You are on page 1of 200

THE 12

TH
INTERNATIONAL
CONGRESS OF THRACOLOGY



The Thracians and their Neighbors in
the Bronze and Iron Ages

PROGRAMME, REPORTS AND
ABSTRACTS




















Institutions involved in the organization of the Congress:
Dmbovia County Council
Valahia University of Trgovite
Institute of Archaeology Vasile Prvan
Center of Thracology Bucureti
International Union of Prehistoric and Protohistoric Sciences
30
th
Commission
Curtea Domneasc National Museum Complex of Trgovite
Braov County History Museum
Museum of Brila





Editorial Board

Chief editors
Valeriu Srbu and Cristian Schuster

Members
Marian Cosac, Ovidiu Crstina, George Murtureanu






It is the authors who are responsible for the contents and the
quality of reports and abstracts. Due to late reception of manuscripts, the
Editorial Board could not in all cases possible intervene to any significant
extent, as to ensure a standard language.





THE 12
TH
INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS
OF THRACOLOGY
TRGOVITE
10
TH
-14
TH
SEPTEMBER 2013


The Thracians and their Neighbors in
the Bronze and Iron Ages



Persons involved in the organization of the Congress:
The Honorary Committee
Prof. univ. dr. Ion Cucui, president
Conf. univ. dr. Clin D. Oros, vice-president
Conf. univ. dr. Ion uuianu, vice-president
Acad. Alexandru Vulpe, vice-president
Prof. univ. dr. Marin Crciumaru, secretary

Organizing Committee
Prof. dr. Valeriu Srbu, president
Prof. dr. Cristian Schuster, secretary general
Conf. univ. dr. Marian Cosac, vice-president
Dr. Ovidiu Crstina, member
Dr. Radu tefnescu, member
Prof. univ. dr. Ionel Cndea, member

Secretariat
Prof. dr. Cristian Schuster
Dr. George Murtoreanu
Dr. Ana Ilie






























GENERAL PROGRAMME OF THE CONGRESS


TUESDAY, 10
TH
OF SEPTEMBER
9.00 15.00 - arrival and registration of the participants
17.00 Official opening of the Congress
20.00 Reception offered by Dmbovia County Council


WEDNESDAY, 11
TH
OF SEPTEMBER
9.00 13.00 ; 15.30 19.30 Presentation of papers
20.00 Reception offered by the Valahia University of
Trgovite


THURSDAY, 12
TH
OF SEPTEMBER
9.00 13.00 ; 15.30 20.00 Presentation of papers
20.30 Reception offered by the Institute of Archaeology
Vasile Prvan - Center of Thracology Bucharest


FRIDAY, 13
TH
OF SEPTEMBER
9.00 14.00 Presentation of papers
17.00 19.00 Round table
Reception offered by Dmbovia County Council



SATURDAY, 14
TH
OF SEPTEMBER
8.00 12.00 Documentary trip in Trgovite: museums,
monuments
Departure of participants.





General Summary




Forward ......................................................................... 7
Programme .................................................................... 11
Summary of the Abstracts ........................................... 27
Abstracts ........................................................................ 35
Center of Thracology.
The Activity between 2008-2013 ..................................

165


Stimai participani la cel de-al
12-lea Congres Internaional de Tracologie,

Conform tradiiei, cei care se ocup cu studiul tracilor se ntrunesc
ntr-un congres mondial o dat la patru ani. Din motive obiective, dar i
altele subiective, aceast periodicitate nu a fost ntotdeauna respectat. O
dovad n acest sens sunt i ultimele congrese care au avut loc n
Republica Moldova (Chiinu, 2004), Grecia (Komotini -
Alexandroupoli, 2005), Turcia (Istanbul, 2010), iar acum n Romnia
(Trgovite, 2013).
De ce a fost aleas Romnia ca loc de desfurare a celui de-al 12-
lea Congres Internaional de Tracologie i de ce acum, n anul 2013?
Data i locul au fost stabilite, aa cum se poate observa, ca urmare a
sistemului de rotaie, astfel c se mplinise sorocul ca Romnia s
organizeze un nou congres.
ara noastr, prin fostul Institut Romn de Tracologie, care a
beneficiat de colaborarea muzeelor din Drobrogea, fusese n 1996 gazda
celui de-al 7-lea Congres Internaional de Tracologie. Lucrrile, la care
au participat in jur de 250 de specialiti din domeniul istoriei, arheologiei,
lingvisticii, antropologiei, zoologiei, etnografiei, din ri precum Albania,
Austria, Bulgaria, Frana, Georgia, Germania, Ungaria, Republica
Moldova, Romnia, Rusia, Turcia, Ucraina, Iugoslavia, s-au derulat
atunci la Constana, Mangalia i Tulcea.
Prezentul congres are drept loc de ntrunire a celor care i dedic
o bun parte din activitatea profesional desluirii tainelor marelui neam
al tracilor, ca i a vecinilor lor, frumosul i ncrcatul de istorie ora
Trgovite. A fost ales acest ora deoarece aici exist specialiti de prim
rang n domeniul arheologiei i istoriei, aici fiineaz una din cele mai
prestigioase universiti din Romnia Universitatea Valahia, aici i
are sediul un complex muzeal de prim rang Complexul Naional Muzeal
Curtea Domneasc - i, nu n ultimul rnd, aici se gsesc autoriti, ne
referim la Consiliul Judeean Dmbovia, care au neles s se implice
financiar i logistic n organizarea unei manifestri tiinifice de
importana unui reuniuni mondiale.

Anul 2013 a fost ales n detrimentul anului 2014, an n care
trebuia s aibe loc n mod normal congresul, deoarece acum exist
7

premisele financiar-organizatorice-tiinifice cele mai favorabile. Pe lng
Institutul de Arheologie Vasile Prvan Centrul de Tracologie al
Academiei Romne, Universitatea Valahia, Complexul Naional
Muzeal Curtea Domneasc Trgovite, principalii organizatori ai
efortului de a susine bunul mers al lucrrilor congresului i de a tipri
volumele ce vor conine comunicrile, li s-au alturat Muzeul Brilei,
Muzeul Judeean de Istorie Braov i Comisia 30 a Uniunii Internaionale
de tiine Preistorice i Protoistorice
Un numr de peste 120 de cercettori din Bulgaria, Republica
Ceh, Egipt, Finlanda, Georgia, Germania, Grecia, Italia, Polonia,
Portugalia, Republica Moldova, Rusia, Serbia, Turcia, Ucraina i
Romnia i-au manifestat interesul de a participa la actualul congres, care
are drept tem Tracii i vecinii lor n Antichitate n epocile bronzului i
fierului.
Prezentul volum, ce conine peste 100 de contribuii, este tiprit de
Muzeul Brilei. Ele reflect o varietate apreciabil de abordri, modaliti
i ci diferite de a analiza, studia, compara i a nelege i explica cultura
material i cea spiritual a tracilor i interaciunea acestora cu populaiile
nvecinate, din zone mai apropiate sau mai ndeprtate.
Cum este firesc, de altfel, dup congres comunicrile prezentate
vor fi publicate n volume speciale, ce vor fi ngrijite i editate n
colaborare cu colegii din Complexul Naional Muzeal Curtea
Domneasc Trgovite i Muzeul Judeean de Istorie Braov.
Ne bucurm i suntem onorai s v avem participani la al 12-lea
Congres Internaional de Tracologie. Dorim s mulumim tuturor
instituiilor i persoanelor implicate n organizarea congresului pentru
gratitudinea i efortul depus.

V dorim o edere ct mai fructuoas i plcut n Trgovite!

n numele Comitetului de organizare,

Valeriu Srbu, Cristian Schuster,
Preedinte Secretar General




8

Dear participants at the
12
th
International Congress of Thracology,

According to tradition, those involved in the study of Thracians
meet every four years at an international congress. Due to objective and
subjective reasons, this regularity of meetings was not always respected.
A proof in this direction is constituted by the last meetings that took place
in the Republic of Moldova (Chiinu, 2004), Greece (Komotini -
Alexandroupoli, 2005), Turkey (Istanbul, 2010), and now in Romania
(Trgovite, 2013).
Why Romania for the 12
th
International Congress of Thracology
and why now, in 2013? The date and place were established, as it can be
noted, following the rotation system so that it was now the time for
Romania to organize a new meeting.
Our country, through its former Romanian Institute of Thracology,
in collaboration with the museums from Dobroudja, was in 1996 the host
for the 7
th
International Congress. The venues were then Constana,
Mangalia and Tulcea and over 250 specialists in the fields of history,
archaeology, linguistics, anthropology, zoology and ethnography from
countries such as Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, France, Georgia, Germany,
Hungary, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russia, Turkey, Ukraine and
Yugoslavia took part at that meeting.
The present congress has as venue for those who dedicate most of
their professional activity to deciphering the mysteries of the great
Thracian people and their neighbors the beautiful and full of history city
of Trgovite. This location was chosen because here there are many
specialists in the field of history and archaeology, here functions one of
the most prestigious Romania universities Valahia University, here
there is a valued museum complex Curtea Domneasc National
Museum Complex, and last but not least, here there are the authorities
Dmbovia County Council that understood to get involved financially
and with logistics in the organization of an international scientific event.
The year 2013 was chosen over the year 2014 (when the congress
should have normally been organized) as now there are the most
favorable financial, organizational and scientific premises. The main
organizers of the meeting and of the publication of the proceedings are the
Vasile Prvan Institute of Archaeology Center of Thracology of the
9

Romanian Academy, Valahia University Trgovite and Curtea
Domneasc National Museum Complex Trgovite. Other institutions
and forums joined them in their efforts, such as the Museum of Brila,
Braov County History Museum and the International Union of
Prehistoric and Protohistoric Sciences 30
th
Commission.
A number of over 120 persons from Bulgaria, Czech Republic,
Egypt, Finland, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Italy, Poland, Portugal,
Republic of Moldova, Russia, Serbia, Turkey, Ukraine and Romania
manifested their interest in participating at the congress which has as
topic The Thracians and their Neighbours in the Bronze and Iron Ages.
The present Reports and Abstracts volume, which contains a
number of more 100 contributions, is printed by the Museum of Brila. It
reflects a large variety of approaches, different means of analysis, study,
comparison, understanding and explaining the material and spiritual
culture of the Thracians and their interaction with the neighboring
populations from closed or farther areas.
As it is only natural, the proceedings of the congress will be
published in volumes that will be edited in collaboration with the
colleagues from Curtea Domneasc National Museum Complex of
Trgovite and Braov County History Museum.

We are glad and honored to have you as participants at the 12
th

International Congress of Thracology. We also wish to thank all the
institutions and persons involved in the organization of the congress for
their efforts.

We wish you a most pleasant and rewarding stay in Trgovite!


On the behalf of the Organizing Committee,

Valeriu Srbu, Cristian Schuster,
President Secretary General



10

THE 12
TH
INTERNATIONAL
CONGRESS OF THRACOLOGY

- PROGRAMME
TUESDAY, 10
TH
OF SEPTEMBER 2013
9.00 15.00 Welcome and registration of the participants

17.00 Official Opening Ceremony
Speakers: officials, organizers and participants
- Valeriu Srbu President of the Organizing Committee

- Cristian Schuster, Secretary General of the Organizing
Committee

- Adrian Tuuianu, vice-president of the Honorary Committee,
President of the Dmbovia County Council

- Clin D. Oros, vice-president of the Honorary Committee,
rector of Valahia University of Trgovite

- Alexandru Vulpe, vice-president of the Honorary Committee,
director of Institute of Archaeology V.Prvan Bucharest

- Researchers from different countries

20.00 Reception offered by Dmbovia County Council
11

WEDNESDAY, 11
TH
OF SEPTEMBER 2013


Presentation of papers: 9.00 13.00 ; 15.30 19.30

SECTION I
BRONZE AGE
SETTLEMENTS, FORTRESSES, ARTEFACTS
9.00 13.00
Chairperson: Radu Bjenaru
- Tibor-Tams Darczi (Germany) - Anamorphosis in archaeology.
Aspects of phenomenology and perception in cultural change and
cultural transfer. A case study of the pit-grave kurgans of the eastern
Carpathian basin

- Camelia-Mirela Vintil (Romania) - Types of residential
constructions, Neo-Eneolithic and Bronze Age work-materials and
building techniques in the area of Bucharest City, Ilfov County

- Daniel Costache (Romania) - Considerations on Monteoru culture
settlements (Bronze Age) in the area of Curvature Sub-Carpathians

- Elena Gavril (Romania) - Tei culture settlements in Bucharest and
Ilfov County

- Jeanette Forsen (Finland) - An outpost in the West

- Radu Bjenaru, Alin Frnculeasa (Romania) - Une nouvelle hache
de type Baniabic du sud de la Roumanie

11.00 Coffee break
12

- David Wolfgang (Deutschland) - Brotlaibidole/tavolette enigmatiche
ein ungelstes Rtsel altbronzezeitlicher Kulturbeziehungen zwischen
Unterer Donau, Sddeutschland und Italien

- Ioan Bejinariu (Romania) - Highlights of cultural evolution in Late
Bronze Age in north-western Romania

- Alexandru Mecu, Laureniu Nlbitoru (Romania) - About
occupations in the Late Bronze Age, with special focus on the discovery of
the South of Romania.

12.30: Discussions

13.00 15.30 Lunch

15.30 19.30 Presentation of papers

Chairperson: Jeanette Forsen


- Ion Torcic (Romania) - Nouvelles donnes concernant la fin de lge
du Bronze et le dbut de la premire poque du Fer dans la rgion de
sud-ouest de la Muntnie

- Marcin Burghardt (Poland) - The whetstones with a hanging hole in
steppe zone cultures of the northern Pontic and the great Hungarian
Plain from the Late Bronze Age and the Early Iron Age

- Marius Alexianu (Roumanie) - Paramtres spatiaux de l'exploitation
des sources sales de la Moldavie prcarpatique l Age du Bronze et
lAge du Fer

- Ana Ilie, Gheorghe Olteanu, Ovidiu Crstina, A. Puna, I. Bogdan
(Roumanie) - Lexploitation des sources sales du bassin suprieur de la
rivire Ialomia de lge du Bronze jusquau Ier sicle ap. J.-C.

13

- Katarina Dmitrovi, Marija Ljutina (Serbia) - Some observations
on the borders between the Bronze Age cultural groups in the region of
the West Morava Valley, central Serbia

17.30 Coffee break

NECROPOLISES, GRAVES, ARTEFACTS

- Ghenadie Srbu (Rep. of Moldova) - Funerary practices during the
transition period from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age in the north-east
Carpathian area. Gordineti cultural group

- Gabriel Crciunescu (Roumanie) - Les ncropoles de la culture uto
Brdo Grla Mare dans la localit Grla Mare.

- Cristinel Fntneanu, Gabriel Blan, Daniel Tenti (Romania) - The
Bronze Age necropolis at Sebe ntre Rstoace

19.30 Discussions




20.00 Reception offered by the Valahia University of
Trgovite











14

THURSDAY, 12
TH
OF SEPTEMBER 2013

SECTION I
Presentation of papers: 9.00 13.00 ; 15.30 19.30
FIRST IRON AGE
SETTLEMENTS, FORTRESSES, ARTEFACTS
9.00 13.00
Chairperson: Ion Niculi
- Oleg Leviki (Rep. of Moldova) - Current status and research
priorities for the cannelure hallstatt culture of the Chiinu-Corlteni
type in the Carpathian-Dniester area (12
th
-10
th
centuries BC)

- Alexandru Levinschi (Rep. of Moldova) - Specifics of the placement
of settlements from the First and Second Iron Age in the forest steppe of
central Moldova

- Ion Niculi, Andrei Nicic (Rumnien) Nordthrakische
Menschengemeinschaften der Umgebung von Saharna am
Mitteldnesterlauf in der ersten Hlfte des I. Jahrtausends v. Chr. (anhand
der Ergebnissen der Untersuchungen in der Siedlung und Nekropole bei
Saharna-iglu)

- Ion Niculi, Aurel Zanoci, Mihail B (Rep. of Moldova) -
Diachronic development of sites from the Saharna area in the middle
Dniester region

- Maya Kashuba, Marina Vakhtina (Russia) - Nemirov in the northern
Black Sea region: the hallstatt cultural impulse and the early contacts
with Greeks (the second half of the 8
th
-6
th
centuries BC)

- Irina B. Shramko (Ukraine) - Basarabi features in the ceramic
complex of the Bilsk settlement
11.00 Coffee break
15

Chairperson: Milo Jevti

- Alexandru Morintz, Cristian Schuster, Andrei Mgureanu, Raluca
Koglniceanu - New Thracian Discoveries from Southern Romania

- Alexey Gotzev (Bulgaria) - First millennium BC. Thracian
archaeology of settlement in the Upper Maritsa region and its adjacent
areas
- Alexander Portalsky (Bulgaria) - Hellespontus, the Thracian Bosporus
and information related to Thracians on their coasts during the first half
of the first millennium BC

- 12.30 Discussions

13.00 15.30 Lunch

15.30 19.30 Presentation of papers

NECROPOLISES, GRAVES, ARTEFACTS

- Drago Mndescu (Romania) - The late First Iron Age Ferigile
cultural group - an original north-Thracian synthesis at the interference
of the surrounding cultural spaces

- Milo Jevti (Serbia) - First Iron Age Miro Group and Ferigile Finds
in Northeastern Serbia
- Diana Dvnc (Roumanie) - Inhumations des enfants chez le Thraces
du Nord en Premier ge du Fer

16.30 Discussions
17.00 Coffee break


16

Section IV
SARMATIANS, GERMANICS, ROMANS
Chairperson: Mihail Zahariade

- Liana Oa, Valeriu Srbu (Romania) - The Brgan in the 1
st
-3
rd

centuries AD: Dacians, Romans, Sarmatians

- Izabela Wnukzek (Poland) - Transcarpathian finds of stamped
ceramics

- Horea Pop (Romania) - Dacians and Germanics in North-Western
Romania between Traianus and Marcus Aurelius (2
nd
AD)

- Liviu Petculescu (Romania) - New data on Roman military equipment
in Dacia before AD 106

- El-Saed Gad, Eman A. Abdel-Aziz (Egypt) - Funerary Stele of Julius
Victor: An Unknown Soldier of Legio Secunda Traiana Fortis

- Mihail Zahariade (Romania) - Age and service of the Thracians in the
2
nd
-3
rd
century legions

Discussions


20.00 Reception offered by the Institute of Archaeology V.
Prvan Center of Thracology Bucharest




17

WEDNESDAY, 11
TH
OF SEPTEMBER 2013

Presentation of papers: 9.00 13.00 ; 15.30 19.30
SECTION II
SECOND IRON AGE
SETTLEMENTS, FORTRESSES, ARTEFACTS
9.00 13.00
Chairperson: Peter Delev
- Sergiu Mustea (Rep. of Moldova) - The new data concerning
Getian artefacts from the Mcui settlement, cemetery and hilfort (4
th
-
3
rd
c. BC)

- Octavian Munteanu, V. Iarmulschi (Rep. of Moldova) - La
fortification gte de Horodca Mica, R. de Moldavie: techniques de
construction et phases de ldification

- Sergey Matveev (Rep. of Moldova) - Support for the vessel shapes in
the ceramic collection from the 1
st
millennium BC to the beginning of the
1
st
millennium AD in the Eastern-Carpathian area

- P. V. Ostapenko (Ukraine) - Cultural and economic contacts of
Thracian and Greek rural population in the lower Dniester in 6
th
-1
st

c. BC

- Tatyana. L. Samoilova (Ukraine) Economic ties of the ancient Tyras
with Getae of Dniester river (the end of 6
th-
1
st
c. BC)

- Natalia Mateevici (Rep. de Moldavie), Evgenya Redina (Ukraine) -
La poterie Thrace dans les localits rurales de la rive gauche du liman de
Dniestr en IV - dbut du III sicles avant J.-C.)

18

11.00 Coffee break

- Livia Buzoianu, Maria Brbulescu (Romania) - Historical
Landmarks Provided by Imported Greek Pottery

- Despina Mgureanu (Romania) - Some aspects of the spatial
organization of Latne epoch settlement excavated at Crlomneti,
Buzu County

- Valeriu Srbu, Sebastian Matei (Romania) - A Dacian Fortress from
Pietroasa Mic-Gruiu Drii

- Done erbnescu, Cristian Schuster, Alexandru Morintz
(Rumnien) - Die getischen Dava von Radovanu im Lichte der neusten
Forschungen

12.45 Disscussions

13.00 15.30 Lunch

15.30 19.30 Presentation of papers

Chairperson: Diana Gergova

- Lucica Savu (Romania) - The Celtic discoveries on the upper and
middle course of the river Olt in the Second Iron Age
- Florea Costea, Angelica Blos (Romania) - An important centre of
power from pre-Roman Dacia: the Olt gorge sites from the Perani
Mountains, Transylvania
- Cristina Mitar, Alexandru Brbat, Oana Tutil Brbat (Romania) -
The Dacian Settlement from Uroi, Hunedoara County
- Marija Ljutina (Serbia) - In quest for quality stone: La Tne rotary
querns from idovar, south Banat
19

- Vlad Crbii, Monica Nicolescu (Romania) - Viewpoints in
interpreting Late Iron Age hillforts and fortified settlement between the
Southern Carpathians and the Danube (2
nd
c. BC-1
st
c. AD)

- Dan tefan (Romania) - Contributions to the study of Geto-Dacian
habitat from Eastern Wallachia (2
nd
c. BC-1
st
c. AD) by non-invasive
technologies

17.30 Coffee break

- Kalin Porozhanov (Bulgaria) - The Hellenic poleis-emporia and
Thracian marketplaces of the Odrysian Kindom (the 5
th
-middle of the 4
th

centuries BC)

- Ivo Topalilov (Bulgaria) - Some notes on the urbanistic development
of Philippopolis (4
th
-2
nd
c. BC)

- Dilyana Boteva (Bulgaria) - The Relations between the Odrysian king
Sitalkes and his son Sadokos in the ancient literary tradition: Testimonies
and their interpretations

- Mustafa H. Sayar (Turkey) - The Odrysean settlements in
southeastern Thrace













20

THURSDAY, 12
TH
OF SEPTEMBER 2013

Presentation of papers: 9.00 13.00 ; 15.30 20.00
Chairperson: Jan Bouzek

- Jan Bouzek (Czech Republic), Lydia Domaradzka (Bulgaria) -
Women in Pistiros
- Peter Delev (Bulgaria) - The tribal world of Ancient Thrace

- Ruja Popova (Bulgaria) - Political relationships of Thrace in the north
Black Sea region (Crimean Peninsula) in the late 1
st
century BC-the early
1
st
century AD

- Dobriela Kotova (Bulgarien) - Sparadokos: Bruder oder Schwager des
Odrysenknigs Sitalkes?
- Svetlana Yanakieva (Bulgaria) - Thrakisch und Dakisch Sprachen
oder Dialekte?
- Daniel Spnu (Rumnien) - Der Schatzfund von Epureni und die
Silbernen Fibeln Thrakischer Schema.

11.00 Cofee break

- Silviu Purece (Romania) - The economic relations between Buridava
and Roman Empire seen from the monetary circulation point of view

- Georgeta El Susi (Romania) - Data on livestock management in the
Iron Age habitation from Crlomneti, com. Verneti (Buzu county), in
the light of recent archaeozoological research
21

- Corneliu Beldiman, Iosif Vasile Ferencz, D.-M. Sztancs (Romania) -
Data about the Osseous Materials Artefacts from Dacian Fortress of
Ardeu, Hunedoara County
- Corneliu Beldiman (Romania) - A Special Red Deer Antler Artefact
from the Dacian Settlement of Unip, Timi County
12.45 Discussions

15.30 20.00 Presentation of papers

Chairperson: Mircea Babe

NECROPOLISES, GRAVES, ARTEFACTS

- Maria-Magdalena tefan (Romania) - Tumuli and flat graves at the
Lower Danube in the 5
th
-3
rd
c. BC a comparison of models

-Rodica Naniu Ursu, Alexandra Coma (Romania) - Ethno-socio-
anthropological considerations regarding the aristocratic burials in the
Extra-Carpathian zone, between the 5
th
-3
rd
c. BC.

- Valeriu Srbu, Maria-Magdalena tefan, Dan tefan, Gabriel
Jugnaru (Romania), Tomasz Bochnak (Poland) - The necropolis (6
th
-
3
rd
c. BC) from Telia-Celic Dere (Dobroudja).Tumulus no. 44.

- Mircea Babe (Romania), Philippe Charlier (France), Anca Ganciu
(Romania) - The so-called oven-grave from the Getian necropolis at
Zimnicea, Southern Romania (4
th
-3
rd
c. BC)

- Roxana Asndoae (Romania) - Klinai and Kline - shaped structures in
Macedonian tombs from present nord-east Macedonia and Thracia

22

- Nikola Tonkov (Bulgaria) - Two and three dimensional
electroresistivity surveys of thracian burial mounds

17.30 Cofee break


Chairperson: Jerzy Hatas

- Jerzy Hatas, M. yromski (Poland) - The human burials and horses
skeletal remains in the tholos tombs in ancient Thrace

- Emil Nankov (Bulgaria) - Playful in Life and After Death: Board
Games in Early Hellenistic Thrace

- Irina V. Rukavishnikova (Russia) - The decor of the sword from the
burial mounds Filippovka 1

- Aurel Rustoiu, Adrian Ursuiu (Romania) - Celtic colonization in
Banat. Comments regarding the funerary discoveries

- Valeriu Srbu, Cristian Roman (Romania) - Dacian incinerated
warriors fromHunedoara-Grdina Castelului, Hunedoara County

- Ctlin Petre Constantin (Romania) - Late Iron Age weaponry and
military equipment at the Lower Danube


20.30 Reception offered by the Institute of Archaeology
V. Prvan of Bucharest Center of Thracology






23

FRIDAY, 13
TH
OF SEPTEMBER 2013

Presentation of papers: 9.00 14.00

CULT PLACES, RELIGION, MITOLOGY

Chairperson: Svetlana Yanakieva

- Nona Palinca (Romania) - Sun cult and burials in the Romanian
Bronze Age

- Vasil Markov (Bulgaria) - Megalithic sanctuaries from the lands of the
Thracian Bessi

- Georgi Nekhrizov, Julia Tzvetkova (Bulgaria) - The Cult Places of
the Thracians in the Eastern Rhodopes: Some GIS-based Considerations
in the Light of New Finds

- Valeria Fol (Bulgaria) - The Sun-God in the Depictive Language of the
Thracians

- Vanya Lozanova-Stantcheva (Bulgaria) - The prophecies of the
many-gift[ed]

- Diana Gergova (Bulgaria) - The Getae and the Bessi. Comparative
studies on the culture of two Thracian priestly-warrior tribes.

11.00 Cofee break







24

Chairperson: Nona Palinca

- Alexandr E. Malyukevich (Ukraine), Sergey M. Agulnikov (Rep. of
Moldova) - Thracian Religious Artifacts of the Late Scythian Sanctuary
in Mologa
- Milena Tonkova (Bulgaria) - Gold wreaths from Thrace

- Kostadin Rabadjiev (Bulgaria) - The Horseman in Thracian Imagery.
Between Influence and Tradition

- Khrysanthi Kallini (Greece) - The Cult of the Mother of the Gods
(Cybele) at Aigai (ancient Vergina), Northern Greece

- Irina Vdovichenko (Ukraine) - A fragment of the crater with the image
of the Thracian peltasts from Chersonesos

- M. J. Vakhtina (Russia) - Greek art and female representations in the
art of European Scythia (on the question of cultural influence and local
peculiarity)

- Cristina Bodo (Romania) - Types of cult places in the Dacian world
(2
nd
c. BC - 1
st
c. AD.)

