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Flange Joint

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16-1

4.16 Design Rules For Flanged Joints (Revision 6)

4.16.0 Table of Contents............................................................................................................ 1

4.16.1 Scope ............................................................................................................................... 1

4.16.2 Design Considerations................................................................................................... 1

4.16.3 Flange Types ................................................................................................................... 3

4.16.4 Flange Materials.............................................................................................................. 3

4.16.5 Gasket Materials ............................................................................................................. 4

4.16.6 Design Bolt Loads .......................................................................................................... 5

4.16.7 Flange Design Procedure............................................................................................... 9

4.16.8 Split Loose Type Flanges............................................................................................. 10

4.16.9 Noncircular Shaped Flanges With A Circular Bore................................................... 11

4.16.10 Flanges With Nut Stops................................................................................................ 11

4.16.11 Qualification Of Assembly Procedures And Assemblers......................................... 11

4.16.12 Nomenclature................................................................................................................ 12

4.16.13 Tables............................................................................................................................. 16

4.16.14 Figures ........................................................................................................................... 36

4.16.1 Scope

4.16.1.1 The rules in this paragraph can be used to design circular flanges subject to internal and/or

external pressure. These rules provide for hydrostatic end loads, gasket seating, and externally applied axial

force and net-section bending moment.

4.16.1.2 The rules in this paragraph apply to the design of bolted flange connections with gaskets that are

entirely located within the circle enclosed by the bolt holes. The rules do not cover the case where the

gasket extends beyond the bolt hole circle.

4.16.1.3 It is recommended that bolted flange connections conforming to the standards listed in

paragraph 4.1.11 be used for connections to external piping. These standards may be used for other bolted

flange connections within the limits of size in the standard and pressure-temperature ratings permitted in

paragraph 4.1.11. The ratings in these standards are based on the hub dimensions given or on the

minimum specified thickness of flanged fittings of integral construction. Flanges fabricated from rings may be

used in place of the hub flanges in these standards provided that their strength, calculated by the rules in this

paragraph, is not less than that calculated for the corresponding size of hub flange.

4.16.1.4 The rules of this paragraph should not be construed to prohibit the use of other types of flanged

connections provided they are designed in accordance with good engineering practice and method of design

is acceptable to the user and Inspector.

4.16.2 Design Considerations

4.16.2.1 The design of a flange involves the selection of the flange type, gasket material, flange facing,

bolting, hub proportions, flange width, and flange thickness, and depending on the method used to compute

the bolt load, a tightness class. The flange dimensions shall be designed such that the stresses in the flange

and the flange rigidity satisfy the acceptability criteria of this paragraph. Annex 4.B is included that provides

a discussion of the design considerations for bolted flanged connections.

4.16.2.2 In the design of a bolted flange connection, calculations shall be made for the following two

design conditions, and the most severe condition shall govern the design of the flanged joint.

a) Operating Conditions The conditions required to resist the hydrostatic end force of the design

pressure and any applied external forces and moments tending to part the joint at the design

temperature.

4.16-2 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite Revision 6

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

b) Gasket Seating Condition The conditions existing when the gasket or joint-contact surface is seated

by applying an initial load with the bolts during assembly the joint, at atmospheric temperature and

pressure.

4.16.2.3 Calculations shall be performed using dimensions of the flange in the corroded condition and the

uncorroded condition, and the more severe case shall control.

4.16.2.4 In the design of flange pairs that are separated by a pressure retaining plate such as a

tubesheet, each flange is designed for its particular design loads of pressure, gasket reactions, and

depending on the method used to compute the bolt load, a tightness class. The bolt load used to design

each flange, however, is that load common to the flange pair and equal to the larger of the bolt loads

calculated for each flange individually. No additional rules are required for design of flange pairs. After the

loads for the most severe condition are determined, calculations shall be made for each flange following the

rules of this paragraph.

4.16.2.5 In the design of flange pairs where pass partitions with gaskets are used, the gasket loads from

the partition(s) shall be included in the calculation of bolt loads. Partition gaskets may have different gasket

constants than the ring gasket inside the bolt circle. In the design of flanges with noncircular gaskets or with

partitions of any shape, gasket reactions from all surfaces with gaskets shall be included in calculating bolt

loads.

4.16.2.6 Two methods are provided for determining the design bolt load for a flanged joint. The method

to be used in the design is subject to agreement between the designer and purchaser.

a) Method A The bolt load is established based on two gasket parameters, a flange leakage criterion is

not explicitly included in the design procedure.

b) Method B The bolt load is established based on four gasket parameters, a flange leakage criterion is

explicitly included in the design procedure. The in-service gasket condition may require adjustment to

the bolt load to maintain the desired gasket tightness.

1) Tightness is expressed through a tightness parameter,

p

T . The tightness parameter,

p

T , is a

measure of tightness that has been defined as proportional to pressure and inversely proportional

to the square root of leak rate, or

*

* p

P L

T

P L

! "

#

$ %

& '

(4.16.1)

2) Numerically,

p

T is the dimensionless quantity that is the product of the ratio of pressure divided by

atmospheric pressure and the square root of the ratio of a reference mass leak rate per unit

diameter divided by a measured mass leak rate per unit diameter, all in consistent units. In this

paragraph, the reference leak rate,

*

L , is 1 mg He/sec/150 mm diameter at one atmosphere. For

example, for a 10 in. joint leaking 0.05 mg He/sec at 4 atmospheres,

4 1 150

23.3

1 0.5 254

p

T

! "

# #

$ %

& '

(4.16.2)

3) The flanged joint shall be designed to satisfy a tightness requirement that is established by the

selection of a Tightness Class appropriate for the service conditions. The minimum required

tightness

min p

T is associated with a maximum permitted leak rate for the selected class.

4) The Tightness Class and associated value of

c

T are related to leak rate as shown in Table 4.16.1.

The parameter

c

T shall be selected for the desired tightness class from Table 4.16.1 that provides

Revision 6 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite 4.16-3

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

some representative tightness classes. Unless otherwise specified, the value for

c

T for Class I

shall be selected from Table 4.16.1, or calculated for other classes by the following equation:

0.5

0.002

: / /

c

T Leak rate in mg He sec mm diameter

Helium Leak Rate

! "

#

$ %

& '

(4.16.3)

0.5

0.0004

: / /

c

T Leak rate in lb He sec in diameter

Helium Leak Rate

! "

#

$ %

& '

(4.16.4)

4.16.3 Flange Types

4.16.3.1 For the purpose of computation, there are two major categories of flanges:

a) Integral Type Flanges This type covers designs where the flange is cast or forged integrally with the

nozzle neck, vessel or pipe wall, butt welded thereto, or attached by other forms of welding such that

the flange and nozzle neck, vessel or pipe wall are structurally equivalent to integral construction.

Integral flanges shall be designed considering structural interaction between the flange and the nozzle

neck, vessel, or pipe wall, which the rules account for by considering the neck or wall to act as a hub.

Integral type flanges are referenced below. The design bolt loads are shown in Figures 4.16.1 and

4.16.2.

1) Integral type flanges Figure 4.16.1 Sketch (a) and Table 4.2.9, Detail 19

2) Integral type flanges where

1 o

g g # Figure 4.16.1 Sketch (b)

3) Integral type flanges with a hub Figure 4.16.2 and Table 4.2.9, Details 6,7,and 8

4) Integral type flanges with nut stops Figure 4.16.3 and Figure 4.16.4

b) Loose Type Flanges This type covers those designs in which the flange has no substantial integral

connection to the nozzle neck, vessel, or pipe wall, and includes welded flange connections where the

welds are not considered to give the mechanical strength equivalent of an integral attachment. Integral

type flanges are referenced below. The design bolt loads are shown in Figures 4.16.5, 4.16.6, and

4.16.7.

1) Loose type flanges Figure 4.16.5 and Table 4.2.9, Details 1,2,3 and 4

2) Loose type lap joint flanges Figure 4.16.6 and Table 4.2.7, Detail 5

3) Loose type threaded flanges Figure 4.16.7

4.16.3.2 The integral and loose type flanges described above can also be applied to reverse flange

configurations. Integral and loose type reverse flanges are shown in Figure 4.16.8.

4.16.4 Flange Materials

4.16.4.1 Materials used in the construction of bolted flange connections shall comply with the

requirements given in Part 3 .

4.16.4.2 Flanges made from ferritic steel shall be given a normalizing or full-annealing heat treatment

when the thickness of the flange section exceeds 75 mm (3 in.).

