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4.

16-1
4.16 Design Rules For Flanged Joints (Revision 6)

4.16.0 Table of Contents............................................................................................................ 1
4.16.1 Scope ............................................................................................................................... 1
4.16.2 Design Considerations................................................................................................... 1
4.16.3 Flange Types ................................................................................................................... 3
4.16.4 Flange Materials.............................................................................................................. 3
4.16.5 Gasket Materials ............................................................................................................. 4
4.16.6 Design Bolt Loads .......................................................................................................... 5
4.16.7 Flange Design Procedure............................................................................................... 9
4.16.8 Split Loose Type Flanges............................................................................................. 10
4.16.9 Noncircular Shaped Flanges With A Circular Bore................................................... 11
4.16.10 Flanges With Nut Stops................................................................................................ 11
4.16.11 Qualification Of Assembly Procedures And Assemblers......................................... 11
4.16.12 Nomenclature................................................................................................................ 12
4.16.13 Tables............................................................................................................................. 16
4.16.14 Figures ........................................................................................................................... 36

4.16.1 Scope
4.16.1.1 The rules in this paragraph can be used to design circular flanges subject to internal and/or
external pressure. These rules provide for hydrostatic end loads, gasket seating, and externally applied axial
force and net-section bending moment.
4.16.1.2 The rules in this paragraph apply to the design of bolted flange connections with gaskets that are
entirely located within the circle enclosed by the bolt holes. The rules do not cover the case where the
gasket extends beyond the bolt hole circle.
4.16.1.3 It is recommended that bolted flange connections conforming to the standards listed in
paragraph 4.1.11 be used for connections to external piping. These standards may be used for other bolted
flange connections within the limits of size in the standard and pressure-temperature ratings permitted in
paragraph 4.1.11. The ratings in these standards are based on the hub dimensions given or on the
minimum specified thickness of flanged fittings of integral construction. Flanges fabricated from rings may be
used in place of the hub flanges in these standards provided that their strength, calculated by the rules in this
paragraph, is not less than that calculated for the corresponding size of hub flange.
4.16.1.4 The rules of this paragraph should not be construed to prohibit the use of other types of flanged
connections provided they are designed in accordance with good engineering practice and method of design
is acceptable to the user and Inspector.
4.16.2 Design Considerations
4.16.2.1 The design of a flange involves the selection of the flange type, gasket material, flange facing,
bolting, hub proportions, flange width, and flange thickness, and depending on the method used to compute
the bolt load, a tightness class. The flange dimensions shall be designed such that the stresses in the flange
and the flange rigidity satisfy the acceptability criteria of this paragraph. Annex 4.B is included that provides
a discussion of the design considerations for bolted flanged connections.
4.16.2.2 In the design of a bolted flange connection, calculations shall be made for the following two
design conditions, and the most severe condition shall govern the design of the flanged joint.
a) Operating Conditions The conditions required to resist the hydrostatic end force of the design
pressure and any applied external forces and moments tending to part the joint at the design
temperature.
4.16-2 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite Revision 6
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b) Gasket Seating Condition The conditions existing when the gasket or joint-contact surface is seated
by applying an initial load with the bolts during assembly the joint, at atmospheric temperature and
pressure.
4.16.2.3 Calculations shall be performed using dimensions of the flange in the corroded condition and the
uncorroded condition, and the more severe case shall control.
4.16.2.4 In the design of flange pairs that are separated by a pressure retaining plate such as a
tubesheet, each flange is designed for its particular design loads of pressure, gasket reactions, and
depending on the method used to compute the bolt load, a tightness class. The bolt load used to design
each flange, however, is that load common to the flange pair and equal to the larger of the bolt loads
calculated for each flange individually. No additional rules are required for design of flange pairs. After the
loads for the most severe condition are determined, calculations shall be made for each flange following the
rules of this paragraph.
4.16.2.5 In the design of flange pairs where pass partitions with gaskets are used, the gasket loads from
the partition(s) shall be included in the calculation of bolt loads. Partition gaskets may have different gasket
constants than the ring gasket inside the bolt circle. In the design of flanges with noncircular gaskets or with
partitions of any shape, gasket reactions from all surfaces with gaskets shall be included in calculating bolt
loads.
4.16.2.6 Two methods are provided for determining the design bolt load for a flanged joint. The method
to be used in the design is subject to agreement between the designer and purchaser.
a) Method A The bolt load is established based on two gasket parameters, a flange leakage criterion is
not explicitly included in the design procedure.
b) Method B The bolt load is established based on four gasket parameters, a flange leakage criterion is
explicitly included in the design procedure. The in-service gasket condition may require adjustment to
the bolt load to maintain the desired gasket tightness.
1) Tightness is expressed through a tightness parameter,
p
T . The tightness parameter,
p
T , is a
measure of tightness that has been defined as proportional to pressure and inversely proportional
to the square root of leak rate, or
*
* p
P L
T
P L
! "
#
$ %
& '
(4.16.1)
2) Numerically,
p
T is the dimensionless quantity that is the product of the ratio of pressure divided by
atmospheric pressure and the square root of the ratio of a reference mass leak rate per unit
diameter divided by a measured mass leak rate per unit diameter, all in consistent units. In this
paragraph, the reference leak rate,
*
L , is 1 mg He/sec/150 mm diameter at one atmosphere. For
example, for a 10 in. joint leaking 0.05 mg He/sec at 4 atmospheres,
4 1 150
23.3
1 0.5 254
p
T
! "
# #
$ %
& '
(4.16.2)
3) The flanged joint shall be designed to satisfy a tightness requirement that is established by the
selection of a Tightness Class appropriate for the service conditions. The minimum required
tightness
min p
T is associated with a maximum permitted leak rate for the selected class.
4) The Tightness Class and associated value of
c
T are related to leak rate as shown in Table 4.16.1.
The parameter
c
T shall be selected for the desired tightness class from Table 4.16.1 that provides
Revision 6 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite 4.16-3
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some representative tightness classes. Unless otherwise specified, the value for
c
T for Class I
shall be selected from Table 4.16.1, or calculated for other classes by the following equation:
0.5
0.002
: / /
c
T Leak rate in mg He sec mm diameter
Helium Leak Rate
! "
#
$ %
& '
(4.16.3)
0.5
0.0004
: / /
c
T Leak rate in lb He sec in diameter
Helium Leak Rate
! "
#
$ %
& '
(4.16.4)
4.16.3 Flange Types
4.16.3.1 For the purpose of computation, there are two major categories of flanges:
a) Integral Type Flanges This type covers designs where the flange is cast or forged integrally with the
nozzle neck, vessel or pipe wall, butt welded thereto, or attached by other forms of welding such that
the flange and nozzle neck, vessel or pipe wall are structurally equivalent to integral construction.
Integral flanges shall be designed considering structural interaction between the flange and the nozzle
neck, vessel, or pipe wall, which the rules account for by considering the neck or wall to act as a hub.
Integral type flanges are referenced below. The design bolt loads are shown in Figures 4.16.1 and
4.16.2.
1) Integral type flanges Figure 4.16.1 Sketch (a) and Table 4.2.9, Detail 19
2) Integral type flanges where
1 o
g g # Figure 4.16.1 Sketch (b)
3) Integral type flanges with a hub Figure 4.16.2 and Table 4.2.9, Details 6,7,and 8
4) Integral type flanges with nut stops Figure 4.16.3 and Figure 4.16.4
b) Loose Type Flanges This type covers those designs in which the flange has no substantial integral
connection to the nozzle neck, vessel, or pipe wall, and includes welded flange connections where the
welds are not considered to give the mechanical strength equivalent of an integral attachment. Integral
type flanges are referenced below. The design bolt loads are shown in Figures 4.16.5, 4.16.6, and
4.16.7.
1) Loose type flanges Figure 4.16.5 and Table 4.2.9, Details 1,2,3 and 4
2) Loose type lap joint flanges Figure 4.16.6 and Table 4.2.7, Detail 5
3) Loose type threaded flanges Figure 4.16.7
4.16.3.2 The integral and loose type flanges described above can also be applied to reverse flange
configurations. Integral and loose type reverse flanges are shown in Figure 4.16.8.
4.16.4 Flange Materials
4.16.4.1 Materials used in the construction of bolted flange connections shall comply with the
requirements given in Part 3 .
4.16.4.2 Flanges made from ferritic steel shall be given a normalizing or full-annealing heat treatment
when the thickness of the flange section exceeds 75 mm (3 in.).
4.16.4.3 Material on which welding is to be performed shall be proved to be of weldable quality.
Satisfactory qualification of the welding procedure under Section IX is considered as proof. Welding shall not
be performed on steel that has a carbon content greater than 0.35%. All welding on flange connections shall
comply with the requirements for postweld heat treatment given in Part 6 .
4.16.4.4 Fabricated flanges with hub shall be in accordance with the following:
4.16-4 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite Revision 6
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a) Flanges with hubs may be machined from a hot rolled or forged billet or forged bar. The axis of the
finished flange shall be parallel to the long axis of the original billet or bar, but these axes need not be
concentric.
b) Flanges with hubs, except as permitted in 4.16.4.4.a, shall not be machined from plate or bar stock
material unless the material has been formed into a ring, and further provided that:
1) In a ring formed from plate, the original plate surfaces are parallel to the axis of the finished flange;
2) The joints in the ring are welded butt joints that conform to the requirements of Part 6. The
thickness to be used to determine postweld heat treatment and radiographic requirements shall be
( ) min , 2 t A B * + ,
- .
.
c) The back of the flange and the outer surface of the hub are examined by either the magnetic particle
method or the liquid penetrant method in accordance with Part 7.
4.16.4.5 Bolts, studs, nuts, and washers shall comply with the requirements of Part 3 and referenced
standards. It is recommended that bolts and studs have a nominal diameter of not less than 12 mm (0.5 in.).
If bolts or stubs smaller than 12 mm (0.5 in.) are used, then ferrous bolting material shall be of alloy steel.
Precautions shall be taken to avoid overstressing small-diameter bolts. When washers are used, they shall
be through hardened to minimize the potential for galling.

