis and Scarce-Factor
Theorems". Tijdschrift voor Economie; V.18-#?, pp. 445-450.
-R. Riezman (1974). "A Note on the Heckscher-Ohlin Theorem". Tijdschrift voor Economie;
V.19-#3, pp. 339-343.
-U. Kohli (1995). Stolper-Samuelson-Like and Rybczynski-Like Results in 2 x 2 Production
Models. Journal of International Trade and Economic Development; V.4-#1, pp. 63-79.
-R. Jones, H. Beladi, and S. Marjit (1999). The Three Faces of Factor Intensities. JIE; V.48-#?,
pp. 413-420.
-B. Minhas (1962). "The Homohypallagic Production Function, Factor Intensity Reversals and
the Heckscher-Ohlin Theorem". JPE; V.70-#2, pp. 138-156.
-M. Hodd (1967). "An Empirical Investigation of the Heckscher-Ohlin Theory". Eca; V.34-#?,
pp. 20-29.
-S. Naya (1967). "Natural Resource, Factor Mix and Factor Reversal in International Trade".
AER; V.57-#?, pp. 561-570.
b. Dimensional Generalizations
(1) Commodity Content of Trade Generalizations
-J. Bhagwati (1972). "The Heckscher-Ohlin Theorem in the Multicommodity Case". JPE; V.80-
#?, pp. 1052-1055.
-R. Jones (1974). "The Small Country in a Many Commodity World". Australian Economic
Papers; V.14-#?, pp. 225-236.
-Y. Horiba and J.R. Moroney (1979). "On the Structure of Comparative Advantage in a
Multifactor Trade Model". IER; V.20-#2, pp. 551-554.
-A. Deardorff (1979). "Weak Links in the Chain of Comparative Advantage". JIE; V.9-#2, pp.
197-209.
-J. Drabicki and A. Takayama (1979). "An Antinomy in the Theory of Comparative Advantage".
JIE; V.9-#?, pp. 211-233.
-M. Kemp and K. Shimomura (1988). "The Impossibility of Global Absolute Advantage in the
Heckscher-Ohlin Model of Trade". OEP; V.40-#?, pp. 575-576.
-R. Findlay (1970). "Factor Proportions and Comparative Advantage in the Long Run". JPE;
V.78-#1, pp. 27-36. (Comment by Deardorff (1974), V.82-#4, pp. 829-833)
(2) Correlation Generalizations
-A. Dixit and A. Woodland (1982). "The Relationship between Factor Endowments and
Commodity Trade". JIE; V.13-#?, pp. 201-214.
-W. Ethier (1982). "The General Role of Factor Intensity in the Theorems of International
Trade". EcLets; V.10-#?, pp. 337-342.
-A. Deardorff (1982). "The General Validity of the Heckscher-Ohlin Theorem". AER; V.72-#?,
pp. 683-694.
-H. Forstner (1985). "A Note on the General Validity of the Heckscher-Ohlin Theorem". AER;
V.75-#4, pp. 844-849.
-A. Deardorff (1994). "Exploring the Limits of Comparative Advantage". WA; V.130-#1, pp. 1-
19.
(3) Factor-Content of Trade: The Travis-Vanek Model
-W.P. Travis (1964). The Theory of Trade and Protection. Cambridge: Harvard.
-J. Vanek (1968). "The Factor Proportions Theory: The N-Factor Case". KYKLOS; V.21-#4, pp.
749-754.
-Y. Horiba (1971). "A Note on the Factor Proportions Theory in the N-Factor Case". KYKLOS;
V.24-#2, pp. 339-343. (Comment by Vanek follows, pp. 344-345)
-T. Bertrand (1972). "An Extension of the N-Factor Case of Factor Proportions Theory".
KYKLOS; V.25-#?, pp. 592-596.
-J. Williams (1977). The Factor Proportions Theorem: The Case of M Commodities and N
Factors. CJE; V.10-#?, pp. 282-288.
-R. Brecher and E. Choudhri (1982). "The Factor Content of International Trade without Factor-
Price Equalization". JIE; V.12-#?, pp. 277-283.
-E. Helpman (1984). "The Factor Content of Foreign Trade". EJ; V.94-#?, pp. 84-94.
-E. Helpman and P. Krugman (1985). "The Factor Proportions Theory". Chapter 1 of Market
Structure and Foreign Trade: Increasing Returns, Imperfect Competition and the International
Economy. Cambridge: MIT, pp. 11-29.
-J.P. Neary and A. Schweinberger (1986). "Factor Content Functions and the Theory of
International Trade". REStud; V.53-#?, pp. 421-432.
-R. Staiger (1986). "Measurement of the Factor Content of Foreign Trade with Traded
Intermediate Goods". JIE; V.21-#?, pp. 581-588.
(4) Observational Equivalence of Classical and HOS Models
-J.L. Ford (1967). "On the Equivalence of the Classical and the Factor Models in Explaining
International Trade". MS; V.35-#?, pp. 185-198.
-H. Katrak (1968). "On the Equivalence of Classical and Factor Models--Comment". MS; V.36-
#?, pp. 75-77.
-P. Zarembka (1968). "On the Equivalence of Trade Models--Comment". MS; V.36-#?, pp. 389-
392.
-J.L. Ford (1968). "More on the Equivalence of Trade Models in Explaining Trade Patterns".
MS; V.36-#?, pp. 392-395.
-P.J. Lloyd (1970). "The Non-Equivalence of the Classical and Factor Proportions Explanations
of International Trade". MS; V.38-#?, pp. 45-54.
-T. Eleftheriou (1971). "The Calssical and Factor-Proportions Predictions on Trade Patterns:
Equivalent or Non-Equivalent?". MS; V.39-#?, pp. 315-322.
-R. Falvey (1981). "Comparative Advantage in a Multifactor World". IER; V.22-#2, pp. 401-413.
-J.L Ford (1982). The Ricardian and Heckscher-Ohlin Explanations of Trade: A General Proof
of an Equivalence Theorem and Its Empirical Implications. OEP; V.34-#1, pp. 141-149.
[Comment by P.J. Lloyd and response, with evaluation by J.P. Neary, 1985, OEP; V.37-#1, pp.
134-147]
c. Empirical Testing/Application of the HO Theorem
-R. Stern (1975). "Testing Trade Theories". in P. Kenen, ed. International Trade and Finance:
Frontiers for Research. Cambridge: CUP, pp. 3-49.
-J. Hartigan (1981). "The US Tariff and Comparative Advantage: A Survey of Method". WA;
V.117-#1, pp. 65-108.
-R.J. Bowden (1983). "The Conceptual Basis of Emprical Studies of Trade in Manufactured
Commodities: A Constructive Critique". MS; V.51-#3, pp. 209-234.
-A. Deardorff (1984). "Testing Trade Theories and Predicting Trade Flows". in R. Jones and P.
Kenen, eds. Handbook of International Economics. Amsterdam: North-Holland, pp. 467-517.
-E. Leamer (1984). "Testing the Theories of International Comparative Advantage". Chapter 2
Sources of International Comparative Advantage. Cambridge: MIT, pp. 45-59.
-W. Kohler (1988). "Modeling Heckscher-Ohlin Comparative Advantage in Regression
Equations: A Critical Survey". Empirica; V.15-#2, pp. 263-293.
-E. Leamer (1991). "The Interplay of Theory and Data in the Study of International Trade". in
M. Nerlove, ed. Issues in Contemporary Economics. Vol 2. Macroeconomics and Econometrics.
New York: NYU Press, pp. 213-252.
-E. Leamer (1994). "Testing Trade Theory". in D. Greenaway and L.A. Winters, eds. Surveys in
International Trade. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 66-106.
-A. Wood (1994). "Give Heckscher and Ohlin a Chance!". WA; V.130-#1, pp. 20-49.
-E. Leamer and J. Levinsohn (1995). International Trade Theory: The Evidence. in G.
Grossman and K. Rogoff, eds. Handbook of International Economics, Vol. III. Amsterdam:
Elsevier, pp. 1339-1394.
-E. Helpman (1998). The Structure of Foreign Trade. NBER Working Paper, #6752.
(1) Leontief-type Factor-Content Tests and the Leontief Paradox
(a) Factor Content Tests
-W. Leontief (1953). "Domestic Production and Foreign Trade: The American Capital Position
Reexamined". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society; V.97-#?, pp. 332-349.
-W. Leontief (1954). Domestic Production and Foreign Trade: The American Capital Position
Reexamined. Economia Internazionale, V.7-#?, pp. 9-45.
-W. Leontief (1956). "Factor Proportions and the Structure of American Trade: Further
Theoretical and Empirical Evidence". REStat; V.38-#?, pp. 386-407.