13.30 Discussions

14.00 16.00 Lunch

17.00-19.00 Round table

THRACOLOGY PRESENT AND FUTURE
Chairperson:
Cristian Schuster, Svetlana Yanakieva


25

20.00 - Reception offered by Dmbovia County Council
- Official closing of the Congress

SATURDAY, 14
TH
OF SEPTEMBER 2013


8.00 12.00 Documentary trip in Trgovite city:
museums, monuments

Departure of participants.

26

Summary

Anna Agre, Early Iron Age Settlements and Sanctuaries at the Lower
Danube: Problems of Identification and Interpretation .................

37
Serghei Agulnikov, Sergiu Popovici, Valeriu Paa, The Newly
Discovered Iron Age Necropolis from Mcui Zaverna (Republic of
Moldova) ................................................................................................


39
Serghei Agulnikov, Sergiu Popovici, Denis Topal, La recherche
archologique du tumulus 7 de Purcari (Rep. de Moldavie) .................

40
Marius-Tiberiu Alexianu, Paramtres spatiaux de l'exploitation des
sources sales de la Moldavie Prcarpatique l ge du Bronze et
lge du Fer ............................................................................................


42
Roxana Asndoae, Klinai and Kline-Shaped Structures in
Macedonian Tombs from Present North-East Macedonia and Thracia

42
Mircea Babe, Philippe Charlier, Anca Ganciu, The so-called
Oven-Grave from the Getian Necropolis at Zimnicea, Southern
Romania (4
th
3
rd
Centuries B C) ........................................................


43
Radu Bjenaru, Alin Frnculeasa, Une nouvelle hache de type
Baniabic du sud de la Roumanie ...........................................................

45
Ioan Bejinariu, Highlights of Cultural Evolution in Late Bronze Age
in North-Western Romania ....................................................................

46
Corneliu Beldiman, Iosif Vasile Ferencz, Diana-Maria Sztancs,
Data About the Osseous Materials Artefacts from Dacian Fortress of
Ardeu, Hunedoara County ...................................................................


47
Corneliu Beldiman, A Special Red Deer Antler Artefact from the
Dacian Settlement of Unip, Timi County ..............................................

48
Natalia Berseneva, Bronze Items as a Sign of the Personal Identity in
the Sintashta Culture (Bronze Age of South Trans-Urals) .....................

49
Cristina Bod, Types of Cult Places in the Dacian World (2
nd

Century BC - 1
st
Century AD)............................................................

49
Dilyana Boteva, The Relations Between the Odrysian King Sitalkes
and his Son Sadokos in the Ancient Literary Tradition: Testimonies
and their Interpretations ........................................................................


50
Livia Buzoianu, Maria Brbulescu, Historical Landmarks Provided
by Imported Greek Pottery ....................................................................

50
Jan Bouzek, Lidia Domaradzka, Women in Pistiros .......................... 51
27

Marcin Burghardt, The Whetstones with a Hanging Hole in Steppe
Zone Cultures of the Northern Pontic and the Great Hungarian Plain
from the Late Bronze Age and the Early Iron Age .................................


52
Vlad Crbii, Monica Nicolescu, Viewpoints in Interpreting Late
Iron Age Hillforts and Fortified Settlement between the Southern
Carpathians and the Danube (2
nd
Century BC 1
st
Century AD) .........


53
Elmar Christman, Die Cotofeni-Kultur im berriogionalen Kontext . 54
Nicolae Constantin, Ctlin Ionu Dobrinescu, V. Bodolic, Late
Bronze Age Ritual Pit Discovered in Cernavod, Constana County...

55
Ctlin-Petre Constantin, Late Iron Age Weaponry and Military
Equipment at the Lower Danube ............................................................

56
Daniel Costache, Considerations on Monteoru Culture Settlements
(Bronze Age) in the Area of Curvature Sub-Carpathians ......................

57
Florea Costea, Angelica Blos, An Important Centre of Power from
Pre-Roman Dacia: the Olt Gorge Sites from the Persani Mountains.
Transylvania ...........................................................................................


58
Gabriel Crciunescu, Les ncropoles de la culture uto Brdo
Grla Mare dans la localit Grla Mare ...............................................

59
Tibor-Tams Darczi, Anamorphosis in Archaeology. Aspects of
Phenomenology and Perception in Cultural Change and Cultural
Transfer. A Case Study of the Pit-Grave Kurgans of the Eastern
Carpathian Basin ...................................................................................



60
Peter Delev, The Tribal World of Ancient Thrace ................................ 61
Diana Dvnc, Inhumations des enfants chez les Thraces du Nord en
Premier ge du Fer ................................................................................

62
Diana Dimitrova, Shushmanets Tumular Temple near Shipka
(Central Bulgaria) ..................................................................................

64
El-Sayed Gad, Funerary Stele of Julius Victor: an Unknown Soldier
of Legio Secunda Traiana Fortis ...........................................................

65
Katarina Dmitrovi, Marija Ljutina, Some Observations on the
Borders Between the Bronze Age Cultural Groups in the Region of the
West Morava Valley, Central Serbia ......................................................


66
Georgeta El Susi, Data on Livestock Management in the Iron Age
Habitation from Crlomneti, Com. Verneti (Buzu County), in the
Light of Recent Archaeozoological Research ........................................


67
Jeannette Forsn, An Outpost in the West ............................................ 68
Cristinel Fntneanu, Gabriel Blan, Daniel Tenti, The Bronze
Age Necropolis at Sebe ntre Rstoace ..............................................

69
28

Valeria Fol, The Sun-God in the Depictive Language of the Thracians 70
Elena Gavril, Tei Culture Settlements in Bucharest and Ilfov County 71
Diana Gergova, The Getae and the Bessi. Comparative Studies on the
Culture of Two Thracian Priestly-Warrior Tribes .................................

73
Alexey Gotzev, First Millennium BC Thracian Archaeology of
Settlement in the Upper Maritsa Region and its Adjacent Areas ...........

75
Jerzy Hatlas, Marek Zyromski, The Human Burials and Horses
Skeletal Remains in the Tholos Tombs in Ancient Thrace .....................

77
Ana Ilie, Gheorghe Olteanu, Ovidiu Crstina, Adrian Puna,
Bogdan Ilie, LExploitation des sources sales du bassin suprieur de
la rivire Ialomia de lge du Bronze jusquau I
er
sicle ap. J.-C. .......


78
Milo Jevti, First Iron Age Miro Group and Ferigile Finds in
North-Eastern Serbia .............................................................................

79
Carol Kacs, Sptbronzezeitliche Metallfunde im Norden
Siebenbrgens ........................................................................................

80
Chrysanthi Kallini, The Cult of the Mother of the Gods (Cybele) at
Aigai (Ancient Vergina), Northern Greece ...........................................

81
Maya Kashuba, Marina Vakhtina, Nemirov in the Northern Black
Sea Region: the Hallstatt Cultural Impulse and the Early Contacts
with Greeks (The Second Half of the 8
th
6
th
Centuries BC) .................


82
Petra Kmeov, Horses in the Vekerzug Culture: Breeding, Trade
and Sacrifice ...........................................................................................

83
Dobriela Kotova, Sparadokos: Bruder oder Schwager des
Odrysenknigs Sitalkes? .........................................................................

84
D. Kushtan, Carpathian-Danube Region and Crimea: the Cultural
Links in Bronze Age ................................................................................

86
Alexandru Levinschi, Specifics of the Placement of Settlements from
the First and Second Iron Age in the Forest Steppe of Central
Moldova ..................................................................................................


88
Oleg Leviki, Current Status and Research Priorities for the
Cannelure Hallstatt Culture of the Chiinu-Corlteni Type in the
Carpathian-Dniester Area (12
th
10
th
Centuries B.C.)..........................


90
Marija Ljutina, In Quest for Quality Stone: La Tne Rotary Querns
from idovar, South Banat ....................................................................

93
V. Lozanova-Stantcheva, The Prophecies of the Many-Gift[Ed] .... 94
Despina Mgureanu, Some Aspects of the Spatial Organization of
Latne Epoch Settlement Excavated at Crlomneti, Buzu County ..

96

29

Alexandr E. Malyukevich, Sergey M. Agulnikov, Thracian
Religious Artifacts of the Late Scythian Sanctuary in Mologa .............

97
Drago Mndescu, The Late First Iron Age Ferigile Cultural Group
an Original North-Thracian Synthesis at the Interference of the
Surrounding Cultural Spaces .................................................................


98
Vasil Markov, Megalithic Sanctuaries from the Lands of the
Thracian Bessi .......................................................................................

98
Natalia Mateevici, Evgenya Redina, La poterie thrace dans les
localits rurales de la rive gauche du liman de Dniestr en IV - dbut
du III sicles avant J.-C. ........................................................................


99
Sergiu Matveev, Support for the Vessel Shapes in the Ceramic
Collection from the First Millenium BC to the Beginning of the First
Millenium AD in the Eastern-Carpathic Area .....................................


100
Laurentiu Mecu, Alexandru Nlbitoru, About Occupations in the
Late Bronze Age, with Special Focus on the Discovery of the South of
Romania ..................................................................................................


101
Cristina Mitar, Alexandru Brbat, Oana Tutil Brbat, The
Dacian Settlement from Uroi, Hunedoara County ................................

102
Alex. Morintz, Cristian Schuster, Andrei Mgureanu, Raluca
Koglniceanu, New Thracian Discoveries from Southern Romania ....

103
Octavian Munteanu, Vasile Iarmulschi, La fortification gte de
Horodca Mic, R. de Moldavie: techniques de construction et phases
de ldification .......................................................................................


104
Sergiu Mustea, The New Data Concerning Getian Artefacts from
the Mcui Settlement, Cemetery and Hillfort (4-3 C. BC) ...............

106
Emil Nankov, Playful in Life and after Death: Board Games in Early
Hellenistic Thrace ..................................................................................

107
Georgi Nekhrizov, Julia Tzvetkova, The Cult Places of the
Thracians in the Eastern Rhodopes: some Gis-Based Considerations
in the Light of New Finds .......................................................................


109
Ion Niculi, Andrei Nicic, Nordthrakische Gemeinschaften in der
Umgebung von Saharna, am Mitteldniesterlauf, in der ersten Hlfte
des I. Jahrtausends V. Chr. ....................................................................


111
Ion Niculi, Aurel Zanoci, Mihail B, Diachronic Development of
Sites from the Saharna Area in the Middle Dniester Region ................

112
P. V. Ostapenko, Cultural and Economic Contacts of Thracian and
Greek Rural Population in the Lower Dniester in 6
th
-1
st
c. B.C. ..........

114

30

Liana Oa, Valeriu Srbu, The Brgan in the 1
st
-3
rd
Centuries AD:
Dacians, Romans, Sarmatians ................................................................

115
Nona Palinca, Sun Cult and Burials in the Romanian Middle and
Late Bronze Age (Ca 2000-1200 B.C.E.) ...............................................

116
Elka Penkova, Lyubava Konova, The Cave and the Dionysiac
Mysterial Ritual Tradition .....................................................................

117
Liviu Petculescu, New Data on Roman Military Equipment in Dacia
Before AD 106 .......................................................................................

118
Alexander Portalsky, Hellespontus, the Thracian Bosporus and
Information Related to Thracians on their Coasts During the First
Half of the First Millennium BC ...........................................................


118
Horea Pop, Dacians and Germanics in North-Western Romania
between Traianus and Marcus Aurelius (2nd c. AD) ............................

119
Alexandru Popa, Zum Aktuellen Forschungsstand der Etulia-
Kulturgruppe Nrdlich der Unteren Donau ..........................................

121
Ruja Popova, Political Relationships of Thrace in the North Black
Sea Region (Crimean Peninsula) in the Late 1
st
Century BC the
Early 1
st
Century AD ..............................................................................


123
Kalin Porozhanov, The Hellenic Poleis-Emporia and Thracian
Marketplaces of the Odrysian Kindom (the 5
th
Middle of the 4
th

Centuries BC) .........................................................................................


124
Luca-Paul Pupez, Dacus, - I. A History of Name .............................. 125
Silviu I. Purece, The Economic Relations Between Buridava and
Roman Empire Seen from the Monetary Circulation. Point of View ....

126
Kostadin Rabadjiev, The Horseman in Thracian Imagery, between
Influence and Tradition .........................................................................

127
Aurel Rustoiu, Adrian Ursuiu, Celtic Colonization in Banat.
Comments Regarding the Funerary Discoveries ..................................

127
Irina V. Rukavishnikova, The Decor of the Sword from the Burial
Mounds Filippovka 1 .............................................................................

128
Tatyana L. Samoilova, Economic Ties of the Ancient Tyras with
Getae of Dniester River (the end of 6th 1
st
c. BC) ............................ 130
Lucica Savu, The Celtic Discoveries on the Upper and Middle Course
of the River Olt in the Second Iron Age .................................................

132
M. H. Sayar, The Odrysean Settlements in Southeastern Thrace ......... 132
Done erbnescu, Cristian Schuster, Alexandru Morintz, Die
Getischen Dava von Radovanu im Lichte der Neusten Forschungen ..

133

31

B. Shramko, Basarabi Features in the Ceramic Complex of the Bilsk
Settlement ...............................................................................................

135
Valeriu Srbu, Maria-Magdalena tefan, Dan tefan, Gabriel
Jugnaru, Tomasz Bochnak, The Necropolis from Telia-Celic Dere
(6
th
3
rd
c. BC), Tulcea County, Romania. The Study Case of Tumulus
T44 .........................................................................................................



137
Valeriu Srbu, Cristian Roman, Cremation Graves and Item
Deposits (4
th
1
st
C. BC) in Hunedoara - Grdina Castelului
(Hunedoara County)...............................................................................


138
Valeriu Srbu, Sebastian Matei, The Dacian Fortress from Pietroasa
Mic-Gruiu Drii, Buzu County ...........................................................

139
Ghenadie Srbu, Funerary Practices during the Transition Period
from the Eneolithic to the Bronze Age in the North-East Carpathian
Area. Gordineti Cultural Group ...........................................................


140
Daniel Spnu, Der Schatzfund von Epureni und die Silbsernen Fibeln
Thrakischer Schema. Zusammenfassung ...............................................

142
Dan tefan, Contributions to the Study of Geto-Dacian Habitat from
Eastern Wallachia (2
nd
c. BC 1
st
c. AD) by Non-Invasive
Technologies ..........................................................................................


143
Maria-Magdalena tefan, Tumuli and Flat Graves at the Lower
Danube in the 5
th
3
rd
Centuries BC A Comparison of Models ........

144
Nino Sulava, Rusudan Chagelishvili, Nino Kalandadze, Newly
Discovered Monuments of the Ancient Iron Metallurgy: Research
Perspective and Expected Outcomes .....................................................


145
Gabriel Talmachi, Presence of Special Goods with Unique Value
(Premonetary Items) and Arrowheads Monetary-Signs in the Local
Environment of the Lower Danube (7
th
- 4
th
Centuries BC) ...................


147
Nikola Tonkov, Two and Three Dimensional Electroresistivity
Surveys of Thracian Burial Mounds ......................................................

149
Milena Tonkova, Gold Wreaths from Thrace ..................................... 150
Ivo Topalilov, Some Notes on the Urbanistic Development of
Philippopolis (4
th
-2
nd
c. BC.)................................................................

151
Ion Torcic, Nouvelles donnes concernant la fin de lge du Bronze
et le dbut de la Premire poque du Fer dans la rgion de sud-ouest
de la Muntnie ......................................................................................


152
Stanko Trifunovic, Late La Tne Belt Buckles From urug ............... 153


32

Rodica Naniu-Ursu, Alexandra Coma, Ethno-Socio-
Anthropological Considerations Regarding the Aristocratic Burials in
the Extra-Carpathian Zone, between the 5
th
-3
rd
Centuries B.C. ...............


154
Marina Ju. Vakhtina, Greek Art and Female Representations in the
Art of European Scythia (On the Question of Cultural Influence and
Local Peculiarity) ..................................................................................


155
Irina Vdovichenko, A Fragment of the Crater With the Image of the
Thracian Peltasts from Chersonesos ....................................................

156
Camelia-Mirela Vintil, Types of Residential Constructions, Neo-
Eneolithic and Bronze Age Work-Materials and Building Techniques
in the Area of Bucharest City, Ilfov District .........................................


158
Izabela Wnuczek, Transcarpathian Finds of Stamped Ceramics ........ 159
David Wolfgang, Brotlaibidole/Tavolette Enigmatiche Ein
Ungelstes Rtsel Altbronzezeitlicher Kulturbeziehungen Zwischen
Unterer Donau, Sddeutschland und Italien .........................................


160
Svetlana Yanakieva, Thrakisch und Dakisch Sprachen oder
Dialekte? ...............................................................................................

162
Mihail Zahariade, Age and Service of the Thracians in the 2nd -3rd
Centuries Legions ................................................................................

163










33




















34






ABSTRACTS







35




36




EARLY IRON AGE SETTLEMENTS AND SANCTUARIES AT THE
LOWER DANUBE: PROBLEMS OF IDENTIFICATION AND
INTERPRETATION

Anna Agre (Sofia Bulgaria)


In the past two decades the study of the so-called pit sanctuaries became
a particularly popular topic in the Bulgarian (Early) Iron Age archaeology. The
numerous sites interpreted as such already amounted to several dozens and their
number grows with each archaeological season. On the contrary, the number of
the settlement sites is still relatively small, thus the parameters of the settlement
pattern in Iron Age Thrace are still too vague. Even by a cursory survey of the
literature the reader receives the impression that at the time in question the
people in the region were mainly engaged in a variety of ritual practices at (pit)
sanctuaries. It remains however largely unclear where took place the same
peoples daily, routine life activities.
It is clear that this pattern does not reflect the existing reality in the past,
but is rather an intellectual construction of the modern science. It is difficult to
assume that despite the significantly increased number of sites from the Iron Age
in recent years (mostly as a result of large-scale rescue excavations)
archaeologists always come upon (pit) sanctuaries, while the settlements
somehow manage to slip away unnoticed. It is obvious that we need to
reconsider our approach and the criteria used for identification of settlements
and cult sites as well as the potential possibilities to distinguish them from each
other. This is the main objective of the present study.
The interpretation of a certain Iron Age site as "pit sanctuary" is based
mainly on the fact that archaeological materials were found virtually only in pits,
i.e. the pits are the only or decisively dominant features at the site. Actually, just
basing on such criteria, it was assumed that multi-layered, undoubtedly
settlement-sites, inhabited in different times, became sacred sites especially in
the Iron Age, although before and after people have lived here. Through a series
of examples of localities from that period on the Middle and Lower Danube in
this paper, the unquestionable fact is shown that in many cases and for many
reasons settlement sites could look (mostly due to their physical appearance
today) as a "pit sanctuary", i.e. a "pit-field".
Another serious argument in favor of the identification of a site as pit sanctuary
is the exercise of religious practices at it, including various sacrificial offerings.
This argument has to be revised as well. One needs to examine: a) which are the
37

possibilities for (explicit) identification of religious practices/offerings and
distinguish them from secular human activities and b) is it reasonable to exclude
sites with unquestionable traces of ritual activities from the category of
"settlements" and to assign them to the group of "pits sanctuaries." In other
words, was it impossible for the people to exercise ritual practices in a
settlement context in the Iron Age?
Summa summarum after careful consideration of the available data it can
be argued that the explicit definition of a site as "pit sanctuary" and the rejection
of his settlement character is actually more a question of attitude among
contemporary scholars and largely of a "modern scientific fashion". Without
wishing necessarily to deny the existence of the phenomenon "pit sanctuary" as
such in the Iron Age, I think that a questionable site must at first until proven
otherwise considered to be a settlement, but only for really strong data to the
contrary can be interpreted in a different way.

38


THE NEWLY DISCOVERED IRON AGE NECROPOLIS FROM
MCUI ZAVERNA (REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA)

Serghei Agulnikov, Sergiu Popovici, Valeriu Paa
(Chiinu Rep. of Moldova)


In the summer of 2011, the archaeological team of the Orheiul
VechiReservation has conducted rescue archaeological excavations on the
multilayered site Mcui-Zaverna. The site has been discovered in 1972 by V.
Dergaciov.
A massive stone ring has been unearthed at the depth of 0.65-0.70 m. on
almost the whole surface of the trench. Two graves were located under this stone
layer. The first one was completely destroyed and only a part of the inventory
(four ceramic vessels) could be collected. The second grave, with the bones
arranged in semi-anatomical position close to the crouched one, lay directly
under the stone layer. The head of the deceased was oriented towards NE. The
skeleton was surrounded by a row of stones. A bronze plaque was found near the
legs.
Apart from the funerary complexes, a pit with Cucuteni material has
been excavated.
Due to the incomplete excavations of the site it is difficult to establish
whether we are dealing with a tumular or a flat necropolis. Stone constructions
are typical for the eastern variant of the Cozia-Saharna culture (tumular
necropolis Saharna I - iglu, Kauba 2000) and for the Chiinu-Corlteni sites
(tum. 1 near Branite, Leviki 1985). Non-anatomical deposition of the skeletons
or their dismemberment is characteristic for the cultures of Lower Danube
region (Tmoani culture, Folteti-Ruptura necropolis, Laszlo 2000).
However, the analysis of the grave-goods (both the ceramics and the
bronze items) allows us to assign these funerary complexes to the
Tmoani-Hansca-Holercani sites and date them with the beginning of
the X century BC. This period precedes the Cozia-Saharna culture in this region.
The funerary rite of this cultural group is studied quite scarce at the moment, and
the publication of new finds is able to shed new light on the problem. The
provenience of the large pots with the specific biconical shape of the body can
be possibly bound with the influence of the Final Bronze Early Iron Age
cultures from the Volyn-Podolian region.
Further research of this remarkable archaeological site is planned for the
future. The complete investigation of the Mcui-Zaverna necropolis will
allow us to establish more precisely its position among the Early Halstattian
antiquities between Carpathians and Dniester. .
39




LA RECHERCHE ARCHEOLOGIQUE DU TUMULUS 7 DE PURCARI
(REP. DE MOLDAVIE)

Serghei Agulnikov, Sergiu Popovici, Denis Topal
(Chiinu - Moldavie)


A lautomne de lanne 2011, un groupe de chercheurs du centre
dArchologie au cadre de lInstitut du Patrimoine Culturel (ASM) ont fait des
fouilles de sauvetage dans un tumulus (no. 7), situ dans le voisinage du village
de Purcari, district tefan Vod, Rp. de Moldavie.
Le tumulus 7 se trouvait sur la terrasse 3 de la rivire de Dniestr, 2,5
km sud-ouest de la localit. Il avait 0,75 m de haut depuis le niveau actuel, et 36
m de diamtre. Les fouilles ont mis au jour trois tombes.
La Tombe 1 (scythique), dcouverte dans le secteur NE de la butte. La
chambre funraire avait, au moment de la dcouverte, une forme rectangulaire
allonge et les dimensions suivantes: 0,50 x 0,70 x 0,75 m, et 0,10 m de profond,
oriente est-sud-est ouest-nord-ouest. Le squelette tait en dcubitus dorsal, la
tte vers nord-ouest. Au coin sud-ouest de la fosse, quelque 0,15 m des os de
lpaule droite, on a saisi un objet allong en fer, trs corrod (lance ?)
La Tombe 2 (touranienne ?), saisie dans le secteur sud-ouest du
tumulus, 1,21 m de profond. Le squelette avait t dpos en dcubitus dorsal,
la tte vers louest. Auprs des os du crne, un clat de silex rectangulaire.
La Tombe 3 (scythique, principale), saisie dans la zone centrale du
tumulus, 2,50 m du repre, 1,20 m de profondeur. La chambre funraire avait
une forme rectangulaire. Dimensions: 3,60 x 0,98 m, la profondeur depuis le
niveau de la premire marche, 1,10 m. Les parois de la chambre funraire taient
couvertes dune couche fine de substance calcaire blanche.
Le squelette avait t mis en dcubitus dorsal, la tte vers louest. Sur les
ctes du squelette ont t trouves plusieurs plaques et boucles de ceinture en fer
provenant dune armure, ainsi que des lments de lance. Auprs des os de
lpaule gauche, un petit vase. Auprs des os de la main gauche, un poignard du
type akinakes en fer et plusieurs pointes de flche. Deux cnmides en bronze
recouvraient les membres infrieurs. Dans le coin sud-ouest de la chambre
funraire, une amphore portant sur le col linscription en deux lignes EYRI
DAMO. Juste ct, quatre pointes de lance. On a trouv, dans la mme zone,
quelques pointes de flche. Aux coins de nord-ouest et sud-est avaient t
dposes des offrandes sous la forme dos danimaux.
40

Les complexes funraires attribus la culture scythique et dcouvertes
dans le tumulus 7 pourraient tre, en gnral, dats dans le premier quart du IV
e

s. av. J.-C. Des dcouvertes similaires ont t faites dans la zone lors des fouilles
archologiques antrieures, de Rsceii-Noi, Purcari, Olneti (Jarovoi 1979),
Talmaza, Cioburciu (gulnikov 1989; 2001), Slobozia et tefan Vod
(Antipenco 1991, Sinica 2007).

41

PARAMTRES SPATIAUX DE L'EXPLOITATION DES SOURCES
SALES DE LA MOLDAVIE PRCARPATIQUE
L AGE DU BRONZE ET LAGE DU FER

Marius-Tiberiu Alexianu (Iai Roumanie)

Les recherches ethnoarchologiques de la zone prcarpatique orientale
de la Roumanie, menes partir de 2007 (cf. http://ethnosal.uaic.ro/ et
http://ethnosalro.uaic.ro/) ont insist d'une manire systmatique sur la
dimension spatiale de l'utilisation des sources sales dans le temps
ethnographique. La translation des modles ethnographiques du prsent
historique (i.e. le dernier sicle) dans le temps archologique peut contribuer
une meilleure comprhension de la dynamique des rapports entre une ressource
naturelle indispensable la vie animale, trs frquente dans l'espace est-
carpatique roumain, et les communauts humaines. Les territoires de diffusion
de l'eau sale provenant des sources, tels qu'ils rsultent des recherches
ethnographiques, sont constants, mais l'exploitation des sources sales prsente
des degrs d'intensit variables en fonction de chaque segment chronologique
pertinent. Les recherches ethnoarchologiques multi scalaires menes dans la
zone orientale de la Roumanie soulignent le rle dcisif des sources sales pour
satisfaire les besoins en sel des communauts humaines de lge du Bronze et du
lge du Fer, mises en relation souvent avec des populations thraces et gtes.

KLINAI AND KLINE-SHAPED STRUCTURES IN MACEDONIAN
TOMBS FROM PRESENT NORD-EAST MACEDONIA AND THRACIA
(COMPARATIVE STUDY WITH THE SIMILAR FURNITURE
DISCOVERED IN THE THRACIAN TOMBS)

Roxana Asndoae (Thessaloniki Greece)

In this paper, we will discuss the klinai and kline-shaped structures from
the tombs at Aggista (Serres), Amphipolis (Serres) and Stavroupoli (Xanti)
followed by a comparison with the similar discoveries from the Thracian tombs.
In most cases, a Macedonian tomb would normally contain one or two
klines, but in other, also stone sarcophagoi.
We will be presenting the main characteristics for each tomb so that we
can make a detailed description of the klines and sarchophagoi.
Thus, we distinguished klines decorated with frescoes, pottery or other
material apliqus or lines and bands. Furthermore, we will describe the stone
sarchopagoi and in the end we will try to identify the meaning of the
Macedonian and Thracian rituals of these elements of decoration.
42

THE SO-CALLED OVEN-GRAVE FROM THE GETIAN
NECROPOLIS AT ZIMNICEA, SOUTHERN ROMANIA
(4
TH
3
RD
CENTURIES B. C.)