COMMENT: Paragraph 4.16.4 should be moved to Section 3.


4.16.5 Gasket Materials
4.16.5.1 Gasket materials shall be selected that are suitable for the design conditions over the intended
length of service. Corrosion, chemical attack, creep and thermal degradation of gasket materials over time
shall be considered.
4.16.5.2 The gasket constants for the design of the bolt load using Method A, m and y , are provided in
Table 4.16.2. Other values for the gasket constants may be used if based on actual testing or data in the
literature.
4.16.5.3 The gasket constants for the design of the bolt load using Method B,
s
G , a ,
b
G and
max P
T are
provided in Table 4.16.3. Other values for the gasket constants may be used if based on actual testing or
data in the literature. These gaskets shall meet the following requirements.
a) Gasket constants
s
G , a ,
b
G and
max P
T shall be certified by test.
1) The gasket constants taken from Table 4.16.3 may be considered as certified.
2) Gasket constants that are different from those given in Table 4.16.3 may be used provided the
Manufacturer's Data Report cites the source test document that certifies the constants for the
specified gasket material and type.
3) If a test is performed, the test shall be in accordance with the PVRC ROTT procedures as given in
Appendices A and B, Welding Research Council Bulletin 427, Leakage and Emission
Characteristics of Sheet Gaskets: Report No.1: Fugitive Emission Characteristics of Gaskets and
Report No.2: Exploratory Investigation of the Leakage Stabilization Time at Room Temperature for
Flexible Graphite and PTFE Based Sheet Gaskets.
b) Temperature limitations on gasket constants.
1) Gasket constants
b
G and a are for the assembly condition that is assumed to take place at
ambient temperature, and for a new gasket. However, changes in constants
b
G and a at elevated
Revision 6 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite 4.16-5
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temperatures are not needed since they are not used in the design process and do not affect the
flange design.
2) Gasket constant
s
G reflects the operating condition. The constant
s
G of Table 4.16.3 is valid for
various materials and gasket temperatures not exceeding the following:
i) 121C (250F) for elastomer or reinforced elastomer sheet materials.
ii) 315C (600F) for flexible graphite sheet materials.
iii) 482C (900F) for flexible graphite-steel or high alloy composite gaskets where the
graphite is encapsulated by the metal component after seating. This includes spiral
wound, metal jacketed, profiled metal and corrugated metal components.
iv) As limited by paragraph 4.16.5.1 for solid metal gaskets.
3) The temperature limit for gasket constant,
s
G , other than those listed in paragraph 4.16.5.3.b.2 ,
shall be established by an acceptable test that accounts for thermal degradation over the life of the
gasket, and included as part of the certification of gasket constants.
c) The width of sheet and composite gaskets, N , shall be considered as follows:
1) A width no less than that given in Table 4.16.4 is recommended.
2) A width no less than that given in Table 4.16.4 shall be used for purposes of computing
g
A .
4.16.6 Design Bolt Loads
4.16.6.1 The flange bolt load to be used in the design shall be calculated using one of the following two
methods.
4.16.6.2 Method A A procedure to determine the bolt loads for the operating and gasket seating
conditions is shown below.
a) STEP 1 Determine the design pressure and temperature of the flange joint.
b) STEP 2 Select a gasket and determine the gasket factors m and y from Table 4.16.2, or other
sources.
c) STEP 3 Determine the width of the gasket, N , basic gasket seating width,
0
b , the effective gasket
seating width, b , and the location of the gasket reaction, G , based on the flange and gasket geometry,
the information in Table 4.16.5 and Figure 4.16.9, and the equations shown below.
0 0
6 (0.25 .) b b when b mm in # / (4.16.5)
0
0
0.5 6 (0.25 .)
ul
ul
b
b C when b mm in
C
# 0 (4.16.6)
d) STEP 4 Determine the design bolt load for the operating condition.
2
0.785 2
o
W G P b GmP for non self energized gaskets 1 # 2 , , (4.16.7)
2
0.785
o
W G P for self energized gaskets # , (4.16.8)
e) STEP 5 Determine the design bolt load for the gasket seating condition.
2
m b
g bg
A A
W S
2 ! "
#
$ %
& '
(4.16.9)
4.16-6 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite Revision 6
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The parameter
b
A is the actual total cross sectional area of the bolts that is selected such that
b m
A A 3 ,
where
max ,
gs
o
m
bo bg
W
W
A
S S
* +
#
4 5
4 5
- .
(4.16.10)
( )
gs us
W bG C y for non self energized gaskets 1 # , , (4.16.11)
0.0
gs
W for self energized gaskets # , (4.16.12)
4.16.6.3 Method B A procedure to determine the bolt loads for the operating and gasket seating
conditions using an alternative procedure that includes a flange leakage criterion is shown below.
a) STEP 1 Determine the design pressure and temperature of the flange joint.
b) STEP 2 Select a gasket and determine the gasket factors
s
G , a ,
b
G ,
l
S ,
c
S , and
max P
T from Table
4.16.3.
c) STEP 3 Determine the width of the gasket, N , basic gasket seating width,
0
b , the effective gasket
seating width, b , and the location of the gasket reaction, G , and the gasket contact area,
g
A (see
paragraph 4.16.5.3.c.2), based on the flange and gasket geometry, the information in Table 4.16.6 and
Figure 4.16.9, and the equations shown below.
0 0
12 (0.5 .) b b when b mm in # / (4.16.13)
0
0
12 (0.5 .)
2
ul
ul
b
b C when b mm in
C
# 0 (4.16.14)
d) STEP 4 Select an assembly, 6 , from Table 4.16.7.
e) STEP 5 Determine the tightness class,
c
T , and the minimum required tightness,
min P
T .
min
0.1243
P c
T T P # (4.16.15)
f) STEP 6 Determine the assembly tightness,
Pa
T . The assembly tightness must satisfy the equation
shown below. Any value of
Pa
T that satisfies this equation can be used to determine the design bolt
load.
min max
1.5
P Pa P
T T T / / (4.16.16)
The following iterative procedure can be used to obtain an optimum value for the assembly tightness
and bolt load.
1) STEP 6.1 Set the upper and lower bounds for
Pa
T
max
U
Pa P
T T # (4.16.17)
min
1.5
L
Pa P
T T # (4.16.18)
2) STEP 6.2 determine the average value of
Pa
T .
Revision 6 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite 4.16-7
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( )
0.5
AVG U L
Pa Pa Pa
T T T # 2 (4.16.19)
3) STEP 6.3 Compute the design gasket stress,
ya
S .
( )
a
AVG b
ya us Pa
G
S C T
6
! "
#
$ %
& '
(4.16.20)
4) STEP 6.4 Compute the minimum gasket operating stress to meet the required joint tightness,
1 m
S .
( )
1 min
k
m us s P
S C G T # (4.16.21)
where
log
log
ya
s
AVG
Pa
S
G
k
T
6 * +
4 5
- .
#
* +
- .
(4.16.22)
5) STEP 6.5 Compute the average operating gasket stress after the design pressure and external
loads are applied,
2 m
S .
( )
( )
2
2
0.785
4
1.5
A
ya
bo E
m us
bg g g p
G P F
S
S QM
S C
S GA A A
6
* +
2 ! "
! "
4 5 # , ,
$ %
$ %
$ %
2 4 5
& '
& '
- .
(4.16.23)
6) STEP 6.6 Compute the difference between
2 m
S and
1 m
S ,
2 1
D
m m m
S S S # , .
i) If 0.0
D
m
S 0 , then set
U AVG
Pa Pa
T T # and go to STEP 6.2.
ii) If 0.0
D
m
S 7 , then set
L AVG
Pa Pa
T T # and go to STEP 6.2.
iii) If 0.0
D
m
S # , or the absolute value in the difference between the bounds of the iteration,
( )
abs
U L
Pa Pa
T T , , is small, then set
AVG
Pa Pa
T T # . This is the optimum value of the
assembly tightness; go to Step 6 to determine the minimum required operating bolt
load.
g) STEP 7 Determine the minimum required operating bolt load.
( )
2
4
0.785
E
mo mo g p A
M
W G P S A A F
G
# 2 2 2 2 (4.16.24)
where
( )
1 3
2
max , , ,
us l
mo m m
C S
P
S S S
6 6
* +
#
4 5
- .
(4.16.25)
The parameters
1 m
S and
3 m
S are computed using Equations (4.16.21) and (4.16.23) with the value of
min P
T determined in STEP 5.
h) STEP 8 Determine the required and actual bolt areas.
4.16-8 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite Revision 6
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mo
m
bo
W
A
S
# (4.16.26)
The actual bolt area is determined by selecting a number and size of bolts so that the actual total area,
b
A , is greater than or equal to the minimum required area,
m
A .
i) STEP 9 Determine if the actual bolt area satisfies the following criterion.
( ) ( )
1.5 2
b bg c g p
A S S A A 6 , / 2 (4.16.27)
j) STEP 10 Determine the design bolt load for the operating condition.
o b bo
W A S # (4.16.28)
k) STEP 11 Determine the design bolt load for the gasket seating condition.
g b bg
W A S # (4.16.29)
l) STEP 12 Determine the minimum assembly bolt load for the test pressure,
t
P .
8 9
1 2 3
max , ,
am a a a
W W W W # (4.16.30)
where
( )
2
1
1
0.785
a mo g p t
W S A A G P
6
! "
* +
# 2 2
$ %
- .
& '
(4.16.31)
( )
2
2
1
0.785 1
a t ya g p
W G P S A A
6
! "
# , 2 2
$ %
& '
(4.16.32)
3
1.5
a b bg
W A S # (4.16.33)
m) STEP 13 Determine the minimum operating bolt load.
( )
2
1
4
0.785
E
om m f g p A
M
W S A A G P F
G
# 2 2 2 2 (4.16.34)
where
( )
1 min
f
k
m f s P
S G T # (4.16.35)
log
log
yaf
s
f
Paf
S
G
k
T
* +
4 5
- .
#
* +
- .
(4.16.36)
1
max
a
yaf
paf P
b
S
T T
G
! "
$ %
& '
! "
# /
$ %
& '
(4.16.37)
Revision 6 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite 4.16-9
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( )
am
yaf yam
g p
W
S S
A A
# /
2
(4.16.38)
( )
max
a
yam b P
S G T # (4.16.39)