4.16.4.3 Material on which welding is to be performed shall be proved to be of weldable quality.

Satisfactory qualification of the welding procedure under Section IX is considered as proof. Welding shall not

be performed on steel that has a carbon content greater than 0.35%. All welding on flange connections shall

comply with the requirements for postweld heat treatment given in Part 6 .

4.16.4.4 Fabricated flanges with hub shall be in accordance with the following:

4.16-4 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite Revision 6

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

a) Flanges with hubs may be machined from a hot rolled or forged billet or forged bar. The axis of the

finished flange shall be parallel to the long axis of the original billet or bar, but these axes need not be

concentric.

b) Flanges with hubs, except as permitted in 4.16.4.4.a, shall not be machined from plate or bar stock

material unless the material has been formed into a ring, and further provided that:

1) In a ring formed from plate, the original plate surfaces are parallel to the axis of the finished flange;

2) The joints in the ring are welded butt joints that conform to the requirements of Part 6. The

thickness to be used to determine postweld heat treatment and radiographic requirements shall be

( ) min , 2 t A B * + ,

- .

.

c) The back of the flange and the outer surface of the hub are examined by either the magnetic particle

method or the liquid penetrant method in accordance with Part 7.

4.16.4.5 Bolts, studs, nuts, and washers shall comply with the requirements of Part 3 and referenced

standards. It is recommended that bolts and studs have a nominal diameter of not less than 12 mm (0.5 in.).

If bolts or stubs smaller than 12 mm (0.5 in.) are used, then ferrous bolting material shall be of alloy steel.

Precautions shall be taken to avoid overstressing small-diameter bolts. When washers are used, they shall

be through hardened to minimize the potential for galling.

COMMENT: Paragraph 4.16.4 should be moved to Section 3.

4.16.5 Gasket Materials

4.16.5.1 Gasket materials shall be selected that are suitable for the design conditions over the intended

length of service. Corrosion, chemical attack, creep and thermal degradation of gasket materials over time

shall be considered.

4.16.5.2 The gasket constants for the design of the bolt load using Method A, m and y , are provided in

Table 4.16.2. Other values for the gasket constants may be used if based on actual testing or data in the

literature.

4.16.5.3 The gasket constants for the design of the bolt load using Method B,

s

G , a ,

b

G and

max P

T are

provided in Table 4.16.3. Other values for the gasket constants may be used if based on actual testing or

data in the literature. These gaskets shall meet the following requirements.

a) Gasket constants

s

G , a ,

b

G and

max P

T shall be certified by test.

1) The gasket constants taken from Table 4.16.3 may be considered as certified.

2) Gasket constants that are different from those given in Table 4.16.3 may be used provided the

Manufacturer's Data Report cites the source test document that certifies the constants for the

specified gasket material and type.

3) If a test is performed, the test shall be in accordance with the PVRC ROTT procedures as given in

Appendices A and B, Welding Research Council Bulletin 427, Leakage and Emission

Characteristics of Sheet Gaskets: Report No.1: Fugitive Emission Characteristics of Gaskets and

Report No.2: Exploratory Investigation of the Leakage Stabilization Time at Room Temperature for

Flexible Graphite and PTFE Based Sheet Gaskets.

b) Temperature limitations on gasket constants.

1) Gasket constants

b

G and a are for the assembly condition that is assumed to take place at

ambient temperature, and for a new gasket. However, changes in constants

b

G and a at elevated

Revision 6 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite 4.16-5

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

temperatures are not needed since they are not used in the design process and do not affect the

flange design.

2) Gasket constant

s

G reflects the operating condition. The constant

s

G of Table 4.16.3 is valid for

various materials and gasket temperatures not exceeding the following:

i) 121C (250F) for elastomer or reinforced elastomer sheet materials.

ii) 315C (600F) for flexible graphite sheet materials.

iii) 482C (900F) for flexible graphite-steel or high alloy composite gaskets where the

graphite is encapsulated by the metal component after seating. This includes spiral

wound, metal jacketed, profiled metal and corrugated metal components.

iv) As limited by paragraph 4.16.5.1 for solid metal gaskets.

3) The temperature limit for gasket constant,

s

G , other than those listed in paragraph 4.16.5.3.b.2 ,

shall be established by an acceptable test that accounts for thermal degradation over the life of the

gasket, and included as part of the certification of gasket constants.

c) The width of sheet and composite gaskets, N , shall be considered as follows:

1) A width no less than that given in Table 4.16.4 is recommended.

2) A width no less than that given in Table 4.16.4 shall be used for purposes of computing

g

A .

4.16.6 Design Bolt Loads

4.16.6.1 The flange bolt load to be used in the design shall be calculated using one of the following two

methods.

4.16.6.2 Method A A procedure to determine the bolt loads for the operating and gasket seating

conditions is shown below.

a) STEP 1 Determine the design pressure and temperature of the flange joint.

b) STEP 2 Select a gasket and determine the gasket factors m and y from Table 4.16.2, or other

sources.

c) STEP 3 Determine the width of the gasket, N , basic gasket seating width,

0

b , the effective gasket

seating width, b , and the location of the gasket reaction, G , based on the flange and gasket geometry,

the information in Table 4.16.5 and Figure 4.16.9, and the equations shown below.

0 0

6 (0.25 .) b b when b mm in # / (4.16.5)

0

0

0.5 6 (0.25 .)

ul

ul

b

b C when b mm in

C

# 0 (4.16.6)

d) STEP 4 Determine the design bolt load for the operating condition.

2

0.785 2

o

W G P b GmP for non self energized gaskets 1 # 2 , , (4.16.7)

2

0.785

o

W G P for self energized gaskets # , (4.16.8)

e) STEP 5 Determine the design bolt load for the gasket seating condition.

2

m b

g bg

A A

W S

2 ! "

#

$ %

& '

(4.16.9)

4.16-6 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite Revision 6

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

The parameter

b

A is the actual total cross sectional area of the bolts that is selected such that

b m

A A 3 ,

where

max ,

gs

o

m

bo bg

W

W

A

S S

* +

#

4 5

4 5

- .

(4.16.10)

( )

gs us

W bG C y for non self energized gaskets 1 # , , (4.16.11)

0.0

gs

W for self energized gaskets # , (4.16.12)

4.16.6.3 Method B A procedure to determine the bolt loads for the operating and gasket seating

conditions using an alternative procedure that includes a flange leakage criterion is shown below.

a) STEP 1 Determine the design pressure and temperature of the flange joint.

b) STEP 2 Select a gasket and determine the gasket factors

s

G , a ,

b

G ,

l

S ,

c

S , and

max P

T from Table

4.16.3.

c) STEP 3 Determine the width of the gasket, N , basic gasket seating width,

0

b , the effective gasket

seating width, b , and the location of the gasket reaction, G , and the gasket contact area,

g

A (see

paragraph 4.16.5.3.c.2), based on the flange and gasket geometry, the information in Table 4.16.6 and

Figure 4.16.9, and the equations shown below.

0 0

12 (0.5 .) b b when b mm in # / (4.16.13)

0

0

12 (0.5 .)

2

ul

ul

b

b C when b mm in

C

# 0 (4.16.14)

d) STEP 4 Select an assembly, 6 , from Table 4.16.7.

e) STEP 5 Determine the tightness class,

c

T , and the minimum required tightness,

min P

T .

min

0.1243

P c

T T P # (4.16.15)

f) STEP 6 Determine the assembly tightness,

Pa

T . The assembly tightness must satisfy the equation

shown below. Any value of

Pa

T that satisfies this equation can be used to determine the design bolt

load.

min max

1.5

P Pa P

T T T / / (4.16.16)

The following iterative procedure can be used to obtain an optimum value for the assembly tightness

and bolt load.

1) STEP 6.1 Set the upper and lower bounds for

Pa

T

max

U

Pa P

T T # (4.16.17)

min

1.5

L

Pa P

T T # (4.16.18)

2) STEP 6.2 determine the average value of

Pa

T .

Revision 6 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite 4.16-7

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

( )

0.5

AVG U L

Pa Pa Pa

T T T # 2 (4.16.19)

3) STEP 6.3 Compute the design gasket stress,

ya

S .

( )

a

AVG b

ya us Pa

G

S C T

6

! "

#

$ %

& '

(4.16.20)

4) STEP 6.4 Compute the minimum gasket operating stress to meet the required joint tightness,

1 m

S .

( )

1 min

k

m us s P

S C G T # (4.16.21)

where

log

log

ya

s

AVG

Pa

S

G

k

T

6 * +

4 5

- .