Mircea Babe, Philippe Charlier, Anca Ganciu
(Bucharest Romania)


This paper presents an important, still unpublished discovery from the
1949 archaeological campaign in the Getian necropolis from Zimnicea
Cmpul Morilor. There, during the 1948 1949, 1967-1974 and 2007-2009
excavations
1
, 207 graves dated between the 4
th
and the 1
st
centuries B. C. have
been discovered. The predominant funeral rite in Zimnicea is cremation, with the
bones deposed in urn, with or without lid (197 graves); beside these there are
several main graves, where the cremated bones have been laid down in large
pits, together with exquisite funerary offerings (13 graves). The inhumation rite
is present only by seven burials.
The tomb discussed here, registered as M. 6, was discovered in the C. 7
tumulus and was considered as a secondary grave due to its slightly eccentric
position inside the tumulus
2
. According to the available original documentation,
due to Corneliu N. Mateescu, at the skeleton level were observed traces of burnt
wooden beams, which could indicate the area of a possible funeral pile. Below
this structure, there is a five centimetres thick layer of burnt soil. The cremated
skeleton found in situ, in anatomical position, was covered with a massive
amount of broken, dispersed pottery. The layer of pottery was superposed by a
stone agglomeration. The funeral pit had a South North orientation, which is
relatively common for the Getian burials.
The bones belong to a male individual, aged about 40 years. From the
field documentation and the current examination, we conclude that the body
(actually the skeleton) was not completely burnt as in normal Getian cremation
graves. The long limb bones and a part of the skull were persevered in situ, in
anatomical position; their arrangement was easily modified by fire exposure. We
still have to mention that we are not entirely sure that, for the present study, we
found and analysed all the bones discovered 60 years ago.
From the depot of the Vasile Prvan Institute of Archaeology, we
have recovered about 28 mostly broken vessels (amphorae of Thassos, Chios,
and Heracleea Pontica, two krater vessels, two pythoi, two bowls and one mug),
representing probably all the ceramic offerings discovered in 1949. The rest of
1
A. D. Alexandrescu, La ncropole gte de Zimnicea, Dacia, N.S. 24, 1980, p. 19-126;
Babe et alii, CCA 2007-2009, p. 331-332.
2
I. Nestor, Studii 2, 1949,1, p. 121; idem, SCIV 1, 1950,1, p. 93 i urm.
43


the inventory consists in two iron spear points, placed near the skull of the dead
warrior.
For this kind of graves, suggesting the burial on the spot of cremation
(in the Roman world, the so-called bustum) we have no certain analogies in the
Getian area, neither to the North, nor to the South of Danube. Thus some tombs
discovered in the Hellenistic necropolises from Histria
3
and from Callatis
4
are
somehow similar to our case.
Nevertheless the nearest analogy we know till today is situated at
Poieneti, Vaslui County, in another Getian necropolis, from the 5
th
- 4
th
century
B. C. There, in the same year, 1949, Radu Vulpe discovered a so called oven
grave (tombe-four), with the skeleton in anatomical connexion, but with
certain traces of burning of the grave chamber and of the body of a warrior
armed with an akinakes. If we accept the hypothesis that in Poieneti the body
was deposed into a funeral chamber with wooden structure that was fired
afterwards, one should eventually admit that in the case of Zimnicea C7.M6 the
same situation and the same explanation may correspond to the truth
5
.

3
P. Alexandrescu, Necropola tumular. Spturi 1955-1961, n Histria II, Bucureti,
1966, p. 133-294.
4
E. Brldeanu-Zavatin, Noi descoperiri n necropolele callatiene. Partea I. Necropolele
de epoc greac i elenistic, Pontica 13, 1980 p. 216-240.
5
M. Babe, N. Mirioiu, Arheologia Moldovei XXXIV, 2011, p. 103-149; Babe,
Mirioiu, n Iron Age Rites and Rituals in the Carpathian Basin, Tg. Mure, 2012, p.
139-160.
44





UNE NOUVELLE HACHE DE TYPE BANIABIC
DU SUD DE LA ROUMANIE

Radu Bjenaru (Bucarest Roumanie)
Alin Frnculeasa (Ploieti - Roumanie)


Les auteurs prsentent une hache en mtal trou demmanchement
transversal. Il sagt dune pice indite, identifie dans les collections du Muse
Dpartemental dHistoire et dArchologie de Prahova, Ploieti. Elle faisait
partie dun lot de haches de diffrents types appartenant un collectionneur
domicili Bucarest. La collection a t rcupre en 1960. Le lieu et les
conditions de dcouverte restent inconnus, mais il est possible que la Muntnie
soit le lieu de provenance.
La hache est entire, soigneusement travaille et faonne, de couleur
cuivre (aprs nettoyage); sur larrte suprieure et sur le tranchant, elle prsente
des traces dusure. Il ny a pas de sparation entre le manchon et la lame, le
tranchant tant lgrement vas. Grce ses caractristiques typologiques, la
pice appartient la srie des haches trou demmanchement de type Baniabic.
Les haches de type Baniabic connaissent un vaste espace de diffusion,
du Caucase jusquen Europe Centrale. Typologiquement, les pices se
ressemblent, mais du point de vue contexte et association, il y a des diffrences
significatives entre les rgions gographiques. Ainsi, les haches caractristiques
de lespace carpato-balkanique proviennent exclusivement de dpts et de
dcouvertes fortuites ou isoles. Sur la base des contextes dans lesquels elles
apparaissent dans la zone nord-pontique et caucasienne, il nous semble trs
probable quelles puissent tre dates vers la fin du IV
me
millnaire av. J.-C.

45




HIGHLIGHTS OF CULTURAL EVOLUTION IN LATE BRONZE AGE
IN NORTH-WESTERN ROMANIA

Ioan Bejinariu (Zalu Romania)


The paper aims to provide input from a series of recent archaeological
research to clarify some lesser known aspects of cultural evolution in the Late
Bronze Age in Upper Tisa area, more specifically in the area bordered by Crasna
River to the north and Barcu River to the south.
In this area have been archaeologically documented discoveries
belonging to the first two stages (Late Bronze I and II) assigned to Cehlu -
Hajdbagos group. Most of discoveries belonging to this group are settlements
(more than 100 sites documented in Romania and Hungary), while the aspects
concerning funerary behavior are known thanks to a very few discoveries.
Cultural evolution of next period (Late Bronze III) was insufficiently
documented and known. A number of recent archaeological prevention
interventions, conducted mainly in the western part of Slaj County, on
Barcului valley, led to the discovery of some settlements that put a new
perspective on cultural development in the preliminary period of Gva culture.
Especially, the settlement from Marca (Marca com., Slaj County), Husu
spot, highlights through pottery, evolution direction, from forms and ornaments
of striking Cehlu - Hajdbagos tradition, to forms, decoration and burning
techniques characteristic to early phase of Gva culture.
These findings complete the observations made in settlements belonging
to this period in Some Plain, and prove local contribution (of Cehlu
Hajdbagos, respectively Suciu de Sus Lpu type) to Gva culture evolution.
But also, pottery found in these new settlements illustrates new characters,
"foreign" local fund, suggesting contacts with north-eastern Banat (group Susan),
and north-northeast (Suciu de Sus - Lpu) areas.









46




DATA ABOUT THE OSSEOUS MATERIALS ARTEFACTS FROM
DACIAN FORTRESS OF ARDEU, HUNEDOARA COUNTY

Corneliu Beldiman (Bucharest - Romania)
Iosif Vasile Ferencz (Deva Romania)
Diana-Maria Sztancs (Bucharest Romania)

The archaeological excavations done in the Dacian fortress from Ardeu
in the past decade (2001 2011) led to the discovery of an important osseous
materials assemblage that has documented a practice of an ancient craft, in a
domestic or specialised form. This craft consists in manufacturing artefacts from
bone and antler. There are 44 bone and antler objects from Ardeu, discovered
both from the cultural layer and from complexes (the blacksmiths workshop
that was partially excavated; a funerary or cultic complex). The artefacts are
included in some categories as it follows: raw materials, blanks, debris, finite
objects, wastes, pieces deteriorated by use.
The following typological categories are represented: accessories for
tools and weapons red and roe deer antler handles for knives or rasps (32);
handle plates for usual knives or fighting ones (sicae) (3); weapons: antler
arrowhead (1); various accessories, adornments and game pieces: antler disc
(1); bead made of fish vertebrae (carp?) (1); bone die piece imported from the
Roman area (1). Cut horns of cattle (3) and caprine (2) are also included in this
assemblage.
In the inventory of the blacksmiths workshop, along with manufactured
deer antlers, we may include several cattle long bones with traces of cut,
splitting and fracturing. A wild boar tusk, taken out from the mandible, is also
included here; this could have been used as raw material in order to manufacture
some plates or beads.
There are 7 so-called special pieces. The most important is a decorated
plate unique until now in the Geto-Dacian area. This was discovered in 2001 in a
cultic or funerary context, together with several pieces of military equipment. It
comes from a specialised workshop and, because of its deterioration in
Antiquity; it was preserved in a fragmentary condition.
The study of these artefacts takes into account the actual methodology of
the domain. This follows the complete analysis of the artefacts characteristics:
raw material, shape, dimensions, manufacture procedures, way of use. All these
are done by applying optical and digital microscopy which helped the
observation and the interpretation of various traces produced during the
manufacturing or utilisation chain.
47




A SPECIAL RED DEER ANTLER ARTEFACT FROM THE DACIAN
SETTLEMENT OF UNIP, TIMI COUNTY

Corneliu Beldiman (Bucharest Romania)


In this paper we are going to analyse an antler sleeve discovered during
the 2012 excavation campaign in the Dacian fortified settlement from Unip,
Timi County. This is a type of artefact less known in the Dacian culture. It is
entirely and has its surfaces well preserved. It is cone-shaped and the transversal
sections are oval, according to the anatomical morphology of the raw material.
In order to detach a part of antler, the chopping technique with the help
an iron knife was used. The edges and the anatomical surfaces were finished. In
order to remove the spongy tissue, the antler was carved and abraded. Three of
the exterior surfaces were engraved with 14 double circles with a central point.
The circles are arranged in two rows, each of them having seven circles.
This type of ornamentation is usual for bone and antler artefacts corresponding
to the same chrono-cultural level both from Romania and Europe (handles,
combs etc).
In order to analyse the piece, the microscopic technique was used. This
allowed us to create a set of micro-digital images. The artefact was probably
used as sheath for a sword or a dagger.
The use-wear traces revealed the fact that the sleeve was used before it
had been put in the pit, habitual situation in the Geto-Dacian culture (for
example, the deposition of a lorica squamata armour piece in a pit discovered at
Snsimion, Harghita County site).
As analogies, we may mention: the Geto-Dacian sites from Pecica, Arad
County and Sighioara-Wietenberg, Mure County.
The analysis of the artefact discovered at Unip offers an example
regarding the way in which the methodology of study osseous materials industry
is applied for Geto-Dacian materials.

48




BRONZE ITEMS AS A SIGN OF THE PERSONAL IDENTITY IN THE
SINTASHTA CULTURE (BRONZE AGE OF SOUTH TRANS-URALS).

Natalia Berseneva (Russia)


This study concerns the burials of the Sintashta cultural groups (20
th

18
th
BC). The settlements and cemeteries of the Sintashta type are concentrated
in the northern steppe of the South Urals. The Sintashta economy was based on
livestock-breeding, and there are numerous traces of metalworking at the
settlements. Cemeteries are represented by burial mounds. Grave goods usually
included many categories: weaponry, horse trappings (shield-like cheek-pieces),
clothing attachments and ornaments, tools and objects linked to metallurgy.
The main purpose of this study is to try to define the relation between
personal identity of the buried and associated bronze and metallurgy-linked
objects.





TYPES OF CULT PLACES IN THE DACIAN WORLD
(2
nd
CENTURY B.C. - 1
st
CENTURY A.D.)

Cristina Bod (Deva Romania)


From the second century B.C. there are certain changes concerning the
aspect of the cult places in the area inhabited by the Dacians. This phenomenon
becomes obvious in the first century B.C., when new forms of materialization of
the cult places occur.
In this paper, we want to analyze the various types of cult places from
this period, to follow their possible evolution, to discuss whether there were any
influences from the neighboring areas and to analyze the context of the
emergence of certain types of temples.




49






THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE ODRYSIAN KING SITALKES AND
HIS SON SADOKOS IN THE ANCIENT LITERARY TRADITION:
TESTIMONIES AND THEIR INTERPRETATIONS

Dilyana Boteva (Sofia - Bulgaria)

Although the study is focused on the testimonies of Thucydides about
the family of the Odrysian king Sitalkes, it is correlating them with the
information reported by Herodotus, Sophocles and Demosthenes. This approach
has, of course, a long history. However certain details in the interpretation help
creating a new picture and demonstrate that despite the abundant literature on
the problem some aspects have been neglected so far. The son of Sitalkes,
Sadokos, is attested as politically active within a very short timeframe 431-430
B.C., when his liaison to Athens and hostility towards Sparta are dated.
However certain conclusions could be reasoned both for earlier and later year(s)
that offer a new reading of Herodotus report on Odrysian-Scythian relations.



HISTORICAL LANDMARKS PROVIDED BY IMPORTED
GREEK POTTERY

Livia Buzoianu, Maria Brbulescu (Constana Romania)

We intend to present the possibilities for dating the imported Greek hand
made pottery (amphora stamps) from the fortified settlement of Albeti dated to
Hellenistic Epoch.
Ceramics is analyzed according to:
- complex of discovery (dwellings, place of worship);
- typology of hand made pottery;
- archaeological context incidents between types of vessels and amphora
stamps from Heracleea Pontica, Thasos, Rhodos and Sinope.
50

WOMEN IN PISTIROS

Jan Bouzek (Czech Republic)
Lidia Domaradzka (Bulgaria)


Male part of population of Pistiros was ethnically mixed. While Greek
proper names prevail among the graffiti, Thracian names are also represented.
The upper class of the emporitai kept the citizenship of their mother cities
founders, Thasos. Maroneia and Apollonia, and the fact that the only Doric
graffito kora was found in an extra-mural oikos suggest that the settlers from
the koinon Ionion were better acceptable among the emporitai than other Greeks.
The Thracian names appear more often on local pottery than on Athenian fine
tableware and the famous inscription suggests that Thracians were not part of the
autonomous body of magistrate government ruling the emporion and negotiating
with Thracian rulers.
As anywhere in the periphery of the Greek world, Greeks often married
local women. Female names, if any, are only a few among the graffiti. Among
the loom-weights the pyramidal shape coming to Greece from Europe at the
beginnings of the Iron Age was the most common variety, and the fiddle-shaped
form was the second commonest class, usual in Thrace and extremely rare in the
North Aegean Greek cities. Only small minority of conical loom-weights are
works of professional potters, some of the best preserved bear imprints of finger
rings, showing that the particular lady was of higher social status. Most of the
fiddle-shaped items bear imprints of female fingers, on some weights impressed
clearly and carefully, on others with hate and less well organized aesthetically,
thus showing different characters of their authors. They much differ also in the
quality of exactness of shape, firing temperature and treatment of the surface,
what may also suggest the social standing of the particular person. For ex. in the
central room (oikos, gynaikeion) of the Southern House two series of loom-
weights were found, one of small fine well-burned and polished weights, and a
second with poorly burned much heavier items. The first of them was probably
of wife or daughter of the family and the second of a slave servant.
But the most interesting pyramidal weight shows in deep incisions stars,
Zeus thunder, Hermes kerykeion, rectangular solar standard and a figure in
broad rock resembling the female dancers on Hallstatt pottery. The anagram on
the base of the cone may perhaps best be read Thea Mtr. It perhaps it played a
role similar to the so-called figures used for magic handlings on Thracian
escharai, but the fine decoration shows its superiority. The cone represents a
specific cult object and/or offering to female deity responsible for spinning and
weaving. For the Greeks it was Pallas Athena, on Verucchio throne the goddess
organising various stages of production of cloth. As we know from
51

Paralipomena to the New Testament (Ezdr. ch. 3), spinning and weaving were
also important magic activities and roles of aristocratic women, as of Penelope
and Andromache in Odyssey and Iliad.


THE WHETSTONES WITH A HANGING HOLE IN STEPPE ZONE
CULTURES OF THE NORTHERN PONTIC AND THE GREAT
HUNGARIAN PLAIN FROM THE LATE BRONZE AGE
AND THE EARLY IRON AGE

Marcin Burghardt (Rzeszow Poland)

The whetstones with a hanging hole are one of more typical elements of
inventory from graves of the community of the Northern Pontic and the Great
Hungarian Plain from the Late Bronze Age and the Early Iron Age. These
artifacts are known from 286 groups and loose finds from 163 positions in this
area and also in Central Europe.
The oldest whetstones with a hanging hole in steppe zone of the
Northern Pontic appear in the Belozerka culture. In this culture these artifacts are
relatively rare and they are found in evident context, which allows treating them
as tools. Their number in this zone increases when some groups related with
East European nomads of the Early Iron Age (Cimmerians and Scythians)
appeared. In this environment they occur in evident context of weapon, which
allows them to be linked with the warriors' personal equipment. Thus these
artifacts should be treated as an indicator of a certain type of tomb complexes
(graves with armament) and also, indirectly of the social position (the "owners
of whetstones"). Along with the process of general acceptance of this category
of artifacts, some symbolic meanings growing up around them can be seen.
A relatively great number of whetstones with a hanging hole can be
found in the area of Central Europe. The inflow of these artifacts into this area
took place in two ways. In the Great Hungarian Plain occupied by the formation
of grassland cultural model, the presence of whetstones can be associated with
migrations of the population or influences from the Northern Pontic zone or
exceptionally strong influences of a similar provenience. While in the remaining
areas objects of this type appear in Cimmerian horizon. In this period in most
cases they occur in context similar to the one from the East European steppe
zone, which permits to draw a conclusion that Central European whetstones with
a hanging hole were of steppe origin. In time a relatively small number of these
artifacts increases. Their character also partly changes (whetstone as a tool). The
custom of placing whetstones in burials itself should be however treated as a
sign of rank in funeral customs, demonstrating the deceased's status as "the
owner" of the artifact.
52




VIEWPOINTS IN INTERPRETING LATE IRON AGE
HILLFORTS AND FORTIFIED SETTLEMENT BETWEEN THE
SOUTHERN CARPATHIANS AND THE DANUBE
(2
ND
CENTURY BC 1
ST
CENTURY AD)

Vlad Crbii, Monica Nicolescu (Bucharest - Romania)


The Late Iron Age has always been regarded with a special interest by
Romanian archaeologists and researchers, interest which led to the emergence of
a considerable number of historical papers and synthesis, which have allowed a
relatively large database for thestudy of different aspects regarding Geto-
Dacian history. The interest concerning the Geto-Dacian way of living and
their habitation can be tracedback to the 19
th
century.
The positioning of their settlements especially on dominant and
imposing places, most of them difficult to access, was another element which
influenced the above mentioned fact. From the first complete approach of
Southern Romania (but not only) Late Iron Age made by Vasile Prvan, further
discoveries enriched the map illustrating a large number of settlements attributed
to this chronological frame, from among which must be mentioned Piscul
Crsani, Pietroasa Mic Gruiul Drii, Tinosul, Ceteni, Crlomneti,
Sprncenata, Ocnia, Polovragi. Also the historiography was enriched and
improved with new studies, our goal being to draw off the respective
information regarding fortification types and elements and to explore it.
What is a fortified settlement or a hill fort? Is it just a defensive
structure, permanent or not, or a different role can be attributed to it, such as a
central place? Can we think of other interpretations, related to the movement of
goods and people, protecting certain natural resources or setting limits for a
given space? Is it possible to apply and argument the above questions within a
wider discussion regarding Late Iron Age fortification types and systems from
the southern Carpathian area? To what extent the interpretations concerning this
topic were influenced by the field excavations?
This proposed discussion will generally approach the main theoretical
debates regarding the role and significance of a defensive system and of hill forts
and fortified settlements, focusing on the current state of research in Romanian
Archaeology on the matter.



53

DIE COTOFENI-KULTUR IM BERRIOGIONALEN KONTEXT

Elmar Christman (Heidelberg - Deutchland)


In der Coofeni-Kultur lassen sich regionale Unterschiede und
Besonderheiten erkennen. In den materiellen Hinterlassenschaften sind darber
hinaus Analogien und sogar Importe aus den Nachbarregionen zu erkennen.
Ausgehend von der Coofeni-Kultur im Sdwesten Rumniens werden die
Verbindungen zur Vuedol-Kultur und den frhbronzezeitlichen
Kulturkomplexen sdlich der Donau in Bulgarien aufgezeigt. Bestimmte
Elemente, besonders in der Keramik, belegen Interaktionen zwischen den
Gebieten an der Unteren Donau und in Bulgarien sowie bis in den nordgischen
Bereich. In dem Beitrag werden diese Aspekte vorgetragen und zugleich wird
die Frage gestellt, wie und auf welchen Wegen man sich diese Verbindungen
vorstellen kann. Welche Faktoren in all diesen Regionen waren dafr
ausschlaggebend und warum gab es auch am Ende der Coofeni-Kultur einen
kulturellen Bruch.

54


LATE BRONZE AGE RITUAL PIT DISCOVERED IN CERNAVOD,
CONSTANA COUNTY

Nicolae Constantin, Ctlin Ionu Dobrinescu, Vitalie Bodolic
(Constana Romania)


Rescue excavations conducted during December 2011-May 2012, on
section Cernavod - Medgidia motorway, km 152 000/152 200 have identified a
particular site, in terms of typology, chronology and cultural history. Highway
investment would cross the entire studied area. Research has shown the
following categories among the 122 complexes: a) a dwelling house of the
Roman-Byzantine era, dated by ceramic material to the late 4th and the 5th
century b) an inhumation grave preliminary assigned to a Coslogeni culture
community c) filling ritual pits of various shapes - round, ovoid and irregular
belonging to the late Bronze Age and Coslogeni culture respectively.
Inhumation grave. The grave pit was difficult to identify because of the
particular soil (roots of trees and vines). Some details have been recorded: length
about 1.90 m, width 0.80 m, depth 0.80 m from the current ground level. The
skeleton is poorly preserved, the deceased was laid back, hands on hips, oriented
N-S, no inventory. The conservation status, the lack of inventory and
background, its position among pits with Coslogeni type material, leads us to
cautiously assign it to Coslogeni culture communities.
Pits with ritual deposits. They were identified in the present vegetation.
The pits were dug in ancient vegetal soil (quite thin) and loess. Offerings were
covered with mixed earth. The shapes are: circular holes with straight or tapered
sides, straight-walled, ovoid or irregular bell shapes. Most pits had an inventory
of animal bones, pottery fragments from different types of vessels (cups, dish-
bag with simple belt or cell, bulging body vessel and flaring rim of fine ceramics
class black, bowl, double cone pot, pot), flint stone and bone tools (sickle type
tupik, rubbing tools and fragments of grinders, blades of processed bovine
bones), stones. A highlight is C121, with an inventory of three vessels on the
bottom of the pit: double cone vessel with two handles in the curved area, a bowl
and a pot with handles in the middle. We also assign a bronze deposit consisting
of four pieces-swords, ax termination, spherical bowl, boiler handles applied on
the rim-to the same hole.
In many cases the inventory was "missing". All these complexes are
assigned to a Coslogeni culture community.



55




LATE IRON AGE WEAPONRY AND MILITARY EQUIPMENT AT
THE LOWER DANUBE

Ctlin-Petre Constantin (Bucharest Romania)


Military archaeological discoveries dating from 2
nd
to 1
st
Centuries BC
made between Stara Planina massif and Southern Carpathians offer the image of
an important warrior category whose characteristics may be deciphered by
analysing those grave goods consisting of weapons and military equipment items.
This paper is focusing on a series of common discoveries of this periods
military phenomena. Trajans column or the Adamclisi monument have ancient
representations offering many information regarding the fighting techniques
specific to north Balkan populations before the Roman conquest.
The map of the Late Iron Age funerary discoveries from the mentioned
space shows us, at the first sight, a compact group of discoveries. This
characteristic is due to the intensity and expressivity of funerary phenomena and
it appears as opposite to the lack of such manifestations in other areas like inside
the Carpathians or in the eastern Carpathian area. This phenomenon does not
represent an ethnic cultural reality but is more likely related to metal pieces
(weapons and military equipment) spreading area.
We consider that a unitary interpretation of these discoveries considering
funerary inventories representations is a useful step in outlining a general view
of military sets functionality. Depending on the absence or presence of certain
weapon categories different discussions regarding the discovered military sets
must be made. The complexity of associations does not represent a random
cumulation, they are rather combinations of different military equipments within
certain items may have the main fighting role. Our aim is to highlight military
characteristics and the fighting technique specific to north Balkan populations
before the Roman conquest.