COMMENT: In this write-up, the theory behind the bolt-load
calculation is not explained. Only those calculations required
to determine the design bolt load are described. Also, what do
we tell the designer to do with the bolt loads computed in
Steps 12 and 13?

4.16.7 Flange Design Procedure
4.16.7.1 The procedure in this paragraph can be used to design circular integral, loose or reverse
flanges, subject to internal or external pressure, and external loadings. The procedure can be used with
either of the methods for determining bolt loads and incorporates both a strength check and rigidity check for
flange rotation.
4.16.7.2 A procedure to design a flange is shown below.
a) This STEP 1 Determine the design pressure and temperature of the flange joint, and the external net-
section axial force,
A
F , and bending moment,
E
M . If the pressure is negative, the absolute value of
the pressure should be used in this procedure.
b) STEP 2 Determine the design bolt loads for operating condition,
o
W , and the gasket seating
condition,
g
W , and corresponding actual bolt area,
b
A , using Method A or Method B in paragraph
4.16.6.
c) STEP 3 Determine an initial flange geometry, in addition to the information required to determine the
bolt load, the following geometric parameters are required:
1) The flange bore, B
2) The bolt circle diameter, C
3) The outside diameter of the flange, A
4) The flange thickness, t
5) The thickness of the hub at the large end,
1
g
6) The thickness of the hub at the small end,
0
g
7) The hub length, h
d) STEP 4 Determine the flange forces.
2
0.785
D
H B P # (4.16.40)
2
0.785 H G P # (4.16.41)
4.16-10 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite Revision 6
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T D
H H H # , (4.16.42)
G o
H W H # , (4.16.43)
e) STEP 5 Determine the flange moment for the operating condition using Equation (4.16.44) or
Equation (4.16.45), as applicable. In these equations,
D
h ,
T
h , and
G
h are determined from Table
4.16.8, the moment
oe
M is calculated using Equation (4.16.46), and I and
p
I are determined from
Table 4.16.9.
( ) abs
o D D T T G G oe s
M H h H h H h M F Internal pressure * + # 2 2 2
- .
(4.16.44)
( ) ( ) ( )
abs
o D D G T T G oe s
M H h h H h h M F External pressure
* +
# , 2 , 2
- .
(4.16.45)
( )
( ) ( )
( )
2 1
4
2 1 2
G D
oe E A D G
p D
I
h h
M M F h h
I I C h G
:
:
* + * + 2
# , 2 2
4 5 4 5
2 2 ,
4 5 4 5
- . - .
(4.16.46)
f) STEP 6 Determine the flange moment for the gasket seating condition using Equation (4.16.47) or
Equation (4.16.48), as applicable.
( )
2
g s
g
W C G F
M Internal pressure
,
# (4.16.47)
g g G s
M W h F External pressure # (4.16.48)
g) STEP 7 Determine the flange stress factors using the equations in Tables 4.16.10 and 4.16.11.
h) STEP 8 Determine the flange stresses for the operating and gasket seating conditions using the
equations in Table 4.16.12.
i) STEP 9 Check the flange stress acceptance criteria. The two criteria shown below need to be
evaluated. If the stress criteria are satisfied, then go to STEP 10. If the stress criteria are not satisfied,
then re-proportion the flange dimensions and go to STEP 4.
1) Allowable Normal Stress The criteria to evaluate the normal stresses for the operating and
gasket seating conditions are shown in Table 4.16.13.
2) Allowable Shear Stresses In the case of loose type flanges with laps, as shown in Fig. 4.16.6
where the gasket is so located that the lap is subjected to shear, the shearing stress shall not
exceed 0.8
no
S or 0.8
ng
S , as applicable, for the material of the lap. In the case of welded flanges
where the nozzle neck, vessel, or pipe wall extends near to the flange face and may form the
gasket contact face, the shearing stress carried by the welds shall not exceed 0.8
no
S or 0.8
ng
S ,
as applicable. The shearing stress shall be calculated for both the operating and gasket seating
load cases. Similar situations where flange parts are subjected to shearing stresses shall be
checked to the same requirement.
j) STEP 10 Check the flange rigidity criteria in Table 4.16.14. If the flange rigidity criterion is satisfied,
then the design is complete. If the flange rigidity criterion is not satisfied, then re-proportion the flange
dimensions and go to STEP 4.
4.16.8 Split Loose Type Flanges
Loose flanges split across a diameter and designed under the rules given in this paragraph may be used
under the following provisions.
Revision 6 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite 4.16-11
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
a) When the flange consists of a single split flange or flange ring, it shall be designed as if it were a solid
flange (without splits), using 200% of the total moment, 2.0
s
F # .
b) When the flange consists of two split rings, each ring shall be designed as if it were a solid flange
(without splits), using 75% of the total moment, 0.75
s
F # . The pair of rings shall be assembled so that
the splits in one ring are 90 degrees from the splits in the other ring.
c) The flange split locations should preferably be midway between bolt holes.
4.16.9 Noncircular Shaped Flanges With A Circular Bore
The outside diameter, A, for a noncircular flange with a circular bore shall be taken as the diameter of the
largest circle, concentric with the bore, inscribed entirely within the outside edges of the flange. The bolt
loads, flange moments, and stresses shall be calculated in the same manner as that for a circular flange
using a bolt circle whose size is established by drawing a circle through the centers of the outermost bolts.
4.16.10 Flanges With Nut Stops
When flanges are designed per this paragraph, or are fabricated to the dimensions of ASME B16.5 or other
acceptable standards, except that the dimension R is decreased to provide a nut-stop, the fillet radius shall
be as shown in Figures 4.16.3 and 4.16.4 except that:
a) For flanges designed to this paragraph, the thickness of the hub at the large end,
1
g , must be the
smaller of 2
n
t or 4
u
r , but not less than 12 mm (0.5 in.).
b) For ASME B16.5 or other standard flanges, the thickness of the hub at the small end,
0
g , shall be
increased as necessary to provide a nut-stop.
4.16.11 Qualification Of Assembly Procedures And Assemblers
Flange joints designed using the Method B bolt load procedure shall be assembled by qualified bolted-joint
assemblers. Bolted joints designed for flange assembly efficiencies, 6 , greater than 0.75 (see Table 4.16.7)
shall be assembled and bolted-up in accordance with a written procedure that has been qualified by test to
achieve the specified assembly efficiency. The procedure shall address need for through hardened washers.
Bolted-joint assemblers shall be qualified by test of a prototype assembly to demonstrate that they can apply
the qualified procedure and achieve the specified assembly efficiency.
4.16-12 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite Revision 6
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
4.16.12 Nomenclature
g
A is the gasket contact area.
A is the outside diameter of the flange or, where slotted holes extend to the outside of the
flange, the diameter to the bottom of the slots.
b
A is the cross-sectional area of the bolts based on the smaller of the root diameter or the least
diameter of the unthreaded portion.
m
A is the total minimum required cross-sectional area of the bolts.
p
A is the partition plate gasket contact area.
a is the exponent of the gasket assembly-loading curve used to compute the gasket stress