#

* +

- .

(4.16.22)

5) STEP 6.5 Compute the average operating gasket stress after the design pressure and external

loads are applied,

2 m

S .

( )

( )

2

2

0.785

4

1.5

A

ya

bo E

m us

bg g g p

G P F

S

S QM

S C

S GA A A

6

* +

2 ! "

! "

4 5 # , ,

$ %

$ %

$ %

2 4 5

& '

& '

- .

(4.16.23)

6) STEP 6.6 Compute the difference between

2 m

S and

1 m

S ,

2 1

D

m m m

S S S # , .

i) If 0.0

D

m

S 0 , then set

U AVG

Pa Pa

T T # and go to STEP 6.2.

ii) If 0.0

D

m

S 7 , then set

L AVG

Pa Pa

T T # and go to STEP 6.2.

iii) If 0.0

D

m

S # , or the absolute value in the difference between the bounds of the iteration,

( )

abs

U L

Pa Pa

T T , , is small, then set

AVG

Pa Pa

T T # . This is the optimum value of the

assembly tightness; go to Step 6 to determine the minimum required operating bolt

load.

g) STEP 7 Determine the minimum required operating bolt load.

( )

2

4

0.785

E

mo mo g p A

M

W G P S A A F

G

# 2 2 2 2 (4.16.24)

where

( )

1 3

2

max , , ,

us l

mo m m

C S

P

S S S

6 6

* +

#

4 5

- .

(4.16.25)

The parameters

1 m

S and

3 m

S are computed using Equations (4.16.21) and (4.16.23) with the value of

min P

T determined in STEP 5.

h) STEP 8 Determine the required and actual bolt areas.

4.16-8 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite Revision 6

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

mo

m

bo

W

A

S

# (4.16.26)

The actual bolt area is determined by selecting a number and size of bolts so that the actual total area,

b

A , is greater than or equal to the minimum required area,

m

A .

i) STEP 9 Determine if the actual bolt area satisfies the following criterion.

( ) ( )

1.5 2

b bg c g p

A S S A A 6 , / 2 (4.16.27)

j) STEP 10 Determine the design bolt load for the operating condition.

o b bo

W A S # (4.16.28)

k) STEP 11 Determine the design bolt load for the gasket seating condition.

g b bg

W A S # (4.16.29)

l) STEP 12 Determine the minimum assembly bolt load for the test pressure,

t

P .

8 9

1 2 3

max , ,

am a a a

W W W W # (4.16.30)

where

( )

2

1

1

0.785

a mo g p t

W S A A G P

6

! "

* +

# 2 2

$ %

- .

& '

(4.16.31)

( )

2

2

1

0.785 1

a t ya g p

W G P S A A

6

! "

# , 2 2

$ %

& '

(4.16.32)

3

1.5

a b bg

W A S # (4.16.33)

m) STEP 13 Determine the minimum operating bolt load.

( )

2

1

4

0.785

E

om m f g p A

M

W S A A G P F

G

# 2 2 2 2 (4.16.34)

where

( )

1 min

f

k

m f s P

S G T # (4.16.35)

log

log

yaf

s

f

Paf

S

G

k

T

* +

4 5

- .

#

* +

- .

(4.16.36)

1

max

a

yaf

paf P

b

S

T T

G

! "

$ %

& '

! "

# /

$ %

& '

(4.16.37)

Revision 6 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite 4.16-9

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

( )

am

yaf yam

g p

W

S S

A A

# /

2

(4.16.38)

( )

max

a

yam b P

S G T # (4.16.39)

COMMENT: In this write-up, the theory behind the bolt-load

calculation is not explained. Only those calculations required

to determine the design bolt load are described. Also, what do

we tell the designer to do with the bolt loads computed in

Steps 12 and 13?

4.16.7 Flange Design Procedure

4.16.7.1 The procedure in this paragraph can be used to design circular integral, loose or reverse

flanges, subject to internal or external pressure, and external loadings. The procedure can be used with

either of the methods for determining bolt loads and incorporates both a strength check and rigidity check for

flange rotation.

4.16.7.2 A procedure to design a flange is shown below.

a) This STEP 1 Determine the design pressure and temperature of the flange joint, and the external net-

section axial force,

A

F , and bending moment,

E

M . If the pressure is negative, the absolute value of

the pressure should be used in this procedure.

b) STEP 2 Determine the design bolt loads for operating condition,

o

W , and the gasket seating

condition,

g

W , and corresponding actual bolt area,

b

A , using Method A or Method B in paragraph

4.16.6.

c) STEP 3 Determine an initial flange geometry, in addition to the information required to determine the

bolt load, the following geometric parameters are required:

1) The flange bore, B

2) The bolt circle diameter, C

3) The outside diameter of the flange, A

4) The flange thickness, t

5) The thickness of the hub at the large end,

1

g

6) The thickness of the hub at the small end,

0

g

7) The hub length, h

d) STEP 4 Determine the flange forces.

2

0.785

D

H B P # (4.16.40)

2

0.785 H G P # (4.16.41)

4.16-10 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite Revision 6

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

T D

H H H # , (4.16.42)

G o

H W H # , (4.16.43)

e) STEP 5 Determine the flange moment for the operating condition using Equation (4.16.44) or

Equation (4.16.45), as applicable. In these equations,

D

h ,

T

h , and

G

h are determined from Table

4.16.8, the moment

oe

M is calculated using Equation (4.16.46), and I and

p

I are determined from

Table 4.16.9.

( ) abs

o D D T T G G oe s

M H h H h H h M F Internal pressure * + # 2 2 2

- .

(4.16.44)

( ) ( ) ( )

abs

o D D G T T G oe s

M H h h H h h M F External pressure

* +

# , 2 , 2

- .

(4.16.45)

( )

( ) ( )

( )

2 1

4

2 1 2

G D

oe E A D G

p D

I

h h

M M F h h

I I C h G

:

:

* + * + 2

# , 2 2

4 5 4 5

2 2 ,

4 5 4 5

- . - .

(4.16.46)

f) STEP 6 Determine the flange moment for the gasket seating condition using Equation (4.16.47) or

Equation (4.16.48), as applicable.

( )

2

g s

g

W C G F

M Internal pressure

,

# (4.16.47)

g g G s

M W h F External pressure # (4.16.48)

g) STEP 7 Determine the flange stress factors using the equations in Tables 4.16.10 and 4.16.11.

h) STEP 8 Determine the flange stresses for the operating and gasket seating conditions using the

equations in Table 4.16.12.

i) STEP 9 Check the flange stress acceptance criteria. The two criteria shown below need to be

evaluated. If the stress criteria are satisfied, then go to STEP 10. If the stress criteria are not satisfied,

then re-proportion the flange dimensions and go to STEP 4.

1) Allowable Normal Stress The criteria to evaluate the normal stresses for the operating and

gasket seating conditions are shown in Table 4.16.13.

2) Allowable Shear Stresses In the case of loose type flanges with laps, as shown in Fig. 4.16.6

where the gasket is so located that the lap is subjected to shear, the shearing stress shall not

exceed 0.8

no

S or 0.8

ng

S , as applicable, for the material of the lap. In the case of welded flanges

where the nozzle neck, vessel, or pipe wall extends near to the flange face and may form the

gasket contact face, the shearing stress carried by the welds shall not exceed 0.8

no

S or 0.8

ng

S ,

as applicable. The shearing stress shall be calculated for both the operating and gasket seating

load cases. Similar situations where flange parts are subjected to shearing stresses shall be

checked to the same requirement.

j) STEP 10 Check the flange rigidity criteria in Table 4.16.14. If the flange rigidity criterion is satisfied,

then the design is complete. If the flange rigidity criterion is not satisfied, then re-proportion the flange

dimensions and go to STEP 4.

4.16.8 Split Loose Type Flanges

Loose flanges split across a diameter and designed under the rules given in this paragraph may be used

under the following provisions.

Revision 6 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite 4.16-11

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

a) When the flange consists of a single split flange or flange ring, it shall be designed as if it were a solid

flange (without splits), using 200% of the total moment, 2.0

s

F # .

b) When the flange consists of two split rings, each ring shall be designed as if it were a solid flange

(without splits), using 75% of the total moment, 0.75

s

F # . The pair of rings shall be assembled so that

the splits in one ring are 90 degrees from the splits in the other ring.

c) The flange split locations should preferably be midway between bolt holes.