-J. Vanek (1959). "The Natural Resource Content of Foreign Trade, 1870-1955, and the Relative
Abundance of Natural Resources in the US". REStat, V.41-#?, pp. 146-153.
-J. Vanek (1963). The Natural Resource Content of US Foreign Trade, 1870-1955. Cambridge:
MIT.
-J. Williams (1970). The Resource Content of International Trade. CJE; V.3-#1, pp. 111-122.
-R. Baldwin (1971). Determinants of the Commodity Structure of US Trade. AER; V.61-#1,
pp. 126-146.
-M. Tatemoto and S. Ichimura (1959). Factor Proportions and Foreign Trade: The Case of
Japan. REStat; V.41-#?, pp. 442-446.
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REStat; V.58-#2, pp. 283-292.
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#?, pp. 349-358.
-W. Stolper and K. Roskamp (1961). Input-Output Table for East Germany with Applications to
foreign Trade. Bulletin of the Oxford University Institute of Statistics; V.23-#?, pp. 379-392.
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V.91-#?, pp. 319-326.
-M. Holden (1983). Empirical Tests of the H-O Model for South Africa--A Reappraisal of the
Metholdology. South African journal of Economics; V.51-#2, pp. 243-251.
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V.24-#1, pp. 131-139.
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Korean Experience. WA; V.123-#2, pp. 309-324.
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V.24-#2, pp. 225-239.
-G. Wright (1990). The Origins of American Industrial Success, 1879-1940. AER; V.80-#4,
pp. 651-668.
(b) Methodological Issues
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Theory". Economia Internazionale; V.22-#3, pp. 1-19.
-E. Leamer (1980). "The Leontief Paradox Reconsidered". JPE; V.88-#3, pp. 495-503.
(Correction in I. Heravi (1986), V.94-#5, pg. 1120)
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823.
-R. Brecher and E. Choudhri (1984). "New Products and the Factor Content of International
Trade". JPE; V.92-#5, pp. 965-971.
-C. Hamilton and L.E.O. Svensson (1983). "Should Factor Intensities be Used in Tests of the
Factor Proportions Hypothesis?" WA; V.119-#3, pp. 453-463.
-R. Gift and W. Marxsen (1984). "Aggregation and the Factoral Content of Trade". JPE; V.92-
#5, pp. 979-984.
-B.Y. Aw (1983). "Trade Imbalance and the Leontief Paradox". WA; V.119-#4, pp. 734-738.
-F. Casas and E.K. Choi (1984). "Trade Imbalance and the Leontief Paradox". MS; V.52-#4, pp.
610-615.
-F. Casas and E.K. Choi (1985). "The Leontief Paradox: Continued or Resolved". JPE; V.93-#?,
pp. 610-615.
-F. Casas and E.K. Choi (1987). "Trade Imbalance, the Factor Proportions Theory and the
Resource Content of International Trade". Rivista Internazionale di Scienze Economiche e
Commerciali; V.34-#3, pp. 213-230.
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Japanese and International Economies; V.9-#3, pp. 278-289.
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Paradoxes. JIE; V.39-#1/2, pp. 175-183.
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Paradox". in S. Latsis, ed. Method and Appraisal in Economics. Cambridge: CUP, pp. 109-127.
(c) Multi-Good, Multi-Factor Analysis: Sign and Rank-Order Tests
-D. Clifton jr. and W. Marxsen (1984). "An Empirical Investigation of the Heckscher-Ohlin
Theorem". CJE; V.17-#1, pp. 32-38.
-K. Maskus (1985). "A Test of the Heckscher-Ohlin-Vanek Theorem: The Leontief
Commonplace". JIE; V.19-#3/4, pp. 201-212.
-C. Hamilton and L.E.O. Svensson (1984). Do Countries Factor Endowments Correspond to the
Factor Contents in their Bilateral Trade Flows. ScanJE; V.86-#1, pp. 84-97.
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Abundance Theory". AER; V.77-#5, pp. 791-809.
-R. Staiger, A. Deardorff and R. Stern (1987). An Evaluation of Factor Endowments and
Protection as Determinants of Japanese and American Foreign Trade. CJE; V.20-#3, pp. 449-
463.
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Production. CJE; V.26-#2, pp. 272-285.
-W. Kohler (1991). "How Robust are Sign and Rank Order Tests of the Heckscher-Ohlin-Vanek
Theorem". OEP; V.43-#?, pp. 158-171.
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Economic Studies; V.22-#6, pp. 3-15.
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Regional Test. Osaka Economic Papers; V.47-#1, pp. 1-11. [Comment by Grimes and Prime,
with response in Osaka Economic Papers, (1999), V.49-#1, pp. 255-259.]
(2) Cross-Commodity Regression Tests
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121-146.
-R. Baldwin (1979). "Determinants of Trade and Foreign Investment: Further Evidence". REStat;
V.61-#1, pp. 40-48.
-R. Baldwin and R. Hilton (1984). A Technique for Indicating Comparative Costs and
Predicting Changes in Trade Ratios. REStat; V.66-#1, pp. 105-110.
-W. Branson and H. Junz (1971). "Trends in US Trade and Comparative Advantage". BPEA; #2,
pp. 285-345.
-W. Branson (1971). "US Comparative Advantage: Some Further Results". BPEA; #3, pp. 754-
759.
-W. Branson and N. Monoyios (1977). "Factor Inputs in US Trade". JIE; V.7-#?, pp. 111-131.
-J. Harkness and J. Kyle (1975). "Factors Influencing US Comparative Advantage". JIE; V.5-#?,
pp. 153-165.
-J. Harkness (1978). "Factor Abundance and Comparative Advantage". AER; V.68-#5, pp. 784-
800.
-J. Harkness (1983). "The Factor-Proportions Model with Many Nations, Goods, and Factors:
Theory and Evidence". REStat; V.65-#2, pp. 298-305.
-E. Choudhri (1979). "The Pattern of Trade in Individual Products: A Test of Simple Theories".
WA; V.115-#1, pp. 81-98.
-R. Stern and K. Maskus (1981). "Determinants of the Structure of US Trade, 1958-1976". JIE;
V.11-#?, pp. 207-224.
-K. Maskus (1983). "Evidence on Shifts in the Determinants of the Structure of US
Manufacturing Foreign Trade, 1958-1976". REStat; V.65-#?, pp. 415-422.
-B.Y. Aw (1981). "An Empirical Test of the Heckscher-Ohlin Theorem Using ASEAN Data".
Mayauan Economic Review; V.26-#1, pp. 25-38.
-S. Urata (1983). "Factor Inputs and Japanese Manufacturing Trade Structure". REStat; V.65-#?,
pp. 678-684.
-H. Forstner (1984). "The Changing Pattern of International Trade in Manufactures: A Logit
Analysis". WA; V.120-#1, pp. 1-17.
-R. Brecher and E. Choudhri (1988). "The Factor Content of Consumption in Canada and the
US: A Two-Country Test of the Heckscher-Ohlin-Vanek Model". in R. Feenstra, ed. Empirical
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V.96-#?, pp. 629-645.
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651-688.
-H. Bowen and L. Sveikauskas (1992). "Judging Factor Abundance". QJE; V.107-#?, pp. 599-
620.
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and Its Relation to International Trade: Evidence from the US and Britain". WA; V.130-#1, pp.
50-76.
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Finland and Sweden. WA; V.127-#?, pp. 381-389.
L. Tan (1992). A Heckscher-Ohlin Approach to Changing Comparative Advantage in
Singapores Manufacturing Sector. WA; V.128-#?, pp. 288-309.
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US, Japan, and Other Countries in the Asian Pacific Rim. WA; V.131-#?, pp. 489-508.
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V.71-#5, pp. 1037-1039.
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Comment". AER; V.71-#5, pp. 1040-1043.
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(3) Cross-Country Regression Tests
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-A. Aquino (1981). "Changes over Time in the Pattern of Comparative Advantage in
Manufactured Goods, An Empirical Analysis for the Period 1962-1974". EER; V.15-#?, pp. 41-
62.
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Reconciling the H-O and Burenstam-Linder Models of International Trade". WA; V.117-#2, pp.
276-297.
-E. Leamer (1974). "The Commodity Composition of International Trade in Manufactures: An
Empirical Analysis". OEP; V.26-#?, pp. 35--374.
-H. Bowen (1983). "Changes in the International Distribution of Resources and Their Impact on
US Comparative Advantage". REStat; V.65-#?, pp. 402-414.
-E. Leamer (1984). Sources of International Comparative Advantage: Theory and Evidence.
Cambridge: MIT.
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V.20-#2, pp. 387-398.