ya
S .
B is the inside bore of the flange, when
1
20 B g 7 , the Designer may use
1
B for B in the
equation for the longitudinal stress.
*
B is the inside diameter of the reverse flange.
1
B is
1
B g 2 for loose type flanges and for integral type flanges that have a value of f less than
1.0, although a minim value of 1.0 f # is permitted,
0
B g 2 for integral type flanges when
1.0 f 3 .
b is the effective gasket contact width.
0
b is the basic gasket seating width.
C is the bolt circle diameter.
ul
C is the conversion factor for length, 1.0
ul
C # for US Customary Units and 25.4
ul
C # for
Metric Units.
us
C is the conversion factor for stress, 1.0
us
C # for US Customary Units and
6.894757 03
us
C E # , for Metric Units.
C is the bolt circle diameter.
d is the flange stress factor.
r
d is the flange stress factor d for a reverse type flange.
yg
E is the Modulus of Elasticity at the gasket seating load case temperature.
yo
E is the Modulus of Elasticity at the operating load case temperature.
e is the flange stress factor.
r
e is the flange stress factor e for a reverse type flange.
6 is the assembly efficiency, or the ratio of the minimum to average gasket stress, which
accounts for variations in the bolt load and gasket stress based on the method of joint
assembly.
F is the flange stress factor for integral type flanges.
A
F is the value of the external net-section axial force.
L
F is the flange stress factor for loose type flanges.
s
F is the moment factor used to design split rings, 1.0
s
F # for solid rings, 2.0
s
F # for solid
rings, and 0.75
s
F # for solid rings (see paragraph 4.16.8).
f is the hub stress correction factor for integral flanges.
G is the location of the gasket reaction.
Revision 6 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite 4.16-13
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
b
G is the gasket property used to describe the assembly loading curve,
b
G equals the gasket
stress when 1.0
p
T # .
c
G is the outside diameter of the gasket contact area.
s
G is the gasket property used to describe the unloading curve,
s
G equals the gasket stress
when 1.0
p
T # .
0
g is the thickness of the hub at the small end.
1
g is the thickness of the hub at the large end.
H is the total hydrostatic end force.
D
H is the total hydrostatic end force on the area inside of the flange.
G
H is the gasket load for the operating condition.
p
I is the difference between the total hydrostatic end force and hydrostatic end force on the
area inside the flange.
h is the hub length.
D
h is the moment arm for load
D
H .
G
h is the moment arm for load
G
H .
T
h is the moment arm for load
T
H .
I is the bending moment of inertia of the flange cross-section.
p
I is the polar moment of inertia of the flange cross-section.
J is the flange rigidity index.
K is the ratio of the flange outside diameter to the flange inside diameter.
R
K is the rigidity index factor.
k is the exponent of the unloading curve.
L is the flange stress factor.
r
L is the flange stress factor L for a reverse type flange.
E
M is the absolute value of the external net-section bending moment.
g
M is the flange design moment for the gasket seating condition.
o
M is the flange design moment for the operating condition.
oe
M is the component of the flange design moment resulting from a net section bending moment
and/or axial force.
m is the gasket factor.
N is the gasket contact width.
: is Poissons ratio.
P is the design pressure.
t
P is the test pressure.
Q is the factor that varies between 0.0 and 1.0 that adjusts the overall effect of nonuniform
gasket stress caused by an external net-section bending moment relative to an equivalent
net-section axial load.
r is a radius to be at least
1
0.25g but not less than 5 mm (0.1875 in.).
u
r is the radius of the undercut on a flange with nut stops.
bg
S is the membrane stress intensity limit from Part 3 for the bolt at the gasket seating
temperature.
bo
S is the membrane stress intensity limit from Part 3 for the bolt at the design temperature.
4.16-14 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite Revision 6
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
c
S is the maximum permissible gasket stress to avoid tightness performance damage.
fg
S is the membrane stress intensity limit from Part 3 for the flange at the gasket seating
temperature.
fo
S is the membrane stress intensity limit from Part 3 for the flange at the design temperature.
l
S is the minimum permitted value of the operating gasket stress.
mo
S is the design gasket operating stress.
1 m
S is the minimum gasket operating stress to meet the required joint tightness.
2 m
S is the average operating gasket stress after the design pressure and external loads are
applied.
ng
S is the membrane stress intensity limit from Part 3 for the nozzle neck, vessel, or pipe at the
gasket seating temperature.
no
S is the membrane stress intensity limit from Part 3 for the nozzle neck, vessel, or pipe at the
design temperature.
s
S is the gasket stress developed when contact is initiated with a compression limit device, or a
stress associated with a tightness limit.
ya
S is the design gasket assembly stress.
H
S is the flange hub stress.
R
S is the flange radial stress.
T
S is the flange tangential stress.
1 T
S is the flange tangential stress at the outside diameter of a reverse flange.
2 T
S is the flange tangential stress at the inside diameter of a reverse flange.
T is the flange stress factor.
c
T is the tightness class factor.
P
T is the tightness parameter.
Pa
T is the assembly tightness.
max P
T is the gasket property obtained by test that determines the maximum usable tightness.
min P
T is the minimum required tightness to assure satisfactory leakage performance is achieve
able in operation for the specified tightness class.
r
T is the flange stress factor T for a reverse flange.
t is the flange thickness including the facing thickness and groove depth if not exceeding 2
mm (0.0625 in.); otherwise, the facing or groove depth is not included in the flange
thickness.
n
t is the nominal thickness of the shell, pipe, or nozzle to which the flange is attached.
x
t is
0
2g when the design is calculated as an integral flange, or two times the minimum
required thickness of the shell or nozzle wall when the design is based on a loose flange, but
not less than 6 mm ( 0.25 in.).
U is the flange stress factor.
r
U is the flange stress factor U for a reverse type flange.
V is the flange stress factor for integral type flanges.
L
V is the flange stress factor for loose type flanges.
am
W is the minimum assembly bolt load.
Revision 6 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite 4.16-15
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
g
W is the design bolt load for the gasket seating condition.
mo
W is the minimum required operating bolt load used to establish the design bolt load.
o
W is the design bolt load for the operating condition.
om
W is the minimum operating bolt load.
w is the width of the nubbin.
Y is the flange stress factor.
r
Y is the flange stress factor Y for a reverse type flange.
Z is the flange stress factor.
4.16-16 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite Revision 6
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

4.16.13 Tables

Table 4.16.1 Representative Tightness Classes And categories For Determining The Bolt Loads
Using Method B
Tightness Class Tightness Class
Factor
c
T
Leak rate
lbHe/hr/in diameter
Leak rate,
MgHe/sec/mm diameter
1 0.1 1/25 1/5
2 1 1/2500 1/500
3 10 1/250000 1/50000