4.16.9 Noncircular Shaped Flanges With A Circular Bore

The outside diameter, A, for a noncircular flange with a circular bore shall be taken as the diameter of the

largest circle, concentric with the bore, inscribed entirely within the outside edges of the flange. The bolt

loads, flange moments, and stresses shall be calculated in the same manner as that for a circular flange

using a bolt circle whose size is established by drawing a circle through the centers of the outermost bolts.

4.16.10 Flanges With Nut Stops

When flanges are designed per this paragraph, or are fabricated to the dimensions of ASME B16.5 or other

acceptable standards, except that the dimension R is decreased to provide a nut-stop, the fillet radius shall

be as shown in Figures 4.16.3 and 4.16.4 except that:

a) For flanges designed to this paragraph, the thickness of the hub at the large end,

1

g , must be the

smaller of 2

n

t or 4

u

r , but not less than 12 mm (0.5 in.).

b) For ASME B16.5 or other standard flanges, the thickness of the hub at the small end,

0

g , shall be

increased as necessary to provide a nut-stop.

4.16.11 Qualification Of Assembly Procedures And Assemblers

Flange joints designed using the Method B bolt load procedure shall be assembled by qualified bolted-joint

assemblers. Bolted joints designed for flange assembly efficiencies, 6 , greater than 0.75 (see Table 4.16.7)

shall be assembled and bolted-up in accordance with a written procedure that has been qualified by test to

achieve the specified assembly efficiency. The procedure shall address need for through hardened washers.

Bolted-joint assemblers shall be qualified by test of a prototype assembly to demonstrate that they can apply

the qualified procedure and achieve the specified assembly efficiency.

4.16-12 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite Revision 6

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

4.16.12 Nomenclature

g

A is the gasket contact area.

A is the outside diameter of the flange or, where slotted holes extend to the outside of the

flange, the diameter to the bottom of the slots.

b

A is the cross-sectional area of the bolts based on the smaller of the root diameter or the least

diameter of the unthreaded portion.

m

A is the total minimum required cross-sectional area of the bolts.

p

A is the partition plate gasket contact area.

a is the exponent of the gasket assembly-loading curve used to compute the gasket stress

ya

S .

B is the inside bore of the flange, when

1

20 B g 7 , the Designer may use

1

B for B in the

equation for the longitudinal stress.

*

B is the inside diameter of the reverse flange.

1

B is

1

B g 2 for loose type flanges and for integral type flanges that have a value of f less than

1.0, although a minim value of 1.0 f # is permitted,

0

B g 2 for integral type flanges when

1.0 f 3 .

b is the effective gasket contact width.

0

b is the basic gasket seating width.

C is the bolt circle diameter.

ul

C is the conversion factor for length, 1.0

ul

C # for US Customary Units and 25.4

ul

C # for

Metric Units.

us

C is the conversion factor for stress, 1.0

us

C # for US Customary Units and

6.894757 03

us

C E # , for Metric Units.

C is the bolt circle diameter.

d is the flange stress factor.

r

d is the flange stress factor d for a reverse type flange.

yg

E is the Modulus of Elasticity at the gasket seating load case temperature.

yo

E is the Modulus of Elasticity at the operating load case temperature.

e is the flange stress factor.

r

e is the flange stress factor e for a reverse type flange.

6 is the assembly efficiency, or the ratio of the minimum to average gasket stress, which

accounts for variations in the bolt load and gasket stress based on the method of joint

assembly.

F is the flange stress factor for integral type flanges.

A

F is the value of the external net-section axial force.

L

F is the flange stress factor for loose type flanges.

s

F is the moment factor used to design split rings, 1.0

s

F # for solid rings, 2.0

s

F # for solid

rings, and 0.75

s

F # for solid rings (see paragraph 4.16.8).

f is the hub stress correction factor for integral flanges.

G is the location of the gasket reaction.

Revision 6 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite 4.16-13

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

b

G is the gasket property used to describe the assembly loading curve,

b

G equals the gasket

stress when 1.0

p

T # .

c

G is the outside diameter of the gasket contact area.

s

G is the gasket property used to describe the unloading curve,

s

G equals the gasket stress

when 1.0

p

T # .

0

g is the thickness of the hub at the small end.

1

g is the thickness of the hub at the large end.

H is the total hydrostatic end force.

D

H is the total hydrostatic end force on the area inside of the flange.

G

H is the gasket load for the operating condition.

p

I is the difference between the total hydrostatic end force and hydrostatic end force on the

area inside the flange.

h is the hub length.

D

h is the moment arm for load

D

H .

G

h is the moment arm for load

G

H .

T

h is the moment arm for load

T

H .

I is the bending moment of inertia of the flange cross-section.

p

I is the polar moment of inertia of the flange cross-section.

J is the flange rigidity index.

K is the ratio of the flange outside diameter to the flange inside diameter.

R

K is the rigidity index factor.

k is the exponent of the unloading curve.

L is the flange stress factor.

r

L is the flange stress factor L for a reverse type flange.

E

M is the absolute value of the external net-section bending moment.

g

M is the flange design moment for the gasket seating condition.

o

M is the flange design moment for the operating condition.

oe

M is the component of the flange design moment resulting from a net section bending moment

and/or axial force.

m is the gasket factor.

N is the gasket contact width.

: is Poissons ratio.

P is the design pressure.

t

P is the test pressure.

Q is the factor that varies between 0.0 and 1.0 that adjusts the overall effect of nonuniform

gasket stress caused by an external net-section bending moment relative to an equivalent

net-section axial load.

r is a radius to be at least

1

0.25g but not less than 5 mm (0.1875 in.).

u

r is the radius of the undercut on a flange with nut stops.

bg

S is the membrane stress intensity limit from Part 3 for the bolt at the gasket seating

temperature.

bo

S is the membrane stress intensity limit from Part 3 for the bolt at the design temperature.

4.16-14 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite Revision 6

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

c

S is the maximum permissible gasket stress to avoid tightness performance damage.

fg

S is the membrane stress intensity limit from Part 3 for the flange at the gasket seating

temperature.

fo

S is the membrane stress intensity limit from Part 3 for the flange at the design temperature.

l

S is the minimum permitted value of the operating gasket stress.

mo

S is the design gasket operating stress.

1 m

S is the minimum gasket operating stress to meet the required joint tightness.

2 m

S is the average operating gasket stress after the design pressure and external loads are

applied.

ng

S is the membrane stress intensity limit from Part 3 for the nozzle neck, vessel, or pipe at the

gasket seating temperature.

no

S is the membrane stress intensity limit from Part 3 for the nozzle neck, vessel, or pipe at the

design temperature.

s

S is the gasket stress developed when contact is initiated with a compression limit device, or a

stress associated with a tightness limit.

ya

S is the design gasket assembly stress.

H

S is the flange hub stress.

R

S is the flange radial stress.

T

S is the flange tangential stress.

1 T

S is the flange tangential stress at the outside diameter of a reverse flange.

2 T

S is the flange tangential stress at the inside diameter of a reverse flange.

T is the flange stress factor.

c

T is the tightness class factor.

P

T is the tightness parameter.

Pa

T is the assembly tightness.

max P

T is the gasket property obtained by test that determines the maximum usable tightness.

min P

T is the minimum required tightness to assure satisfactory leakage performance is achieve

able in operation for the specified tightness class.

r

T is the flange stress factor T for a reverse flange.

t is the flange thickness including the facing thickness and groove depth if not exceeding 2

mm (0.0625 in.); otherwise, the facing or groove depth is not included in the flange

thickness.

n

t is the nominal thickness of the shell, pipe, or nozzle to which the flange is attached.

x

t is

0

2g when the design is calculated as an integral flange, or two times the minimum

required thickness of the shell or nozzle wall when the design is based on a loose flange, but

not less than 6 mm ( 0.25 in.).

U is the flange stress factor.

r

U is the flange stress factor U for a reverse type flange.

V is the flange stress factor for integral type flanges.

L

V is the flange stress factor for loose type flanges.

am

W is the minimum assembly bolt load.

Revision 6 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite 4.16-15

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

g

W is the design bolt load for the gasket seating condition.

mo

W is the minimum required operating bolt load used to establish the design bolt load.

o

W is the design bolt load for the operating condition.

om

W is the minimum operating bolt load.

w is the width of the nubbin.

Y is the flange stress factor.

r

Y is the flange stress factor Y for a reverse type flange.

Z is the flange stress factor.