56


CONSIDERATIONS ON MONTEORU CULTURE SETTLEMENTS
(BRONZE AGE) IN THE AREA OF CURVATURE SUB-CARPATHIANS

Daniel Costache (Buzu - Romania)


In an attempt to achieve a settlement analysis on Monteoru communities
in general and the area bounded by the river valleys of Prahova and Buzau in
particular, we must consider several aspects: a. preferred habitat type and
specific economic reasons; b. type and character of the settlements; c.
concentration of settlements in certain areas more or less restricted (micro
habitation), d. access to natural resources. The small number of Monteoru
settlements fully researched or at least enough to talk about organizational plan
and the lack of publications devoted strictly to the cultural aspect of Monteoru
communities hinders a scientific approach.
In our analysis we start from the fact that a human settlement
construction is a complex mix of domestic interest in the first place and
economic interest in the second place. The settlement is the main economic,
domestic, social and political activity of a human community and can serve one
or more communities at large and small distances. Considered as more than a
collection of houses, enclosures, system of fortification or streets, the human
settlement "betrays" the social relations of family ties and the level of socio-
political relations of one or more communities.
Constituent elements of human settlements can be divided into two
categories according to use: a. family household items (housing, appendices /
annexes, combustion structures) and b. elements of common use (fortifications,
streets). At least some of the waste pits most likely to be part of both. To achieve
this scientific approach, for the first time in the literature, we made a repertory of
more than 100 settlement/habitation belonging to the Monteoru culture of the
area under review. Following the cartography, the result was a micro layout
dispaly of landscape areas and unitary natural resources. In our analysis we
considered both the limits of the archaeological research (there were very few
sites fully investigated; most of the points mentioned in this paper were
identified following field surveys without having performed excavations). Even
under these conditions the image of the Bronze Age settlements is revealing for
the analysis of socio-economic organization and the first half of the third
millennium and second millennium BCE.
57

AN IMPORTANT CENTRE OF POWER FROM PRE-ROMAN DACIA:
THE OLT GORGE SITES FROM THE PERSANI MOUNTAINS.
TRANSYLVANIA

Florea Costea (Braov Romania)
Angelica Blos (Deva - Romania)

The largest concentration of sacred and cult buildings in Dacia is located
around the capital city of the Dacian state, Sarmizegetusa Regia, and followed
by a second large center situated in the Olt River Gorge in Brasov County
around Racos. Together with the other lay buildings, they represent the two
largest centers of power in Dacia.
The ensemble composed of the Sacred Mountain on Tipia Ormeniului
and its associated fortifications and near-by fortified settlements constitute the
second larges power center in Pre-Roman Dacia. Our excavations in this area
during the last 30 years have shown that this center rose to prominence starting
in the 5
th
-4
th
century BC to become the core of one of the four or five kingdoms
resulting from the break-up of Burebistas empire. We will present you the
most important monuments discovered there:
The Circular Sanctuary complex extra muros. The monument consists
of three concentric constructions: an exterior one, apparently circular, another
circular one inside it, and an apse one inside the latter divided into two rooms.
Sanctuary with volcanic tuff colonnade. It is located in the NW area of
the plateau, towards the first terrace, on a limestone platform of 22x9m. It
displays two phases: the oldest with 4 rows of 10 columns, the newest with 3
rows of 6 columns.
Sanctuary with limestone colonnade. Measuring 26x13m, it is located
between the gate and the sanctuary with tuff colonnade. There are three
construction phases. Only the last two have architectural remains: the oldest with
6 rows of 4 columns and the newest with 6 rows of 8 columns each.
The rectangular sanctuary and the circular sanctuary. Situated on
the NW end of the plateau the rectangular building represents the older phase.
The circular sanctuary is built on top of the rectangular building and presented
architecture similar to the extra muros circular sanctuary.
PRINCIPIA. At the southeast end of the fortification, a building
identical to the one at Luncani-Piatra Rosie (near Sarmizegetusa Regia), was
erected. Made of two unequal rooms with communication areas between them
and with access from northwest, this construction was surrounded along three of
its sides by a ring of plates of limestone mixed with volcano tuff.
In our opinion, we interpret the circular sanctuaries and the sacred
buildings with apse as locally conceptualized and the rectangular sanctuaries,
with colonnades, as evidence of Greek influences.
58




LES NCROPOLES DE LA CULTURE UTO BRDO GRLA MARE
DANS LA LOCALIT GRLA MARE

Gabriel Crciunescu (Drobeta Turnu Severin Roumanie)


Cette culture est connue en Roumanie travers les matriels provenant
de lle Grla Mare et publis par Leonard Franz en 1922. Le long du temps, on
a mis au jour, dans la zone des km de fleuve 839-840, des matriels dun
tablissement appartenant cette culture, et en 2004, on a dcouvert cinq vases
appartenant une tombe de crmation.
En 2005, on a fortuitement dcouvert une tombe quadruple de crmation
au km 836, en 2009, deux autres tombes, et lanne suivante, une recherche
archologique dans la zone. Lors des fouilles systmatiques, nous avons mis au
jour cinq tombes, dont une tait triple. Lanalyse anthropologique des cinq
tombes a fourni des donnes concluantes sur le sexe, lge, la priode de
crmation ainsi que lendroit de ce processus.
Les restes cinraires de la tombe no. 1 se trouvaient rpandus sur le sol,
ayant les vases en dessus. Dans la tombe no. 2 les os calcins taient autant dans
lurne qu ct. La tombe no. 3, triple, avait les os dposs dans trois urnes, la
tombe no. 4, les ossements disperss sur le sol, et les vases dposs au-dessus,
tandis que les os de la dernire tombe taient dposs dans lurne.
Certaines tombes avaient un mobilier avec peu de poterie, dautres, un
mobilier abondant de pices mtalliques, ce qui est bien rare pour la culture uto
Brdo Grla Mare dans son aire lest des Portes de Fer.
Nous avons, sur un espace de trois km, la preuve de lexistence de deux
ncropoles appartenant la culture uto Brdo Grla Mare, ainsi que la
probabilit dune troisime dans lle Grla Mare, devant cette localit.


59




ANAMORPHOSIS IN ARCHAEOLOGY. ASPECTS OF
PHENOMENOLOGY AND PERCEPTION IN CULTURAL CHANGE
AND CULTURAL TRANSFER. A CASE STUDY OF THE PIT-GRAVE
KURGANS OF THE EASTERN CARPATHIAN BASIN

Tibor-Tams Darczi (Heidelberg Germania)


In archaeological interpretation, the relation between locals and their
neighbors present a series of challenges as the only basis for such concepts are
provided by anthropogenic material culture. It would then seem natural that the
relation between locals and their neighbors should be analyzed based on the
differences between and similarities of the mechanisms that create the material
culture. It might be said that the creation and manipulation of anthropogenic
material culture start with an idea, and it would therefore seem fitting to start the
depiction of the mechanisms of cultural change and cultural transfer at this,
phenomenological, level. The present paper will discuss the mechanism of
cultural change through phenomenology, applied to certain groups of material
culture of the Late Copper Age and earlier Early Bronze Age of the Eastern
Carpathian Basin. The construct applies the concepts and relations of noema and
noesis, from the individual cultural change, to the interactions of individuals
within a group, but also between two or more groups. Through this analysis,
aspects of cultural change and cultural transfer might be portrayed in a way that
links individual cultural change to anthropogenic material culture.
Two or more groups of human individuals create different material
goods but interaction does not end at this stage. Through the transmission of
ideas and objects and their implicit agency, they influence each other. This
means that aspects of cultural change and transfer are reflected in the
entanglement of goods of different origin. More importantly, this entanglement,
if interpreted from the proposed view, might transcend the limits of the usual
attributions of so-called prehistoric groups, i.e. archaeological cultures, enabling
us to delimit past identities and their interactions.
The proposed phenomenological approach will be applied to the distinct
case of Late Copper Age and Earlier Bronze Age burial mounds of the Eastern
Carpathian Basin. Entanglements of material culture and phenomenological
perception (grave goods, burial habits, funerary architecture, and choice of sites)
will be analyzed and compared in order to delimit and to interpret cultural
change and cultural transfer. Anthropogenic material culture, e.g. pottery, found
within these burial mounds will be analyzed and the identity of these mound
60

bearers defined, based not only on the existence of the mounds, but also on
these objects. These goods will be compared to funerary inventories not found
within burial mounds. The variations in the funerary treatment of the body will
also form an important part of the analysis, as will the inner structure of the
burial grounds and placement in the prehistoric landscape. In the final stage, the
identities defined based on the phenomenological interpretation of cultural
change and transfer will be outlined and the contact zones of these various
groups discussed.





THE TRIBAL WORLD OF ANCIENT THRACE

Peter Delev (Sofia Bulgaria)


The author examines the phenomenology of Thracian tribes, which are
perceived as one of the persistent entities of Thracian society. The evidence of
literary, numismatic and epigraphic sources is analyzed, and various examples
are brought forward to illustrate the various aspects and connotations of the
Thracian tribal system. The problems of tribal groups and unions, big tribes
and constituent (small) tribes and their interrelations are examined, as well as
those of the gradual transition of the initial tribal system into one of tribal
chiefdoms and kingdoms. As the processes of state formation represent one of
the major criteria for the birth of civilization, the slow transition from primitive
tribes into more developed political entities would suggest and manifest the
gradual advance of civilization in ancient Thrace throughout the first millennium
B.C.

61




INHUMATIONS DES ENFANTS CHEZ LES THRACES DU NORD EN
PREMIER GE DU FER

Diana Dvnc (Deva Roumanie)


La dlimitation du groupe de peuples thraces peut se faire par la
confrontation des sources grecques avec les toponymes, anthroponymes ou les
gloses conserves, rsultant que les Thraces taient un groupe de la famille indo-
europenne. Les pomes d`Homre font partie des plus anciennes sources crites
qui mentionnent un pays appel la Thrace et qui a t habite par les Thraces.
Les frontires gographiques ne sont pas mentionnes, parce qu`elles occupent
un vaste espace, suppos tre entre les rivires Maria, Morava, Tisza, Prout et la
Mer Noire.
Nous avons l`intention de remettre en discussion un nombre de 21 sites,
o, sur les 171 squelettes identifis et tudis, 94 appartiennent aux enfants
encadrs dans les groupes d`ge infans I et infans II.
Les 26 tombes identifies dans ces sites peuvent tre classes ainsi: trous
4; tombes 7; complexe 1, o l`inhumation a t singulire, double, triple et
collective.
En ce qui concerne l`tat des squelettes, pour seulement 22 cas nous
avons des informations. Dans ces cas nous pouvons voir des squelettes d`enfants
dans une position accroupie, une position qui n`tait pas anatomique,
dmembrs ou incomplets, seulement deux tant en dcubitus dorsal.
Niculiel Cornet l`un des squelettes tait sans tte et un autre
prsentait des traces de violence sur le crne. Aussi, Novosel`skoe a t
identifi seulement le crne d`un enfant.
Lanalyse de la distribution des rsultats sur une carte nous fait observer
que de la zone situe au nord du Danube ont provenu les grandes dcouvertes,
bien qu`elles ne soient pas absentes au sud du Danube non plus.
En conclusion, nous pouvons affirmer ce qui suit:
- Tous les sites sont situs sur des terrasses prs des rivires ou
sur les bords des lacs naturels;
- On y a pratiqu l`inhumation mais aussi l`incinration des
enfants, parfois la fin des mmes arrangements funraires;
- Les inhumations sont simples, doubles, triples ou collectives;
- L`inhumation a t pratique l`intrieur des tablissements,
non seulement dans un espace spcialement conu pour les dfunts;
62

- Toutes les tombes d`inhumation se trouvent dans des contextes
non - funraires;
- Il y a des squelettes denfants dmembrs, d`autre jets, d`autres
se trouvaient dans le remplissage de la fosse;
- L`inventaire est constitu de pices, outils, des articles mnagers
et d`autres catgories;
- Il existe une grande quantit de poterie;
- On a identifi des offrandes de viande et offrandes alimentaires
(crales) et des compagnons.

63


SHUSHMANETS TUMULAR TEMPLE NEAR SHIPKA
(CENTRAL BULGARIA)

Diana Dimitrova (Sofia Bulgaria)


Shushmanets tumulus is located south-east from the town of Shipka - in
the very center of the Valley of the Thracian Kings in Central Bulgaria.
During 1996 archaeological excavations directed by Dr. Georgi Kitov, in
which the author took part also, a tumular construction was found under the
tumular embankment. The construction is located in south-eastern periphery of
the tumulus and is south-north oriented. Stratigraphic researches showed that
pebble layers were discontinued closely to the external walls. This evidences
that the building was constructed after moving away already piled tumular
embankment. The construction consists of corridor, faade, antechamber and
chamber and is built with large excellent treated stone blocks, fastened through
iron cramps covered with cast lead. There so far unknown combination of
architectural styles and elements was first time discovered. Fifteen years after
excavating this construction the latter statement is still valid.
The dromos is a conditional term meant to mark the necessity of such
element during the stages of king's process of immortalization since the width of
the corridor is bigger than its length.
The entrance to the antechamber is right in the middle of the faade and
forms a faked semi-cylindrical vault. The antechamber has a semi-cylindrical
vault of the so called Macedonian type. A decorative column with Ionic volutes
is located in the south part of the antechamber, while the plastic decorated
opening to the chamber is in its northern part.
The domed chamber has a round plan and plastic decoration visibly split
into three horizontal belts. The lower belt is occupied by seven semi-columns,
hewn in the blocks forming the horizontal rows of the chamber. The middle belt
represents a general relief architrave. The upper belt is the dome itself and is
built by radially arranged stone blocks, supported by the abacus of a Doric
column erected in the center of the room. The chamber used to be closed by a
two-wing stone door, covered with white coat and decorated with red suns. The
walls of the two premises as well as the columns and faade were also covered
with shining polished coating. Some coating layers and traces of burning were
found out in the antechamber.
The bones of four horses and two gods were discovered in situ on the
floor of the antechamber. The remaining findings consist in few fragments from
iron spear bushes, ceramic vessels and gild silver appliqus (presumably from a
pectoral).
64

The construction in Shushmanets tumulus raises a series of questions
relevant to mixing architectural styles and plan solutions as well as with respect
to combining a typically Thracian dome and a semi-cylindrical vault in a
monumental building. Furthermore, it is interesting to disclose the relations
amongst the assignor and assignees of this splendid building and the builders
and architects from ancient Thracian neighboring areas as well as the direction
of spreading and exchanging ideas - either from neighboring areas to inside
Thracian lands or in both directions simultaneously. The aggregate of well-
defined but mixed shapes, worn out doorsteps, decoration, white color of the
coating and animal sacrifices blocking up the access to the inside of the chamber
suggest that the building was long time used for cult and religious purposes,
which is a phenomenon also registered in other parts of Thrace over the Late
Iron Age.




FUNERARY STELE OF JULIUS VICTOR:
AN UNKNOWN SOLDIER OF LEGIO SECUNDA TRAIANA FORTIS

El-Sayed Gad, Eman A. Abdel-Aziz (Tanta Egypt)


The collection of Tanta Museum in Egypt has some pieces which were
transferred to it from the Graeco-Roman Museum in Alexandria. One of the
monuments dating to the Roman period is a funerary stele representing a soldier
with the name of Julius Victor. It is made of marble and rectangular in shape. It
has a relief covering the upper greater part of the stele and an inscription of six
lines which still keeps some remains of the brownish red color which was used
in painting the letters.
This paper studies the scene which represents Victor in the centre in a
frontal position, wearing his military short tunic and toga. It argues that it
represents a new addition to the group of stelae known as the "Ring-Buckle
gravestones," and to the already known twenty two gravestones discovered near
Alexandria at Nicopolis, the ancient site of the Roman fortress. Moreover, it
studies the inscription written under the relief of the stele which states that
Victor was a miles in the Legio Secunda Traiana Fortis Germanica Severiana
and attempts to date the stele on basis of the style of the relief and the text of the
inscription underneath.
65




SOME OBSERVATIONS ON THE BORDERS BETWEEN THE
BRONZE AGE CULTURAL GROUPS IN THE REGION OF THE WEST
MORAVA VALLEY, CENTRAL SERBIA

Katarina Dmitrovi (aak Serbia)
Marija Ljutina (Belgrade Serbia)


Archaeological excavations of the Central Balkans provided a solid basis
for determination of the several cultural groups which developed on the territory
of Serbia during the Bronze Age, despite uneven number of explored settlements
and necropolises. Speaking in terms of cultural groups, we follow the concept
stating that political territories were marked not only by differences in pottery
styles, but in funerary practices, reflecting political entities generally extending
in a diameter of 100-200 km. In the case of central Serbia, many of these groups
are mainly known thanks to the well preserved remains of burials in contrast to
the poorly investigated settlements. Determination of the cultural groups was
based on the main characteristics which usually refer to the cemetery type
(mounds vs. flat necropolises), shape of the grave construction, treatment of
bodily remains of the deceased (inhumation vs. cremation), stylistic and
typological analysis as well as distribution of grave goods.
The region of the West Morava valley is particularly interesting, because
it is obvious that some cemeteries from the northern part of the valley reveal a
specific picture. The results from a number of sites indicated that this region
represented the transitional territory between the already defined cultural groups
which existed in the wider territory of Serbia to the south of the rivers Sava and
Danube. During the Early Bronze Age it was the contact zone between the
Beloti-Bela Crkva and Bubanj-Hum III cultural groups. In the middle phase of
the Bronze Age the West Morava valley again appears to play the same role.
Archaeological picture reveals a border, not far from the town Kraljevo, where
the Parain and the so called Western Serbian variant of the Vatin culture meet.
These claims can be illustrated by specific features from the several necropolises
exactly from the river valley, which reflect mixed characteristics of the main
cultural groups.
Providing maps with well marked distribution of factors relevant for
these claims, the paper will offer some instruments for establishment of factors
important for ethno-genesis of the Iron Age Palaeo-Balkanic tribes.


66




DATA ON LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT IN THE IRON AGE
HABITATION FROM CRLOMNETI, COM. VERNETI
(BUZU COUNTY), IN THE LIGHT OF RECENT
ARCHAEOZOOLOGICAL RESEARCH

Georgeta El Susi (Bucharest Romania)


The presentation takes into account the latest results of
archaeozoological investigation in the La Tene habitation (level II-I centuries
BC) from Crlomneti, "Cetuie" (Verneti village, Buzu County). The first
sample was published in 1977, however current research are considering about
15,000 bones from over 35 complexes (housing and waste pits). According to
statistical evaluation mammals are the majority, at a rate of 98.66%, poultry (hen
mainly) is 0.65% and fish bones 0.69%. A percentage of 92.95% is domestic
segment (pig, cattle, sheep, goat, horse, dog), game totaling only 7.05%. It
seems that hunting had little relevance in the food and utilities, with rather role
in reduction of predators. Typical steppe animals (aurochs, deer, hare, and
bustard) were common presence in the landscape. It it is worth stressing the
presence of beaver on streams near the settlement.
Dominant feature of the animal economy is the prevalence of pig,
providing about 37% of meat amount, most of its bones come from young and
sub-adult specimens. Despite increased waist (62 to 80.5 cm, average - 73.23
cm), the skeleton is still gracile, providing a small meat amount. There are many
specimens from mixtures with wild boar (a common element in the area),
suggesting free growth of pig. Ovicaprids sum up 27.53% of the sample, about
one third of their bones belonging to goat. More than half of the remaining of
small ruminants come from animals slaughtered in two years (obviously for
mutton), there are enough specimens kept for wool and milk, especially of goats.
Sheep size is reduced recorded a variation of 53.4 to 66.3 cm, with an average of
59.28 cm. Two varieties of ewes horned and acorn was identified, rams wearing
strong horns. Goats wore horns of Prisca type, different from prehistoric sites;
their size was slightly larger than sheep, of 62-71 cm, with an average of 66 cm.
On cattle, their percentage is close to that of small ruminants, registering
25.41%. Heights at the withers of 107.9 to 110.8 cm were estimated for cows
and 123.5 cm for a gelding. Cattle were exploited, mainly for dairy and as draft
animals. Equines record 4.85%, a significant percentage compared with other
Dacian settlement. Certainly they were used in food, at least this is what our
material reveals. In the waist a few complete metapodii have estimated a
67

variation of 126.6 to 137.9 cm, with an average of 132.4 cm. They are low even
for the Dacian period. Three varieties of horses were established: some a little
high of about 126 cm, with semi-massive extremities, another group of animals
somewhat higher, 131 cm with semi-massive ends and a third, including horses
around 137 cm with ends, somewhat thin. If the first two varieties refer to beasts
of burden, the third aims animals used in riding. It is possible that locally have
been raised a race of "mountain horse" suitable to rough terrain. About dog
waste, they were small and medium-sized specimens, used as guard dogs,
hunting and kept herds of animals.




AN OUTPOST IN THE WEST

Jeannette Forsn (Finland)

In the northwestern most part of Greece, in the region of Epirus and
more exactly in Thesprotia, a settlement site with Early Bronze Age pottery was
discovered in a surface survey and subsequently excavated in 2007-2010. It is
my aim to present some of the pottery from this excavation and to propose that
the ties with the cultural group of Coofeni are quite apparent. Several AMS
dates give quite exact dates to this assemblage. It seems that people moved in
from the northeast, say modern day Romania and Bulgaria, with their specific
pottery style. Their approach to knapping chipped stone was opportunistic,
which supports the preliminary rendering of them as pioneering farmers in this
region.
68




THE BRONZE AGE NECROPOLIS AT SEBE NTRE RSTOACE

Cristinel Fntneanu, Gabriel Blan, Daniel Tenti
(Alba Iulia Romania)


Necropolis which is the subject of this paper is the result of the rescue
archeological research carried out on the highway Ortie-Sibiu, part of the pan-
European Corridor IV.
Geographically, the site is located on the right bank of the Seca River,
right tributary of the Sebe River, at a distance of 4.2 km southeast to its mouth
in Sebe River. Secaelor Plateau lies a few hundred yards from the site, to the
North and North-East. In this point (ntre Rstoace) were investigated vestiges
from three different eras, but ones that interested us currently are 62 cremation
tombs from Bronze Age (Wietenberg culture).
The necropolis is superimposed by a layer with archaeological materials
from the First Iron Age (Gva culture). And the necropolis is marked by sandy
on one level, brown, depth 1.40-1.60 m overlap sterile layer from the
archaeological point of view. In total were investigated 62 tombs in cremation
urn. The pits of the graves could not be stroked, but can be reconstructed
according to the way in which the vessels were discovered in tombs. These were
circular in plan, surpassing slightly the maximum diameter of the urn. The
cremation of the dead bodies took place outside of the necropolis, probably.
Cremated remains were collected after chilling after the funeral, in a selection of
bones. This fact is demonstrated by the absence of ashes and coal from the urns.
In most cases, the bones are found at the base of the urn. A pot lid was placed
over the urn. In most cases it is deposited with the mouth up. Only in a single
tomb the lid was sitting with its mouth down. There are cases in which a third
vessel was deposited in the jug lid. Some graves are marked by stone
arrangements. Over urns were placed other stones, covering altogether the
graves. It is obvious the purpose to use these stones as cover and as a sign of the
grave, at the same time.
Inventory of the cremation tombs of Bronze Age consists in ceramic
pots. There are cases in which a single vessel (pot urn) was stored, two or
maximum three pots (consisting of the dish the urn, lid and a vessel- offering).
There have been no other inventory items.
On the basis of pottery discovered, necropolis can be dated at the
beginning of phase II of the Wietenberg culture.

69




THE SUN-GOD IN THE DEPICTIVE LANGUAGE
OF THE THRACIANS

Valeria Fol (Sofia Bulgaria)


The written sources pertaining to the Thracians worship of the Sun-God
are not numerous. The most famous and commented texts belong to Sophocles,
Aeschylus, Titus Livius and Macrobius. There are many more archaeological
testimonies about honoring the Sun-God rock and megalithic monuments,
some of which serviced for measuring time, images and constructions.
One finds astronomical knowledge, information about astral cults, and
specifically data pertaining to the faith in the Sun-God in art as well. Art is a
representational language, i.e., means for communication through which one
transmits information. Art is not only a temporal indication i. e., it not only
points to a specific layer of layers of the past, but is also an original
communicative and cultural memory. These characteristics of the cult objects,
especially the decorated ones, offer the possibility of depicting notions, beliefs,
socio-cultural and socio-political relationships.
By the Thracians north of Stara Planina, the manifestation of the faith in
the Sun God reveals itself mainly in images and reliefs on the plastic decoration
of cult objects, as well as on the decoration of the horse-trappings, i.e., in art.
One observes richer pictorial repertoire and more complex semantic weight of
the pictorial language connected with the cult towards the Sun God.

70




TEI CULTURE SETTLEMENTS IN BUCHAREST
AND ILFOV COUNTY

Elena Gavril (Bucharest - Romania)


The villagers of Tei culture area established their settlements close to the
water sources, first because of economical reasons but also because they had a
need to protect their habitat, using the natural environment.
The archaeological researches of the last decades from Bucharest and
Ilfov county have shown that the settlements from Tei culture area were raised in
the river meadows, on the terraces, hills, on the table-lands and rarely in caves
(only in Bulgaria and around Braov town).
The settlements from river meadows are not so many comparing with
the others founded in different locations but this may be connected with the
stage of excavations and archaeological researches. Most of the time these are
found next to the rivers turning points, for some certain strategic benefits. For
Bucharest and Ilfov County I will mention the settlements dated in the 3rd phase
of Tei culture, also called La Stejar, from Bneasa and Otopeni.
Over the terraces of Ilfov and around Bucharest, were identified very
few settlements belonging to Tei culture. Those from the higher ones seem to be
grouped southern of Bucharest and close to the Colentina and Dmbovia river
but also even further, to the Arge and Mostitea. The advantage of founding a
settlement in this place is the higher position and view over the territory. The
researches have shown that the settlements were places on the edge of the terrace
which provided a minimum security for the villagers.
The only settlement situated on a higher terrace around Bucharest is the
one discovered at Fundenii Doamnei. Some discoveries of this type come from
Bneasa and Pipera, both from the second phase of the culture (Tei phase).
The most of these settlements which were identified and connected with
Tei culture have been discovered on table-lands and top hills. For the area we are
speaking about, I will mention the archaeological discoveries from Celu Nou,
Pantelimon, Lunca Brzeti, Militari-Cmpul Boja, Tnganu, Grdite,
Cldraru, Dealul Piscului, Baloteti, Struleti-cemetery, etc.
All these settlements mentioned above are open, not large villages nor
fortified but defended by natural elements. It appears like Tei settlements were
perfectly adapted to the environment.
71

While studying the inner structure of the Tei culture settlements it can be
noticed that these are spread over a large territory. No criteria or rules are
followed when building the dwellings, no certain distance between these.
The dwelling types already certified are represented by houses, huts and
pit-dwellings. Any information concerning the dimensions of its and how these
were built are few and uncertain. More information was obtained about the Tei
cultures dwelling pits, most being oval or rectangular shaped but of different
sizes.
Although, the largest sizes are rarely discovered, for our space being
significant only the one that appeared at Celu Nou (12,50x9,80x0,70 m), dated
in the 3rd phase of this culture.
The huts and the houses are not so well known and researched. The huts
were built of branches, reed or cane covered with clay. The appearance of this
type of dwellings is shown by the ash the found during the excavations rather
than the kerpic, with or without wood prints, which are most of the time spread
in small pieces over the ground.
The wood is used more often in constructing these dwellings. An
interesting case, that appeared out oh Bucharest but also belonging to Tei culture,
is that one from Freti (Giurgiu County). Here, 4 post holes have been
discovered, being very thick and placed in all four corners of the house. Between
those was built a net of small branches covered of a mixture of clay and straws.
This net was attached of the post holes being tied with ropes. This kind of post
holes have been used when building the houses from Dealul Vcreti
(Bucharest).
The study of Tei culture settlements can lead to more information
regarding their economy and social structure its folks, not only through
archaeological excavations but using multi-disciplinary methods of analyzing
the finds.



72




THE GETAE AND THE BESSI.
COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON THE CULTURE OF TWO
THRACIAN PRIESTLY-WARRIOR TRIBES.

Diana Gergova (Sofia Bulgaria)


Two of the most famous Thracian tribes - the Getae and the Bessi
share many mentioned by the ancient authors common characteristic features.
Interpreters of the prophetic utterances, orphic, priests of Dionysos or followers
of Zalmoxis, the most honest and the most fiercest among the Thracian tribes,
occupying the NE and the SW of the Thracian world, they are practicing also
special rites than the rest of the Thracians.
Archaeological investigations in the last decades both on the territory of
Rumania and Bulgaria enrich the archaeological base and give ground to outline
more precisely the territories occupied by these tribes, as well as to point out the
main characteristics of their culture. Specific aspects of the culture of the Getae
and the Bessi confirm their character of priestly- warrior societies, while other
features are evidence for the local tribal traditions.
The necropolises on both territories reveal the existence of the greatest
diversity in Thrace of synchronously practiced burials (by inhumation,
cremation, or reburial of the bones, etc.) that propose an objective base for
social reconstructions. Flat necropolises and burials in seated position
distinguish the Bessi from the rest of the Thracians.
The density of cult places and sanctuaries reveal both diversity of types,
as well as an advanced and repeating model of space organization. Both tribes
demonstrate specific temple architecture for their territories rectangular
buildings (the Bessi) and apsidal (the Getae).
The Thracian cult pottery with specific ritual scenes is an important
cultural indicator of the Bessi, while the Getae develop artistic style on metal
works with ancient ideological background. While metallurgy is one of the main
occupation of the Bessi, in both areas workshops for metal armor, vessels or
jewelry can be localized.
Both tribes territories demonstrate preference to specific types of
helmets (the Thracian type of helmets for the Bessi and the Chalkidian type and
the parade helmets for the Getae), while the typical Bessic romphaia has been
used also by the Dacians.
Indications for the use of writing for the needs of the religious
propaganda, as well as Bibles translations in their language, outline the two
73

tribes as active participants and contributors to the religious life of the
Mediterranean world.
Comparison between the culture of the Bessi and the Getae allow to read
with more confidence the written sources, as well as to contribute to the better
understanding of the organization of the Thracian society.