(4) Cross-Country/Cross-Commodity Tests
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Commodity Composition of Trade in Manufactured Goods". in R. Vernon, ed. The Technology
Factor in International Trade. New York: Columbia University Press/NBER, pp. 145-231.
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REStat; V.61-#?, pp. 259-266.
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V.68-#2, pp. 315-319.
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Multi-Country, Multi-Industry, and Multi-Factor Model. in T. Peeters, P. Praet and P. Reding,
eds. International Trade and Exchange Rates in the Late Eighties. Amsterdam: North-Holland,
pp. 31-52.
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Econometric Investigation. Amsterdam: North-Holland
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Abundance Theory". AER; V.77-#5, pp. 791-809.
-R. Staiger (1988). "A Specification Test for the Heckscher-Ohlin Theory". JIE; V.25-#?, pp.
129-141.
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Empirical Assessment. WA; V.128-#3, pp. 464-486.
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1046.
-D. Davis and D. Weinstein (1996). Empirical Tests of the Factor Abundance Theory: What Do
They Tell Us?. Eastern Economic Journal; V.22-#4, pp. 544-440.
-D. Davis and D. Weinstein (1998). An Account of Global Factor Trade. NBER Working
Paper, #6785.
-K. Maskus and A. Webster (1999). Estimating the HOV Model with Technology Differences
Using Disaggregated Labor Skills for the United States and the United Kingdom. RIE; V.7-#1,
pp. 8-19.
-D. Trefler and S.C. Zhu (2000). Beyond the Algebra of Explanation: HOV for the Technology
Age. AER; V.90-#2, pp. 145-149.
-D. Davis and D. Weinstein (2000). International Trade as an Integrated Equilibrium: New
Perspectives. AER; V.90-#2, pp. 150-154.
-R. Feenstra and G. Hanson (2000). Aggregation Bias in the Factor Content of Trade: Evidence
from U.S. Manufacturing. AER; V.90-#2, pp. 155-160.
(5) Exploiting the Rybczynski Theorem: Endowment-Output Predictions
-D. Dollar, W. Baumol, and E. Wolff (1988). The Factor Price Equalization Model and Industry
Labor Productivity: An Empirical Test Across Countries. in R. Feenstra, ed. Empirical Methods
for International Trade. Cambridge: MIT Press.
-K. Maskus (1991). Comparing International Trade Data and Product and National
Characteristics Data for the Analysis of Trade Models. in P. Hooper and J.D. Richardson, eds.
International Economic Transactions: Issues in Measurement and Empirical Research. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press/NBER, pp. 17-56.
-J. Harrigan (1995). "Factor Endowments and The International Location of Production:
Econometric Evidence for the OECD, 1970-1985". JIE; V.39-#1/2, pp. 123-141.
-D. Davis, D. Weinstein, S. Bradford, and K. Shimpo (1997). Using International and Japanese
Regional Data to Determine When the Factor Abundance Theory of Trade Works. AER; V.87-
#3, pp. 420-446.
-D. Davis and D. Weinstein (1997). Does Economic Geography Matter for International
Specialization?. ms: Harvard University.
-D. Davis and D. Weinstein (2000). Economic Geography and Regional Production Structure:
An Empirical Investigation. EER; Forth.
-J. Berstein and D. Weinstein (1998). Do Endowments Predict the Location of Production?
Evidence from National and International Data. NBER Working Paper; #6815.
-S. Kim (1999). Regions, Resources, and Economic Geography: Sources of US Regional
Comparative Advantage, 1880-1997. RSUE; V.29-#1, pp. 1-32.
-P. Smith (1999). Do Geographic Scale Economies Explain Disturbances to Heckscher-Ohlin
Trade?. RIE; V.7-#1, pp. 20-36.
-J.D. Richardson and P. Smith (1995). Sectoral Growth across U.S. States: Factor Content,
Linkages and Trade. NBER Working Paper; V.5094.
d. Revealed Comparative Advantage/Trade Intensity Indices
-B. Balassa (1965). Trade Liberalization and Revealed Comparative Advantage. Manchester
School of Economic and Social Studies; V.33-#2, pp. 99-124.
-B. Balassa (1977). Revealed Comparative Advantage Revisited: An Analysis of Relative
Export Shares of the Industrial Countries, 1953-1971. Manchester School of Economic and
Social Studies; V.45-#?, pp. 327-344.
-J. Donges and J. Riedel (1977). The Expansion of Manufactured Exports in Developing
Countries: An Empirical Assessment. WA; V.113-#1, pp. 58-87.
-K. Kojima (1964). The Pattern of International Trade Among Advanced Countries.
Hitotsubashi Journal of Economics; V.5-#1, pp. 16-36.
-I. Yamazawa (1970). Intensity Analysis of World Trade Flows. Hitotsubashi Journal of
Economics; V.10-#2, pp. 61-90.
-I. Yamazawa (1971). Structural Change in World Trade Flows. Hitotsubashi Journal of
Economics; V.11-#2, pp. 11-21.
-J. Roemer (1976). Extensions of the Concept of Trade Intensity. Hitotsubashi Journal of
Economics; V.17-#1, pp.29-35.
-J. Roemer (1977). The Effect of Sphere of Influence and Economic Distance on the Commodity
Compositition of Trade in Manufactures. REStat; V.59-#3, pp. 318-327.
-K. Kunimoto (1977). Typology of Trade Intensity Indices. Hitotsubashi Journal of
Economics; V.17-#2, pp. 15-32.
-P. Drysdale and R. Garnaut (1982). Trade Intensities and the Analysis of Bilateral Trade Flows
in a Many-Country World. Hitotsubashi Journal of Economics; V.22-#2, pp. 62-84.
-C. Hamilton and L.E.O. Svensson (1984). Potential and Realized Trade Patterns: The Case of
Sweden. ScanJE; V.86-#3, pp. 371-378.
-A. Hillman (1980). Observations on the Relation between Revealed Comparative Advantage
and Comparative Advantage as Indicated by Pre-Trade Relative Prices. WA; V.116-#?, pp.
-H. Bowen (1983). On the Theoretical Interpretation of Indices of Trade Intensity and Revealed
Comparative Advantage. WA; V.119-#?, pp. 464-472.
-R. Ballance, H. Forstner, and T. Murray (1985). On Measuring Comparative Advantage: A
Note on Bowens Indices. WA; V.121-#?, pp. 346-350. [reply by Bowen follows pp. 351-354;
further discussion, 1986, V.122-#?, pp. 375-381.]
-R. Ballance, H. Forstner, and T. Murray (1987). Consistency Tests of Alternative Measures of
Comparative Advantage. REStat; V.69-#?, pp. 157-161.
-A. Yeats (1985). On the Appropriate Interpretation of the Revealed Comparative Advantage
Index: Implications of a Methodology Based on Industry Sector Analysis. WA; V.121-#1, pp.
61-73.
-R. Erzan and A. Yeats (1991). Implications of Current Factor Proportions Indices for the
Competitive Position of the U.S. Manufacturing and Service Industries in the Year 2000.
Journal of Business; V.64-#2, pp. 229-254.
-S. Marchese and F. N. De Simone (1989). Monotonicity of Revealed Comparative Advantage:
Empirical Evidence on Hillmans Condition. WA; V.125-#?, pp. 158-167.
-T. Vollrath (1999). A Theoretical Evaluation of Alternative Trade Intensity Measures of
Revealed Comparative Advantage. WA; V.127-#?, pp. 265-279.
-J.D. Richardson and C. Zhang (2000). Revealing Comparative Advantage: Chaotic or Coherent
Patterns Across Time and Sector and U.S. Trading Partner?. in M. Blomstrm and L. Goldberg,
Eds. Topics in Empirical International Economics: A Festschrift in Honor of Bob Lipsey.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press/NBER, pp.
C. Extensions of the HOS Structure
1. An HOS Continuum Model
-R. Dornbusch, S. Fischer and P. Samuelson (1980). "Heckscher-Ohlin Trade Theory with a
Continuum of Goods". QJE; V.95-#2, pp. 203-224.
-C. Clague (1990). "Capital Utilization in the Heckscher-Ohlin Model with a Continuum of
Goods". IEJ; V.4-#1, pp. 1-23.
-Y. Xu (1993). "A General Model of Comparative Advantage with Two Factors and a Continuum
of Goods". IER; V.34-#2, pp. 365-380.
2. Lumpy Countries
-J. Wilson (1990). "Trade and the Distribution of Economic Well-being in an Economy with
Local Public Goods". JIE; V.29-#3/4, pp. 199-215.
-P. Courant and A. Deardorff (1992). "International Trade with Lumpy Countries". JPE; V.100-
#1, pp. 198-210.
-P. Courant and A. Deardorff (1993). "Amenities, Nontraded Goods, and the Trade of Lumpy
Countries". JUrbanE; V.34-#?, pp. 299-317.