4.16-16 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite Revision 6

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

4.16.13 Tables

Table 4.16.1 Representative Tightness Classes And categories For Determining The Bolt Loads

Using Method B

Tightness Class Tightness Class

Factor

c

T

Leak rate

lbHe/hr/in diameter

Leak rate,

MgHe/sec/mm diameter

1 0.1 1/25 1/5

2 1 1/2500 1/500

3 10 1/250000 1/50000

Revision 6 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite 4.16-17

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Table 4.16.2 Gasket Factors For Determining The Bolt Loads Using Method A

Gasket Material

Gasket

Factor,

m

Min.

Design

Seating

Stress y,

(psi)

Column in

Table

4.16.5

Facing

Sketch In

Table 4.16.5

Self-energizing types (O rings, metallic,

elastomer, other gasket types considered as self-

sealing)

0 0

--- ---

Elastomers without fabric or high percent of

asbestos fiber:

; Bellow 75 A Shore Durometer

; 75 A or higher Shore Durometer

0.50

1.00

0.50

1.00

II (1a), (1b),

(1c), (1d),

(4), (5);

Asbestos with suitable binder for operating

conditions:

; 1/8 inch thick

; 1/16 inch thick

; 1/32 inch thick

2.00

2.75

3.50

1,600

3,700

6,500

II (1), (1b),

(1c), (1d),

(4), (5)

Elastomers with cotton fabric insertion 1.25 400 II (1a), (1b),

(1c), (1d),

(4), (5)

Elastomers with asbestos insertion (with or

without wire reinforcement):

; 3-ply

; 2-ply

; 1-ply

2.25

2.50

3.75

2,900

2,900

3,700

II (1), (1b),

(1c), (1d), (5)

Vegetable fiber 1.75 1,100

II (1a), (1b),

(1c), (1d),

(4), (5)

Spiral-wound metal, asbestos filler

; Carbon steel

; Stainless steel, Monel, and nickel-base

alloy

2.50

3.00

10,000

10,000

II (1a), (1b)

Corrugated metal, asbestos inserted, or

corrugated metal, jacketed asbestos filled:

; Soft aluminum

; Soft copper or brass

; Iron or soft steel

; Monel or 4% - 6% chrome

; Stainless steels and nickel-base alloys

2.50

2.75

3.00

3.25

3.50

2,900

3,700

4,500

5,500

6,500

II (1a), (1b)

Corrugated metal:

; Soft aluminum

; Soft copper or brass

; Iron or soft steel

; Monel or 4% - 6% chrome

; Stainless steels and nickel-base alloys

2.75

3.00

3.25

3.50

3.75

3,700

4,500

5,500

6,500

7,600

II (1a), (1b),

(1c), (1d)

4.16-18 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite Revision 6

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Table 4.16.2 Gasket Factors For Determining The Bolt Loads Using Method A

Gasket Material

Gasket

Factor,

m

Min.

Design

Seating

Stress y,

(psi)

Column in

Table

4.16.5

Facing

Sketch In

Table 4.16.5

Flat metal, jacketed asbestos filled:

; Soft aluminum

; Soft copper or brass

; Iron or soft steel

; Monel

; 4% - 6% chrome

; Stainless steels and nickel-base alloys

3.25

3.50

3.75

3.50

3.75

3.75

5,500

6,500

7,600

8,000

9,000

9,000

II (1a), (1b),

(1c), (1d), (2)

Grooved Metal:

; Soft aluminum

; Soft copper or brass

; Iron or soft steel

; Monel or 4% - 6% chrome

; Stainless steels and nickel-base alloys

3.25

3.50

3.75

3.75

4.25

5,500

6,500

7,600

9,000

10,100

II (1a), (1b),

(1c), (1d),

(2), (3)

Sold flat metal:

; Soft aluminum

; Soft copper or brass

; Iron or soft steel

; Monel or 4% - 6% chrome

; Stainless steels and nickel-base alloys

4.00

4.75

5.50

6.00

6.50

8,800

13,000

18,000

21,800

26,000

I (1a), (1b),

1c), (1d), (2),

(3), (4), (5)

Ring joint:

; Iron or soft steel

; Monel or 4% - 6% chrome

; Stainless steel and nickel-base alloys

5.50

6.00

6.50

18,000

21,800

26,000

I (6)

Revision 6 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite 4.16-19

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Table 4.16.3 Gasket Factors For Determining The Bolt Loads Using Method B

Gasket Material

b

G

(2, 14)

a

(2,14)

s

G

Pmax

T

(4,13)

l

S

(5)

c

S

(6)

Notes

Self-energizing gaskets

Spring energized gasket

500 0 1e-10 500

500

3, 8

3, 8

Compressed elastomers reinforced

with asbestos fibers (<wt 50%)

; 1/8 inch thick

; 3/32 inch thick

; 1/16 inch thick

; 1/32 inch & 1mm thick

400

2500

0.380

0.150

15

117

9900

19500

900

900

22000

24000

9

9

Compressed elastomers reinforced

with aramid fibers (<wt 50%)

; 1/8 inch thick

; 3/32 inch thick

; 1/16 inch thick

1900

560

0.210

0.334

14

4

5700

26000*

900

900

18000

18000

20000

9

9

9

Compressed elastomers reinforced

with glass fibers (<wt 50%)

; 1/16 inch thick

; 1/32 inch & 1mm thick

1150

285

0.30

0.45

117

117

8200

9000

900

900

18000

18000

9

9

Beater processed elastomers

reinforced with aramid fibers (<wt

50%)

; 1/16 inch thick

900

0.450

1

300

900

18000

9

Unfilled PTFE Sheet (virgin):

; 1/8 inch thick

; 1/16 inch thick

6

30

0.710

0.520

0.06

1e-10

32000*

18000*

900

900

32000

32000

Filled Skived cut PTFE Sheet:

; 1/8 inch thick (glass)

; 3/32 inch thick (Silica)

; 1/16 inch thick (glass)

430

220

520

0.270

0.400

0.256

9.3

0.005

0.227

16000*

20400

33000*

900

900

900

32000

32000

32000

Restructured Filled PTFE Sheet:

; 1/8 inch thick (barium sulfate)

; 1/16 inch thick (silica)

; 1/16 inch thick (glass)

; 1/16 inch thick (barium sulfate)

500

1500

200

320

0.339

0.227

0.364

0.256

0.016

1.0

6e-14

2e-10

10800

16500

14500*

25501*

900

900

900

900

32000

32000

32000

32000

Expanded PTFE:

; Joint sealant chord, 3/8 inch

; Sheet, 1/8 inch thick

; Sheet, 1/16 inch thick

1000

1700

1400

0.250

0.200

0.222

0.005

0.08

0.08

60000*

18300

16600

900

900

900

12000

20000

32000

Laminated Flexible graphite sheet

reinforced with:

; Tanged SST sheet

; Chemically bonded steel sheet

; Chemically bonded steel sheet

soft

; Steel screen

; Bonded polymer film

; Unreinforced

1400

816

23

1700

970

970

0.324

0.377

1.080

0.260

0.384

0.384

0.01

0.066

6.5e-5

15

0.05

0.05

2287

3227

320

7274

1776

1776

900

900

900

900

900

900

32000

32000

32000

17000

16000

16000

12

7, 9

7, 9

7, 9

4.16-20 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite Revision 6

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Table 4.16.3 Gasket Factors For Determining The Bolt Loads Using Method B

Gasket Material

b

G

(2, 14)

a

(2,14)

s

G

Pmax

T

(4,13)

l

S

(5)

c

S

(6)

Notes

Spiral wound stainless steel:

; Asbestos filled

; Flexible graphite filled

; Flexible graphite filled soft

; PTFE filled

; PTFE filled soft

; Mica filled

3400

2300

600

4500

6720

2600

0.300

0.237

0.390

0.140

0.100

0.230

93

13

2

70

98

15

500

4800

2000

14200

200

3700

900

900

900

900

900

900

3, 8

12

12

Spiral wound stainless steel with inner

ring:

; Asbestos filled

; Flexible graphite filled

; Flexible graphite filled soft

; PTFE filled

; PTFE filled soft

; Mica filled

3400

2530

231

2280

2600

0.300

0.241

0.556

0.190

0.230

93

4

0.3

67

15

500

2800

5400

3700

900

900

900

900

900

900

3, 8

15

7

12

12

15

Spiral wound Monel or Ni alloy:

; Asbestos filled

; Flexible graphite filled

; Flexible graphite filled soft

; PTFE filled

3400

2300

600

4500

0.3

0.237

0.390

0.14

93

13

2

70

500

4800

2000

14200

900

900

900

900

3, 8

10

10

10, 12

10

Spiral wound Monel or Ni alloy with

inner ring:

; Flexible graphite filled

; Flexible graphite filled soft

; PTFE filled

2530

231

2280

0.241

0.556

0.19

4

0.3

67

2800

5400

900

900

900

3, 8

10

10, 12

10

Corrugated metal jacketed with soft

insert:

; Soft copper or brass

; Soft steel or iron

; Monel or 4-6% Cr

; Stainless steel or 12% Cr

4250

8500

0.214

0.134

230

230

100

200

1350

1350

1350

1350

Sy

Sy

Sy

Sy

11

7

Corrugated metal sheet (0.015-0.025

inch):

; Soft Aluminum

; Soft copper or brass

; Soft steel or iron

; Monel or 4-6% Cr

; Stainless steel or 12% Cr

; Graphite on stainless steel

; Graphite on stainless steel

soft

1500

3000

4700

540.3

38.72

0.24

0.16

0.15

0.364

0.697

430

115

130

2

2

25700

54200

5600

13000

13000

1350

1350

1350

1350

1350

900

900

Sy

Sy

Sy

Sy

Sy

32000

32000

Flat metal jacketed with soft insert:

; Soft Aluminum

; Soft copper or brass

; Soft steel or iron

; Monel or 4-6% Cr

; Stainless steel or 12% Cr

1800

2900

2900

2900

0.35

0.23

0.23

0.23

15

15

15

15

600

2300

2300

2300

1350

1350

1350

1350

1350

3200

3200

3200

11

10

10

Revision 6 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite 4.16-21

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Table 4.16.3 Gasket Factors For Determining The Bolt Loads Using Method B

Gasket Material

b

G

(2, 14)

a

(2,14)

s

G

Pmax

T

(4,13)

l

S

(5)

c

S

(6)

Notes

Soft flat metal:

; Soft Aluminum

; Soft copper or brass

; Soft steel or iron

; Monel or 4-6% Cr

; Stainless steel or 12% Cr

1525

5000

0.24

0.133

200

258

24000

10600

1350

1350

1350

1350

1350

Sy

Sy

Sy

Sy

Sy

Solid flat metal (1/8 inch nubbin

facing):

; Soft Aluminum

; Soft copper or brass

; Soft steel or iron

; Monel or 4-6% Cr

; Stainless steel or 12% Cr

2400

12000

0.20

0.11

250

65

18700

400

1350

1350

1350

1350

1350

Sy

Sy

Sy

Sy

Sy

Notes:

1. Binder, fillers and fibers must be suitable for service fluid and conditions over the proposed service life

of the gasket.

2. See paragraph 4.16.5.3 for validity of temperature for the constant

s

G

3. Gasket constants are valid for only for designs that employ a compression limit feature such as a

groove or gage rings.

4. Credit for additional tightness is not permitted for

Pa Pn

T T 0 . An asterisk (*) indicated that hardening

limits

max P

T .

max P

T is the lesser of

Ps

T (Hardening) or

Pu

T (Max test value) unless higher values

verified by ROTT test procedure

5. The stress

mo

S shall be greater than the value

l

S unless verified by test ASTM ROTT for the gasket

under consideration.

6. The gasket stress

c

S represents a maximum acceptable value that shall not be exceeded unless it is

confirmed by test the tightness performance will not be impaired by a greater stress. The Designer

shall establish an appropriate value of

c

S where none is given in this table. For metal gaskets

y

S

indicates the yield strength of the of the gasket material at the design temperature.

7. Values of

b

G , a ,

s

G imputed from similar product data in the case of spiral wound gaskets and in the

case of jacketed or solid metals from metal to metal type comparisons.

8.

c

S is limited by the yield strength of the respective compression stops

9.

c

S is indicated by interpretation of ROTT Test Data and has not been determined by a tightness

crush test. Use this data or documented crush test data

10. These constants are based on data for gaskets with stainless steel because no nickel or Monel data is

available.

11. Insert must be suitable for service conditions over its life.

12. Constants are for lower pressure applications where 10, 000

ya

S psi /

13.

max P

T to be determined by ROTT Test.

14. Where data is not given for

b

G , a ,

s

G , the gasket manufacturer shall provide gasket data certified by

ROTT test.

15. These constants are based on data for same filler gaskets without internal ring because no data is

available for same gaskets with internal ring.

4.16-22 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite Revision 6

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Table 4.16.4 Recommended Gasket Contact Width For Determining The Bolt Loads Using

Method B

Gasket Contact Width, N

Gasket Outside Diameter Gasket Type

< 150 mm

(6 inch)

< 300 mm

(12 inch)

< 600 mm

(24 inch)

< 900 mm

(36 inch)

900 mm (36

inch) and

Over

Sheet Gaskets Including

Laminated Sheets Gaskets With

Or Without A Metal Core

9 mm

(3/8 inch)

12 mm

(1/2 inch)

16 mm

(5/8 inch)

16 mm

(5/8 inch)

19 mm

(3/4 inch)

Preformed Composite Gaskets

Including Spiral Wound, Jacketed,

And Solid Flat Metal Gaskets

6 mm

(1/4 inch)

9 mm

(3/8 inch)

12 mm

(1/2 inch)

16 mm

(5/8 inch)

16 mm

(5/8 inch)

Revision 6 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite 4.16-23

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Table 4.16.5 Effective Gasket Width For Determining The Bolt Loads Using Method A

Basic Gasket Seating Width

o

b

Facing

Sketch

Facing Sketch Detail (Exaggerated)

Column 1 Column 2

1

N N

1B

See Note 1

N N

2

N

2

N

1C

T

N

W

w < N

1D

See Note 1

W

N

T w < N

max ,

2 4

w T w N 2 2 * +

4 5

- .

max ,

2 4

w T w N 2 2 * +

4 5

- .

2

w < N/2

W

N

0.4 mm (1/64 in) Nubbin

4

w N 2

3

8

w N 2

3

W < N/2

W

N

0.4 mm (1/64 in) Nubbin

4

N

3

8

N

4

N

See Note 1

3

8

N

7

16

N

5

See Note 1

N

4

N

3

8

N

6

W

8

w

, , ,

Notes:

1. Where serrations do not exceed 0.4 mm, (1/64 inch) depth and 0.8mm (1/32 inch) width spacing,

Sketches (1B) and (1D) shall be used.

2. The gasket factors listed in this table only apply to flanged joints in which the gasket is contained

entirely within the inner edges of the bolt holes.

4.16-24 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite Revision 6

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Table 4.16.6 Effective Gasket Width For Determining The Bolt Loads Using Method B

Facing

Sketch

Facing Sketch Detail (Exaggerated)

Basic Gasket Seating Width

o

b

1

N N

N

2

w < N/2

W

N

0.4 mm (1/64 in) Nubbin

( ) w T N 2 /

3

W

4

w

Revision 6 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite 4.16-25

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Table 4.16.7 Assembly Efficiencies For Determining The Bolt Loads Using Method B

Assembly Efficiency,

6

Bolt Preload Control Method Bolt Load Variation from

Mean

0.75

Power impact, lever striker (manual or power)

wrench

50% Over

0.85 Accurately applied torque 3% < 30% 50% to < <

0.95

Simultaneous multiple application of direct

tension to three or more bolts

10% 30% to < <

1.0

Direct measurement of stud stress or strain, or

the simultaneous hydraulic tensioning of all

bolts

10% or less <

Notes:

1. Assembly efficiency refers to the uniformity of gasket stress, tightness and leak rate variations around

the circumference. Assembly efficiency decreases with scatter in bolt load and is affected by frictional

variations and elastic interaction where elastic interaction depends on the stiffness of the flange, bolt,

and gasket system. Significant bolt load losses as high as 50% have been observed even when using

controlled torque or tensioning of bolts. (WRC Bulletin 406, Bolted Flange Assembly: Preliminary Elastic

Interaction Data and Improved Bolt-up Procedures.)

2. Joint tightness is also reduced by not operating at the target mean bolt load. This effect is not included in

the assembly efficiencies of this table.

3. For joints using compression stops of for O-ring gaskets, as assembly tightness of 1.0 can be used when

full stop contact is assumed by the design bolt-up procedures (

s ya

S S # ). In determining the minimum

assembly bolt load

am

W , set 0.90 6 # and calculate

am s g

W S A 6 # .