Revision 6 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite 4.16-17
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Table 4.16.2 Gasket Factors For Determining The Bolt Loads Using Method A

Gasket Material
Gasket
Factor,
m
Min.
Design
Seating
Stress y,
(psi)
Column in
Table
4.16.5
Facing
Sketch In
Table 4.16.5
Self-energizing types (O rings, metallic,
elastomer, other gasket types considered as self-
sealing)
0 0
--- ---
Elastomers without fabric or high percent of
asbestos fiber:
; Bellow 75 A Shore Durometer
; 75 A or higher Shore Durometer


0.50
1.00


0.50
1.00
II (1a), (1b),
(1c), (1d),
(4), (5);
Asbestos with suitable binder for operating
conditions:
; 1/8 inch thick
; 1/16 inch thick
; 1/32 inch thick


2.00
2.75
3.50


1,600
3,700
6,500
II (1), (1b),
(1c), (1d),
(4), (5)
Elastomers with cotton fabric insertion 1.25 400 II (1a), (1b),
(1c), (1d),
(4), (5)
Elastomers with asbestos insertion (with or
without wire reinforcement):
; 3-ply
; 2-ply
; 1-ply


2.25
2.50
3.75


2,900
2,900
3,700
II (1), (1b),
(1c), (1d), (5)
Vegetable fiber 1.75 1,100
II (1a), (1b),
(1c), (1d),
(4), (5)
Spiral-wound metal, asbestos filler
; Carbon steel
; Stainless steel, Monel, and nickel-base
alloy

2.50
3.00

10,000
10,000
II (1a), (1b)
Corrugated metal, asbestos inserted, or
corrugated metal, jacketed asbestos filled:
; Soft aluminum
; Soft copper or brass
; Iron or soft steel
; Monel or 4% - 6% chrome
; Stainless steels and nickel-base alloys


2.50
2.75
3.00
3.25
3.50


2,900
3,700
4,500
5,500
6,500
II (1a), (1b)
Corrugated metal:
; Soft aluminum
; Soft copper or brass
; Iron or soft steel
; Monel or 4% - 6% chrome
; Stainless steels and nickel-base alloys

2.75
3.00
3.25
3.50
3.75

3,700
4,500
5,500
6,500
7,600
II (1a), (1b),
(1c), (1d)
4.16-18 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite Revision 6
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
Table 4.16.2 Gasket Factors For Determining The Bolt Loads Using Method A

Gasket Material
Gasket
Factor,
m
Min.
Design
Seating
Stress y,
(psi)
Column in
Table
4.16.5
Facing
Sketch In
Table 4.16.5
Flat metal, jacketed asbestos filled:
; Soft aluminum
; Soft copper or brass
; Iron or soft steel
; Monel
; 4% - 6% chrome
; Stainless steels and nickel-base alloys

3.25
3.50
3.75
3.50
3.75
3.75

5,500
6,500
7,600
8,000
9,000
9,000
II (1a), (1b),
(1c), (1d), (2)
Grooved Metal:
; Soft aluminum
; Soft copper or brass
; Iron or soft steel
; Monel or 4% - 6% chrome
; Stainless steels and nickel-base alloys

3.25
3.50
3.75
3.75
4.25

5,500
6,500
7,600
9,000
10,100
II (1a), (1b),
(1c), (1d),
(2), (3)
Sold flat metal:
; Soft aluminum
; Soft copper or brass
; Iron or soft steel
; Monel or 4% - 6% chrome
; Stainless steels and nickel-base alloys

4.00
4.75
5.50
6.00
6.50

8,800
13,000
18,000
21,800
26,000
I (1a), (1b),
1c), (1d), (2),
(3), (4), (5)
Ring joint:
; Iron or soft steel
; Monel or 4% - 6% chrome
; Stainless steel and nickel-base alloys

5.50
6.00
6.50

18,000
21,800
26,000
I (6)

Revision 6 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite 4.16-19
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Table 4.16.3 Gasket Factors For Determining The Bolt Loads Using Method B
Gasket Material
b
G
(2, 14)
a
(2,14)
s
G

Pmax
T
(4,13)
l
S
(5)
c
S
(6)
Notes
Self-energizing gaskets
Spring energized gasket
500 0 1e-10 500
500
3, 8
3, 8
Compressed elastomers reinforced
with asbestos fibers (<wt 50%)
; 1/8 inch thick
; 3/32 inch thick
; 1/16 inch thick
; 1/32 inch & 1mm thick


400

2500



0.380

0.150


15

117


9900

19500


900

900


22000

24000


9

9
Compressed elastomers reinforced
with aramid fibers (<wt 50%)
; 1/8 inch thick
; 3/32 inch thick
; 1/16 inch thick



1900
560



0.210
0.334



14
4



5700
26000*



900
900


18000
18000
20000


9
9
9
Compressed elastomers reinforced
with glass fibers (<wt 50%)
; 1/16 inch thick
; 1/32 inch & 1mm thick


1150
285


0.30
0.45


117
117


8200
9000


900
900


18000
18000


9
9
Beater processed elastomers
reinforced with aramid fibers (<wt
50%)
; 1/16 inch thick


900


0.450


1


300


900


18000


9
Unfilled PTFE Sheet (virgin):
; 1/8 inch thick
; 1/16 inch thick

6
30

0.710
0.520

0.06
1e-10

32000*
18000*

900
900

32000
32000

Filled Skived cut PTFE Sheet:
; 1/8 inch thick (glass)
; 3/32 inch thick (Silica)
; 1/16 inch thick (glass)

430
220
520

0.270
0.400
0.256

9.3
0.005
0.227

16000*
20400
33000*

900
900
900

32000
32000
32000

Restructured Filled PTFE Sheet:
; 1/8 inch thick (barium sulfate)
; 1/16 inch thick (silica)
; 1/16 inch thick (glass)
; 1/16 inch thick (barium sulfate)

500
1500
200
320

0.339
0.227
0.364
0.256

0.016
1.0
6e-14
2e-10

10800
16500
14500*
25501*

900
900
900
900

32000
32000
32000
32000

Expanded PTFE:
; Joint sealant chord, 3/8 inch
; Sheet, 1/8 inch thick
; Sheet, 1/16 inch thick

1000
1700
1400

0.250
0.200
0.222

0.005
0.08
0.08

60000*
18300
16600

900
900
900

12000
20000
32000

Laminated Flexible graphite sheet
reinforced with:
; Tanged SST sheet
; Chemically bonded steel sheet
; Chemically bonded steel sheet
soft
; Steel screen
; Bonded polymer film
; Unreinforced


1400
816
23

1700
970
970


0.324
0.377
1.080

0.260
0.384
0.384


0.01
0.066
6.5e-5

15
0.05
0.05


2287
3227
320

7274
1776
1776


900
900
900

900
900
900


32000
32000
32000

17000
16000
16000




12

7, 9
7, 9
7, 9
4.16-20 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite Revision 6
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
Table 4.16.3 Gasket Factors For Determining The Bolt Loads Using Method B
Gasket Material
b
G
(2, 14)
a
(2,14)
s
G

Pmax
T
(4,13)
l
S
(5)
c
S
(6)
Notes
Spiral wound stainless steel:
; Asbestos filled
; Flexible graphite filled
; Flexible graphite filled soft
; PTFE filled
; PTFE filled soft
; Mica filled

3400
2300
600
4500
6720
2600

0.300
0.237
0.390
0.140
0.100
0.230

93
13
2
70
98
15

500
4800
2000
14200
200
3700

900
900
900
900
900
900







3, 8


12

12

Spiral wound stainless steel with inner
ring:
; Asbestos filled
; Flexible graphite filled
; Flexible graphite filled soft
; PTFE filled
; PTFE filled soft
; Mica filled


3400
2530
231

2280
2600


0.300
0.241
0.556

0.190
0.230


93
4
0.3

67
15


500
2800


5400
3700


900
900
900
900
900
900








3, 8

15
7
12

12
15
Spiral wound Monel or Ni alloy:
; Asbestos filled
; Flexible graphite filled
; Flexible graphite filled soft
; PTFE filled

3400
2300
600
4500

0.3
0.237
0.390
0.14

93
13
2
70

500
4800
2000
14200

900
900
900
900





3, 8
10
10
10, 12
10
Spiral wound Monel or Ni alloy with
inner ring:
; Flexible graphite filled
; Flexible graphite filled soft
; PTFE filled


