Result and Analysis

Part A: Preparation of 0.1M Primary Standard Sodium Carbonate Solution
Mass of anhydrous sodium carbonate 2.65g
Volume of solution 250Ml
Molarity of sodium carbonate 0.1mole/L

Show the calculation to find molar concentration of sodium carbonate ! decimal "laces#
Molar concentration $ mole/L
Mole $ 2.65/222.%%#&12.01&'16#
$ 0.025
L $ 0.250
Molar concentration $ 0.025/0.250
$ 0.1000M
Part B : Preparation of 0.1M of Secondary Standard Hydrochloric Acid as Stoc
Volume of concentrated hydrochloric acid (.'mL
Volume of solution 100mL
Molarity of )*l before standardi+ation is 0.1 mole/L
,emember- this molar concentration is only a""ro.imation /alue#
M1 V1 $ M2 V2
M1 (.'# $ 1.0 100#
M0 $ 12.0!(2M
Show calculation to find the /olume of concentrated )*l and molar concentration of )*l
M1 V1 $ M2 V2
12.0!(2 V1 $ 1.0 1000#
V1 $ (.'00mL
M1 V1 $ M2 V2
12.0!(2 (.'0001# $ M2 100#
M2 $ 1.0000M
Part B: Preparation of !orin" Solution 0.1M Hydrochloric Acid
Volume of hydrochloric acid from stoc1
Volume of solution 250mL
Show the calculation on dilution
M1 V1 $ M2 V2
1 50# $ M2 250#
M2 $ 0.2M
2art * - Standardi+ation of 0.1M )ydrochloric3cid
4rial 4itration 0nitial /olume/mL 5inal /olume/mL 3ctual /olume/mL
1 0 '2.( 16.2
2 0 ''.6 16.'
' 0 '2.( 16.2
3/erage 0 '2.( 16.2
Standard 7e/iation 0.22'6
Show the calculation on how to obtain actual concentration hydrochloric acid after
standardi+ation. 8ou should be able to determine your molar concentration )*l to 9/& 0.5:
from its actual /alue 0.1M#. 4he molar concentration must be stated in ! decimal "laces.
8ou will be graded on your accuracy.
;a2*<' & 2)*l  2;a*l & )2*<'
Ma Va/Mb Vb $ a/b
Ma '2.(#/25 0.1# $ 2/1
Ma $ 250.1#2#/'2.(
$ 0.152! mol
$ 0.2 mol
Standard 7e/iation $ /0&0.1&0#/2
$ 0.22'6
1. !rite chemical e$uation for the standardi%ation of 0.1M HCl and 0.1M
;a2*<' & 2)*l  2;a*l & )2*<'
'. *+plain ,hy you need to standardi%e HCl solution.
=e need to standardi+e )*l solutions when they are used for >uantitati/e analysis
because we need as "recise a /alue of the solution?s concentration for subse>uent
calculations in order to obtain as "recise a final answer as "ossible.
). #iscuss t,o possibilities of error that contribute on the molarity of HCl as
determined in this e+periment.
9 *oncentration of stoc1 solution is not what is assumed.
9 @rrors in /olume measurement and "oor choice of indicator.
9 </ershooting the end"oint and failure to standardi+e sodium bicarbonate.
-. #iscuss on the differences bet,een endpoint and e$ui.alent point.
@>ui/alent "oint is when you ha/e actually added the right amount of 3 to A while
end"oint is when indicator changing colour and is determined by e."eriment. 0f the
change "oint of your indicator is not as e.actly the same ") at e>ui/alenceB there can
be a noticeable difference between these two "oints. 4hat is why it is im"ortant to
choose the right indicator.
Aased on the e."erimentB we learn how to "re"are a "rimary standard solution of sodium
carbonate 0.1M# by mi. u" accurate mass of sodium carbonate and distilled water. ;e.tB we
also learn how to "re"are a secondary standard solution 1M )*l# and wor1ing solution
0.2M )*l# by dilute hydrochloric acid with distilled water. Last we learn how to standardi+e
the 0.2 M )*l by using basic techni>ue and base titration.
1. !hat are the properties that can be ser.ed as secondary standard solution such
as HCl and &a(H0
4he "ro"erties that can be ser/ed as secondary standard solution such as )*l or
;a<) are easy to useB chea" and more "owerful reactant.
'. Calculate the .olume of concentrated H&() 12345 that is needed to prepare
stoc solution 0.'6M in 100m7 .olumetric flas. 1d H&()81.161)"9cm)5
);<' $ 6(/6'.01
$1.0( mole
1.51' g/cm' $1000/V cm'
V $ 660.%! cm'
Molarity $ 1.0(/0.660%!
$ 1.6'!M
M1 V1 $ M2 V2
0.25 1000# $ 1.6'!# V2
V2 $ 152.%%%mL
). :rom the abo.e stoc solution; determine .olume needed to dilute to 600m7
.olumetric flas that contained 10 times dilution.
M1 V1 $ M2 V2
0.25 V1 $ 0.25/10# 50
V1 $ 5mL
-. '6m7 of diluted H&() solution is sub<ected for titration ,ith a non=
standardi%ed of Ba1(H5'. Calculate the molarity of Ba1(H5' if the .olume of
base needed for neutrali%ation is 1'.6m7.
2);<' & Aa<)#2  Aa;<'#2 & 2)20
Ma Va/Mb Vb $ a/b
0.025 25#/Mb 12.5# $ 2/1
25 Mb $ 0.625
Mb $ 0.025
1. *
2. *hemistry Volume 1 McCraw )ill @ducation

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