74




FIRST MILLENNIUM BC THRACIAN ARCHAEOLOGY OF
SETTLEMENT IN THE UPPER MARITSA REGION AND ITS
ADJACENT AREAS

Alexey Gotzev (Sofia Bulgaria)

The area under discussion is located in the central part of Bulgaria. The
natural characteristics of this land are varied: they include the river valley, as
well as rolling hills and two mountain ranges, which surround it to the North and
South. This region with its location and characteristics seems to be a contact
zone, a crossroads of cultural influences of different directions and intensity
during the studied period.
The Roads One of the main communication arteries passes through this
territory to cross diagonally the Balkan Peninsula. It had a millennium-old
importance: from the Neolithic to modern times. This is the Diagonal Road,
which facilitated for centuries contacts and interactions between cultures from
Central and SE Europe and from Asia Minor and the Near East.
At the same time another roads made their beginnings and ended in the
Upper Maritsa region. One was to the south, across the Rhodope Mountains to
the northern Aegean coast and Ancient Greece. Contacts with the population of
the Lower Danube lands were established along the north route through the
ranges of the Sredna Gora Mountain and the Central Balkan.
In terms of roads a very important issue is how to determine their routes at a
time when road pavement was not built, and what is the potential of
archaeological studies for solving this problem.
Settlements, administrative, commercial and other centers in the Upper
Maritsa region. Recent progress in archaeological research enriched
quantitatively and especially qualitatively our idea of urban development in
Thrace. Besides simple registration of settlements, we now are able to define
their functional characteristics, the predominant focus of a settlement center and
its role and importance in the settlement system of the area. Mining and metal
producing centers with their relation to Thracian cult centers played a significant
role in the shaping of the first millennium BC settlement network in the region.
Cult centers.
Almost all types of Thracian sanctuaries are attested in the region and
they have been the subject of intense research over the past 20-30 years. The
accumulated knowledge of Thracian cult practices is largely based on intensive
investigations of rock-cut and peak sanctuaries.
75

Problems of pit-sanctuaries, their location, chronology and relationship
with other archaeological sites - these are problems that can receive an adequate
solution by analyzing the situation in the Upper Maritsa valley during the first
millennium BC.
Also here, in this region the question of separate religious zones in
settlements, especially since the 6
th
century BC, can properly be examined.
Necropolis and Burial Practices Similarly, the issue of Thracian burial
practices and associated constructions, rituals, burial customs and grave goods is
projected in the area. Can we talk about differences (or even opposition) in the
situation in the lowlands and mountainous part of the territory in question during
the 1
st
millennium BC? Tombs in the region, their location, type and chronology
give an opportunity to formulate possible interpretations.
In conclusion, the settlement archeology in the Upper Maritsa region
during the1
st
millennium BC is able to provide plausible hypotheses to more
general issues.
Such are, for example, historical and ethnic patterns of peoples and
tribes in the area, the role and importance of strategies in Thrace, the border
between Odrysians and Bessoi, etc.




76

THE HUMAN BURIALS AND HORSES SKELETAL REMAINS IN THE
THOLOS TOMBS IN ANCIENT THRACE

Jerzy Hatas, Marek yromski (Poznan Poland)

Many scholars have interested in the problem of tholos tombs in Thrace
for quite a long time. We know nowadays at about 40 such the sepulcral objects
which can be connected with Thracians. There is an opinion in modern
historiography that at least some of these objects fulfilled not only function of
tomb but temple as well. Nevertheless, many scientific publications concerning
the problem of tholos tombs in Thrace quite often present very scarce
information on the given objects. Such is the case of many older discoveries. In
the scientific presentation of particular tholos tombs usually the greatest
attention had been given to questions of architecture. On the other hand, the data
on burial inventory quite often had been published either in separate paper or in
a very short form. Only in modern times some places (like Rozovec and Ericlice
for instance) had been reinterpreted and presented in more complex form. It is
interesting in Thrace that some archeologists found only few human remains in
situ in the particular objects. Such the situation cannot be explained by the well-
known examples of crimes (stolen objects) even in Antiquity. Nowadays, only in
few tholos tombs some human skeletons can be observed. In case of some
members of Thracian aristocracy the human burials were accompanied by horses
skeletal remains. Undoubtedly, in ancient Thrace the horse functioned as the
symbol of highest social status such as in case of aristocracy. And so, the main
aim of this article is an attempt to collect and analyze some data concerning the
human and animal remains in particular tholos tombs in Thrace.






77



LEXPLOITATION DES SOURCES SALES DU BASSIN SUPRIEUR
DE LA RIVIERE IALOMIA DE LAGE DU BRONZE
JUSQUAU I
ER
SIECLE AP. J.-C.

Ana Ilie, Gheorghe Olteanu, Ovidiu Crstina, Adrian Puna,
Bogdan Ilie (Trgovite Roumanie)


Des tudes gologiques ou gographiques signalent, dans les Sous-
Carpates qui traversent le dpartement de Dmbovia, lexistence de gisements
de halite (dans le village dOcnia) ou de sources sales dans les villages de
Bezdead et Glodeni.
Un programme de recherche a t entrepris pour identifier les modes
dexploitation des sources sales dans cette zone du bassin suprieur de la rivire
Ialomia. Dans une premire tape de la recherche ont t dpouilles les sources
cartographiques ou les documents dits et manuscrits puis des prospections
archologiques et ethnographiques ont t effectues sur le terrain.
Nous cherchons, par cette approche, vrifier si les rseaux de diffusion
du sel se refltent dans la concentration des sites et dans la structuration de
lespace dans la zone de recherche.
Les prospections ethnographiques ont permis dobserver deux modes
dexploitation du sel qui refltent une importance conomique diffrente. En ce
qui concerne les sources sales, les communauts situes dans un rayon de 10
km font leur approvisionnement deau sale directement la source pour leur
usage propre. Mais le sel prsent Ocnia sur forme de halite et leau sale ont
t utiliss jusquaprs la Deuxime Guerre Mondiale par les communauts
voisines pour leur propre besoin et pour en faire le commerce dans les zones du
sud ou sud-est ou cette ressource manque, et ce jusqu Bucarest et Giurgiu,
une distance de 100 km vol doiseau.
A partir de ce deux types des sources de sel (halite et eau sale) on a
tent une analyse spatiale des sites archologiques dans un rayon de 30 km
autour de la source dOcnia, qui semble actuellement tre la plus importante. On
considre cette distance comme suffisante pour mettre en vidence lexistence de
modes dexploitation spcifique des sources sales du bassin suprieur de la
rivire Ialomia et surtout sils prsentent des variations travers le temps.
Les donnes archologiques utilises stendent de lge du bronze
jusquau Ier sicle ap. J.C., et nous avons tent dintroduire des lments
qualitatifs, par lidentification des caractristiques occupations, habitat fortifi ou
non, tombe ou ncropole, dpt ou trsor, et de les dater le plus finement
possible.
78






FIRST IRON AGE MIRO GROUP AND FERIGILE FINDS
IN NORTH-EASTERN SERBIA

Milo Jevti (Belgrade Serbia)


Miro group was named after the Miro Mountain, which is situated
immediately in the Iron Gates hinterland. In the course of new archaeological
excavations in the broader zone of the Iron Gates, a number of Iron Age sites
were discovered. The best explored was the site Mihailov Ponor, located c.ca
15km to the northeast from Donji Milanovac. There, in the woody karst
landscape, between sinkholes and drinking water springs, remains of more than
thirty tumulus-like stone constructions were discovered. In most of the cases,
they were surrounded by a double ring of large pieces of broken stone. During
the recent archaeological research, seven stone rings, some 6-10m in diameter,
were explored in total. Inside of them, numerous jewellery finds (glass beads,
decorative belt buckles, decorative pins, single loop fibulae, parts of gold and
silver jewellery), smaller iron knives, iron spearheads, arrowheads of Ferigile
type, pieces of horse harness (bits, buttons) were scattered. The most numerous
finds inside the stone circles are potsherds, laid between the stones.
Most of the archaeological finds from the recent excavations at the site
Mihailov Ponor can be dated at the period mid 7
th
end of 6
th
century BC. Finds
of bronze fibulae of Thracian type and some sherds of undecorated gray-brown
wheel thrown amphorae and hydrias were found inside two of the constructions,
indicating amplified relations of the Iron Gates region with the Thraco-Getic
world during the 5
th
century BC. In the stone circles there were also animal
bones, predominantly parts of wild game. In most of the stone constructions,
some modest remains of human skeletons (mainly parts of skull, such as
mandible, individual teeth and parts of calotte) were found. They indicate partial
and presumably secondary burials. Another similar stone construction was
excavated at the site Mojsorske Bare on the Miro Mountain, confirming
intensive activity in the woody region of the Iron Gates hinterland during the 6
th

century BC. Similar stone constructions from the First Iron Age, slightly smaller
in size, were noticed at the site Ploe at the Miro Mountain.
Conditions of the finds in all of the circular stone constructions deviate
in many elements from the usual burials under tumuli. They bear more
resemblance to the so called open sanctuaries, i.e. cult places at the Thracians.
79

The late Hallstatt period (the 6
th
-4
th
century BC) is insufficiently known
in the region of North-eastern Serbia. Some finds from an open settlement at the
site Kuznjica, not far from Rudna Glava, in the Saka river valley, should be
attributed to the Miro group, as well as some smaller settlements downstream
the Iron Gates, such as Ruenka near Mihajlovac, some single finds from the
Poarevac region and the latest Iron Age horizon from the Zlot cave.
Thanks to the recent excavation, the amount of archaeological material
from the northern parts of Eastern Serbia was significantly increased. Based on it,
close links with the Ferigile group from Oltenia can be established.


SPTBRONZEZEITLICHE METALLFUNDE IM NORDEN
SIEBENBRGENS

Carol Kacs (Baia Mare Rumanien)


Im Norden Siebenbrgens kamen eine sehr groe Anzahl von
Metallfunden ans Licht, deren Mehrzahl in die Sptbronzezeit datiert.
Die Bronzedepots aus der ersten Etappen dieser Periode, d.h. die Phasen
Sptbronzezeit 1 und 2 (SB 1 und 2), die ungefhr der mittleren HGZ und spten
HGZ/frhen UFZ in Zentraleuropa entsprechen, gehren zu einem, besonders im
Obertheigebiet vorkommenden Depottyp, und zwar zu dem Typ Uriu-plyi
(die Depots von Crciuneti, Dragomireti, Sarasu III, Lpu I, Moisei, Vadu
Izei u.a.).
Derselben Zeitspanne entstammen mehrere grere (Sarasu, Komitat
Marmarosch) und kleinere (Coruia, Dumbrvia, Sighetu Marmaiei) Goldfunde,
sowie auch Bronzefunde mit Goldgegenstnden (Btarci, Bora, Peteritea, ieu I).
In der Stufe Sptbronzezeit 3 (SB 3), die ungefhr der lteren UFZ
entspricht, werden betrchliche nderungen in der Zusammensetzung der
Bronzefunde bemerkt. Es sind jetzt zahlreiche fragmentarische Gegenstnde,
Gukuchen und Guberreste anwesend. Die Funde aus Nordsiebenbrgen, wie
jene von Bicaz, Bogdan Vod, Sighetu Marmaiei u.a., weisen auf klare
hnlichkeiten zu den Depots hin, die im ganzen Karpatenbecken verbreitet sind.
In der Endetappe der Sptbronzezeit (SB 4), die ungefhr der mittleren
UFZ entspricht, nimmt die Anzahl der Metallfunde in ganz Nordsiebenbrgen ab.
Die Ursache dafr liegt teils in einer gewissen Entvlkerung der Region,
wahrscheinlich infolge der Erschpfung der mit der damaligen Technologie
verwertbaren Erzressourcen. Hchstwahrscheinlich war die Verringerung der
Deponierungen auch eine Konsequenz erneuter Wandlungen im Glauben- und
Bruchesystem.
80


THE CULT OF THE MOTHER OF THE GODS (CYBELE) AT AIGAI
(ANCIENT VERGINA), NORTHERN GREECE

Chrysanthi Kallini (Thessaloniki Greece)


The Cult of the Mother of the Gods (Cybele or Kuvava) was highly appreciated
and quite popular in Macedonia during Hellenistic period. The cult was
associated with Mysteries expressed with dance and loud music and orgiastic
festivals. From around the 6th century BC the cult of the Mother of the Gods
merged with that of the Phrygian deity Cybele. She was the originally Anatolian
deity of fertility, motherhood, mountain peaks and city walls. She was also
associated with hawks and lions and she was usually depicted as a matronly
woman with a turret-crown, enthroned and flanked by lions.
We know about a Metroon founded by the famous poet Pindar at Thebes, and
another, equally famous at Athens. During Hellenistic period, in the area of
Macedonia there were two Metroa: one at Aigai (modern Vergina) and another
one at Pella, the latter associated with the cult of Aphrodite. A Metroon dated to
the Roman period was located on mount Vermion, at a location called
Lefkopetra, in the area of Veroia near Vergina.
Excavation work at the Metroon at Vergina revealed a large and complex
building dated from the end of the Classical period (ca. 300 BC) until the middle
of the second century BC. The Hellenistic building is well preserved and was
founded on top of the Classical temple, in the center of the ancient city. It was
built with mud bricks over stone foundations and has a lot of similarities with
the citys residential buildings. The temple of the second century BC consists of
several rooms where cult artifacts such as terracotta figurines and iron sacred
keys were kept, and larger chambers were the secret rites of initiation were
taking place. The most important find from the first phase of the temple (end of
the 4th century BC) is an inscribed black-glazed kantharos which confirms the
Great Goddess worshipping, during this period. The dedicatory inscription
indicates the importance of the cult and the/its
relations with other gods, such as Aphrodite, Persephone, Sarapis and Attis,
deities related to the Underworld, and of course Dionysos, her constant
companion. This is further underpinned by the discovery of terracotta figurines
depicting these deities in the sanctuary at Vergina. The number and the variety
of the pottery finds and the statuary found at Verginas Metroon constitute an
indication that the cult was very popular among ordinary people.
81




NEMIROV IN THE NORTHERN BLACK SEA REGION:
THE HALLSTATT CULTURAL IMPULSE AND THE EARLY
CONTACTS WITH GREEKS
(THE SECOND HALF OF THE 8
TH
6
TH
CENTURIES BC)

Maya Kashuba, Marina Vakhtina (Sankt Petersburg - Russia)


Nemirov hillfort on the Southern Bug belongs to the one of the
barbarous hinterlands monuments in the Northern Black Sea Region which is
known in the archaeological literature still in the middle of the 19
th
century. The
archaeological investigations in the 20
th
century on this settlement and its
defensive system (S. Gamchenko, A. Spitzyn, M. Artamonov, B. Grakov and A.
Moruzhenko) have brought the numerous and various archeological finds. The
materials of the Early Iron Age from Nemirov already at the first attempts of
their analysis can be considered as real proofs of contacts between the various
groups of population. On the basis of the Nemirov finds formulated in 1911 by
Professor A. Spitzyn the main research task Scythians and Hallstatt and at the
present this problem continues to be actual. In the middle of the 20
th
century
three basic components of material culture of Nemirov have been determined:
the local forest-steppe Early Scythian culture, the cultural impulse from the
Eastern Hallstatt area (on the basis of the Hallstatt pottery) and the evidences of
the early contacts with Greeks (on the basis of the Greek Archaic pottery). The
city-site of Nemirov gave the most representative collection of Greek Archaic
pottery. Some examples of East-Greek pottery can be dated first third middle
7
th
cent. BC (pre-colonization contacts?). Modern chronology allows dating Pre-
Scythian and Early Scythian materials from Nemirov in the frames of the second
half of the 8
th
6
th
cent. BC. Among the new approaches is to consider Nemirov
as a main home-base regional site and to prove the special Nemirov phase in
the chronological limits of Early Scythian period. It is possible to suppose that
the Early Iron Age material culture in Nemirov had been originally formed, at
least, by five main components: the local forest-steppe culture, the new Early
Scythian culture, the cultural impulse from the Carpathian-Danube Hallstatt
cultures, the impulse from the Eastern Hallstatt area and the contacts with
Greeks.
82

HORSES IN THE VEKERZUG CULTURE:
BREEDING, TRADE AND SACRIFICE

Petra Kmeov (Slovakia)

The Vekerzug culture of the late phase of the Early Iron Age was the
phenomenon, occurring in the late 7
th
Century BC in eastern and northern parts
of the Pannonia Basin. This culture has evolved from poly-cultural basis and
brought here several new elements. New ways of ritual burying of horses and
rapid growth of the number of graves with horses remains in general were also
present amongst these new elements.
The detailed analysis of the graves with horses remains from the area of
Vekerzug culture brought several new observations. Graves of members of high
social classes with buried horse or several horses were sporadically present also
in antecedent era, mostly in the Hallstatt culture of the East Alpine region. Even
the deposition of single parts of horses bodies, placed into the human graves or
small pits in the area of burial place, was not unknown in antecedent periods.
However, the novelty was particularly the burial of horse in separate pit.
These graves of horses occur in different numbers 1 to 14 for a
necropolis. Even their placement within the burial place varies: they concentrate
in specific areas of some burial places and, on the other hand, they are placed
freely in between the human graves in the others. However, in general we did
not observed any evident relation of these horse graves to the particular human
graves, and by no means with graves of individuals of high social rank. The
closest analogies to this specific type of graves are in Late Hallstatt- and Early
La Tne groups on southern part of Pannonia Basin, in some Lower Danube
necropolis of the 2
nd
half of the 1
st
century BC, and above all in Northern Italy,
inhabited by ancient Venetians. Both regions are connected by evidence of
intensive horse breeding. As it seems, mutual contacts of both regions were
based (also?) on horse breeding (exchange of breeding horses (?), gifts of
luxurious horses amongst the aristocracy etc.). There is also a possibility of
existence of lively horse trade. These contacts were accompanied by contacts in
ideological level that reflected also in burial rite namely in ritual sacrifice of
horses and their deposition on burial places. These sacrifices were not connected
to the burials of human individuals, but were probably results of the ritual
activity of wider community burying on the necropolis.
Another type of burials of horses, occurring in Pannonia Basin not until
the Vekerzug culture, is graves of human and horse, without any- or with
extremely poor grave goods. Similar graves occur sporadically also in some
surrounding regions. These could be interpreted as sacrifices of individuals of
inferior social rank together with horses. Some of these graves are explained
actually as a sacrifice of groom with a horse.
83



SPARADOKOS: BRUDER ODER SCHWAGER
DES ODRYSENKNIGS SITALKES?

Dobriela Kotova (Sofia Bulgarien)


Sparadokos war ein thrakischer Dynast aus dem 5. Jahrhundert v. Chr.,
der Mnzen mit seinem Namen prgen lie, ber dessen Herrschaft jedoch in der
schriftlichen berlieferung kein Wort zu lesen ist. Man verbindet seine Person
mit zwei Aussagen von Thukydides: 2.101.5 und 4.101.5. Laut ihm besa
Seuthes, Sparadokos Sohn, die grte Autoritt nach dem Knig Sitalkes im
Odrysischen Herrscherhaus, weil er sein Neffe war, und folgte ihm schlielich
auf den Thron. In der Historiographie wird Sparadokos auf Grund dieser
einzigen Zeugnisse fr einen Bruder des Sitalkes und dementsprechend fr
Teres Sohn gehalten. ber die genaue Regierungszeit und die Gre seines
Herrschaftsterritoriums hat die Forschung noch keine endgltige Entscheidung
treffen knnen. Dabei bleibt auch die Frage noch offen, ob Sparadokos
eigentlich ein Knig oder nur ein Paradynast war.
Aus dem Text des Thukidydes geht jedoch nicht eindeutig hervor, dass
Sitalkes und Sparadokos Brder waren. Das Wort delfidoj Neffe bezeichnet
sowohl den Brudersohn, als auch den Schwestersohn, was die Annahme gestattet,
dass Sparadokos auch ein Schwager von Sitalkes gewesen sein knnte und mit
einer Tochter von Teres verheiratet war. Es ist die Frage, ob und inwiefern diese
Hypothese zu unseren Kenntnissen ber Sparadokos beitragen kann, worauf sich
die Aufmerksamkeit in diesem Vortrag richtet.
Als Beispiel fr den Wortgebrauch kann man den bekannten Fall von
Alkibiades heranziehen, den die Autoren delfidoj (Neffen) von Perikles
nennen, weil die Mutter eine Kusine des groen Staatsmannes war. Nach dem
Tod des Vaters wurde Alkibiades von Perikles aufgenommen und grogezogen.
Die Erwhnung von Sparadokos als Seuthes Vater in beiden Stellen
entspricht der blichen Art von Thukydides, bei allen mnnlichen Personen stets
den Vatersnamen anzugeben, und hat keine andere besondere Bedeutung.
Es stellt sich natrlich die Frage, ob Seuthes als Sohn einer Tochter von
Teres und Schwester von Sitalkes das Recht hatte, die Thronfolge anzutreten.
Offensichtlich spielten die Schwestern eine wichtige Rolle in der
Matrimonialpolitik der dynastischen Linie von Teres, dem Grnder des
Odrysenreiches. Eine Schwester von Sitalkes war mit dem Skythenknig
Ariapeithes verheiratet. Auf Grund dieser Verwandtschaft lieen Sitalkes und
sein Neffe Oktamasades einen Konflikt zwischen den beiden friedlich ausgehen.
Sitalkes Gattin war Schwester von Nymphodoros aus Abdera, der in im
84

Interesse seines thrakischen Schwagers handelte. Als Gegenleistung fr seine
Dienste bekam Seuthes Stratonike, die Schwester des makedonischen Knigs
Perdikkas, zur Frau.
ber die Verwandtschaftsbeziehung zwischen dem Neffen und dem
Onkel mtterlicherseits in der Antike wurde viel geforscht. Es gibt reiches
mythologisches und historisches Material, das die wichtige Rolle dieser
Verhltnisse in vielen antiken Gesellschaften veranschaulicht. Viel sind auch
die legendren Beispiele fr eine Erbschafts- und Thronfolgeberechtigung in der
mtterlichen Linie.
Man knnte den Blick auf das benachbarte Makedonien richten, um zu
sehen wie am Ende des 4. und am Anfang des 3. Jh. v. Chr. alle drei Schwester
von Alexander der Gren und Phillips Tchter nur aus diesem Grund sterben
mssten, weil sie das Potential hatten, Philips Linie weiter zu fhren.

85


CARPATHIAN-DANUBE REGION AND CRIMEA:
THE CULTURAL LINKS IN BRONZE AGE

D. Kushtan


The Bronze Age Eastern Europe was influenced by two areas of the
cultural genesis. The Carpathian-Danube area had the strongest influence
spreading on the long distance, including the North Pontic region and Crimea.
Formation of the Pre-Thracian and Early-Thracian cultures and existence of the
metallurgical center were linked to this area.
The earliest evidence of the cultural influence from the Low Danube is
represented with the burial complex of the Ingulskaya Catacomb culture (end of
the Middle Bronze Age), Nezhinskoe, kurgan 3, burial 9, in Crimean
Prisivashye. Among the typical catacomb things, this burial contained the
goblet-shaped vessel, that was, probably, an import from Monteoru culture
(phase Ic
4
). This vessel was ornamented with the punctuated multi-rollers on a
neck and the incised semi-circle festoons on shoulders.
Group of the kurgan burials with the drawn skeletons in ground pits or
hits was indicated for the transition from the Middle Bronze Age to the Late
Bronze Age in Crimea and Romania (XX-XVIII cent. BC). This group, known
as Eupatoria or Matca-Eupatoria-Pologi, represents the beginning of the
Mnogovalikovaja Ceramic cultural complex formation.
Crimean sites of the Late Bronze Age (XV-XIII cent. BC) belong to the
Srubnaia cultural complex and the cultural complex Noua-Sabatinovka-
Coslogeni that was spread in Danube region and North Pontic area. The ceramic
complexes of the latter include typical cups with two handles (so called
kantharos). The example of these vessels was found at settlement Sazanovka
in the Eastern Crimea belonging to Sabatinovka culture. Metal finds belonging
to this period that were found in Crimea are typical for the Balkans-Carpathian
metallurgical center. The finds are: a fragment of the sickles handle from
Tashly-Bair belonging to Germneti type. The main are of these sickles
correlates with the Noua culture area in the Danube and Dniester interfluve.
Bronze double axe found in Kerch belongs to the Hermones type. Axes of this
kind were produced at the Lower Danube region.
The most intensive cultural links between the Crimean population,
represented with Belozerka culture sites, and population of the Carpathian and
Danube region, represented with the Early Hallstatt cultures, are indicated for
the final stage of the Late Bronze Age (XII-X cent. BC). These cultural links are
indicated by the Early Hallstatt table pottery in the Crimean ceramic complexes:
Burun-Eli, Bay-Kiyat, Lugovoe, Fontany. Ceramics of the Eastern Hallstatt
86

cultures (Gava-Holigrady, Chiinu-Corlteni, Pre-Babadag) is represented with
bowls, goblets, scoops decorated with incised lines, flutes, traces of the stamp,
reliefs. Ceramics of the Gava-Holigrady and Babadag cutlers that was found in
the oldest period of the Kizil-Koba cultures at the Western Crimea represents the
transition from Late Bronze Age to Early Iron Age: Druzhnoe-2, Uch-Bash,
Martynovskaya Balka, Sakharnaya Golovka. The Hallstattisation process was
followed by the spreading of the ground burials in Crimea as well as in all the
Eastern Europe.
Cultural links between the inhabitants of Carpathian and Danube region
and Crimea were possible because of the North Pontic tribes. We could not
exclude direct connections through the Black Sea as well. The Black Sea
regression is indicated for this time period. The lower sea level at the bank of the
Black Sea, including Karkinit Bay, made possible the overland and sea ways in
the shortest direction, straight out.