-A. Deardorff (1993). "Directions of Lumpy Country Trade". in W. Ethier, E. Helpman and J.P.
Neary, eds. Theory, Policy and Dynamics in International Trade. Cambridge: CUP, pp. 55-72.
-A. Deardorff (1996). The Effects of Trade Liberalization on the Members of a Trading Bloc: A
Lumpy Country Analysis. in M. Canzoneri, W. Ethier, and V. Grilli, eds. The New
Transatlantic Economy. Cambridge: CUP/CEPR, pp. 147-167.
-E. Bond (1993). "Trade, Factor Mobility, and Income Distribution in a Regional Model with
Compensating Wage Differentials". RSUE; V.23-#1, pp. 67-84.
-E. Bond (1993). "Labor Mobility and Wage Rate Equalization". in R. Becker, M. Boldrin, R.
Jones and W. Thomson, eds. General Equilibrium, Growth, and Trade II. San Diego: Academic
Press, pp. 442-459.
-S. Bucovetsky (1993). "Factor Ownership, Taxes and Specialization". CJE; V.26-#2, pp. 317-
336.
-M. Herander (1992). "The Regional Consequences of of International Trade with Interregional
Capital Mobility". JIE; V.33-#3/4, pp. 373-381.
-J. Roback (1982). "Wages, Rents and the Quality of Life". JPE; V.90-#6, pp. 1257-1278.
-J. Roback (1988). "Wages, Rents and Amenities: Differences among Workers and Regions".
EcInq; V.26-#1, pp. 23-41.
-P. Beeson (1991). "Amenities and Regional Differences in Returns to Worker Characteristics".
JUrbanE; V.30-#?, pp. 224-241.
-J. Gyourko and J. Tracy (1991). "The Structure of Local Public Finance and the Quality of Life".
JPE; V.99-#4, pp. 774-806.
-V. Mathur and S. Stein (1993). "The Role of Amenities in a General Equilibrium Model of
Regional Migration and Growth". SEJ; V.59-#3, pp. 394-409.
3. Multi-Country Models
-Y. Horiba (1974). "General Equilibrium and the Heckscher-Ohlin Theory of Trade: The Multi-
Country Case". IER; V.15-#2, pp. 440-449.
-J. Harkness (1983). "The Factor-Proportions Model with Many Nations, Goods and Factors:
Theory and Evidence". REStat; V.65-#?, pp. 298-305.
-A. Krueger (1977). "Growth, Distortions, and Patterns of Trade Among Many Countries".
Princeton Studies in International Finance; #40.
-A. Deardorff (1984). "An Exposition and Exploration of Krueger's Trade Model". CJE; V.17-
#4; pp. 731
-C. Hamilton and L.E.O. Svensson (1984). "Do Countries Factor Endowments Correspond to
Factor Contents in Their Bilateral Trade Flows". ScanJE; V.86-#1, pp. 84-97.
4. Problems with Preferences
a. Trade with Diverse Preferences
-P. Kenen (1959). "Distribution, Demand and Equilibrium in International Trade". KYKLOS;
V.12-#4, pp. 629-638.
-H.G. Johnson (1959). "International Trade, Income Distribution and the Offer Curve". MS;
V.27-#?, pp. 241-260.
-R. Jones (1972). "Activity Analysis and Real Incomes: Analogies with Production Models". JIE;
V.2-#?, pp. 277-302.
-A. Woodland (1974). "Demand Conditions in International Trade Theory". Australian
Economic Papers; V.13-#?, pp. 209-224.
-R. Linde (1977). Note on the Influence of Product Prices on the Distribution of Real Income.
Jahrbucher fur Nationalokonomie und Statistik; V.192-#?, pp. 276-281.
-R. Ruffin (1979). "A Note on the Heckscher-Ohlin Theorem". JIE; V.7-#?, pp. 403-405.
-R. Jones (1980). "Demand Behavior and the Theory of International Trade". in J. Chipman and
C. Kindleberger, eds., Flexible Exchange Rates and the Balance of Payments. Amsterdam:
North-Holland.
-Y. Horiba (1982). Aggregation, Consumer Preferences, and the Pattern of Trade. EcLets;
V.10-#?, pp. 129-136.
-J. Melvin (1985). "Domestic Taste Differences, Transportation Costs and International Trade".
JIE; V.18-#?, pp. 65-82.
-A. Deardorff (1986). "FIRless FIRwoes: How Preferences Can Interfere with the Theorems of
International Trade". JIE; V.20-#1/2, pp. 131-142.
-Y. Horiba (1979). "Testing the Demand Side of Comparative Advantage Models". AER; V.69-
#4, pp. 650-661.
b. Non-Homothetic Preferences
-Y. Horiba (1974). Non-Homothetic Community Preferences and the n-factor Theory of
International Trade. Metroeconomica; V.26-#?, pp. 171-180.
-S. Hirsch (1977). "The Leontief Paradox in a Multi-Country Setting". WA; V.113-#3, pp. 407-
421.
-L. Hunter and J. Markusen (1988). "Per Capita Income as a Determinant of International
Trade". in R. Feenstra, ed. Empirical Methods for International Trade. Cambridge: MIT, pp.
-L. Hunter (1991). "The Contribution of Non-Homothetic Preferences to Trade". JIE; V.30-#?,
pp. 345-358.
-J. Torstensson (1993). "The Heckscher-Ohlin-Vanek Theorem with Quasi-Homothetic
Preferences". EcLets; V.1-#?, pp. 157-160.
5. Non-Traded Goods
-R. Komiya (1967). "Non-Traded Goods and the Pure Theory of International Trade". IER, V.8-
#2, pp. 132-152.
-I.A. McDougall (1970). "Non-traded Commodities and the Pure Theory of International Trade".
in I.A. McDougall and R. Snape, eds. Studies in International Economics, Amsterdam: North-
Holland, pp. 157-192.
-R. Jones (1974). "Trade with Non-traded Goods: The Anatomy of Inter-connected Markets".
Eca, V.?-#?, pp. 121-138.
-W. Ethier (1971). "The Two Sector Neoclassical Production Model: A Geometric Note and an
Extension to Nontraded Goods". Australian Economic Papers; V.13-#?; pp. 188-195.
-W. Ethier (1972). "Nontraded Goods and the Heckscher-Ohlin Model". IER; V13-#1, pp. 132-
147.
-B. Hazari, P. Sgro and D. Suh (1980). "A Simple Geometric Treatment of Non-traded Goods in
the Pure Theory of International Trade". KES; V.17-#1, pp. 91-104.
-B. Hazari, P. Sgro and D. Suh (1980). Non-Traded and Intermediate Goods and the Pure
Theory of International Trade. New York: St. Martins.
-F. Rivera-Batiz (1982). "Nontraded Goods and the Pure Theory of International Trade with
Equal Numbers of Goods and Factors". IER; V.23-#2, pp. 401-409.
-T. Inoue (1985). "Theorems of International Trade with Nontraded Goods". ESQ; V.36-#2, pp.
121-132.
-J.P. Neary (1988). Determinants of the Equilibrium Real Exchange Rate. AER; V.78-#1, pp.
210-215.
-A. Deardorff and P. Courant (1990). "On the Likelihood of Factor Price Equalization with
Nontraded Goods". IER; V.31-#3, pp. 589-596.
-J. Cassing (1977). "International Trade in the Presence of Pure Monopoly in the Non-Traded
Goods Sector". EJ; V.87-#?, pp. 523-532.
-D. Ghosh (1980). "Export Control in a HOS Model of Trade with Nontraded Goods". Bulletin of
Economic Research; V.32-#1, pp. 29-34.
-D. Ghosh (1982). "A Modified Swedish-Samuelson Model: An Exercise in Export Regulation".
Indian Economic Journal; V.29-#3, pp. 93-111.
-W.M. Corden and J.P. Neary (1982). "Booming Sector and De-industrialization in a Small Open
Economy". EJ; V.92-#?, pp. 825-848.
-J.P. Neary and D. Purvis (1982). "Sectoral Shocks in a Dependent Economy: Long-run
Adjustment and Short-run Accommodation". ScanJE; V.84-#2, pp. 229-253.
-H. Flamm (1985). "A Heckscher-Ohlin Analysis of the Law of Declining International Trade".
CJE; V.18-#3, pp. 602-615.
6. HOS Models with Intermediate Goods and Joint Production
a. Private Intermediate Goods
(1) Interindustry Flows: Generalized HOS Models
-J. Vanek (1963). "Variable Factor Proportions and Interindustry Flows in the Theory of
International Trade". QJE; V.78-#1, pp. 129-142.