2530
231
2280


0.241
0.556
0.19


4
0.3
67


2800

5400


900
900
900





3, 8

10
10, 12
10
Corrugated metal jacketed with soft
insert:
; Soft copper or brass
; Soft steel or iron
; Monel or 4-6% Cr
; Stainless steel or 12% Cr


4250
8500


0.214
0.134


230
230


100
200


1350
1350
1350
1350


Sy
Sy
Sy
Sy
11

7

Corrugated metal sheet (0.015-0.025
inch):
; Soft Aluminum
; Soft copper or brass
; Soft steel or iron
; Monel or 4-6% Cr
; Stainless steel or 12% Cr
; Graphite on stainless steel
; Graphite on stainless steel
soft



1500
3000

4700
540.3
38.72



0.24
0.16

0.15
0.364
0.697



430
115

130
2
2



25700
54200

5600
13000
13000


1350
1350
1350
1350
1350
900
900


Sy
Sy
Sy
Sy
Sy
32000
32000


Flat metal jacketed with soft insert:
; Soft Aluminum
; Soft copper or brass
; Soft steel or iron
; Monel or 4-6% Cr
; Stainless steel or 12% Cr


1800
2900
2900
2900


0.35
0.23
0.23
0.23


15
15
15
15


600
2300
2300
2300

1350
1350
1350
1350
1350



3200
3200
3200
11



10
10
Revision 6 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite 4.16-21
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
Table 4.16.3 Gasket Factors For Determining The Bolt Loads Using Method B
Gasket Material
b
G
(2, 14)
a
(2,14)
s
G

Pmax
T
(4,13)
l
S
(5)
c
S
(6)
Notes
Soft flat metal:
; Soft Aluminum
; Soft copper or brass
; Soft steel or iron
; Monel or 4-6% Cr
; Stainless steel or 12% Cr

1525
5000



0.24
0.133



200
258

24000
10600


1350
1350
1350
1350
1350

Sy
Sy
Sy
Sy
Sy

Solid flat metal (1/8 inch nubbin
facing):
; Soft Aluminum
; Soft copper or brass
; Soft steel or iron
; Monel or 4-6% Cr
; Stainless steel or 12% Cr


2400
12000




0.20
0.11




250
65


18700
400


1350
1350
1350
1350
1350

Sy
Sy
Sy
Sy
Sy


Notes:
1. Binder, fillers and fibers must be suitable for service fluid and conditions over the proposed service life
of the gasket.
2. See paragraph 4.16.5.3 for validity of temperature for the constant
s
G
3. Gasket constants are valid for only for designs that employ a compression limit feature such as a
groove or gage rings.
4. Credit for additional tightness is not permitted for
Pa Pn
T T 0 . An asterisk (*) indicated that hardening
limits
max P
T .
max P
T is the lesser of
Ps
T (Hardening) or
Pu
T (Max test value) unless higher values
verified by ROTT test procedure
5. The stress
mo
S shall be greater than the value
l
S unless verified by test ASTM ROTT for the gasket
under consideration.
6. The gasket stress
c
S represents a maximum acceptable value that shall not be exceeded unless it is
confirmed by test the tightness performance will not be impaired by a greater stress. The Designer
shall establish an appropriate value of
c
S where none is given in this table. For metal gaskets
y
S
indicates the yield strength of the of the gasket material at the design temperature.
7. Values of
b
G , a ,
s
G imputed from similar product data in the case of spiral wound gaskets and in the
case of jacketed or solid metals from metal to metal type comparisons.
8.
c
S is limited by the yield strength of the respective compression stops
9.
c
S is indicated by interpretation of ROTT Test Data and has not been determined by a tightness
crush test. Use this data or documented crush test data
10. These constants are based on data for gaskets with stainless steel because no nickel or Monel data is
available.
11. Insert must be suitable for service conditions over its life.
12. Constants are for lower pressure applications where 10, 000
ya
S psi /
13.
max P
T to be determined by ROTT Test.
14. Where data is not given for
b
G , a ,
s
G , the gasket manufacturer shall provide gasket data certified by
ROTT test.
15. These constants are based on data for same filler gaskets without internal ring because no data is
available for same gaskets with internal ring.


4.16-22 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite Revision 6
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Table 4.16.4 Recommended Gasket Contact Width For Determining The Bolt Loads Using
Method B
Gasket Contact Width, N
Gasket Outside Diameter Gasket Type
< 150 mm
(6 inch)
< 300 mm
(12 inch)
< 600 mm
(24 inch)
< 900 mm
(36 inch)
900 mm (36
inch) and
Over
Sheet Gaskets Including
Laminated Sheets Gaskets With
Or Without A Metal Core
9 mm
(3/8 inch)
12 mm
(1/2 inch)
16 mm
(5/8 inch)
16 mm
(5/8 inch)
19 mm
(3/4 inch)
Preformed Composite Gaskets
Including Spiral Wound, Jacketed,
And Solid Flat Metal Gaskets
6 mm
(1/4 inch)
9 mm
(3/8 inch)
12 mm
(1/2 inch)
16 mm
(5/8 inch)
16 mm
(5/8 inch)


Revision 6 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite 4.16-23
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Table 4.16.5 Effective Gasket Width For Determining The Bolt Loads Using Method A
Basic Gasket Seating Width
o
b
Facing
Sketch
Facing Sketch Detail (Exaggerated)
Column 1 Column 2
1
N N

1B
See Note 1
N N

2
N

2
N

1C
T
N
W
w < N

1D
See Note 1
W
N
T w < N

max ,
2 4
w T w N 2 2 * +
4 5
- .

max ,
2 4
w T w N 2 2 * +
4 5
- .

2
w < N/2
W
N
0.4 mm (1/64 in) Nubbin

4
w N 2

3
8
w N 2

3
W < N/2
W
N
0.4 mm (1/64 in) Nubbin
4
N

3
8
N

4
N
See Note 1

3
8
N

7
16
N

5
See Note 1
N

4
N

3
8
N

6
W

8
w

, , ,
Notes:
1. Where serrations do not exceed 0.4 mm, (1/64 inch) depth and 0.8mm (1/32 inch) width spacing,
Sketches (1B) and (1D) shall be used.
2. The gasket factors listed in this table only apply to flanged joints in which the gasket is contained
entirely within the inner edges of the bolt holes.

4.16-24 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite Revision 6
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Table 4.16.6 Effective Gasket Width For Determining The Bolt Loads Using Method B
Facing
Sketch
Facing Sketch Detail (Exaggerated)
Basic Gasket Seating Width
o
b
1
N N

N
2
w < N/2
W
N
0.4 mm (1/64 in) Nubbin

( ) w T N 2 /
3
W

4
w


Revision 6 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite 4.16-25
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Table 4.16.7 Assembly Efficiencies For Determining The Bolt Loads Using Method B
Assembly Efficiency,
6
Bolt Preload Control Method Bolt Load Variation from
Mean
0.75
Power impact, lever striker (manual or power)
wrench
50% Over
0.85 Accurately applied torque 3% < 30% 50% to < <
0.95
Simultaneous multiple application of direct
tension to three or more bolts
10% 30% to < <
1.0
Direct measurement of stud stress or strain, or
the simultaneous hydraulic tensioning of all
bolts
10% or less <
Notes:
1. Assembly efficiency refers to the uniformity of gasket stress, tightness and leak rate variations around
the circumference. Assembly efficiency decreases with scatter in bolt load and is affected by frictional
variations and elastic interaction where elastic interaction depends on the stiffness of the flange, bolt,
and gasket system. Significant bolt load losses as high as 50% have been observed even when using
controlled torque or tensioning of bolts. (WRC Bulletin 406, Bolted Flange Assembly: Preliminary Elastic
Interaction Data and Improved Bolt-up Procedures.)
2. Joint tightness is also reduced by not operating at the target mean bolt load. This effect is not included in
the assembly efficiencies of this table.
3. For joints using compression stops of for O-ring gaskets, as assembly tightness of 1.0 can be used when
full stop contact is assumed by the design bolt-up procedures (
s ya
S S # ). In determining the minimum
assembly bolt load
am
W , set 0.90 6 # and calculate
am s g
W S A 6 # .
4. The assembly efficiency values given in this table are recommended and are not mandatory.