87

SPECIFICS OF THE PLACEMENT OF SETTLEMENTS FROM THE
FIRST AND SECOND IRON AGE IN THE FOREST STEPPE OF
CENTRAL MOLDOVA

Alexandru Levinschi (Chiinu Rep. of Moldova)


The forest steppe area of Central Moldova, also known as Codri area, or
the Codri plateau, has the highest absolute altitude in the space between Dniester
and Prut, with maximum values reaching 400-429m. Generally, the area is
shaped like short mountains crossed by a net of valleys and glens where steep
slopes (around 7-8 degrees) prevail. Narrow interfluves look like ridges or hills,
mostly covered by deciduous forests. The well developed hydrographical
network is represented by small rivers with a V-shaped valley in their superior
course and a trapezoid valley with flood plains in the middle and inferior course.
Prospect research conducted by the author over the past few years in the
surroundings of several villages from this area allowed making some
observations.
For the first Iron Age a considerable number of unfortified settlements
is known in this area, all attributed to the Chisinau-Corlateni culture (middle of
12
th
10
th
centuries B.C.) part of the Hallstattian cultural complex with
grooved ceramic. As a rule, settlements are placed on the mid and inferior
courses of local rivers and their small tributaries, with a trapeze shaped valley
profile, just next to the plains and close to riverside springs. They extend along
the mild slopes of these valleys or on lower terraces, with 200-300m intervals
with no traces of activity between 2-3 settlements, or more probably they are
neighbourhoods of a larger community. Such settlements are sometimes found
on lower promontories at the confluence of rivers, on low hilltops from the river
plain, as well as other landforms from the lower part of river valleys. Remains of
these settlements are often overlapped by occupation levels from the Roman
epoch Santana de Mures-Cernyakhov culture, and from medieval Moldova.
Also dating from the first Iron Age, unfortified settlements are found at
the south most boundary of the area, of the Tamaoani-Holercani-Hansca culture
(late 12
th
10
th
century B.C.), attributed to the Hallstattian cultural complex with
incised ceramic, and, sporadically, vestiges of the Cozia-Saharna culture (late
11
th
early 8
th
century B.C.) with incised and stamped ceramic ornaments.
These sites, very scarce or hard to separate from the former, are placed similarly
and on the same landforms as those of the Chisinau-Corlteni culture. Cozia-
Saharna settlements rarely appear at the North-East boundary of the area
(Butuceni-Trebujeni, lower Raut), without spreading to the interior, but their
placement is dictated by the specifics of the Raut river valley on the upper part
of the high steep terrace. During middle Hallstatt, also at the North-East
88

boundary, some unfortified settlements of the oldneti culture (early 8
th
mid
7
th
century B.C.) appear, descending from the Basarabi cultural complex of
Middle Danube. These remains, too, replicate the placement, surroundings and
landforms of the Chiinu-Corlteni culture.
Remains from the second Iron Age in the forest steppe area of Central
Moldova, or Codri area are represented mostly by fortified and unfortified
settlements attributed to Getae (late 6
th
late 4
th
century B.C.) descendants of
historic Getae mentioned by Herodotus, who were defeated by Darius I, king of
the Persians ... before he reached Istros. Typically, fortified and unfortified
sites are placed on the superior course of local rivers and creeks with narrow V-
shaped valley profiles, i.e., close to their source. High and average promontories,
upper slopes of plateaus between river valleys and sometimes terraces from the
upper half of river valleys, close or next to high-situated springs were preferred
for building settlements. In micro areas with highly fragmented landscape and
many high springs, settlements are placed on opposite hilltops, spaced 300-400m
and up to 1km apart, in groups of probably related villages, although there are
isolated settlements as well. The great majority of Getic settlements are
monostratigraphic. In rare cases they overlap an occupation level from the
Eneolithic (Horodca Mare, Stolniceni). Exceptions from these rules are singular.
One of such cases is Butuceni on Raut (North-Eastern boundary), where a Getic
settlement overlaps an occupation level from the first Iron Age. However, the
relief of this micro area is almost identical to those of Dniester (Saharna micro
area), where such occurrences are frequent.
Unlike Getic vestiges, remains of the Poienesti-Lucaseuca culture (late
3
rd
1
st
century B.C.), associated to the first written mentions about Bastarnians
are very scarce in the Codri area. We are talking about rare unfortified
settlements placed on broad river plains, on landforms similar to those of the
first Iron Age, with predisposition for low promontories at river confluences or
on low hilltops from the river plains. More often than not these remains overlap
occupation levels from the first Iron Age or are overlapped themselves by
settlements from later periods.
Therefore, taking into consideration the landforms of the forest steppe of
Central Moldova we ascertain that, of all the suite of archaeological vestiges
from the first and second Iron Age, only Getic settlements are placed on distinct
landforms, uncharacteristic for bearers of other archaeological cultures. Besides,
only Getae used to build fortified settlements. This situation could be explained
by the fact that the vestiges of the first and second Iron Age from the South-East
boundary of the area include one of the few early Scythian funerary complexes
the Suruceni tomb and the interrings with weapons from the neighbouring
Dnceni necropolis. Also at this boundary, there is a tumulus with a burnt
mound (Chiinu-Ialoveni), a phenomenon characteristic only to Scythian tumuli
of the 4
th
century B.C., especially to the left of Lower Dniester.
89



CURRENT STATUS AND RESEARCH PRIORITIES FOR THE
CANNELURE HALLSTATT CULTURE OF THE CHIINU-
CORLTENI TYPE IN THE CARPATHIAN-DNIESTER AREA
(12
TH
10
TH
CENTURIES B.C.)

Oleg Leviki (Chiinu Rep. of Moldova)


Studying of the Early Hallstatt Period / period of transition from the
Bronze Age to the First Epoch of the Iron Age in the East Carpathian region
began in the mid-20
th
century. In the western part of the area I. Nestor (1951)
investigated the settlement of Corlteni and M. Petrescu-Dmbovia (1953)
investigated the one of the Tmoani. To the east of the Prut there were
investigated the settlement near Chiinu by A.I. Meliukova (1956, 1961) and,
respectively, the settlement of Holercani by T.S. Passek (1954) eponymous
sites of the East Carpathian Early Hallstatt cultures of Chiinu-Corlteni
(hereafter C-C) and Tmoani-Holercani (hereafter T-H) within the meaning of
the current state of research. Later, investigations undertaken by A. Lszl
(1980) in the settlement of Grniceti served as the basis for identifying the
Grniceti group in the northwestern part of Moldova.
Systematization and examination of the growing volume of information
on the East Carpathian Hallstatt formations, in relation to achievements in the
field of Hallstatt cultures genesis in the region of the Middle and Lower Danube
synthesized in the works of S. Morintz (1970; 1974; 1977; 1978), B. Hnsel
(1976), and M. Petrescu-Dmbovia (1977) and in Sub-Carpathian and
Transcarpathian Ukraine, elucidated by G. Smirnova (1969; 1976) and L.
Kruelnickaja (1985; 1990), on the one hand, and to achievements in the field of
research of the synchronous North Pontic cultural array, made by S.
Berezanskaja (1982), ernjakov I. (1985), V. Vaniugov (1983; 1990), etc., on
the other hand, have made it possible to deepen the knowledge of the Early
Hallstatt Period in the East Carpathian area in the whole, as well as to identify
the images of local cultural variants inherent both the Early Hallstatt complexes
with fluted and, respectively, incised and imprinted ceramics. In particular,
regarding the C-C culture there were determined specific features in comparison
with the typical features of the Grniceti group (Lszl, 1980; 1983; 1986) and
the Early Hallstatt complex with incised ceramics of the Tmoani and
Holercani-Hansca type (Lszl, 1986; , 1990; Leviki, 1994b); it is
also specified the area of formation and the communities from which the
Cannelure Hallstatt culture of the Carpathian-Dniester region originates, and
90

there is developed its chronology ( 1985; 1989; 1990; Lszl, 1989;
, , 1991).
Finally, about the early Hallstatt cultural formations there have been also
written monographic works (Lszl 1994; Leviki 1994a). Profound
investigations were undertaken upon the level of development of bronze
metallurgy, location and movement of objects of bronze, which have contributed
to the most reliable definition of areas of formations and highlighting of relations
of local communities with centers of metallurgy from the Central and
Southeastern Europe and, respectively, North Pontic region (Dergacev 1997).
All the works also contain important details about their genesis, evolution,
distribution, chronology, and relations in the context of Southeastern Europe. At
the same time, even with substantial completion of the information sources on
the early Thracian communities, which underlie the last works on the issues of
Early Hallstatt cultures, a number of aspects still remain poorly elucidated
(Lszl 2001; Leviki 2010; Dergaciov 2010; 2011).
As to the C-C culture, although currently there are outlined enough
reasons under which it was formed in the west of the Carpathian-Danube region
(Banat, Voivodina, Srem, Oltenia) on the basis of cultures of the Late Bronze
Age (Cruceni-Belegi, Zuto Brdo-Grla Mare, Balta Srat, etc.) with the
contribution of Hgelgrberkultur, Urnenfelderkultur, Igria, specialists are at
different positions on the following issues:
- development of the process of hallstattization in the areas to the east
of the Olt River, including the East Carpathian region;
- migration route of the carriers of Early Hallstatt complex with fluted
pottery to the east, including the East Carpathian region (hallstattization of the
Carpathian-Danube region);
- radical cultural transformation process in the Carpathian-Dniester area
with respect to the substitution of Noua communities by the carriers of the
Middle Danube traditions and formation of the C-C culture;
- chronological limits and stages of development (periodization) of the
C-C culture;
- historical fate of the C-C culture population and the factors that led to
its disappearance.
In our opinion, in order to solve the existing problems listed above in
future research of the Early Hallstatt complex with fluted pottery, including the
C-C culture, we should highlight the priorities of major importance, among
which the most remarkable:
- creation of comprehensive database including objects of Cannelure
Hallstatt complex from the whole area, from the type of Belegi II C-C of the
Middle Danube to the Dniester basin, paying special attention to intermediate
regions the Sub-Carpathians and Getic Piedmont, the Sub-Carpathians of
91

Curvature, on the one hand, and ones of the type of Gava-Holigrady-Grniceti
of Suceava Plateau and the Sub-Carpathians in Ukraine, on the other hand;
- identification of morphological types, defining ornaments and
accessories of the pottery and bronze objects, as well as their associations in the
closed complexes from the primary area of formation of the Cannelure Hallstatt
complex, for conferring them the status / value of chronological indicators;
- tracing ways of spread and highlighting their manifestations in the
local aspects / cultural groups appeared in the result of hallstattization of
cultural environments since the Late Bronze Age in the Carpathian-Danube area,
including the Eastern Carpathians;
- concrete definition of the chronological date (segment), when the
manifestations of the Early Hallstatt of C-C type substituted the Noua culture in
the East Carpathian area, a direct sequence of which was stratigraphically
established at multilayer sites and the upper chronological limit of the first,
according to the exact sciences, was significantly outdated;
- development of internal periodization and establishment of the upper
chronological limit for the C-C culture evolution on the basis of certain
chronological indicators, referring also to the parallelisms certified in the
surrounding synchronous cultural environments (Gava-Holigrady-Grniceti and
Belozerka, Belogrudovka-ernjy Les I), on the one hand, and immediately
following ones (Babadag II-Cozia-Saharna-ernyj Les II-Mahala IV, etc.), on
the other hand.
Of course, efforts to achieve the outlined objectives will be successful
only in the case of continuous highlighting of the C-C culture defining features
by means of the possible extension of the field investigations, both at the already
known sites and the newly identified ones, from the both parts of the area.

92


IN QUEST FOR QUALITY STONE: LA TNE ROTARY QUERNS
FROM IDOVAR, SOUTH BANAT

Marija Ljutina (Belgrade Serbia)


The inspiration for the study of rotary querns in the territory which, in
the dawn of the new era, was presumably the contact zone of the Scordisci and
the Dacians, derived from the site idovar, South Banat district, Serbia. The site,
situated near the village of Oreac, is one of the most important sites in the
Serbian part of the Danube Basin. The Late Iron Age cultural horizon represents
the latest stratum in the sequence of cultures at this multi-layered prehistoric
settlement. From this stratum came a completely preserved rotary quern
ensemble, consisting of one upper and two lower stones, as well as a number of
fragmented stone hoops. The area, where the quern ensemble was found, was
characterised by the Late La Tne movable material of both Celtic and Dacian
provenance. There are no sufficient data to claim that the querns were found in
their primary position, which normally is presumed to be situated in the working
area near houses and/or workshops. The position of the querns indicates a
repository rather than the area of original usage.
A preliminary attribution of the quern stones to the type of fine-grained
sandstone, probably of local provenance from the nearby Vrac Mountains, was
based on macroscopic petrological analyses. The presumed fact that the users of
the idovar querns chose a raw material of inferior quality might suggest that
they preferred local sources to distant ones. A better choice would have been
quern stones made of igneous rocks which theoretically could have been found
in the Vrac Mountains, too.
Surprisingly, a detailed petrographic analysis revealed that the quern
stones were made not of sedimentary sandstone, but of slightly altered igneous
rock andesite. Chemical analysis confirmed the petrographic determination of
the rock. X-ray analysis determined presence of plagioclase feldspars and clay
minerals in the sample. Presence of clay minerals indicates alteration process in
the rock.
In the region of the Vrac Mountains andesite phenomenon has not been
confirmed so far. The nearest localities in Serbia in which such volcanic rocks
appear are the Timok eruptive zone (east Serbia) and the Fruka Gora Mountain,
with less abundant deposits. Locating quarries where the raw material was taken
out can suggest potential routes of food technology transfer along with the raw
material for quern production. In the case of the idovar site, sources of quality
stone can be traced to the northeast - to the Carpathian Mountains and the
Dacian territories.
93





THE PROPHECIES OF THE MANY-GIFT[ED]

Vanya Lozanova-Stantcheva (Sofia Bulgaria)


The submitted essay deals with the origin and development of the
mythological figure of Polydorus (the translation of the name from Ancient
Greek means as much as many-gift[ed]) and its eventual rooting in well-
known ritual practices in Ancient Thrace. Although the name comes up already
in Homers Iliad, in ancient-Greek literary tradition it is generally associated
with Euripides tragedy Hecuba (dated to ca. 425 BC, mostly because of the
occurrence in its text of allusions to the revival of the Delos Festivities in 426
BC). The whole conception of the tragedy Hecuba seems to be organized
namely with a view to the localization of the tragic action in Thrace, in an
explicit Thracian context; this fact has presumably led a number of researchers
preoccupied with its study to the assumption that the mythological figures of
Polydorus and of the Thracian king Polymestor are not to be regarded as a result
just of Euripides purely poetical fantasy they have rather been loaned from
some local gloomy myth from the Thracian Chersonese. Does it seem possible
to reconstruct an eventual cult situation pre-conditioned by the Thracian
localization of the action of the tragedy feeding up the tragic characters in
Euripides tragedy?
The exposition is organized in 3 main groups of source problems:
1. In the first place is considered the mythic-literary complex related to
the epiphany and prophecies of Polydorus in the context of Euripides tragedy
Hecuba and its literary tradition. The appearance of the ghost of Polydorus
deliberately removes the pathos of the tragedy from the figure of Achilles and
his traditional ritual space in Troas (eventually near Sigeon, where the ancient
authors localized Achilleion and the burial tumulus of the hero) in Thrace, and,
respectively, on the Thracian Chersonese. Through the incorporation of the ritual
space of the Thracian Chersonese into the range of events in his tragedy
Euripides created a new model of the dramaturgic space, also adding a new
functionality to it by means of the metaphoric image of Ancient Thrace as
identification of the specific border area and borderline situation of the tragedy
crisis. One may suppose however that the author suggested this particular
approach in the literary interpretation of the mythological material not so much
as a response to his dramaturgical prototypes whoever they might be as
94

rather as following the logics of the Thracian localization of the events of the
tragedy action.
2. All this also very clearly indicates the post-Euripidean tradition
about Polydorus considered in the second place in the submitted essay. After
the staging of Euripides tragedy Hecuba in the last quarter of the 5
th
century BC
the mythological figure of Polydorus was revived only during the 2
nd
century
BC through the imitations of Roman tragedians like Ennius (Hecuba), Pacuvius
(Iliona), and Accius (Hecuba). The mythological narrative about Polydorus in
Latin literature especially the version of Pacuvius (Iliona) and the Chronical of
the Trojan War, referred to Dictys of Crete and dated to AD 4
th
century is an
original evolvement-interpretation of the Euripidean tradition merging
anonymous sources of mythology with Homeric elements.
3. The most significant tendency of development of the mythological
narrative on Polydorus offers the tradition connecting Polydorus prophecies
with the founding of the city of Aineia (; Aene(i)a; alternatively
Aineiadai as designation of its inhabitants, as well as of the city of Aenus
situated on the shore of the river Hebros), assigned to Aeneus. This tendency
reveals an earlier circle of sources, alternative to the tradition of the foundation
of Alba Longa, where Aeneus founds an eponymous city in Thrace and dies (or
his father Anchises) being buried there as a heros oikistes. An integral moment
of a great part of the mythic-literary versions is the specific cult situation
surrounding an underground mystery sanctuary (tumulus or cave) with a
prophesying (anthropodaemonized) Bacchus prophet identified with the epic
hero Polydorus. Certainly, the Roman authors oriented their efforts towards the
developing of the conception on the foundation of Alba Longa by Aeneus,
omitting the earlier mythographic details about the stay of the hero in Thrace.
4. Finally, last but not least, the literary material is analyzed in the
Dionysian context of the tragedy conceptualization of Euripides Hecuba, where
oracular dreams, prophecies and Bacchic associations frame up the mythic-
dramaturgical events as a whole. The outlines of the Dionysian ritual space, in
which the action of the tragedy Hecuba is embedded, appear dramaturgically
sealed by some additional artistic strokes deliberately loading the women of
Troy with Dionysian characteristics.
The conclusion yields the hypothesis that we may possibly be facing a
literary, respectively dramaturgic re-interpretation of a cult situation surrounding
an underground mystery sanctuary (tumulus or cave) with an
anthropodaemonized Bacchus oracle prophesying there, in this case identified
with the (pseudo-) Homeric hero Polydorus. It seems very probable that
Euripides merged the image of the epic hero Polydorus, generally associated
with Dionysos, with the figure of the local Thracian anthropodaemonic prophet,
towards which a sanctuary with an oracle site of Dionysian type leans, thus
laying the beginnings of a new literary tradition. The pattern of the mythical
95

creation might appear identical with that of the tragedy Rhesus ascribed to
Euripides. Reconstructible seems also the steady mythological core and the ritual
complex related to the founding of a new city, along with the required
underground mystery sanctuary (tumulus or cave) with a prophesying
(anthropodaemonized) oracle (Bacchus prophet) there, as an alternative to the
Delphic oracle site.


SOME ASPECTS OF THE SPATIAL ORGANIZATION OF LATNE
EPOCH SETTLEMENT EXCAVATED AT CRLOMNETI,
BUZU COUNTY

Despina Mgureanu (Bucharest - Romania)


The site is located on the territory of Crlomneti, Buzu County, on
top of an oval, rather irregular shaped plateau, separated on its western and
northern sides from the high Buzu River terrace by natural gills and having on
its eastern and southern sides steep slopes, 25 m higher than the plain bellow.
The 2nd - 1st B.C. habitation was particularly intensive, confirmed by
rather remarkable archaeological findings. Until now, after more than 20
archaeological research campaigns, several large structures have been researched
next to some few hundreds pits and many fireplaces, among which many were
decorated, and some archaeological features difficult to categorize as
agglomerations of ceramic sherds, ditches, areas of gravel.
Many of the fireplaces were discovered in situ, fact that can suggest
ancient walking levels that can be ascribe to those two main inhabited moments
dated in the 2nd - 1st B.C. centuries.
Beside those fireplaces, many fragments of hearth were found either
spread on ancient walking levels, either in composition of sunken structures
(pits) or in cultural layers.
The rapport between common fireplaces and decorated hearth is one of
our research topic by trying to analyze their spatial disposition and to establish
their purpose: what them served for. And that can be studied only in connection
with the surrounding area, being warning that in the same space can be common
to perform one or several activities at the same time or one after another.
In this respect, the fireplaces can be part of unspecialized activities like
household ones: house heating or cooking, or specialized ones like crafting. On
the same level of discussion, the fireplaces can be used to different events
related to social life (feasting) or sacral activities.
96

THRACIAN RELIGIOUS ARTIFACTS OF THE LATE SCYTHIAN
SANCTUARY IN MOLOGA

Alexandr E. Malyukevich (Odessa - Ukraine)
Sergey M. Agulnikov (Chiinu- Rep. of Moldova)


Settlement and burial ground of 1
st
3
rd
cent. A.D. Mologa-II is located
in Odessa region (Ukraine) on the right bank of the Dniester estuary, 15 km from
the ancient Tyras. Long-term researches of archaeological material showed a
number of analogies on synchronous sites located to the East. The nature of the
settlement and the stone house building, burial complexes, funeral rites, pottery
and, in particular, the molded pottery surely bring together Mologa with the area
of Late Scythian Culture (Gudkov, Fokeev 1982: 109; Malyukevich 1989: 79).
At the same time there were strong Hellenization and presence of Sarmatian and
Thracian elements in Mologa (Malyukevich 1992: 3032, 1993: 100).
But in recent years, excavations at a very large area, as close to the
ground with the collective burial vaults, and next to single burials have identified
complex of more than 200 ritual pits (quite atypical for the Late Scythian
culture). These pits, along other features, made possible to determine this
complex as a sanctuary. Such signs of the sanctuary are: a complex of more than
200 sacrificial pits (the central part of which is located between 12 various
trenches); altars; ritual stone and clay grounds; fireplaces (one with 5 molded
lamps); portable firepans; ashpits; concentrations of pottery; isolated vessels,
half-dugout shelters; the remains of funeral feasts of animal bones; ritual grave
pits of children and dogs (Malyukevich 2003: 105111, 2006, 2008: 172173).
The most interesting finding is the altar with a hole for ritual libations,
surrounded by stones in the form of crepidae (Fig. 2).
An important attribute of these complexes also is the presence of
portable firepan (or fragments of one or two of them) or red-clay jugs, stones
(pebbles, flints), stone and clay balls, shell snails and clams. In the most rich
feasts occur molded conical caps and lamps, miniature molded vessels, incenses,
clay disks, clay breads, spindles, firedogs, astragalus bones, touchstones,
ceramic slag, bone awls, items of unbaked clay etc. (Fig. 1). These findings,
along with not quite typical Scythian ritual, led to the conclusion of the presence
and the strong influence on the funerary cult of Getae population in Mologa.
Analogies of such fields of ritual pits" with the burials of dogs and children,
bringing unusual clay objects are clearly seen on the indigenous territory
inhabited by Thracian tribes. (Melyukova 1979; Nikulitse 1987; Vyazmitina
1972; Vysotsky 1983; Samoilov 1996; Bichir 1976; Burow 1994; Sirbu V., 1993,
1994, 1996; Balabanov 1979, 1985; Gerasimov, 1962; Bonev, Alexandrov 1986;
Ginev 2000; Tonkova 1997).
97

THE LATE FIRST IRON AGE FERIGILE CULTURAL GROUP
AN ORIGINAL NORTH-THRACIAN SYNTHESIS AT THE
INTERFERENCE OF THE SURROUNDING CULTURAL SPACES

Drago Mndescu (Piteti Romania)

The paper aims to highlight the peculiarities of the Ferigile group seen
as a mixture and as an original synthesis of multiple cultural influences that
interfered in the North-Balkan area at the end of the early Iron Age. Will be
pursued what is original in Ferigile group (taken over the Basarabi cultural
background), as well as what might be the result of cultural influences
acquisition of other spaces and cultures. Based on the direct study of the finds in
eponymous cemetery and in others representative cemeteries such as the ones
situated on the valley of Topolog River (Cepari, Tigveni, Rudeni), discovered
several decades ago by Alexandru Vulpe and Eugenia Popescu, will be
discussed the elements of the funeral rite and ritual, but especially the mobile
inventory features. Regarding the grave goods, in this domain may be captured
an amalgam of influences from the Scythian space (arms and harness), the
Illyrian space (costumes and ornaments, and also weapons) or the South-
Thracian (pottery and some types of weapons). All these heterogeneous
components that origin and function are synthesized in an original manner in the
Carpathian foothills of Wallachia and Oltenia, represent defining features of the
Ferigile group. This study was funded by CNCS-UEFISCDI, as a part of the
project PN-II-RU-TE-2011-3-0078 (The archaeological relevance of periphery).


MEGALITHIC SANCTUARIES FROM THE LANDS OF THE
THRACIAN BESSI

Vasil Markov (Bulgaria)

Studied are newfound megalithic sanctuaries of upperand middle stream
of the river Mesta. These Thracian sanctuaries were discovered by the national
expedition Thracian sanctuaries in the Western Rhodopes, Rila and Pirin
Mountains. It is organized by the University Research Center for ancient
cultures at Southwestern University, Blagoevgrad; National Archaeological
Institute with Museum - BAS, Sofia; Regional Ethnographic Museum, Plovdiv;
Institute for Space and Solar-Terrestrial Research - BAS, Stara Sagora; National
Astronomical Observatory "Yuri Gagarin", Stara Zagora. The expedition has
been going on 11 years.
Analyzed are the results of astronomical and folklore studies. It is made
semantic and functional analysis of the monuments.
98

LA POTERIE THRACE DANS LES LOCALITES RURALES DE LA
RIVE GAUCHE DU LIMAN DE DNIESTR
EN IV - DEBUT DU III SIECLES AVANT J.-C.

Natalia Mateevici (Chiinu Rep. de Moldavie)
Evgenya Redina (Odessa Ukraine)


Les complexe cramique dans les colonies antiques situes au bord de
liman de Dniestr cest caractrise par la prsence de diffrents groupes de la
poterie. La plupart des habitants taient les Grecs ethnique, la prsence de
lesquelles est fix depuis le VI sicle avant J.-C. Au dbut de leur vie se
distingue, en dehors de la poterie grecques et les groupes de la poterie locale
de scythes faonn la main et de la poterie de thrace aussi faonn la main,
mais et a la roue de potier. Pour le IV sicle avant J.-C., et surtout pour la fin du
IV - dbut du III sicle, le rapport entre ces groupes cramiques na pas chang.
Malgr les recherche et l'tude des monuments tels que les tablissements
Nadlimanskoe, Nykolaevka 2, Ovidiopol 1, le pourcentage des plats Scythes
Gtes est de 80 vers 20%. Les complexes de la poterie barbare ont leurs
propres caractristiques. Si les Scythes, ils avaient les pots et les petits bols
coniques, les Thraces, sauf les pots, il y avaient aussi des cruches, une grande
varit des bols avec de colles ou sans elles, faonn la main, mais et a la
roue de potier. La cramique Thrace prsent par de types numrs de plats,
compense l'absence aux Scythes de ces catgorie des vaisseaux. Une tendance
similaire est observe et a Nikonion. Probablement la population rurale ne peut
pas toujours se permettre dacheter des plats grecs qui taient trs cher, donc ils
achtent la poterie Thrace, ainsi que des imitations des plats grecs. Lanalyse des
matriaux des complexes cramiques, avec des objets de culte thrace et de la
poterie de villes de la rgion du Nord Ouest du Pont, permettre de parler de la
cramique thrace, qui fait son apparition dans ses complexes pas seulement en
raison des relations commerciales-conomiques, mais nous permettre daffirm
lexistence ici dune partie de la population Gte. Cela se voit dans les
complexes fermes, en particulier a Nadlimanskoe, datant par les amphores
grecs, de la fin du IV-le dbut de III sicle avant J.-C.