4. The assembly efficiency values given in this table are recommended and are not mandatory.

4.16-26 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite Revision 6

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Table 4.16.8 Moment Arms For Flange Loads For The Operating Condition

Flange Type

D

h

T

h

G

h

Integral Type Flanges

1

2

g

R2

1

2

G

R g h 2 2

2

C G ,

Loose Type Flanges

2

C B ,

2

D G

h h 2

2

C G ,

Integral Reverse Type

Flanges

1

2

2

o

C g g B 2 , ,

1

2 2

B G

C

2 ! "

,

$ %

& '

2

C G ,

Loose Reverse Type Flanges

2

C B ,

1

2 2

B G

C

2 ! "

,

$ %

& '

2

C G ,

Revision 6 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite 4.16-27

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Table 4.16.9 Flange Moments Of Inertia

Flange Type I

p

I

Integral Type Flange

with a Hub

2

0.3498

o o

Lg h B

I

V

#

Loose Type Flange

with a Hub

2

0.3498

o o

L

Lg h B

I

V

#

p AB CD

I K K # 2

where

( )

4

3

1 1

0.21 1

3 12

B B

AB A B

A A

B B

K A B

A A

* +

! "

! " = >

4 5 $ % # , ,

? @ $ %

$ %

4 5

& ' A B

& '

- .

( )

4

3

1 1

0.21 1

3 192

DG DG

CD C DG

C C

D D

K C D

C C

* +

! "

! " = >

4 5 $ % # , ,

? @ $ %

$ %

4 5

& ' A B

& '

- .

with

2

R

A B

A

,

#

,

A R B R

A A B t if A t # # 3

,

A B R R

A t B A if A t # # 7

,

C DG avg avg

C h D G if h G # # 3

,

C avg DG avg

C G D h if h G # # 7

Integral or Loose

Type Flange without a

Hub

3

ln

6

Bt K

I #

4

3

1 1

0.21 1

3 12

p R

R R

t t

I A t

A A

* +

! "

! " = >

4 5 $ % # , ,

? @ $ %

$ %

4 5

& ' A B

& '

- .

where

2

R

A B

A

,

#

4.16-28 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite Revision 6

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Table 4.16.10 Flange Stress Factor Equations

Flange Type Stress Factors

Integral Type

Flange, Loose

Type Flange

with a Hub,

Reverse

Flanges

( )

( ) ( ) ( )( )

( ) ( )

( )( ) ( ) ( )

3

2

2

3

3

2

2

0.897697 0.297012ln 9.5257 10 ln

0.123586 ln 0.0358580 ln 0.194422 ln ln

0.0181259 ln 0.0129360 ln

0.0377693 ln ln 0.0273791 ln ln

g h

g h g h

g h

g h g h

F X X

X X X X

X X

X X X X

,

# , 2 2

2 , ,

2 ,

2

2

2

2

3

3 2

0.1 0.5

0.227914 0.344410

0.500244 1.87071 2.49189

0.189953

0.873446 1.06082 1.49970 0.719413

h

h h

g g

h h h

h

g g g g

For X

V X X

X X

X X X

X

X X X X

/ /

# 2 , , 2 2

2 , , 2

2 2

3 3 2 2

0.5 2.0

0.135977 0.0461919 0.560718 0.0529829

0.0144868

0.244313 0.113929 0.00928265 0.0266293 0.217008

h

g h g h

g h g h g h g h

For X

V

X X X X

X X X X X X X X

7 /

# , , , 2 2

2 , , ,

2

2 3

3

2 3

0.0927779 0.0336633 0.964176

0.0566286 0.347074 4.18699

max 1.0,

1 5.96093(10 ) 1.62904

3.49329 1.39052

g g

h h h

g h

h h

X X

X X X

f

X X

X X

,

* + = >

! " , 2 2

4 5

C C $ %

$ %

4 5 C 2 , C

& '

#

4 5 ? @

! " , 2 2

4 5 C C

$ %

4 5 C C

$ %

2

4 5 & ' A B

- .

Revision 6 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite 4.16-29

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Table 4.16.10 Flange Stress Factor Equations

Flange Type Stress Factors

Loose Type

Flanges

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( )( )

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( )( )

2

2

2

2

0.941074 0.176139 ln 0.188556 ln 0.0689847 ln

0.523798 ln 0.513894 ln ln

1 0.379392 ln 0.184520 ln 0.00605208 ln

0.00358934 ln 0.110179 ln ln

g h g

h g h

L

g h g

h g h

X X X

X X X

F

X X X

X X X

* +

2 , 2 2

4 5

4 5

,

- .

#

* +

2 2 , ,

4 5

4 5

2

- .

8 9 ( )

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

2

4

0.1 0.25

ln 6.57683 0.115516 1.39499 ln

0.307340 ln 8.30849 2.62307 ln

7.035052(10 )

0.239498 ln 2.96125 ln

h

L g h g

g h g

h g g

h

For X

V X X X

X X X

X X X

X

,

/ /

# , 2 2

, 2 2

, 2

( ) ( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

2

2

3

3 2

2

0.25 0.50

1.33458 0.417135

1.56323 1.80696 ln 0.276415 ln

1.39511 ln 0.402096 ln

0.0943597

0.0137129 ln

0.101619 ln

h

L g g

h h

g g

g

h h h

g

h

For X

V X X

X X

X X

X

X X X

X

X

7 /

# , , 2 2 2

2 2 , ,

2 2

3 3 2 2

0.50 1.0

0.0763597 0.102990 0.725776 0.160603

0.0213643

0.0918061 0.472277 0.0873530 0.527487 0.980209

h

L

g h g h

g h g h g h g h

For X

V

X X X X

X X X X X X X X

7 /

# , , 2 2 , ,

2 2 2 ,

D D D

3

2 2

3 3 2 2

1.0 2.0

0.220518 0.0602652 0.619818 0.223212

7.96687(10 )

0.421920 0.0950195 0.209813 0.158821 0.242056

h

L

g h g h

g h g h g h g h

For X

V

X X X X

X X X X X X X X

,

7 /

# , 2 2 , 2

2 2 , ,

D D D

1.0 f #

4.16-30 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite Revision 6

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Table 4.16.10 Flange Stress Factor Equations

Flange Type Stress Factors

Notes:

1. For integral and loose type flanges

1

0

g

g

X

g

# (4.16.49)

0

h

h

X

Bg

# (4.16.50)

2. For reverse type flanges

1

0

g

g

X

g

# (4.16.51)

0

h

h

X

Ag

# (4.16.52)

Revision 6 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite 4.16-31

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Table 4.16.11 Flange Stress Factors Equations Involving The Parameter K

Flange Type

Stress Factors Involving The Parameter K

Integral and Loose Type

Flanges

A

K

B

#

2

10

2

log 1

0.66845 5.71690

1 1

K K

Y

K K

* + ! "

# 2

4 5 $ %

, ,

& '

- .

( )

( )( )

2

10

2

1 8.55246log 1

1.04720 1.9448 1

K K

T

K K

2 ,

#

2 ,

( )

( )( )

2

10

2

1 8.55246log 1

1.36136 1 1

K K

U

K K

2 ,

#

, ,

( )

( )

2

2

1

1

K

Z

K

2

#

,

3

1 te t

L

T d

2

# 2

0

F

e for Integral Type Flanges

Bg

#

0

L

F

e for Loose Type Flanges

Bg

#

2

o o

Ug Bg

d for Integral Type Flanges

V

#

2

o o

L

Ug Bg

d for Loose Type Flanges

V

#

4.16-32 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite Revision 6

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Table 4.16.11 Flange Stress Factors Equations Involving The Parameter K

Flange Type

Stress Factors Involving The Parameter K

Reverse Type Flanges

The parameters K , T , U , Y , and Z are determined using the equations

for Integral and Loose Type Flanges with:

*

A

K

B

#

Then, the reverse flange parameters are computed as follows:

r r

Y Y E #

( )

( )

0.3

0.3

r r

Z

T T

Z

E

2

#

,

r r

U U E #

3

1

r

r

r r

te t

L

T d

2

# 2

1 0.668( 1)

1

r

K

K Y

E

2 * +

# 2

4 5

- .