4.16-26 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite Revision 6
_______________________________________________________________________________________________


Table 4.16.8 Moment Arms For Flange Loads For The Operating Condition
Flange Type
D
h
T
h
G
h
Integral Type Flanges
1
2
g
R2
1
2
G
R g h 2 2

2
C G ,

Loose Type Flanges
2
C B ,

2
D G
h h 2

2
C G ,

Integral Reverse Type
Flanges
1
2
2
o
C g g B 2 , ,

1
2 2
B G
C
2 ! "
,
$ %
& '

2
C G ,

Loose Reverse Type Flanges
2
C B ,

1
2 2
B G
C
2 ! "
,
$ %
& '

2
C G ,



Revision 6 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite 4.16-27
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Table 4.16.9 Flange Moments Of Inertia
Flange Type I
p
I
Integral Type Flange
with a Hub
2
0.3498
o o
Lg h B
I
V
#







Loose Type Flange
with a Hub
2
0.3498
o o
L
Lg h B
I
V
#
p AB CD
I K K # 2
where
( )
4
3
1 1
0.21 1
3 12
B B
AB A B
A A
B B
K A B
A A
* +
! "
! " = >
4 5 $ % # , ,
? @ $ %
$ %
4 5
& ' A B
& '
- .

( )
4
3
1 1
0.21 1
3 192
DG DG
CD C DG
C C
D D
K C D
C C
* +
! "
! " = >
4 5 $ % # , ,
? @ $ %
$ %
4 5
& ' A B
& '
- .
with
2
R
A B
A
,
#

,
A R B R
A A B t if A t # # 3

,
A B R R
A t B A if A t # # 7

,
C DG avg avg
C h D G if h G # # 3

,
C avg DG avg
C G D h if h G # # 7
Integral or Loose
Type Flange without a
Hub
3
ln
6
Bt K
I #
4
3
1 1
0.21 1
3 12
p R
R R
t t
I A t
A A
* +
! "
! " = >
4 5 $ % # , ,
? @ $ %
$ %
4 5
& ' A B
& '
- .

where
2
R
A B
A
,
#

4.16-28 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite Revision 6
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Table 4.16.10 Flange Stress Factor Equations
Flange Type Stress Factors
Integral Type
Flange, Loose
Type Flange
with a Hub,
Reverse
Flanges
( )
( ) ( ) ( )( )
( ) ( )
( )( ) ( ) ( )
3
2
2
3
3
2
2
0.897697 0.297012ln 9.5257 10 ln
0.123586 ln 0.0358580 ln 0.194422 ln ln
0.0181259 ln 0.0129360 ln
0.0377693 ln ln 0.0273791 ln ln
g h
g h g h
g h
g h g h
F X X
X X X X
X X
X X X X
,
# , 2 2
2 , ,
2 ,
2


2
2
2
3
3 2
0.1 0.5
0.227914 0.344410
0.500244 1.87071 2.49189
0.189953
0.873446 1.06082 1.49970 0.719413
h
h h
g g
h h h
h
g g g g
For X
V X X
X X
X X X
X
X X X X
/ /
# 2 , , 2 2
2 , , 2


2 2
3 3 2 2
0.5 2.0
0.135977 0.0461919 0.560718 0.0529829
0.0144868
0.244313 0.113929 0.00928265 0.0266293 0.217008
h
g h g h
g h g h g h g h
For X
V
X X X X
X X X X X X X X
7 /
# , , , 2 2
2 , , ,


2
2 3
3
2 3
0.0927779 0.0336633 0.964176
0.0566286 0.347074 4.18699
max 1.0,
1 5.96093(10 ) 1.62904
3.49329 1.39052
g g
h h h
g h
h h
X X
X X X
f
X X
X X
,
* + = >
! " , 2 2
4 5
C C $ %
$ %
4 5 C 2 , C
& '
#
4 5 ? @
! " , 2 2
4 5 C C
$ %
4 5 C C
$ %
2
4 5 & ' A B
- .

Revision 6 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite 4.16-29
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
Table 4.16.10 Flange Stress Factor Equations
Flange Type Stress Factors
Loose Type
Flanges
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )( )
2
2
2
2
0.941074 0.176139 ln 0.188556 ln 0.0689847 ln
0.523798 ln 0.513894 ln ln
1 0.379392 ln 0.184520 ln 0.00605208 ln
0.00358934 ln 0.110179 ln ln
g h g
h g h
L
g h g
h g h
X X X
X X X
F
X X X
X X X
* +
2 , 2 2
4 5
4 5
,
- .
#
* +
2 2 , ,
4 5
4 5
2
- .

8 9 ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
4
0.1 0.25
ln 6.57683 0.115516 1.39499 ln
0.307340 ln 8.30849 2.62307 ln
7.035052(10 )
0.239498 ln 2.96125 ln
h
L g h g
g h g
h g g
h
For X
V X X X
X X X
X X X
X
,
/ /
# , 2 2
, 2 2
, 2

( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2
3
3 2
2
0.25 0.50
1.33458 0.417135
1.56323 1.80696 ln 0.276415 ln
1.39511 ln 0.402096 ln
0.0943597
0.0137129 ln
0.101619 ln
h
L g g
h h
g g
g
h h h
g
h
For X
V X X
X X
X X
X
X X X
X
X
7 /
# , , 2 2 2
2 2 , ,

2 2
3 3 2 2
0.50 1.0
0.0763597 0.102990 0.725776 0.160603
0.0213643
0.0918061 0.472277 0.0873530 0.527487 0.980209
h
L
g h g h
g h g h g h g h
For X
V
X X X X
X X X X X X X X
7 /
# , , 2 2 , ,
2 2 2 ,
D D D

3
2 2
3 3 2 2
1.0 2.0
0.220518 0.0602652 0.619818 0.223212
7.96687(10 )
0.421920 0.0950195 0.209813 0.158821 0.242056
h
L
g h g h
g h g h g h g h
For X
V
X X X X
X X X X X X X X
,
7 /
# , 2 2 , 2
2 2 , ,
D D D

1.0 f #
4.16-30 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite Revision 6
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
Table 4.16.10 Flange Stress Factor Equations
Flange Type Stress Factors
Notes:
1. For integral and loose type flanges
1
0
g
g
X
g
# (4.16.49)
0
h
h
X
Bg
# (4.16.50)
2. For reverse type flanges
1
0
g
g
X
g
# (4.16.51)
0
h
h
X
Ag
# (4.16.52)


Revision 6 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite 4.16-31
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Table 4.16.11 Flange Stress Factors Equations Involving The Parameter K
Flange Type
Stress Factors Involving The Parameter K
Integral and Loose Type
Flanges
A
K
B
#
2
10
2
log 1
0.66845 5.71690
1 1
K K
Y
K K
* + ! "
# 2
4 5 $ %
, ,
& '
- .

( )
( )( )
2
10
2
1 8.55246log 1
1.04720 1.9448 1
K K
T
K K
2 ,
#
2 ,

( )
( )( )
2
10
2
1 8.55246log 1
1.36136 1 1
K K
U
K K
2 ,
#
, ,

( )
( )
2
2
1
1
K
Z
K
2
#
,

3
1 te t
L
T d
2
# 2
0
F
e for Integral Type Flanges
Bg
#
0
L
F
e for Loose Type Flanges
Bg
#
2
o o
Ug Bg
d for Integral Type Flanges
V
#
2
o o
L
Ug Bg
d for Loose Type Flanges
V
#
4.16-32 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite Revision 6
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
Table 4.16.11 Flange Stress Factors Equations Involving The Parameter K
Flange Type
Stress Factors Involving The Parameter K
Reverse Type Flanges
The parameters K , T , U , Y , and Z are determined using the equations
for Integral and Loose Type Flanges with:
*
A
K
B
#
Then, the reverse flange parameters are computed as follows:
r r
Y Y E #
( )
( )
0.3
0.3
r r
Z
T T
Z
E
2
#
,

r r
U U E #
3
1
r
r
r r
te t
L
T d
2
# 2
1 0.668( 1)
1
r
K
K Y
E
2 * +
# 2
4 5
- .