-R. Warne (1971). "Intermediate Goods in International Trade with Variable Proportions and
Two Primary Inputs". QJE; V.85-#?, pp. 225-236.
-M. Kemp (1969). "Intermediate Goods". in M. Kemp The Pure Theory of International Trade
and Investment. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, pp. 148-153.
-C. Khang (1971). "An Isovalue Locus Involving Intermediate Goods and Its Application to the
Pure Theory of International Trade". JIE; V.1-#?, pp. 315-326.
-M. Kemp and Y. Uekawa (1972). "Produced Inputs and Their Implications for Trade Theory".
EcRec; V.?-#4, pp. 561-569.
-W. Chang and W. Mayer (1973). "Intermediate Goods in a General Equilibrium Trade Model".
IER; V.14-#2, pp. 447-459.
-K. Okuguchi (1973). "Magnification Effects in a Two-Good Model with Intermediate Inputs".
ZfN; V.33-#?, pp. 413-418.
-A. Schweinberger (1975). "The Heckscher-Ohlin Model and Traded Intermediate Products".
REStud; V.42-#?, pp. 269-278.
-W. Chang (1977). "Tariff Structure and Output Adjustment in the Presence of Interindustry
Flows". JIE; V.7-#?, pp. 329-342.
-C. Khang and Y. Uekawa (1973). "The Production Possibility Set in a Model Allowing
Interindustry Flows: The Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Convexity". JIE; V.3-#?, pp.
283-290.
-D. Scheffman (1973). "Some Remarks on the Net Production Possibilities Set in Models with
Intermediate Goods". JIE; V.3-#?, pp. 291-296.
-M. Kemp and C. Khang (1977). "On the Relationship Between Commodity Prices and Gross
Outputs in a General Neo-Classical Technology". IER; V.18-#?, pp. 241-245.
-M. Kemp, C. Khang and Y. Uekawa (1978). "On the Flatness of the Transformation Surface".
JIE; V.8-#?, pp. 537-542.
(2) Pure Intermediates
-R. Batra and F. Casas (1973). "Intermediate Products and the Pure Theory of International
Trade: A Neo-Heckscher-Ohlin Framework". AER; V.63-#3, pp. 297-311.
-A. Schweinberger (1975). "Pure Traded Intermediate Products and the Heckscher-Ohlin
Theorem". AER; V.65-#4, pp. 634-643.
-A. Schweinberger (1975). "Comparative Advantage and Intermediate Products". EcRec; V.51-
#?, pp. 191-202.
-J. Riedel (1976). "Intermediate Products and the Theory of International Trade: A
Generalization of the Pure Intermediate Goods Case". AER; V.66-#3, pp. 441-447.
-W. Der (1979). "Multi-Intermediate-Goods Trade: The Gains and a Heckscher-Ohlin Analysis".
AER; V.69-#4, pp. 575-586.
-M. Tawada (1982). "The Properties of the Set of Production Possibilities with Pure Intermediate
Products". in M. Kemp, ed. Production Sets. New York: Academic Press, pp. 17-23.
-B. Murphy (1989). "Factor Price Changes and Imported Intermediate Goods". IEJ; V.3-#4, pp.
19-36.
-R. Jones (1972). "The Metzler Tariff Paradox: Extensions to Nontraded and Intermediate
Commodities". in G. Horwich and P. Samuelson, Trade Stability and Macroeconomics. New
York: Academic Press, pp. 3-18.
-P.J. Lloyd (1973). "Optimal Intervention in a Distortion-Ridden Open Economy". EcRec; V.49-
#?, pp. 377-393.
-K. Suzuki (1978). "The Welfare Effect of an Export Tax Levied on an Intermediate Good". QJE;
V.92-#?, pp. 55-69.
-S. Das (1983). "Optimum Tariffs on Final and Intermediate Goods". IER; V.24-#2, pp. 493-508.
(3) Non-Traded Goods and Inter-Industry Flows
-A. Ray (1972). "Traded and Non-Traded Intermediate Goods and the Rybczynski Theorem".
IER; V.13-#?, pp. 523-530.
-A. Ray (1975). "Traded and Non-Traded Intermediate Goods and Some Aspects of the Pure
Theory of International Trade". QJE; V.89-#?, pp. 331-340.
-H. Flam (1979). "The Rybczynski Theorem in a Model with Non-Traded Goods and
Indecomposable Interindustry Flows". IER; V.20-#3, pp. 661-670.
-S. Kakimoto and S. Yabuuchi (1986). "The Rybczynski Theorem in a Model with Non-Traded
Goods and Indecomposable Interindustry Flows: Revisited". JIE; V.20-#?, pp. 157-169.
-S. Yabuuchi and S. Kakimoto (1987). "Higher Dimensional Issues in the Rybczynski Theorem
with Nontraded Goods and Interindustry Flows". ESQ; V.38-#3, pp. 193-198.
-R. Batra and N. Naqvi (1989). "Non-Traded and Intermediate Goods and the Theory of
Protection". EER; V.33-#?, pp. 721-735.
b. Public Intermediate Goods
(1) Public Intermediate Goods in GE
-K. Kaizuka (1965). "Public Goods and Decentralization of Production". REStat; V.47-#?, pp.
118-120.
-A. Sandmo (1972). "Optimality Rules for the Provision of Collective Factors of Production".
JPubE; V.1-#?, pp. 149-157.
-T. Negishi (1973). "The Excess of Public Expenditures on Industry". JPubE; V.2-#?, pp. 231-
240.
-R. Boadway (1973). "Similarities and Differences Between Public Goods and Public Factors".
Public Finance; V.28-#?, pp. 245-257.
-A.L. Hillman (1978). "Symmetries and Asymmetries between Public-input and Public-good
Equilibria". Public Finance; V.33-#?, pp. 269-279.
-J. McMillan (1979). "A Note on the Economics of Public Intermediate Goods". Public Finance;
V.34-#?, pp. 293-299.
-J. Henderson (1974). "A Note on the Economics of Public Intermediate Inputs". Eca, V.41-#?,
pp. 322-327.
-T. Groves and M. Loeb (1975). "Incentives and Public Inputs". JPubE; V.4-#?, pp. 211-226.
-J.J. Laffont (1976). "Collective Factors of Production under Uncertainty". JPubE; V.5-#?, pp.
313-324.
-P. Pestieau (1976). "Public Intermediate Goods and Distortionary Taxation". EER; V.7-#?, pp.
351-357.
-J. McMillan (1979). "Individual Incentives in the Supply of Public Inputs". JPubE; V.12-#?, pp.
87-98.
-R. Manning, J. Markusen and J. McMillan (1985). "Paying for Public Inputs". AER; V.75-#1,
pp. 235-238.
-K. Abe and M. Tawada (1988). "Public Production and the Incidence of a Corporate Income
Tax". ESQ; V.39-#3, pp. 233-245.
-J. Feehan (1989). "Pareto Efficiency with Three Varieties of Public Inputs". Public Finance,
V.34-#?, pp. 237-248.
(2) Public Intermediate Goods, Trade and Welfare
-J. McMillan (1978). "A Dynamic Analysis of Public Intermediate Goods Supply in an Open
Economy". IER; V.19-#?, pp. 665-677.
-R. Manning and J. McMillan (1979). "Public Intermediate Goods, Production Possibilities and
International Trade". CJE; V.12-#2, pp. 243-257.
-M.A. Khan (1980). "A Factor Price and Public Input Equalization Theorem". EcLets; V.5-#?,
pp. 1-5.
-M. Tawada (1980). "The Production-Possibility Set with Public Intermediate Goods". Etrica;
V.47-#?, pp. 1005-1012.
-R. Manning and J. McMillan (1982). "The Scale Effect of Public Goods on Production
Possibility Sets". in M. Kemp ed. Production Sets. New York: Academic Press, pp. 119-133.
-T. Pugel (1982). "Endogenous Technological Change and International Technology Transfer in
a Ricardian Trade Model". JIE; V.13-#?, pp. 321-335.
-M. Tawada and K. Abe (1984). "Production Possibilities and Trade with a Public Intermediate
Good". CJE; V.17-#?, pp. 232-248.
-H. Okamoto (1985). "Production Possibilities and International Trade with a Public Intermediate
Good: A Generalization". ESQ; V.36-#1, pp. 35-45.
-K. Abe, H. Okamoto and M. Tawada (1986). "A Note on the Production Possibility Frontier
with Pure Public Intermediate Goods". CJE; V.19-#2, pp. 351-356.
-L. Altenburg (1987). "Production Possibilities with a Public Intermediate Good". CJE; V.20-#?,
pp. 715-734.
-K. Terasaki (1990). "Production Possibilities and International Trade with Public Intermediate
Good: A Further Generalization". ESQ; V.41-#2, pp. 115-123.