99

SUPPORT FOR THE VESSEL SHAPES IN THE CERAMIC
COLLECTION FROM THE FIRST MILLENIUM BC
TO THE BEGINNING OF THE FIRST MILLENIUM AD
IN THE EASTERN-CARPATHIC AREA

Sergiu Matveev (Chiinu Rep. of Moldova)

Specialty literature asserted repeatedly the idea that Thracian elements
were part of the Sntana de Mure ernjachov culture, especially in the
Danube version of this culture (Mitrea 1959, Rikman 1975, Ioni 1982). The
assumption has been argued by combining several elements of the material and
spiritual culture, including mapping the spreading areas of the getic culture
during IV-III centuries DC and of the Sntana de Mure ernjachov culture.
For the Pruto-Dniestrean area this genetic link is more difficult to
argument due to the fact that the last two centuries BC and the first couple
centuries DC both lacked stationary (sedentary) population (Matveev 1991).
The goal of this study is to determine the different types of ceramic
vessels from Sntana de Mure ernjachov culture (3rd group) which based on
the manufacturing techniques, adornment, usage, could have genetic links to the
ceramic assortment of the middle of first millennium BC (first group) or the ones
present in the Carpic culture (second group).
Several working hypotheses were investigated: the third group does not
contain any heritage links to the first group; the elements taken over are due to
migrating Thracian elements from the Carpathians following Dacia's conquest
by the Romans, which would include the innovations characteristic to the first
century DC; or acquired elements are a result of continual evolution of the
Thracian features in the Carpatho-Pontic area.
As research materials have been used novel and known collections,
assembled during archeological excavations on several sites in the Carpatho-
Dniestr area, mainly at Butuceni, Hansca, Potrca, Saharna thus creating the first
research group; Budeti, Dnceni, Sobari a.s.o. which set up the third group, as
well as those next to Cartal-Orlovka and from the city of Tyra. Main method
used for the purpose of the paper was the analysis of items by the quality and
contents of the clay, burning, color, shape, adornment for the two groups, hand
made objects or those manufactured using a potter's lathe.
As a result of this study, types of hand made vessels (plates, jugs, pots,
lids) have been identified, as well as adornments, which have maintained shape
to a certain degree, but have underwent changes relative to their manufacturing
method, clay contents or others. Multiple types of grey and red ceramics made
using the potter's lathe taken from the third group are basically identical to the
Carpic culture items discovered in the area between Carpathians and Prut, but
have distinct features compared to the first research group.
100




ABOUT OCCUPATIONS IN THE LATE BRONZE AGE,
WITH SPECIAL FOCUS ON THE DISCOVERY
OF THE SOUTH OF ROMANIA.

Laurentiu Mecu, Alexandru Nlbitoru (Romania)


Discoveries of Late Bronze Age from South of Romania are quite
numerous, but turning their scientific purposes was little. Maybe a cause is how
these discoveries were made, most not in terms of systematic excavations or at
least preventive one. Most areas with traces of cultural sequences set, were
identified in the research area, many of them especially before 1989, when the
exact location of measuring instruments (GPS, stereo system 1970) were hardly
used. Hence a data set approximate erroneous, all of which have resulted in a lot
of information meant sometimes hard usable. Some of these we have to correct
them through our own research, in others, but in terms of massive human
intervention, especially in the last 20 years, our approach failed to produce
satisfactory results.
Some of the discoveries attributed to this period unfortunately very few
have been studied and used in the literature at home and abroad. Notably storage
of vessels at Govora stood at the base of defining a phase or a cultural group
located in the Late Bronze Age.
Metal objects are quite rare, but there are almost all types of metal
objects: axes, bronze socketed axes, swords, piercing, needles, chisels, loop
rings, bracelets.
Lithic tools and weapons are more numerous, curved knives, axes,
hammers, mace ball, mace with four lobes, flint blades and scrapers, chips,
polishers, percussion, grinders and rubbing.

101




THE DACIAN SETTLEMENT FROM UROI, HUNEDOARA COUNTY

Cristina Mitar, Alexandru Brbat, Oana Tutil Brbat
(Deva Romania)


During the year 2011 started the rescue excavations on the highway
route Deva Ortie, Hunedoara County. The authors of the present paper were
responsible with the excavations on an archaeological site, previously identified
on the field survey; located on the left Mure river bank, in the vicinity of Uroi
village, across the river. The site was divided in half by the current road DJ
107A. From the approximately 4.5 ha of the entire site, about 1 ha was occupied
by the Dacian settlement.
The location of the site on the river meadow is quite unusual for the
common position of the Dacian settlements, known so far. The core of the
settlement was concentrated in the immediate vicinity of the current road that
connects Simeria city and Uroi village, a significant part of the settlement being,
most likely, destroyed during the construction of the road. On an area measuring
approximately 1500 square meters were excavated 55 complexes. The
complexes concentration on a small natural terrace gave them complete
protection against river floods. The complexes consist mainly of huts overlaid,
on the same plan, by dwellings. There were, also, identified storage pits, garbage
pits and other household annexes (stables or wells). The excavation area allowed
us some observations about the settlement architecture. We were able to observe,
on the researched area, the complexes in-line order, separated by foot-paths. The
huts and dwellings were organized on a single line, as well; the other line being
occupied by household annexes (stables, wells and garbage pits).
There were discovered archaeological artifacts connected to the
chronological horizon of the III
rd
II
th
century B.C., as well as the age of the
Dacian kingdom I
st
century B.C. I
st
century A.D. For now we can conclude
that here we are talking about a certain habitation continuity, until the Roman
conquest of the province.
The present paper also analyzes the economical and social relations
between the settlement and the nearby inhabited areas and with the Dacian
civilization centre from Sarmizegetusa, interaction demonstrated by the presence
of some special artifacts discovered here, mainly the painted pottery.
We believe that the complete study of the artifacts will confirme the
preparative hypothesis presented in the present paper.

102




NEW THRACIAN DISCOVERIES FROM SOUTHERN ROMANIA

Alexandru Morintz, Cristian Schuster, Andrei Mgureanu, Raluca
Koglniceanu (Bucharest Romania)


The paper presents the results of the archaeological investigations done
during the spring of this year in the archaeological site from Rleti, com.
Gogoari, Giurgiu county, located in Southern Romania, approximately 15 km
North of the Danube. The site was discovered six decades ago during some field
survey. The excavations were dictated by the imminent construction of a
photovoltaic plant in the area of the site.
The investigations led to the identification of several complexes (houses,
pits, hearths) dated based on the pottery from the XIIIth Century BC IVth
Century AD, belonging to the Bronze Age, Hallstatt, Latene and Post-Roman
periods. We want to mention here especially the Basarabi culture pottery and a
Roman amphora (Zeest 72-73 type).


103




LA FORTIFICATION GETE DE HORODCA MICA, R. DE MOLDAVIE:
TECHNIQUES DE CONSTRUCTION ET PHASES DE LEDIFICATION

Octavian Munteanu, Vasile Iarmulschi
(Chiinu Rp. de Moldavie)


Par la prsente communication, les auteurs viennent soutenir les
discussions sur les fortifications Gtes qui ont suscit au fil de ces dernires
annes, lintrt de plusieurs groupes de chercheurs de Moldavie. Depuis les
sances du dernier Congrs de Thracologie, les archologues de lUniversit
Pdagogique dEtat Ion Creanga, ont ddi une srie de campagnes
archologiques lexploration de la micro zone du village Horodca, de lespace
Prouto-Dnstrien. Une partie des rsultats de ses fouilles, constituerons le sujet
de notre prsentation. Notre analyse se construit autour de la fortification rentre
dans le circuit scientifique sous le nom de Horodca Mica, situe sur lavant-
dernire terrasse droite de la rivire Botna, dans limmdiate proximit de ses
sources, sur un promontoire dlimit par de ravins. La fortification, telle quelle
est vue aujourdhui, est constitue par quelques lments de dfense bien
prservs grce son emplacement labri des actuelles voies daccs: vallum
avec foss adjacent, escarpe et bastion. Par des recherches de terrain, droules
au fil de 4 ans (2006-2009), ont t explor le vallum et le foss adjacent, dont
les dimensions sont assez impressionnantes.
Les observations de terrain ont nous ont amen dduire lexistence de
plusieurs tapes de fortification du mme espace, or, notre avis, ce qui se
prsente aujourdhui sous la forme dun vallum de dimensions impressionnantes,
prcdes par un foss adjacent, ne sont que les traces de la dernire phase de
construction du systme dfensif. Nous avons identifi dans ce sens une srie
dindices. Il sagit, tout dabord, de la dlimitation visuelle de quelques groupes
de couches, chacun dentre eux tant constitu de plusieurs lentilles, qui
diffrencient les groupes, aussi bien par la structure du sol, que par leurs
distinctifs chromatiques, et dans certains cas, par leur orientation. La
dlimitation de ces groupes de couches nous amen nous poser la question sur
le mode dont elles se lient au foss adjacent, tel quil peut tre vu actuellement.
La recherche dune rponse, corrle ltude stratigraphiques, nous ont conduit
constater que dans les limites de lespace couvert par le systme dfensif,
peuvent tre dmarqus plusieurs fosss (on a un contour clair pour certains, et
que des indices de leur existence, pour les autres), ce que nous a permis dtablir
que le foss visible sur la surface actuelle nest pas le seul, comme il semblerait
104

tre de prime abord. De surcrot, on a pu observer, que les diffrents groupes de
couches susmentionns se raccordent parfaitement aux diffrents fosss (ou
leurs traces). A ceux-ci se rajoute une srie dautres indices qui dcoulent dune
analyse dtaille des observations de terrain, et principalement de celle du
complexe tableau stratigraphique indices viennent confirmer notre point de
vue. Au-del des raisonnements qui drivent de lanalyse que nous proposons
nos lecteurs, nous nous attarderons sur la reconstitution du processus
ddification du systme dfensif, des lments constitutifs et des techniques et
procdes utilises, de mme que des phases dlimites au fil de ltude et de
leur encadrement chronologique.

105

THE NEW DATA CONCERNING GETIAN ARTIFACTS
FROM THE MASCAUTI SETTLEMENT, CEMETERY AND
HILLFORT (4-3 C. BC)

Sergiu Mustea (Chiinu Rep. of Moldova)


My presentation will be focussed on excavations results form two Iron
Age sites of Mascauti, Criuleni district, Republic of Moldova, which are know
as Mascauti-Livada Boierului/Livada tnr (1995-2000) and Mascauti-Poiana
Ciucului-Cetate (2001-2002, 2005). Both sites are part of the Orheiul Vechi
cultural and natural landscape. The settlement and hill-fort are pluristratigraphic
sites, but one of the most important cultural levels is the Getian. During the last
two decades excavations we discovered many remains and artefacts from the
settlement (dwellings, pits), cemetery (funerary urns) and hill-fort (ditches,
waves and palisades).
The excavated results are not so known, because have not been yet
published. Presentation at the Congress would be a great opportunity for
discussing them in a large frame. So, the artefacts will be discussed form the
comparative perspective as part the Prut-Dniestr area archaeological heritage
from 4-3 c. BC.

106



PLAYFUL IN LIFE AND AFTER DEATH: BOARD GAMES IN EARLY
HELLENISTIC THRACE

Emil Nankov (Bulgaria)


To date, the discussion of ancient board games on the territory of
modern day Bulgaria has been focused, for the most part, on data from the Greek
apoikiai on the West Black Sea coast, Roman towns and medieval settlements.
An increasing amount of data from settlements, necropolis and pit sanctuaries in
early Hellenistic Thrace, however, allows us to embark upon the subject from a
Thracian perspective. My contribution tackles a still modestly researched aspect
of Hellenistic everyday routine board games. I offer a comprehensive critical
survey of archaeological data from inland Thrace set against the broader scope
of the ancient Mediterranean.
In particular, I examine the various contexts in which gaming
paraphernalia occur. Clay dice are known from early Hellenistic residential
complexes, e.g. the fortified citadel on Mt. Dragoyna, municipality of Purvomai,
the fortress Malkoto Kale near the village of Ravadinovo, Sozopol
municipality, the settlement near the village of Vetren, Septemvri municipality,
commonly identified with emporion Pistiros; from cult complexes, such as the
pit sanctuary in the village of Gledachevo, municipality of Radnevo, from
ritual pits in the settlement at the locality Kostadin cheshma near the village of
Debelt, Burgas district. More examples of clay and bronze come from
aristocratic male burials as well, e.g. the cist grave near the village of Koylmen,
Shumen district, Grave #2 in Mavrova tumulus near the village of Starosel,
Hisarya municipality and the built tomb in Golyama Kosmatka tumulus near the
village of Shipka, Kazanlak municipality, now identified with the tomb of the
Thracian king Seuthes III. The second group is best understood in the context of
bone dice found in warrior burials from Hellenistic Macedonia, where they have
been repeatedly associated with what some perceive as luxury sets of gaming
counters made of colored glass. To understand the frequent funerary deposition,
I cite literary sources supporting the habit of military men of various ranks to
engage in games, such as kubeia and petteia, and extend E. Vermeules
observation that in the minds of the Egyptians and Greeks this was supposed to
be the ultimate game with the last opponent to the mindset of the Thracians
and Macedonians of the early Hellenistic period. A few finds of Hellenistic
gaming boards from Getic burials (Sboryanovo and Zimnicea) demonstrate that
games of strategy, e.g. Nine Mens Morris, were also known among the
Thracians well before the Roman and Medieval periods.
107

Two questions emerge. First, why are in funerary contexts the board
games exclusively linked to warriors, while evidence from settlements (houses
and ritual pits) is not that selective? I suggest that the grave deposition of
gaming sets should be linked to the deposition of weapons, since both serve to
construct the image of the deceased as victorious, both in battle and in game.
Second, is it possible to interpret Thracian gaming practices as an upper class
endeavor, as suggested by the funerary evidence, or as a popular pastime activity
for the entire population?

108




THE CULT PLACES OF THE THRACIANS IN THE EASTERN
RHODOPES: SOME GIS-BASED CONSIDERATIONS IN THE LIGHT
OF NEW FINDS

Georgi Nekhrizov, Julia Tzvetkova (Sofia Bulgaria)


Since the time of Herodotus the cult places of the Thracians have
provoked the interest of various people. Unfortunately, when compared to
Herodotus times, after decades of scientific investigations, we are now not much
more able to give adequate answers even to questions like the appearance of the
Thracian cult places, the nature of the deities worshiped there or the
characteristics of the performed rituals.
This situation could be due to the poor evidences in the primary sources:
as a pre-literal culture the Thracian society has not produced its own narrative
documents. Respectively, the historical reconstructions are based on accounts by
the Graeco-Roman authors, whose mostly fragmentary and limited evidences are
already affected by their interpretations from a foreigners viewpoint. This
concerns particularly the information about the Thracian cult places, where the
literary sources are more than scarce and with enigmatic sounding, probably
because of the authors ignorance or the specific essence of the matter.
Actually, the authentic Thracian documents about their cult places and
rituals are delivered by the archaeology and the excavations on such sites.
Therefore, an investigation of this topic should be widely based on the
archaeological data.
The increased number of excavations on Thracian sites from the 1st
millennium BC has raised again the discussion in modern Bulgarian
historiography for an unbiased interpretation of the acquired archaeological
information as well as for reconsidering of sites newly or previously labelled as
sanctuary. As sacred and secular might be very ambiguous when inferred from
archaeological remains, the raised discussion requires much more profound
investigations and good elaborated methodological framework.
The present article is based on a comparative study of several recently
excavated cult places in the Eastern Rhodope Mountains, as Ada tepe, Gluhite
Kamani, Aul kaya, etc. They provide considerable amount of data for drawing
the specifics of the Thracian cult places at micro-regional level, and providing
more clear criteria for defining the Thracian cult places. Modern applications of
GIS-based technologies offer another innovative possibility for spatial analysis,
such as visibility analysis, Thiessen polygons, walking-distance and shortest
109

path analyses. In the light of the named case studies GIS is supposed to
facilitate further the understanding of the site characteristics, to draw more
clearly the positions of the cult places within the settlement system both at local
level and in macro-regional frames, and to sketch their role in the formation
processes of the Thracian society.


110


NORDTHRAKISCHE GEMEINSCHAFTEN IN DER UMGEBUNG
VON SAHARNA, AM MITTELDNIESTERLAUF, IN DER ERSTEN
HLFTE DES I. JAHRTAUSENDS V. CHR.

Ion Niculi, Andrei Nicic (Chiinu R. Moldawien)


Die Ansiedlung und die Nekropole von Saharna-iglu befinden sich
auf einem Sporn (iglu), der eine felsiges Landzunge ist und mit seiner zirka
70 m Hhe den Dniesterlauf dominiert. Er entstammt dem rechten Dniester-Ufer
und hat seine Form der iglu-Schlucht zu verdanken. Die Fundstellen liegen
etwa 500 m nrdlich vom Dorf Saharna und 100 m sdstlich der Strae
Saharna - Rezina, in der Republik Moldawien.
Die ersten archologischen Ausgrabungen bei Saharna-iglu wurden
im Jahr 1946 durchgefhrt. Seit den 50. Jahren des XX. Jahrhunderts wurden
gleichzeitlich die andere Fundstellen der Umgebung von Saharna erforscht
(Saharna Mare, Saharna Mic, Saharna-Dealul Mnstirii u.s.w.). Whrend die
Siedlung von Saharna-iglu seit 2007 durch systhematische Grabungen
erforscht wurde, so ist die Nekropole ist durch Rettungsausgrabungen untersucht
worden. Bis jetzt wurden im Grberfeld 22 Hgelgrber der Cozia-Saharna-
Kultur entdeckt.
Als Resultat der Forschungen in den beiden Grabungsstellen bei
Saharna-iglu, wurde ein bedeutetes archologisches Material gesammelt,
dessen Analyse zu folgender Schlufolgerung fhrt:
- Die Siedlung und die Nekropole waren zeitgenssisch; sie haben
sich in den frhen Phasen gleichzeitich entwickelt.
- Die Nekropole, durch die Analyse des archologisch-
diagnostischen Materials, kann in die Zeitspanne von X. Beginn des VIII.
Jahrhunderts v. Chr. datiert werden.
- Die Siedlung aber, anhand der Keramik (Ritz- und
Stempelverzierung, Gefformen), hat sich weiter bis VII. Jahrhundert v. Chr.
entwickelt.
Die systhematische Forschung der archologischen Fundstellen von
Saharna-iglu hat neue Beitrge zur Chronologie und Korrelation der Cozia-
Saharna-Kultur und des Basarabi-oldneti-Horizontes am Mitteldniesterlauf
gebracht.
111

DIACHRONIC DEVELOPMENT OF SITES FROM THE SAHARNA
AREA IN THE MIDDLE DNIESTER REGION

Ion Niculi, Aurel Zanoci, Mihail B
(Chiinu Rep. of Moldova)


Archaeological research at archaeological sites located near the village
of Saharna (Rezina district, Republic of Moldova), undertaken over the last 10
years have led to remarkable results, which provide a number of materials of
significant importance.
The primary problem in the study of archaeological objects in the
Middle Dniester region is to determine the period of their occurrence, existence,
and abandonment. Although still at a relatively modest level, the analysis of
gathered materials allows to trace in bare outlines the diachronic development of
these settlements. Thus, following archaeological investigations at sites of the
Saharna micro-zone three periods of development were determined: 1) the late
12
th
/ early 11
th
century - the first half of the 8
th
century BC; 2) the second half of
the 8
th
century

- 7
th
century BC, 3) the 6
th
- 3
rd
centuries BC.
To the first period it can be attributed the settlements of Saharna
Mare/Dealul Mnstirii, Saharna Mic and Saharna iglu.
Analysis of archaeological material from Saharna Mare/Dealul
Mnstirii allows to assume that the settlement was founded in the period
between the end of the 12
th
- beginning of the 11
th
centuries. The apogee in
development of this site falls on the 10
th
- first half of the 8
th
century BC. It is at
this time at the north-west outskirts of the settlement it was built a fortification /
"citadel", which was protected on all sides by a "wall" with adjacent moat.
Also, at the end of the 12
th
century beginning of 11
th
century BC, it
was founded a settlement on the promontory of Saharna Mic, opposite the
Saharna Mare interfluve, on the left side of the Saharna ravine. Unlike the
previous site, the Saharna Mic settlement was abandoned by the 10
th
century
BC. By this time (the 10
th
century BC) there emerged the site of Saharna
iglu, located at about 1.8 km north of the Saharna Mic site. The settlement
of iglu had existed until mid-8
th
century BC, when it was finally abandoned.
The second phase of development includes the sites from Saharna Mic
and Saharna Mare. Thus, by the middle of 8
th
- early 7
th
centuries BC the
promontory of Saharna Mic was populated again. From this time there existed a
fortified settlement with a moat and "wall" of wooden framework with a filling
of rubble, sand, clay, and stones. Over time, due to population growth and the
need for space, the defensive system was dismantled. The moat was leveled and
there were raised new dwelling and household constructions, which were
discovered in different segments of the settlement.
112

At the end of the 8
th
- the beginning of the 7
th
centuries BC it was also
founded a fortification in the nearby interfluves the Saharna Mare. It was
defended in the east, south, and west by means of a palisade consisting of a
single row of poles.
In the third phase of the development it is attested the continued
existence of the sites of Saharna Mare and Saharna Mic and the emergence of a
new settlement - Saharna La an. At the fortifications of Saharna Mare and
Saharna Mic there were abandoned old defensive system, instead of which
being built up other lines of defense, more complex and effective for that period.
Thus, the fortress of Saharna Mic was strengthened by two semicircular
bastions on the vulnerable side. The settlement from Saharna Mare was fortified
much better, being surrounded by a defensive line of the type of wooden "wall"
with filling having a total length of about 1035 m. This was amplified on the
southwest side by an adjacent moat and three semicircular bastions placed at the
sides and the center of the defensive line. Additional structures were also
discovered on north-east side, where at the flanks four semicircular bastions
were built.
The fortress of Saharna La an was located in the vicinity, south of
Saharna Mare, and was also defended by a similar defensive system a wooden
"wall" with filling and the adjacent moat.
All three sites (Saharna Mare, Saharna Mic, and Saharna La an)
had existed until the end of the 3
rd
/ the beginning of the 2
nd
century BC, when
they were finally abandoned.
Thus, at the current stage of research we can assume that in the micro-
zone of Saharna there have been several settlements, with different stages of
development. However, inhabitation in this region can be in bare outlines framed
between the end of the 12
th
and the beginning of the 2
nd
centuries BC.
113

CULTURAL AND ECONOMIC CONTACTS OF THRACIAN AND
GREEK RURAL POPULATION IN THE LOWER DNIESTER
IN 6
th
-1
st
c. B.C.

P. V. Ostapenko (Ukraine)


Since the moment of development of the region of the Lower Dniester,
the Greeks put right a contact with the tribes and peoples who lived in close
proximity. Most likely, such contacts have already begun in the VI century BC
although they were sporadic at this time, based only on a one-time exchange of
small amounts of surplus agricultural products. Over time, this exchange has
grown into a full-fledged trade. Such a trade could lead to cultural contacts
between the Greek rural population of the Lower Dniester and Thracian world.
At the end of 5
th
-5
th
centuries BC rural settlements are fixed only on the
left bank of Tyras. On the right bank settlements are not available, although at
this time Tyra gradually begins to play an increasingly important role in the
region. Among the ceramic complex of settlements the number of ceramics has
barbarian origin- Scythian and less Thracian. This shows the relationship
between ancient centers of the region with the barbarian tribes, and maybe some
number of the Scythians and Thracians lived on settlements. In 5
th
century BC
settlement of the left bank of Tyras ceased its existence.
In 5
th
century BC the role of exchange and trade with the barbarian of
the region increases, this is associated with the growth the economic potential of
Tyra. It results in appearance of settlements on the western bank of Tyras in the
4
th
century BC and restore of some old settlements where finds a large number
of diverse Getaes ceramics in these settlements, especially homebuilding
suggests a mixed population of Greek-Getaes. An increase of the number of
contacts both rural and urban Greek population with the Thracian tribes seems to
be logic. This is indicated by the appearance in the 4
th
-3
rd
centuries BC of
archaeological material sculptured ceramics of Getae and north-Thracian form,
not only in the settlements, but also in Tyra. It is natural to assume an increase in
the number of contacts between Greek and barbarian world. What were the
nature of these relationships is difficult to say, at least, they should be mutually
beneficial. The growth of quantitative index of Thracian pottery shape ceramics,
as in the archaeological material in rural settlements and urban centers. At the
same time nomadic Scythian population disappears. Cultural contacts with the
Getae-Thracian world still are carried through the city, as indicated by findings
of the various categories of archaeological material. The large number of
terracotta statuette carrying obvious barbarian influence is fixed, although the
process of their making is typically Greek. There is an increase of amount of the
sculptured tableware. In addition to sharing of technological methods between
114

masters is an artisans (the Greeks and Thracians), interference can be traced in
their cults and worldview.
In the 2
nd
-1
st
centuries BC rural settlements of the Lower Dniester
almost disappear, which causes a displacement of the center of cultural and
economic contacts in the direction of cities, in particular the ancient Tyra.



THE BRGAN IN THE 1
ST
-3
RD
CENTURIES AD:
DACIANS, ROMANS, SARMATIANS

Liana Oa (Bucharest - Romania)
Valeriu Srbu (Bucharest, Brila - Romania)


After the demographic boom of the 2
nd
-1
st
c. BC, resulting in the
emergence of many Geto-Dacian settlements in the Danube Plains, the Roman
policy for securing the borders of the Empire undergoes radical changes in the
region. The Brgan, the eastern portion of the Romanian Plains, with a very
low population density at the beginning of the 1
st
c. AD, is infiltrated on a
massive scale by Sarmatian communities. A very large number of Sarmatian
vestiges are found, particularly around the present-day cities of Brila, Clrai
and Oltenia. It only seems that this is counter to the security policy of the
Roman Empire, since the Sarmatian communities in the area were, in fact, under
Roman control. There are some arguments in favour of this statement: the low
number of clusters of Sarmatian graves (the largest grave clusters from the
Danube Plains are in Rmnicelu and Oltenia-Renie, with 18 and 16 burials,
respectively), the absence of tumulus graves and the small number of Sarmatian
graves where weapons were present. The chronology of the graves from the
Danube Plains spans 1
st
3
rd
c. AD, but not in a uniform manner, since there are
two peaks: one is at the end of 1
st
c. AD and the other at the end of 2
nd
c. AD and
throughout the following century.
It is the authors intention to introduce and analyse the Dacian,
Sarmatian and Roman vestiges from the area, thus revealing the power relations
from the region, but also come up with a sketch of the historical developments in
the eastern Romanian Plains during the first three centuries of the Christian era.

115


SUN CULT AND BURIALS IN THE ROMANIAN MIDDLE AND LATE
BRONZE AGE (CA 2000-1200 B.C.E.)