0
r
F
e for Integral Type Flanges
Ag
#
0
L
r
F
e for Loose Type Flanges
Ag
#
2
r o o
r
U g Ag
d for Integral Type Flanges
V
#
2
r o o
r
L
U g Ag
d for Loose Type Flanges
V
#



Revision 6 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite 4.16-33
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Table 4.16.12 Flange Stress Equations
Stress Equations
Flange Type
Operating Condition Gasket Seating Conditions
Integral Type Flange
2
1
o
H
fM
S
Lg B
#

( )
2
1.33 1
o
R
te M
S
Lt B
2
#

2
o
T R
YM
S ZS
t B
# ,
2
1
g
H
fM
S
Lg B
#

( )
2
1.33 1
g
R
te M
S
Lt B
2
#

2
g
T R
YM
S ZS
t B
# ,
Loose Type Flange
2
o
T
YM
S
t B
#

2
g
T
YM
S
t B
#

Integral Reverse Type
Flange
2 *
1
o
H
r
fM
S
L g B
#

( )
2 *
1.33 1
r o
R
r
te M
S
L t B
2
#

( )
( )
1 2 *
0.67 1
1.33 1
R r
r o
T
r
ZS te
Y M
S
t B te
2
# ,
2

( )
( )
2
2 2 * 2
2 0.67 1
1
r
o
T r
r
K te
M
S Y
t B K L
* +
2
4 5 # ,
, 4 5
- .
2 *
1
g
H
r
fM
S
L g B
#

( )
2 *
1.33 1
r g
R
r
te M
S
L t B
2
#

( )
( )
1 2 *
0.67 1
1.33 1
r g R r
T
r
Y M ZS te
S
t B te
2
# ,
2

( )
( )
2
2 2 * 2
2 0.67 1
1
g r
T r
r
M K te
S Y
t B K L
* +
2
4 5 # ,
, 4 5
- .
Loose Reverse Type
Flange
2 *
r o
T
Y M
S
t B
#

2 *
r g
T
Y M
S
t B
#

4.16-34 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite Revision 6
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Table 4.16.13 Flange Stress Acceptance Criteria
Stress Acceptance Criteria Flange Type
Operating Condition Gasket Seating Conditions
Integral Type Flange or
Loose Type Flange with
a Hub
min 1.5 , 2.5 (1)
H fo no
S S S * + /
- .

1.5 (2)
H fo
S S /

1.0 (3)
H fo
S S /

R fo
S S /

T fo
S S /

( )
2
H R
fo
S S
S
2
/

( )
2
H T
fo
S S
S
2
/
min 1.5 , 2.5 (1)
H fg ng
S S S * + /
- .

1.5 (2)
H fg
S S /

1.0 (3)
H fg
S S /

R fg
S S /

T fg
S S /

( )
2
H R
fg
S S
S
2
/

( )
2
H T
fg
S S
S
2
/
Loose Type Flanges
T fo
S S /

T fg
S S /

Integral Reverse Type
Flanges
1.5
H fo
S S /

R fo
S S /

1 T fo
S S /

( )
2
H R
fo
S S
S
2
/

( )
1
2
H T
fo
S S
S
2
/

2 T fo
S S /
1.5
H fg
S S /

R fg
S S /

1 T fg
S S /

( )
2
H R
fg
S S
S
2
/

( )
1
2
H T
fg
S S
S
2
/

2 T fg
S S /
Loose Reverse Type
Flanges
T fo
S S /

T fg
S S /

Notes:
1. For integral flanges with hubs welded to a nozzle neck, pipe, or vessel shell
2. For loose type flanges with a hub
3. For flanges made of cast iron.


Revision 6 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite 4.16-35
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Table 4.16.14 Flange Rigidity Criterion
Rigidity Criterion Flange Type
Operating Condition Gasket Seating Conditions
Integral Type Flange
2
0 0
52.14
1.0
o
yo R
VM
J
LE g K Bg
# /
2
0 0
52.14
1.0
g
yg R
VM
J
LE g K Bg
# /
Loose Type Flanges
with Hubs
2
0 0
52.14
1.0
L o
yo R
V M
J
LE g K Bg
# /
2
0 0
52.14
1.0
L g
yg R
V M
J
LE g K Bg
# /
Loose Type Flanges
with Hubs
( )
3
109.4
1.0
ln
o
yo R
M
J
E t K K
# /
( )
3
109.4
1.0
ln
g
yo R
M
J
E t K K
# /
Notes:
1. For an integral type flange, 0.2
R
K # unless another values is specified by the Purchaser.
2. For a loose type flange with or without a hub, 0.3
R
K # unless another values is specified by the
purchaser.

4.16-36 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite Revision 6
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
4.16.14 Figures
W
R
C
h
D
H
D
g
1
B
t
A
H
G
h
G
G
h
T
H
T
Gasket
g
1
/2 g
0
h
W R
r
1
C
h
D
H
D
g
1
/2
B
g
1
= g
o
t A
H
G
h
G
G
h
T
H
T
Gasket
(a) Integral Flange Without A Hub
(b) Integral Flange with g
o
=g
1


Figure 4.16.1 Integral Type Flanges
Revision 6 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite 4.16-37
_______________________________________________________________________________________________


Where Hub Slope Adjacent
to Flange Exceeds 1:3,
Use Hub Type 2 or 3
g
o
Slope exceeds 1:3
g
1
h
1.5 g
o
(min.)
C Weld
L
g
o
Slope exceeds 1:3
g
1
h
1.5 g
o
(min.)
Slope 1:3 (max.)
(b) Hub Type 2
(c) Hub Type 3
g
o
W
R
r
1
C
h
D
Slope 1:3 (max.)
H
D
g
1
/2
B
g
1
t h > 1.5g
o
A
H
G
h
G
G
h
T
H
T
Gasket
(a) Hub Type 1
C Weld
L


Figure 4.16.2 Integral Type Flanges With A Hub
4.16-38 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite Revision 6
_______________________________________________________________________________________________


g
1
Inside
Diameter
r = 1/4
In.
3/16 In.
g
o
Nut Stop Diameter
g
1
Inside
Diameter
r = 1/4
In. 3/16 In.
g
o
Nut Stop Diameter
g
1
Inside
Diameter
r = 1/4
In.
Nut Stop Diameter
3/16 In.
g
1
Inside
Diameter
r = 1/4
In.
3/16 In.
F
Nut Stop Diameter
For Integrally
Reinforced Nozzles,
Min.
= Nut Height + 1/4 In.
(a) Detail A (b) Detail B
(c) Detail C
(d) Detail D


Figure 4.16.3 Integral Type Flanges With Nut Stops Diameter Less Than Or Equal To 18 Inches
Revision 6 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite 4.16-39
_______________________________________________________________________________________________




g
1
Inside
Diameter
r = 3/8 In.
5/16 In.


Figure 4.16.4 Integral Type Flanges With Nut Stops Diameter Greater Than 18 Inches
4.16-40 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite Revision 6
_______________________________________________________________________________________________


W
r
C
h
D
H
D
g
o
B
g
1
t h
A
H
G
h
G
G
h
T
H
T
Gasket
(a) Loose Flange With A Hub
W C
h
D
H
D
B
t
A
H
G
h
G
G
h
T
H
T
Gasket
(b) Loose Flange Without A Hub


Figure 4.16.5 Loose Type Flanges
Revision 6 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite 4.16-41
_______________________________________________________________________________________________


Notes (Loose Type Flanges):
(1) For Hub Tapers 6 or Less, Use go = g1
t
g
o
To Be Taken At Midpoint Of Contact
Between Flange And Lap
Independent Of Gasket Location
g
1
W C
h
D
H
D
r
A
G
h
G
or h
T
H
G
+ H
T
Gasket
h
Optional Hub


Figure 4.16.6 Loose Type Lap Joint Type Flanges
4.16-42 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite Revision 6
_______________________________________________________________________________________________


W
r
C
h
D
H
D
g
o
B
g
1
t h
A
H
G
h
G
G
h
T
H
T
Gasket
(a) Loose Flange With A Hub
W C
h
D
H
D
B
t
A
H
G
h
G
G
h
T
H
T
Gasket
(b) Loose Flange Without A Hub


Figure 4.16.7 Loose Type Threaded Flanges
Revision 6 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite 4.16-43
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

H
G
B*
W
g
o
t
h
Shell
A
B
C
G
h
G
g
1
h
D
h
T
H
T
H
D
H
G
B*
W
t
Shell
A = B
C
G
h
G
h
D
h
T
H
T
H
D
(a) Integral Type Reverse Flange
(b) Loose Type Reverse Flange

Figure 4.16.8 Reverse Flanges
4.16-44 ASME Section VIII, Division 2 ReWrite Revision 6
_______________________________________________________________________________________________


G
c
- OD Contact Face
b
H
G
h
G
G
Method A - For b
o
> 6 mm (1/4 in.) Method A - For b
o
< 6 mm (1/4 in.)
H
G
h
G
C
L
G
Gasket Face
Method B - For b
o
> 12 mm (1/2 in.)
Method B - For b
o
< 12 mm (1/2 in.)



Figure 4.16.9 Effective Gasket Seating Width