-S. Ishizawa (1988). "Increasing Returns, Public Input, and International Trade". AER; V.78-#?,
pp. 794-795.
-S. Ishizawa (1991). "Increasing Returns, Public Inputs and Transformation Curves". CJE; V.24-
#1, pp. 144-160.
-S. Ishizawa (1991). "Increasing Returns and International Trade". Osaka Economic Papers;
V.40-#3/4, pp. 379-392.
-L. Altenburg (1992). "Some Trade Theorems with a Public Intermediate Good". CJE; V.25-#2,
pp. 310-332.
-K. Abe (1990). "A Public Input as a Determinant of Trade". CJE; V.23-#2, pp. 400-407.
-J. Feehan (1992). "The Optimal Revenue Tariff for Public Input Provision". JDevE; V.38-#?, pp.
221-231.
-M. Michael (1997). Why Free Trade May Hurt Developing Countries. RIE; V.5-#2, pp. 179-
187.
-M.A. Khan (1983). "Public Inputs and the Pure Theory of Trade". ZfN; V.43-#?, pp. 131-156.
-M. Tawada and H. Okamoto (1983). "International Trade with a Public Intermediate Good".
JIE; V.15-#?, pp. 101-115.
-M. Tawada (1989). "Public Inputs and the Theory of International Trade". in M. Tawada,
Production Structure and International Trade. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pp. 62-79.
c. Joint Production
(1) Some Basic Economics of Joint Production
-P. Samuelson (1966). "The Fundamental Singularity Theorem of Non-Joint Production". IER;
V.7-#1, pp. 34-41.
-E. Burmeister and K. Kuga (1970). "The Factor-Price Frontier, Duality and Joint Production".
RESTud; V.?-#?, pp. 11-19.
-M. Hirota and K. Kuga (1971). "On Intrinsic Joint Production". IER; V.12-#1, pp. 87-98.
-E. Burmeister and S. Turnovsky (1971). "The Degree of Joint Production". IER, V.12-#1, pp.
99-105.
-K. Kuga (1973). "More About Joint Production". IER; V.14-#1, pp. 196-210.
-I. Steedman (1982). "Joint Production and the Wage-Rent Frontier". EJ, V.92-#?, pp. 377-385.
-C. Filippini and L. Filippini (1982). "Two Theorems on Joint Production". EJ; V.92-#?, pp.
386-390.
-L. Pasinetti, ed. (1980). Essays on the Theory of Joint Production. New York: Columbia
University Press.
-W. Baumol, J. Panzer and R. Willig (1982). Contestable Markets and the Theory of Industry
Structure. New York: HBJ.
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Economic Literature; V.20-#3, pp. 1024-1048.
(2) International Trade with Joint Production
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Parkin and A. Nobay, eds. Contemporary Issues in Economics. Manchester: Manchester
University Press, pp. 399-416.
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Trade". in M. Kemp, Three Topics in the Theory of International Trade. Amsterdam: North
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V.18-#3, pp. 517-533.
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Production". JIE; V.10-#3, pp. 377-394.
-M. Kemp, R. Manning, K. Nishimura and M. Tawada (1980). "On the Shape of the Single-
Country and World Commodity-Substitution and Factor-Substitution Surfaces under Conditions
of Joint Production". JIE; V.10-#?, pp. 395-404.
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RIE; V.1-#1, pp. 1-9.
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18.
-M. Albert and W. Kohler (1995). Factor-Price Equalitzation under Joint and Nonjoint
Production. ZfN; V62-#3, pp. 271-294.
d. Trade with Vertical Production
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16-31.
-R. Jones and D. Purvis (1983). "International Differences in Response to Common External
Shocks: The Role of Purchasing Power Parity". in E. Claassen and P. Salin, eds. Recent Issues in
the Theory of Flexible Exchange Rates. Amsterdam: North-Holland, pp. 33-55.
-R. Jones and B. Spencer (1989). "Raw Materials, Processing Activities, and Protectionism".
CJE; V.22-#3, pp. 469-486.
e. Trade in Services
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338.
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World Economy; V.7-#?, pp. 133-44.
-B. Hindley and A. Smith (1984). "Comparative Advantage in Trade in Services". World
Economy; V.7-#4, pp. 369-389.
-G. Sampson and R. Snape (1985). "Identifying the Issues in Trade in Services". World
Economy; V.8-#2, pp. 171-181.
-A. Deardorff (1985). "Comparative Advantage and International Trade and Investment in
Services". in R. Stern, ed. Trade and Investment in Services: Canada/US Perspectives. Toronto:
Ontario Economic Council, pp. 39-71.
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Services". in R. Stern, ed. Trade and Investment in Services: Canada/US Perspectives. Toronto:
Ontario Economic Council
-H. Grubel (1987). "All Traded Services are Embodied in Materials or People". World Economy;
V.10-#?, pp. 319-330.
-B. Hindley (1988). "Service Sector Protection: Considerations for Developing Countries".
WBER; V.2-#2, pp. 205-224.
-B. Hindley (1990). "Services". in J. Schott, ed. Completing the Uruguay Round. Washington,
DC: IIE.
-S. Hirsch (1989). "Services and Service Intensity in International Trade". WA; V.125-#?, pp. 45-
60.
-J. Melvin (1989). "Trade in Services: A Heckscher-Ohlin Approach". JPE; V.97-#?, pp. 1180-
1196.
-S. Djajic and H. Kierzkowski (1989). "Goods, Services and Trade". Eca; V.56-#?, pp. 83-95.
-D. Burgess (1990). "Services as Intermediate Goods: The Issues of Trade Liberalization". in R.
Jones and A. Krueger, eds. The Political Economy of International Trade. Oxford: Basil
Blackwell; pp. 122-139.
-R. Jones and F. Ruane (1990). "Appraising the Options for Trade in Services". OEP; V.42-#?,
pp. 672-687.
-J. Francois (1990). Increasing Returns to Specialization, Monopolistic Competition and Trade
in Services. CJE; V.23-#?, pp. 109-124.
-J. Francois (1990). Producer Services, Scale, and the Division of Labor. OEP; V.42-#?, 715-
729.
-J. Francois (1990). "Trade in Nontradables: Proximity Requirements and the Pattern of Trade in
Services". JIEI; V.5-#1, pp. 31-46.
-J. Francois (1993). Explaining the Pattern of Trade in Services. International
EconomicJournal; V.7-#3, pp. 23-32.
-J. Francois (1995). Dynamic Implications of International Trade in Financial Services.
International Economic Journal; V.9-#3, pp. 1-14.
-J. Francois and K. Reinert (1996). The Role of Services in the Structure of Production and
Trade: Stylized Facts from a Cross-Country Analysis. Asia-Pacific Economic Review; V.2-#1,
pp.35-43
-B. Hoekman (1994). "Conceptual and Political Economy Issues in Liberalizing Internaitonal
Trade in Services". in A. Deardorff and R. Stern, eds. Analytical and Negotiating Issues in the
Global Trading System. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, pp. 501-538.
-P. Messerlin and K. Sauvant, eds. (1990). Services in the World Economy. Washington, DC:
The World Bank.
-A. Sapir and C. Winter (1994). "Services Trade". in D. Greenaway and L.A. Winters, eds.
Surveys in International Trade. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 273-302.
7. Transportation Cost and Trade
a. Transportation Cost and the Theory of Trade
-R. Mundell (1957). "A Geometry of Transport Costs in International Trade". CJE; V.23-#?, pp.
331-348. (Chapter 5 in Mundell's International Economics).
-G. Hadley and M. Kemp (1966). "Equilibrium and Efficiency in International Trade".
Metroeconomica; V.18-#?, pp. 125-141.
-A. Woodland (1968). "Transportation in International Trade". Metroeconomica; V.20-#?, pp.
130-135.
-H. Herberg (1970). "Economic Growth and International Trade with Transport Cost". Zeitschrift
fr die Gesamte Staatswissenschaft; V.126-#?, pp. 577-600.
-J. Cassing (1978). "Transport Costs in International Trade Theory: A Comparison with the
Analysis of Nontraded Goods". QJE; V.92-#4, pp. 535-550. (Comment by Mai and Chiang
(1983), V.97-#?, pp. 349-351.
-J. Cassing (1980). "Shipping Innovation in the Pure Theory of International Trade".
International Journal of Transport Economics; V.-#?, pp.301-324.
-S. Yabuuchi (1985). "Transport Costs, Factor Intensities and the Rybczynski Theorem". EcLets;
V.19-#1, pp. 51-55.
-R. Falvey (1976). "Transport Costs in the Pure Theory of International Trade". EJ; V.86-#?, pp.