0

r

F

e for Integral Type Flanges

Ag

#

0

L

r

F

e for Loose Type Flanges

Ag

#

2

r o o

r

U g Ag

d for Integral Type Flanges

V

#

2

r o o

r

L

U g Ag

d for Loose Type Flanges

V

#

Revision 6 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite 4.16-33

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Table 4.16.12 Flange Stress Equations

Stress Equations

Flange Type

Operating Condition Gasket Seating Conditions

Integral Type Flange

2

1

o

H

fM

S

Lg B

#

( )

2

1.33 1

o

R

te M

S

Lt B

2

#

2

o

T R

YM

S ZS

t B

# ,

2

1

g

H

fM

S

Lg B

#

( )

2

1.33 1

g

R

te M

S

Lt B

2

#

2

g

T R

YM

S ZS

t B

# ,

Loose Type Flange

2

o

T

YM

S

t B

#

2

g

T

YM

S

t B

#

Integral Reverse Type

Flange

2 *

1

o

H

r

fM

S

L g B

#

( )

2 *

1.33 1

r o

R

r

te M

S

L t B

2

#

( )

( )

1 2 *

0.67 1

1.33 1

R r

r o

T

r

ZS te

Y M

S

t B te

2

# ,

2

( )

( )

2

2 2 * 2

2 0.67 1

1

r

o

T r

r

K te

M

S Y

t B K L

* +

2

4 5 # ,

, 4 5

- .

2 *

1

g

H

r

fM

S

L g B

#

( )

2 *

1.33 1

r g

R

r

te M

S

L t B

2

#

( )

( )

1 2 *

0.67 1

1.33 1

r g R r

T

r

Y M ZS te

S

t B te

2

# ,

2

( )

( )

2

2 2 * 2

2 0.67 1

1

g r

T r

r

M K te

S Y

t B K L

* +

2

4 5 # ,

, 4 5

- .

Loose Reverse Type

Flange

2 *

r o

T

Y M

S

t B

#

2 *

r g

T

Y M

S

t B

#

4.16-34 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite Revision 6

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Table 4.16.13 Flange Stress Acceptance Criteria

Stress Acceptance Criteria Flange Type

Operating Condition Gasket Seating Conditions

Integral Type Flange or

Loose Type Flange with

a Hub

min 1.5 , 2.5 (1)

H fo no

S S S * + /

- .

1.5 (2)

H fo

S S /

1.0 (3)

H fo

S S /

R fo

S S /

T fo

S S /

( )

2

H R

fo

S S

S

2

/

( )

2

H T

fo

S S

S

2

/

min 1.5 , 2.5 (1)

H fg ng

S S S * + /

- .

1.5 (2)

H fg

S S /

1.0 (3)

H fg

S S /

R fg

S S /

T fg

S S /

( )

2

H R

fg

S S

S

2

/

( )

2

H T

fg

S S

S

2

/

Loose Type Flanges

T fo

S S /

T fg

S S /

Integral Reverse Type

Flanges

1.5

H fo

S S /

R fo

S S /

1 T fo

S S /

( )

2

H R

fo

S S

S

2

/

( )

1

2

H T

fo

S S

S

2

/

2 T fo

S S /

1.5

H fg

S S /

R fg

S S /

1 T fg

S S /

( )

2

H R

fg

S S

S

2

/

( )

1

2

H T

fg

S S

S

2

/

2 T fg

S S /

Loose Reverse Type

Flanges

T fo

S S /

T fg

S S /

Notes:

1. For integral flanges with hubs welded to a nozzle neck, pipe, or vessel shell

2. For loose type flanges with a hub

3. For flanges made of cast iron.

Revision 6 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite 4.16-35

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Table 4.16.14 Flange Rigidity Criterion

Rigidity Criterion Flange Type

Operating Condition Gasket Seating Conditions

Integral Type Flange

2

0 0

52.14

1.0

o

yo R

VM

J

LE g K Bg

# /

2

0 0

52.14

1.0

g

yg R

VM

J

LE g K Bg

# /

Loose Type Flanges

with Hubs

2

0 0

52.14

1.0

L o

yo R

V M

J

LE g K Bg

# /

2

0 0

52.14

1.0

L g

yg R

V M

J

LE g K Bg

# /

Loose Type Flanges

with Hubs

( )

3

109.4

1.0

ln

o

yo R

M

J

E t K K

# /

( )

3

109.4

1.0

ln

g

yo R

M

J

E t K K

# /

Notes:

1. For an integral type flange, 0.2

R

K # unless another values is specified by the Purchaser.

2. For a loose type flange with or without a hub, 0.3

R

K # unless another values is specified by the

purchaser.

4.16-36 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite Revision 6

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

4.16.14 Figures

W

R

C

h

D

H

D

g

1

B

t

A

H

G

h

G

G

h

T

H

T

Gasket

g

1

/2 g

0

h

W R

r

1

C

h

D

H

D

g

1

/2

B

g

1

= g

o

t A

H

G

h

G

G

h

T

H

T

Gasket

(a) Integral Flange Without A Hub

(b) Integral Flange with g

o

=g

1

Figure 4.16.1 Integral Type Flanges

Revision 6 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite 4.16-37

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Where Hub Slope Adjacent

to Flange Exceeds 1:3,

Use Hub Type 2 or 3

g

o

Slope exceeds 1:3

g

1

h

1.5 g

o

(min.)

C Weld

L

g

o

Slope exceeds 1:3

g

1

h

1.5 g

o

(min.)

Slope 1:3 (max.)

(b) Hub Type 2

(c) Hub Type 3

g

o

W

R

r

1

C

h

D

Slope 1:3 (max.)

H

D

g

1

/2

B

g

1

t h > 1.5g

o

A

H

G

h

G

G

h

T

H

T

Gasket

(a) Hub Type 1

C Weld

L

Figure 4.16.2 Integral Type Flanges With A Hub

4.16-38 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite Revision 6

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

g

1

Inside

Diameter

r = 1/4

In.

3/16 In.

g

o

Nut Stop Diameter

g

1

Inside

Diameter

r = 1/4

In. 3/16 In.

g

o

Nut Stop Diameter

g

1

Inside

Diameter

r = 1/4

In.

Nut Stop Diameter

3/16 In.

g

1

Inside

Diameter

r = 1/4

In.

3/16 In.

F

Nut Stop Diameter

For Integrally

Reinforced Nozzles,

Min.

= Nut Height + 1/4 In.

(a) Detail A (b) Detail B

(c) Detail C

(d) Detail D

Figure 4.16.3 Integral Type Flanges With Nut Stops Diameter Less Than Or Equal To 18 Inches

Revision 6 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite 4.16-39

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

g

1

Inside

Diameter

r = 3/8 In.

5/16 In.

Figure 4.16.4 Integral Type Flanges With Nut Stops Diameter Greater Than 18 Inches

4.16-40 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite Revision 6

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

W

r

C

h

D

H

D

g

o

B

g

1

t h

A

H

G

h

G

G

h

T

H

T

Gasket

(a) Loose Flange With A Hub

W C

h

D

H

D

B

t

A

H

G

h

G

G

h

T

H

T

Gasket

(b) Loose Flange Without A Hub

Figure 4.16.5 Loose Type Flanges

Revision 6 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite 4.16-41

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Notes (Loose Type Flanges):

(1) For Hub Tapers 6 or Less, Use go = g1

t

g

o

To Be Taken At Midpoint Of Contact

Between Flange And Lap

Independent Of Gasket Location

g

1

W C

h

D

H

D

r

A

G

h

G

or h

T

H

G

+ H

T

Gasket

h

Optional Hub

Figure 4.16.6 Loose Type Lap Joint Type Flanges

4.16-42 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite Revision 6

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

W

r

C

h

D

H

D

g

o

B

g

1

t h

A

H

G

h

G

G

h

T

H

T

Gasket

(a) Loose Flange With A Hub

W C

h

D

H

D

B

t

A

H

G

h

G

G

h

T

H

T

Gasket

(b) Loose Flange Without A Hub

Figure 4.16.7 Loose Type Threaded Flanges

Revision 6 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite 4.16-43

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

H

G

B*

W

g

o

t

h

Shell

A

B

C

G

h

G

g

1

h

D

h

T

H

T

H

D

H

G

B*

W

t

Shell

A = B

C

G

h

G

h

D

h

T

H

T

H

D

(a) Integral Type Reverse Flange

(b) Loose Type Reverse Flange

Figure 4.16.8 Reverse Flanges

4.16-44 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite Revision 6

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

G

c

- OD Contact Face

b

H

G

h

G

G

Method A - For b

o

> 6 mm (1/4 in.) Method A - For b

o

< 6 mm (1/4 in.)

H

G

h

G

C

L

G

Gasket Face

Method B - For b

o

> 12 mm (1/2 in.)

Method B - For b

o

< 12 mm (1/2 in.)

Figure 4.16.9 Effective Gasket Seating Width

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