536-550. (Comment by Casas (1981), V.91-#?, pp. 741-744)
-F. Casas and E.K. Choi (1985). "Some Paradoxes of Transport Costs in International Trade".
SEJ; V.?-#?, pp. 983-997.
-R. Falvey (1979). "A Short-run Model of Transport Costs in International Trade". International
Journal of Transport Economics; V.6-#3, pp. 319-334.
-T. Inoue (1985). "Theories of International Trade with Transport Costs". ESQ; V.36-#1, pp. 23-
34.
-F. Casas and E.K. Choi (1990). "Transport Innovation and Welfare under Variable Returns to
Scale". IEJ; V.4-#1, pp. 45-57.
-L. Wegge (1993). "International Transportation in the Heckscher-Ohlin Model". in H. Herberg
and N.V. Long, eds., Trade, Welfare and Economic Policies. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan
Press, pp. 121-142.
-F. Casas (1983). "International Trade with Produced Transport Services". OEP; V.35-#?, pp.
89-109.
-J. Melvin (1985). "The Regional Economic Consequences of Tariffs and Domestic
Transportation Costs". CJE; V.18-#2, pp. 237-257.
b. Protective Consequences of Transportation Costs
-V. Geraci and W. Prewo (1977). "Bilateral Trade Flows and Transport Costs". REStat; V.?-#?,
pp. 67-74.
-G. Sampson (1978). "An Analysis of the Sources of Intercountry Differences in International
Transport Costs". Economia Internazionale; V.?-#?, pp. 234-247.
-W. Prewo (1978). "The Structure of Transport Costs on Latin American Exports". WA; V.?-#?,
pp. 305-327.
-W.G. Waters (1970). "Transport Costs, Tariffs and the Pattern of Industrial Protection". AER;
V.60-#5, pp. 1013-1020.
-W.G. Waters (1971). "A Note on Transport Costs and the Choice of Tariff Valuation Base".
JPE; V.79-#4, pp. 926-928.
-W.G. Waters (1974). "Transport Costs and the Static Welfare Costs of Tariffs". AER; V.64-$4,
pp. 730-733.
-J.M. Finger and A. Yeats (1976). "Effective Protection by Transportation Costs". QJE; V.90-#?,
pp. 169-176.
-J. Jansson and D. Shneerson (1978). "The Effective Protection Implicit in Linear Shipping
Rates". REStat; V.?-#?, pp. 569-573.
-D. Clark (1981). "Protection by International Transport Charges: Analysis by Stage of
Fabrication". JDevE; V.8-#?, pp. 339-345.
-D. Clark (1981). "On the Relative Importance of International Transport Charges as a Barrier
to Trade". Quarterly Review of Economics and Business; V.21-#?, pp. 127-135.
-S. Alam (19??). "Transaction Costs of Trade: Some Partial Equilibrium Results". SEJ; V.?-#?,
pp. 323-329.
-K. Krutilla (1989). "Tariff Burdens and Optimal Tariffs under Alternative Transport Cost and
Market Structures". EcLets; V.311-#?, pp. 381-386.
-D. Rousslang and T. To (1993). "Domestic Trade and Transportation Costs as Barriers to
International Trade". CJE; V.26-#1, pp. 208-221.
-J. Francois, H. Arce, J. Flynn, and K. Reinert (1996). Commercial Policy and the Domestic
Carrying Trade. CJE; V.29-#1, pp. 181-198.
D. International Differences in Technology and Trade
-P. Stoneman (1983). The Economic Analysis of Technological Change. New York: Oxford
University Press.
-P. Stoneman (1987). The Economic Analysis of Technology Policy. New York: Oxford
University Press.
-L. Cheng (1984). "International Trade and Technology: A Brief Survey of the Recent
Literature". WA; V.120-#?, pp. 165-189.
-G. Dosi, K. Pavitt and L. Soete (1988). The Economics of Technical Change and International
Trade. Brighton: Wheatsheaf.
1. Technology Differences and International Trade
-A. Amano (1964). "Determinants of Comparative Costs". OEP; V.16-#?, pp. 389-400.
-P. Bardhan (1965). "International Differences in Production Functions, Trade and Factor
Prices". EJ; V.75-#297, pp. 81-87.
-R. Jones (1965). "'Neutral' Technological Change and the Isoquant Map". AER; V.55-#?, pp.
848-855.
-R. Jones (1970). "The Role of Technology in the Theory of International Trade". in R. Vernon,
ed. The Technology Factor in International Trade. New York: Columbia/NBER, pp. 72-92.
-K. Arrow, H. Chenery, B. Minhas and R. Solow (1961). "Capital-Labor Substitution and
Economic Efficiency". REStat; V.34-#?, pp. 225-250.
-B. Minhas (1963). An International Comparison of Factor Costs and Factor Use. Amsterdam:
North-Holland.
-R. Nelson (1968). "A `Diffusion` Model of International Productivity Differences in
Manufacturing Industry". AER; V.58-#5, pp. 1219-1248.
2. Technology Change and International Trade
a. Analysis of Technological Change in GE
-H. Uzawa (1961). "Neutral Inventions and the Stability of Growth Equilibrium". REStud; V.28-
#?, pp. 117-124.
-A. Asimakopoulos and J. Weldon (1963). "The Classification of Technical Progress in Models
of Economic Growth". Eca; V.30-#?, pp. 372-386.
-A. Amano (1964). "Biased Technical Progress and a Neoclassical Theory of Economic Growth".
QJE; V.78-#1, pp. 129-138.
-P. Diamond (1965). "Disembodied Technical Change in a Two-Sector Model". REStud; V.32-
#?, pp. 161-168.
-W. Chang (1970). "The Neoclassical Theory of Technical Progress". AER; V.60-#?, pp. 912-
923.
b. Endogenous Technology Choice
-W. Fellner (1961). "Two Propositions in the Theory of Induced Innovation". EJ; V.71-#?, pp.
305-308.
-C. Kennedy (1964). "Induced Bias in Innovation and the Theory of Distribution". EJ; V.74-#?,
pp. 541-547.
-P. Samuelson (1965). "A Theory of Induced Innovation Along Kennedy-Weizscker Lines".
REStat; V.47-#?, pp. 343-356. (Comment by Kennedy and Reply, REStat, V.48-#?, pp. 442-448)
-C.C. von Weizscker (1966). "Tentative Notes on a Two Sector Model with Induced Technical
Progress". REStud; V.33-#?, pp. 245-251.
-E.M. Drandakis and E. Phelps (1966). "A Model of Induced Invention, Growth and
Distribution". EJ; V.76-#?, pp. 823-840
-A. Amano (1967). "Induced Bias in Technological Progress and Economic Growth". ESQ;
V.17-#?, pp. 1-17.
-W. Chang (1970). "A Two-Sector Model of Economic Growth with Induced Technical
Progress". CJE; V.3-#?, pp.
-W. Chang (197?). "Induced Bias in Invention in Two-Sector Growth Models". Metroeconomica;
V.?-#?, pp. 288-305.
-W. Nordhaus (1967). "The Optimal Rate and Direction of Technical Change". in K. Shell, ed.
Essays on the Theory of Optimal Economic Growth. Cambridge: MIT, pp. 53-66.
-W. Nordhaus (1969). "An Economic Theory of Technological Change". AER; V.59-#2, pp. 18-
28.
-M. Gort and R. Wall (1986). "The Evolution of Technologies and Investment in Innovation".
EJ; V.96-#?, pp. 741-757.
-K. Arrow (1969). "Classifacatory Notes on the Production and Transmission of Technological
Knowledge". AER; V.59-#2, pp. 29-35.
-A. Atkinson and J. Stiglitz (1969). "A New View of Technological Change". EJ; V.79-#315, pp.
573-578.
-C. Kennedy (1973). "A Generalisation of the Theory of Induced Bias in Technical Progress".
EJ; V.83-#?, pp. 48-57.
-K. Shell (1966). "Toward a Theory of Inventive Activity and Capital Accumulation". AER;
V.56-#2, pp. 62-68.
-K. Shell (1967). "A Model of Inventive Activity and Capital Accumulation". in K. Shell, ed.
Essays on the Theory of Optimal Economic Growth. Cambridge: MIT, pp. 67-85..
c. Technology Change in Models of International Trade
-J. Hicks (1953). "An Inaugural Lecture". OEP; V.5-#?, pp. 117-135.
-M. Kemp (1955). "Technological Change, Terms of Trade and Welfare". EJ; V.65-#?, pp. 457-
473.
-R. Findlay and H. Grubert (1959). "Factor Intensities, Technological Progress and the Terms of
Trade". OEP; V.11-#1, pp. 111-121.
-P. Doeringer (1967). "Factor Prices and Technological Change". EcInq; V.?-#?, pp. 111-121.
-J. Borkakoti (1980). "Generalized Findlay-Grubert Theorems". QJE; V.95-#4, pp. 587-611.
-J.P. Neary (1981). "On the Short-Run Effects of Technological Progress". OEP; V.33-#2, pp.
224-233.
-M.V. Posner (1961). "International Trade and Technical Change". OEP; V.?-#3, pp. 323-341.
-J. Chipman (1970). "Induced Technical Change and Patterns of International Trade". in R.
Vernon, ed. pp. 94-127.
-R. Klein (1973). "A Dynamic Theory of Comparative Advantage". AER; V.63-#1, pp. 173-184.
-R. Klein (1977). Dynamic Competition. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
-M. Teubal (1975). "Toward a Neotechnology Theory of Comparative Costs". QJE; V.85-#?, pp.
415-431.
-J. Borkakoti (197?). "Some Welfare Implications of the Neo-Technology Hypothesis of the
Pattern of International Trade". OEP; V.?-#?, pp. 383-399.
-C. Hamilton and H.T. Soderstrom (1981). "Technology and International Trade: A Heckscher
Ohlin Approach". in S. Grassman and E. Lundberg, eds. The World Economic Order: Past and
Prospects. London: Macmillan, pp. 167-193.
-L. Cheng (1984). "International Competition in R&D and Technological Leadership: An
Examination of the Posner-Hufbauer Hypothesis". JIE; V.17-#?, pp. 15-40.
-J.S. Metcalfe and L. Soete (1984). "Notes on the Evolution of Technology and International
Competition". in M. Gibbons, et al. eds. Science and Technology Policy in the 1980's and
Beyond. London: Longmans.
-H. Katrak (1988). "R&D, International Production and Trade: The Technological Gap Theory in
a Factor-Endowment Model". MS; V.56-#3, pp. 205-222.
-W.E. Diewert (1987). "The Effects of an Innovation: A Trade Theory Approach". CJE; V.20-#4,
pp. 694-714.
3. Empirical Evidence on Technology and Trade
a. Testing the Technology-Gap Hypothesis
-G.C. Hufbauer (1966). Synthetic Materials and International Trade. London: Duckworth.
-W. Gruber, D. Mehta and R. Vernon (1967). "The R&D Factor in International Trade and
Investment of US Industries. JPE; V.75-#1, pp. 20-37.
-D. Keesing (1967). "The Impact of R&D on US International Trade". JPE; V.75-#1, pp. 38-45.
-W. Gruber and R. Vernon (1971). "The Technology Factor in a World Trade Matrix". in R.
Vernon ed. The Technology Factor in International Trade. New York: Columbia University
Press/NBER, pp. 233-272.
-G.C. Hufbauer (1971). "The Impact of National Characteristics and Technology on the
Commodity Composition of Trade in Manufactured Goods". in R. Vernon ed. The Technology
Factor in International Trade. New York: Columbia University Press/NBER, pp. 145-231.
-H. Katrak (1973). "Human Skills, R&D and Scale Economies in the Exports of the UK and US".
OEP; V.25-#2, pp. 337-360.
-S. Hirsch (1974). "Capital or Technology? Confronting the Neo-Factor Proportions and Neo-
Technology Accounts of International Trade". WA; V.110-#?, pp. 535-563
-F. Wolter (1977). "Factor Proportions, Technology and West German Industry's International
Trade Patterns". WA; V.113-#2, pp. 250-267.
-E. Graham (1979). "Technological Innovation and the Dynamics of US Comparative
Advantage". in C. Hill and J. Utterback, eds. Technological Innovation for a Dynamic Economy.
New York: Pergammon Press.
-A. Aquino (1981). "Changes Over Time in the Pattern of Comparative Advantage in
Manufactured Goods: An Empirical Analysis for the Period 1962-1974". EER; V.15-#1, pp. 41-
62.
-L. Soete (1981). "A General Test of Technology Gap Trae Theory". WA; V.117-#4, pp.
-G. Dosi and L.G. Soete (1983). "Technology Gaps and Cost-based Adjustment: Some
Explorations on the Determinants of International Competitiveness". Metroeconomica; V.35-#3,
pp. 197-222.
-K. Pavitt and L. Soete (1980). "Innovative Activities and Export Shares: Some Comparisons
between Industries and Countries". in K. Pavitt, ed. Technical Innovation and British Economic
Performance. London: Macmillan, pp. 38-66.
-K. Pavitt and L. Soete (1982). "International Differences in Economic Growth and the
International Location of Innovation". in H. Giersch ed. Emerging Technologies--Consequences
for Economic Growth, Structural Change and Employment. Tubingen: JCB Mohr.
-L. Sveikauskas (1983). "Science and Technology in US Foreign Trade". EJ; V.93-#?, pp. 242-
261.
-L. Sveikauskas (1984). "Science and Technology in Many Different Industries: Data for the
Analysis of International Trade". Review of Public Data Use; pp. 133-156.
-K.S. Hughes (1986). "Exports and Innovation: A Simultaneous Model". EER; V.30-#2, pp. 383-
399.
b. International Technology Differences, Sectoral Productivity (TFP) and Trade Patterns
(1) Technology Differences and Trade Pattern
-A. Krueger and B. Tuncer (1982). "Growth of Factor Productivity in Turkish Manufacturing
Industries". JDevE; V.11-#?, pp. 307-325.
-M. Nishimizu and S. Robinson (1984). "Trade Policies and Productivity Change in Semi-
Industrialized Countries". JDevE; V.16-#?, pp. 177-206.
-T.J. Chen and D. Tang (1990). "Export Performance and Productivity Growth: The Case of
Taiwan". EDCC; V.38-#?, pp. 577-585.
-D. Dollar, W. Baumol, and E. Wolff (1988). "The Factor-Price Equalization Model and Industry
Labor Productivity". in R. Feenstra, ed. Empiical Methods for International Trade. Cambridge:
MIT, pp. 5-22.
-D. Dollar and E. Wolff (1993). Competitiveness, Convergence, and International
Specialization. Cambridge: MIT.
-K. Maskus (1991). "Comparing International Trade Data and Product and National
Characteristics Data for the Analysis of International Trade Models". in P. Hooper and J.D.
Richardson, eds. International Economic Transactions: Issues in Measurement and Empirical
Research. Chicago: University of Chicago Press/NBER, pp. 17-56.
-R. Brecher and E. Choudhri (1993). "Some Empirical Support for the HO Model of Production".
CJE; V.26-#2, pp. 272-285.
-J. Harrigan (1995). "Factor Endowments and The International Location of Production:
Econometric Evidence for the OECD, 1970-1985". JIE; V.39-#1/2, pp. 123-141.
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1046.
-K. Maskus and A. Webster (1999). Estimating the HOV Model with Technology Differences
Using Disaggregated Labor Skills for the United States and the United Kingdom. RIE; V.7-#1,
pp. 8-19.
(2) Measuring Technology Difference
(a) Theory
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#?, pp. 115-145.
-D. Caves, L. Christensen and W.E. Diewert (1982). "Multilateral Comparisons of Output, Input,
and Productivity Using Superlative Index Numbers". EJ; V.92-#1, pp. 73-86.
-D. Caves, L. Christensen and W.E. Diewert (1982). "The Economic Theory of Index Numbers
and the Measurement of Input, Output, and Productivity". Etrica; V.50-#6, pp. 1393-1414.
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Output Change". in Price Level Measurement. Toronto: Statistics Canada, pp. 1049-1113.
(b) Practice
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Kendrick and B. Vaccara, eds. New Developments in Productivity Measurement and Analysis.
Chicago: Univeristy of Chicago Press, pp. 17-136.
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Germany, 1960-1979". in Probleme unde Perspektiven der weltwirtschaftlichen Entwicklung.
Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 335-347.
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Comparisons, 1960-1979". Journal of Japanese and International Economies; V.1-#1, pp. 1-30.
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and the US". in C. Hulten, ed. Productivity Growth in Japan and the US. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press, pp. 29-55
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1983". Monthly Labor Review; October, pp. 18-28.
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Monthly Labor Review; October, pp. 20-32.
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1064.
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International Comparisons, 1950-1988". QJE; V.106-#?, pp. 327-368.
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van Ark and D. Pilat, eds. Explaining Economic Growth--Essays in Honor of Angus Madison.
Amsterdam: North-Holland.
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Rates". AER; V.84-#5, pp. 1423-1436.
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Measurement and Comparisons". Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, V.52-#4, pp. 343-
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and Causes". BPEA--Microeconomics; #2, pp. 1-69.
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Review of Income and Wealth; V.39-#4, pp. 357-375.
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and Evidence". ms: University of Pittsburgh.
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Functions. JIE; V.47-#2, pp. 267-293.