Nona Palinca (Bucharest - Romania)


The aim of this talk is to investigate how the graves from some of the
main archaeological cultures of the Romanian Bronze Age relate to the sun cult
the main cult in the studyregion.
Generally, archaeologists working in the area have analyzed graves in
search for burial customslooking for rules that guided the construction of grave
pits of certain shapes, the characteristic funerary ritesof communities, the
positioning of corpses orother bodily remains, and categories of grave goods.
In contrast, this paper suggests a change of perspective tofocus on the
investigation of the graves in terms of the logic of the sun cult. To this end the
paper will try to: a) identify those elements that relate graves to the sun cult; b)
point out how these elements vary among the archaeological cultures
considered; and c) show how these variations relate to the archaeological
cultures as known from current definitions.
The paper will also argue that separating the funerary domain from that
of the living sets severe limitations on our understanding of Bronze Age people
and societies.
To this end the talk will focus on the Monteoru (Subcarpathian Arc),
Wietenberg (mainly Central Transylvania), Suciu (northern Transylvania) and
uto Brdo-Grla Mare (Danube Gorges and surroundings) cultures. As is often
the case, information on the funerary domain is unevenly distributed over time;
therefore chronological sequences will be selected so as to secure the analysis of
the bulk of available data and at the same time allow comparisons with other
areas, either in terms of contemporaneity or consecutiveness. Thus, as
contemporaneous phenomena the Monteoru Culture (ca 17001500 B.C.E.) will
be compared with the Wietenberg Culture (ca 20001500 B.C.E.) and the Suciu
Culture (earlier phase, ca 1400/13001200 B.C.E.) with the uto Brdo-Grla
Mare Culture (classical phase, ca 15501350 B.C.E.), while as consecutive
phenomena will be compared the graves of the Wietenberg Culture with those of
the Suciu Culture.
116

THE CAVE AND THE DIONYSIAC MYSTERIAL RITUAL TRADITION

Elka Penkova, Lyubava Konova (Sofia Bulgaria)


The study offers an analysis and an attempt to reinterpret the mysterial
categories and terms which occur in a series of Hellenistic and Roman
inscriptions (from Kalatis, Thasos, and Torre Nova) as an evidence of Dionysian
associations. The goal is to shed new light on their meaning and
characterization through their literary and pictorial analogies in a context which
is determined by the cultural-historical position of the documents. What unites
them is the presence of the cave as a sustainable symbol in the Dionysian
mythology and religious tradition. According to Plutarch (Moralia), ntrois
bacchikois the caves of Dionysus represented the Dionysian paradise of no
heaven where the souls of the dead were flying in a circle, but they were also
able to ascend carried by a beam of light as if they had wings. They convey
the connection between the two worlds within the Dionysian movement which
belongs to space and not to the linear time. The Dionysiac symbolic tradition
constructs explicitly its signs namely in it. The connection between psalis,
muchos and antros which is traceable in a course of three centuries from 220
BC to 90 AD, according to the epigraphic evidences about the tyasos in Kalatis
(analyzed and published last in Avram and Jaccottet) and the ever green cave
of the Thasos association might reveal the specifics of the ritual practices of the
non-mythological real initiation in the Dionysian immortality. These
suggestions, not only the architectural form (that of a cave) described in the
documents from Kalatis, could be considered in association with the domed
tombs (last in Jaccottet 2003).
The study on various in character and date and related to the problem
sources from different regions of the Balkan Peninsula, Asia Minor and Italy is
the outgoing point for the working hypotheses. One of them poses the question
whether the tyasoi, which are connected with the cave, followed the
mythological model, or have transmitted relicts of ancient rituals into a new
age. Is it possible to discover ancient elements in the partly officialized
religiosity and in the innovations in the worship of Dionysus and to what extent
they had been integrated into the new reality in an epoch of syncretic phenomena
and processes? Last but not least, comes the question of whether the cave
remained a sacred esoteric symbol in the lands of Getae/Dachi, and to what
extent it recalls the idea of the Zalmoxis sacred space for initiations in
immortality.
117

NEW DATA ON ROMAN MILITARY EQUIPMENT IN DACIA
BEFORE AD 106

Liviu Petculescu (Bucharest -Romania)

The military equipment items represent only a small part of the Roman
imports in Dacia which account for the scanty interest on this field of research of
the Romanian archaeologists until the end of the 20
th
century.
In the last decade of the previous century the author of this lecture
published the Roman military objects from Ocnia and Poiana. In a paper of
synthesis included in the Proceedings of the Seventh International Congress of
Thracology one dealt besides the items from Ocnia and Poiana with other from
Socu Brbteti, Divici, Prejmer and Piatra Craivii. In this last article one also
discussed some general issues as the composition of this specific class of
imports, the ways they could arrived in Dacia, their dating, distribution and
characteristics of their deposition.
Afterwards were published other individual Roman military equipment
pieces from Costeti, Sarmizegetusa Regia, Ceteni, Ardeu, Raco, Tad. So
the distribution area of military imports spread considerably but some of them
raise problems of interpretation or chronology.
Considering the amount of recent discoveries and their importance for
the understanding of the significance of the presence of Roman military items in
a barbarian context it seems worth giving an up to date survey of this kind of
Roman imports in all Dacia.

HELLESPONTUS, THE THRACIAN BOSPORUS AND INFORMATION
RELATED TO THRACIANS ON THEIR COASTS DURING THE FIRST
HALF OF THE FIRST MILLENNIUM BC

Alexander Portalsky (Bulgaria)

For thousands of years the Straits have been the key points in the
contacts between East and West, the Balkans and Asia Minor. Written sources
about them are starting with Homer and Herodotus, but many of the later stories
are based on elder accounts, allowing us to restore the political and ethnical map
of the coasts to a certain extent. The epic series of myths about the Argonauts
mainly found in the accounts of Apollonius Rhodius and Apollodorus is of a
particular importance. These sources mention names of ethnoi and kings who
live and rule around the Thracian Sea of Marmara (Propontis). The paper
analyses such issues as over who reigned Phineus from Salmydessos, how many
settlements were there along the Hellespontus and Bosporus and how the Greeks
managed to enter the Pontus.
118




DACIANS AND GERMANICS IN NORTH-WESTERN ROMANIA
BETWEEN TRAIANUS AND MARCUS AURELIUS (2/ND AD)

Horea Pop (Zalu Romania)


In Slaj County, befor the mentioned period, there were discovered: 32
settlement, 14 hill-forts and just 2 graves, but 23 hoards, containing at least 3000
silver coins and around 100 jewels, representing 10% of total quantity of hoards
discovered in ancient Dacia. The Dacian pottery in La Tne D1 period, have
some characteristics: Proportions: wheel made pottery 12% and hand made
pottery: 88%. The ornaments: on the entire body of the pots. The shape: rims
slightly evased and the paste: contains smashed pottery.
In La Tne D2 period the proportions: wheel made pottery: 25% and
hand made pottery: 75%. The hand made pottery: the ornaments: on the superior
half of the pots, carved belt, pine, combed wave and the shape: rims strongly
evased. The paste: contains sand and mica. The types of the wheel made pottery
are bowls make their appearance, spread widely, fruit bowls decrease their
size.
After the Roman Conquest, in the 2-nd century AD, in 64 localities there
were discovered 150 objectives dating to the discussed chronologic horizon
In this area there were discovered: 132 settlements (Dacian 14, Germanic 18,
mixed 12, uncertain 92) and 4 cemeteries.
In 18 of the objectives there were found isolated coins and just 2 hoards.
The majority of Germanic discoveries were made in the Valley of Zalu,
the easiest access route towards the Mese Gate and the Roman Province Dacia.
For the Germanics there were found around 20 graves in 4 objectives,
containing vessels, weapons, incinerated bones, equipment pieces.
The characteristics of the Germanic poterry: Fine potterypolished
with graphite; Forms bowls with/without foot. Coarse pottery with smashed
pottery and pebbles in paste; Forms majority pots, but Dacian rush-light copies
as well; Ornamentsfingernail or fingerprint decoration and belts, pinched or
carved decoration on belts, walls and rims.
The Dacians
The majority of the Dacians discoveries, dating to Roman age, are in the
Depression of imleu. The most representative discoveries come from Pericei
Gou Street. There were discovered two separate levels:
1. 2nd century AD
2. end of 2nd first half of 3rd century AD
119

The Dacian pottery are: Grey and red (painted) pottery; the stamped
pottery is present in very small quantity. The shapes consist in bowls, cups, and
storage vessels. Ornamentation: polished (pre-Roman tradition), stamped. The
grey pottery represents 40% and the red one 35%. A part of the red (painted)
pottery is surely Roman, but an other part, is suspected to be LaTne tradition as
well. The small finds: Antler fragments with manufacturing traces; iron (tools,
knives, arrow head, spur), glass (pearl) and bronze (buckle fragment, needle)
pieces; crucible fragments, whet stones.

Conclusions:
The Dacians have continued living in the same area (Depression of
imleu), but not in the old settlements;
The fortifications were destroyed by the Romans.
The hand made pottery continues to be made in LaTne tradition, but
decreasing in quantity (25%).
The grey wheel made pottery (45%) copies Roman shapes, but it is
decorated in the majority, in LaTne tradition (except stamped pottery).
The Roman imports represents an important percentage and it is
represented by the red/orange painted pottery
The Germanics, in their expansion towards the Dacian north-western
Limes, arent able to cross imleus Depression, choosing instead the
Valley of Zalu as passing route.

120





ZUM AKTUELLEN FORSCHUNGSSTAND DER ETULIA-
KULTURGRUPPE NRDLICH DER UNTEREN DONAU

Alexandru Popa (Deutschland)


In den 1960er Jahren wurde nrdlich der unteren Donau eine Reihe von
Fundstellen identifiziert, die sich durch gehuftes Vorkommen rmischer
Amphorenfragmente und handgemachter Keramik auszeichneten und teilweise
der Sntana de Mure-ernjachov-Kultur zugewiesen wurden. Die kulturelle
Interpretation dieser Fundstellen wurde jedoch nach den ersten Grabungen
revidiert. So wurde sptestens nach den Grabungen von T. erbakova im
eponymen Fundort der Kulturgruppe, Etulia, klar, dass es sich dort um eine
andere kulturelle Erscheinung handelt, als die Sntana de Mure-ernjachov-
Kultur.
Die Etulia-Kulturgruppe ist in der Budschak-Steppe und auf den
rechten Ufer des Flusses Dnjestr verbreitet. Einige wenige Fundstellen wurden
auch am mittleren Dnjestr entdeckt (Grberfeld Alcedar). Heute werden zur
Etulia-Kulturgruppe ber 60 Fundstellen zugewiesen. Deren Kartierung zeigt,
dass die Mehrheit der Fundstellen sich im westlichen Teil der Region zwischen
Prut und Dnjestr befindet. Ein anderes besonderes Merkmal in der Verbreitung
der Fundstellen der Etulia-Kulturgruppe besteht in der bereinstimmung von
deren westlicher Verbreitungsgrenze mit der Westgrenze der ehemaligen UdSSR.
Diese Kulturgrenze ist mit Sicherheit dem aktuellen Forschungsstand und nicht
einer historisch-archologischen Realitt zu verdanken.
Die Chronologie der Etulia-Kulturgruppe ist in der heutigen Forschung
unscharf definiert. Die derzeit geltende Datierung basiert auf der
Zusammenfhrung der Einzeldatierungen einiger ausgewhlter Kleinfundtypen
aus Siedlungen dieser Kulturgruppe, die aus anderen Kulturgruppen und
Regionen unkritisch bernommen wurden. Typologisch-chronologische Reihen
zu den bekannten Fundkategorien konnten bis jetzt nicht ausgearbeitet werden.
Viele der in der Forschung aufgefhrten chronologischen Indikatoren deuten
auf eine Existenz der Siedlungen dieser Kulturgruppe whrend des 4. Jhs. n. Chr.
hin. Es gibt jedoch weitere Funde von Amphoren und auch Bronzemnzen, die
auf eine Datierung ausgewhlter Fundstellen in die Mitte des 3. Jhs. n. Chr.
hindeuten. Eine separate Erscheinung ist aus chronologischer Sicht die
Nekropole Alcedar, die von S. Kuratov an das Ende des 2. Anfang des 3. Jhs.
datiert und aufgrund des Brandbestattungsrituals der Etulia-Kulturgruppe
121

zugewiesen wurde. Somit lsst sich feststellen, dass in der heutigen Forschung
die hier behandelte Kulturgruppe vom Ende des 2. Jhs. 4. Jh. n. Chr. datiert
wird.
Die Ursprnge der Etulia-Kulturgruppe wurden in der Forschung in
zahlreichen Regionen Ost- und Nordosteuropas vermutet und werden oft mit den
Sptlatne-Kulturen (wie die Przeworsk-, sog. sptskytische-, oder
Sptzarubinec-Kultur) in Verbindung gebracht. Keine dieser
Kulturerscheinungen lassen sich jedoch als direkte Vorlufer der Etulia-
Kulturgruppe berzeugend heranziehen. Auch von den gleichzeitigen Kulturen,
wie Sntana de Mure-ernjachov-, Przeworsk-, oder Kiever-Kultur,
unterscheidet sich die Etulia-Kulturgruppe. Es ist berraschend, dass bei der
Suche nach den Ursprungsregionen dieser Kultur, von der ukrainischen und
russischen Forschung die unmittelbar benachbarten Gebiete in Ostrumnien gar
nicht mehr in Erwgung gezogen werden. Die hnlichkeit mit der Poieneti-
Vrtecoi-Kultur in Ostrumnien ist bei einer genaueren Betrachtung jedoch
nicht zu bersehen. Das Kleinfundspektrum, der Bestattungsritus, ausgewhlte
Formelemente der freigeformten Keramik und die scheibengedrehten Gefe
sind nur einige Elemente, die diese beiden Zonen verbinden. Es ist
augenscheinlich, dass die Etulia-Kulturgruppe nicht als separat importiertes
Element aus dem Norden zu betrachten ist, sondern als ein Teil der
Vlkerlandschaft, die nach der Grndung der Provinz Dacia bzw. nach den
Markomannenkriegen jenseits der dakisch-moesischen Grenze siedelte.

122




POLITICAL RELATIONSHIPS OF THRACE IN THE NORTH BLACK
SEA REGION (CRIMEAN PENINSULA)
IN THE LATE 1
ST
CENTURY BC THE EARLY 1
ST
CENTURY AD

Ruja Popova (Sofia Bulgaria)

In the history of the Bosporan royal dynasty in the period of the 1
st
-3
rd

century AD the tradition of the Thracian names possessed by the Bosporan kings
could be easily traced. The historical facts show that even with the nomination
of Polemon I of Pontus, son of the orator Zenon, by August in 14 BC as a king
of the Bosporus the reestablishment of the dynastic relationships between the
Bosporan country and the Odrysian Kingdom in Thrace began.
An epigraphic monument a marble stela with traces of a relief image
and reserved three primary lines of inscription in Greek was found
archaeological context in Tauric Chersonesus and published in 2007. It
introduces in a debatable area of problems: the political relationships in the
North Black Sea region and specifically in the Crimean peninsula in the late 1
st
c.
BC the early 1
st
c. AD. The founding of the document poses some questions
about the specification of the relations between Tauric Chersonesus, the
Bosporan Kingdom and Thrace. On the other hand it is an option for the revision
of the direct political and cultural relationships between the Tauric polis and
Thrace which even nowadays are adopted as slightly and hardly detectable.

123


THE HELLENIC POLEIS-EMPORIA AND
THRACIAN MARKETPLACES
OF THE ODRYSIAN KINDOM
(THE 5
TH
MIDDLE OF THE 4
TH
CENTURIES BC)

Kalin Porozhanov (Sofia Bulgaria)


The Poleis-Emporia and Thracian Marketplaces substantiates the policy
of the Odrysian rulers, which was connected with poleis above all owing to the
market opportunities provided by these cities to develop community-money
relations. The ambition of the Odrysian kings was to rule over most of the poleis.
That became more difficult over the bigger and stronger poleis, and easier over
the smaller and weaker ones. It was also much more profitable for Athens to
support the bigger and stronger taxpayers than the smaller and weaker ones.
The ancient sources specifically refer to some of the poleis along the
Odrysian coasts as emporia, i.e., as marketplaces. These were usually not very
big cities which the Odrysian kings could and did dominate. As can be seen from
the Athenian tribute lists, these poleis-emporia, being members of the arch,
paid nothing or almost nothing to Athens. It is not very clear whether and how
much they paid to the Odrysian royal court. However, being within the confines
of the Odrysian Empire, they played the role of its marketplaces.
In view of the lack of sufficient markets with developed commodity-
money relations, and due to the insufficient Greek emporia controlled, the kings
of the powerful Odrysian basileia compensated by establishing new
internationalised Thracian market centres emporia in other places of their
state as well, so as to support the full functioning of the developing economy of
the Empire. This is evidenced by the archaeological research of the sites near the
village of Krastevich, Hissarya municipality, the emporion Pistiros near the
village of Vetren, Pazardzhik district, such were the coastal emporia in the
residential districts of Pobeda and Izgrev in Burgas, and elsewhere a total of
about 20 sites.




124

DACUS, - I. A HISTORY OF NAME

Luca-Paul Pupez (Cluj Napoca Romania)

During the 1
st
century BC advance in the Balkans Rome faced a new
population: the Dacians. The first ancient authors that mentioned the new
enemies were Latin, using the term Dacus, Daci, followed by the Greeks, under
the name Dakoi. The ethnonym is certainly of Thracian origin; the problems
historiography is numerous. This study does not want to be another one that
discusses these issues, but rather follows the mechanisms by which this term
came to be used by the Romans.
Germani were a tribe from the Rhine left shore, but the Romans took the
name from here and generalize it to all populations on the Rhine, especially from
the right shore. The population from here never called themselves Germani. The
same phenomenon could be noticed in the case of Galli, the name of one tribe
that participated in Celtic incursion in the Italic Peninsula during the 4
th
century
BC. Then, the Romans generalized for an entire population. The ethnonym
Celtae had e similar evolution. Thraci or Illyri made no exception. Even the
name Graeci, use by Romans for the Balkan Peninsula inhabitants evolved in the
same way, designating at origin a small tribe from Epirus. Those inhabitants
called themselves Hellenes, never Graeci.
Elements of such a phenomenon could be noticed in the case of Dacians.
During the 1
st
century AD the ethnonym Daci was used by ancient authors to
designate the population north of the Danube, a period when the name Dacia
also appears for the first time. But north of Danube were mention also numerous
tribes (Appuli, Biephi, Costoboci, Cotensi, Piephigi etc), giving the term Daci a
generalized sense. Due to limited information, the identification of an original
Daci tribe is difficult. In north-west Dacia, Ptolemaios mentioned a Docidava
settlement. Rectified in Dacidava could be translated as a settlement, dava, of
the Dacians. An ethnonym in a settlement name was not uncommon, as proved
in Buridava. Even if the rectification is correct, the location remains uncertain.
Another hypothesis concerns the south-west Dacia as an origin place for this
eponym tribe. During the 1
st
century BC Dacian incursions south of Danube
could the Romans made first contact with the new enemies. Celts Scordisci are
mentioned as allied with the Dacians in these incursions. In south-west Dacia
funerary inventories had mixed Celtic and Thracian material, proves of the
complex relations in the area that could result in military alliances.
It is important to notice that the Roman generalization of the term Daci
has developed in parallel with the rise of the Dacian kingdom. That could
indicate also an internal phenomenon: behind this political centralization could
be a tribe imposing its power and its name over other tribes; name later used by
Romans.
125





THE ECONOMIC RELATIONS BETWEEN BURIDAVA AND ROMAN
EMPIRE SEEN FROM THE MONETARY CIRCULATION
POINT OF VIEW

Silviu I. Purece (Sibiu Romania)


In our study we try to discern the economic relations between
Buridavensians and Roman Empire by analyzing the coin presence in this tribal
formation territory. The intensity of the economic and political contacts of the
Dacian tribal formation with the roman world was determined by the existence
of the important salt deposits situated around Ocnele Mari, Vlcea County.
Buridavas prosperity, even from the beginning of the settlement
existence, was due to the salt mountain present nearby. The salt extracted by
Dacians from the Ocnele Mari area was transported till the Olt River and loaded
on the rafts and lowered downstream to the Danube, where was sold. At the
south of the Danube the salt was extremely needed because the lack of this kind
of resource. This high need create for Dacians from Buridava an important
advantage; they prosper by its sale. Most of the imported objects discovered by
the archaeologists at Ocnia came here from the salt commercial road.
Buridava extending starts with the II century B.C. and continued in the
1
st
century A.D., the peak of this development being touch between the end of
the 1
st
century B.C. and the end of the 1
st
century A.D. The Buridavas
prosperity at his high is illustrated by a rich inventory from which we can
remark some exceptional objects founded in very interesting archaeological
contexts.
To the middle of the 1
st
century B.C. at Buridava arrived more and more
roman republican coins and nor only, this republican coin afflux being continued
naturally by the roman imperial coin. The roman coin in present in every part of
the settlement, being discovered both in civil and military contexts, as well in
ritual ones. The latest pieces are dated in the time of Flavian dynasty, until now
was not found any coin issued by Traianus. It is very easy to explain the lack of
Traianus coins in the archaeological discoveries from Buridava. This situation
was generated by the destruction of the settlement at the beginning of the year
102 by the Roman army.


126



THE HORSEMAN IN THRACIAN IMAGERY,
BETWEEN INFLUENCE AND TRADITION

Kostadin Rabadjiev (Sofia Bulgaria)


The paper concerns a discussion on the image of rider in Thracian
culture. The analysis is concentrated on its appearance and evolution as a sign;
on its function as a social marker, and the influences we can trace in its figure.
So the question is about the tradition in Thracian society, which can not be
proved for all material media where the image could be found. Thus we can
trace foreign impulses and fashion in the recollection of images that were
popular in the range of not more than three generations. And the idea is that
popularity was due to oral epics and the veneration of ancestors in funeral cult,
where the elite warriors were buried with their horses.



CELTIC COLONIZATION IN BANAT
COMMENTS REGARDING THE FUNERARY DISCOVERIES

Aurel Rustoiu, Adrian Ursuiu (Cluj Napoca Romania)

The second half of the 4
th
century and the beginning of the 3
rd

century BC witnessed an eastward expansion of the area inhabited by Celtic
communities. Large territories from the eastern part of the Carpathian Basin (the
Great Hungarian Plain and Transylvania) were colonized in successive phases
by Celtic groups.
Thus the first scope of this paper is to investigate the
mechanisms and chronology of the advance of some Celtic groups in Banat, an
area on which their presence is less documented in comparison with the
neighbouring territories. The second scope is to identify the nature of the
relationships between the colonists and the indigenous populations, and also the
ways in which they expressed and maintained (or not) their specific communal
identities. Archaeological evidence supporting this paper consists mainly of
funerary discoveries resulting from a few representative cemeteries, like those
from Remetea Mare and Aradu Nou.


127


THE DECOR OF THE SWORD FROM
THE BURIAL MOUNDS FILIPPOVKA 1

Irina V. Rukavishnikova (Moscow Russia)


The iron sword from the burial 2 kurgan 4 in Filippovka 1 burial
mounds in the Southern Ural region is completely decorated with images in the
animal style of the early Iron Age.
All blades present a mythological text and the recurrence of the images
is also a characteristic of mythology. Both sides of the blade are decorated with
complex compositions: the chains of walking animals and anthropomorphic
scenes. This is a complex linear rhythmic composition that complicated with the
scenes of "absorption" animals and anthropomorphic scenes. 1. - Warrior with
an axe, swings to the deer image, 2. - The sacrifice of a deer on the back side of
the blade 3. The hunting on a wild boar by rider on the same side of the blade,
4 - fallen warrior. Each of the compositions on the edges of the blade ends at the
tip of a deer with magnificent antlers on his head. The tip of the blade is
decorated with antithetical placed images of deer. On one side of the blade their
horns are merges into an arrow.
On the blade of the sword presents are 47 images and three decorative
items (three-part curl, a spiral curl, an arrow). There are 7 images of the horse.
2 of them the bridled horse and rider, the other horses without snuffle bits
are limiting the anthropomorphic scene and sent to each other in synthetic way.
Perhaps they are also sacrificial animals. The image of the horse is the image
of a "mediator" between the worlds. The image of a deer is represented 21 times,
the wolf - 5 times, the bear 2 times, the leopard - 2, tiger-1, the unclear image
of lion or panther 2 times.
All of the images formed by lines outline and curls, three-part curls
(swastikas), which simulate the surface, as well as on the gold wrought wooden
bowls from the kurgan 1 of Fillipovka 1 burial mounds. The muzzles of all of
the beasts are long. All images have the simply reading specific characteristics,
correspond to the "pantheon" of local style, except the leopard and tiger, which
indicates to the eastern components of this animal style. The decoration of the
blade shows that it was made by one craftsman, because all of the images are
decorated with similar stylistic details.
The sword had a religious purpose. This sword was found in situ in the
burial of a warrior with a rich object of supreme power - the gold necklace,
armor, solid gold plates. The image of the warrior-hero-leader in the ancient
nomadic society was associated with the leader of religious cult. In Scythian
mythology, described by Herodotus (IV, 62), there is evidence of the worship of
128

the Scythian god of war, Ares, that performs the religious rites for this god with
the worship of the sword-akinakes. Hunting for deer as the symbol of the sun is
present in this epic, the sacrifice of horses and deer mentioned in the ritual
worship of the Scythian sword (by Herodotus, IV, 62).
Perhaps, the mythological story in the images on the blade of the sword
opens with a scene of hunting on the wild boar, the story circulated in the
ancient epics (of Hercules in Hellenistic, and also in Narts epics, (in part about
the Soslan), in Turkish epic Koroglu, because the first image from the cross of
the sword is spiral curl - a solar sign, located at the level of the head of
anthropomorphic image.
For this study, it is important that the decoration of the sword, is quite
similar to local tradition animal style of Southern Ural, and also contains a
number of features common to the jewelry of scythian time from Asian part of
the Eurasian steppes, as well as replicas of the images on the subjects made of
other materials. The dcor at the border of the eastern and western traditions of
image schemes taking pictures with features of zoomorphic transformations.

129



ECONOMIC TIES OF THE ANCIENT TYRAS WITH GETAE OF
DNIESTER RIVER (THE END OF 6TH 1
ST
CC BC)

Tatyana L. Samoilova (Odessa - Ukraine)


Important part of any economy, inside which the surplus products are
manufactured, is the trade. It is essential importance for the development not
only of ancient society, but also the neighboring barbarian worlds. Tyras was
located next to two barbarous arrays: Scythians and Getae. In spite of that it was
established later than the other Greek colonies in northwestern Pontos, Tyras,
since its inception has been associated with the Getae, who lived on the middle
Dniester. The Gaetic ceramic of 6
th
-5th cc BC was found during the excavation
of Tyras. There are numerous finds of amphorae of Chios, Lesbos, Samos,
Klazomen, Mende, Thasos, Herculea Pontica on the Thracian settlements
Gradenitsy III, Tiraspol, Slobozia, Khansca, Butucheny (21 points). The
settlement of a Chobruchi 1 in Moldova is of great importance. During the
period of living of antique centers in the Lower Dniester it was a major center of
the mediatorial trade. The fragments of the Greek imported ware, fragments of
amphorae from Klazomen, Chios of 6
th
-5th cc BC, terracotta, amphorae
fragments of Thasos, Chersonessos, Cnidus, Rhodes, Paros 4
th
-2
nd
cc BC were
found in a settlement Chobruchi 1. Most likely, that this village since the end of
6
th
c BC played role of the center of trade with the Greeks on the Lower Dniester.
Researches have shown that in the Middle Dniester in the 6th c BC crops
is cultivated. The cattle-breeding, especially horse-breeding was the particular
importance in the farming of settlement Chobruchi 1. Probably, the products of
agriculture and cattle-breeding were on the market of Tyras, in exchange for
wine, oil, products of ancient artisans. Polybius wrote, that North Pontos
supplied besides bread, "the cattle and slaves..., honey, wax, and salt fish" (IV,
38,15)
Recent studies have shown that the sale of bread through the ancient
cities of the North-Western Black Sea region was of a frugal size. The slave
trade played an important role in the economy of ancient world. Literature
sources indicate that in the 5
th
-6th cc BC Greece was one of the major
consumers of slaves. Polybius noted that "North Pont delivers a huge number of
slaves, most excellent" (IV, 38, 15). In addition Scythians slave trade took place
in the Thracian world. We can assume that Tyras would be one of the centers
from where the slaves were brought to ancient centers.
In the Hellenistic period, the economic relations of Tyras with Gaetic
tribes became stronger. In the 4th century BC we know about 200 Gaetic
130

settlements in the area of our interest. The imported ceramics in the first place
amphora in which the merchants of Tyras delivered wine, oil from Thasos,
Herculea Pontica, Peparet, Acanthus, Amastris, Chersonessos, Sinope, Rhodes,
Cnidus, Cos, Corinthus, Paros were fond on the many Gaetic sites (71
settlements). A large number of diverse Gaetic ceramics were fond in Tyras.
During the second half of the 3
rd
-1st cc BC the trade Tyras with Gaetic
population declines. But the archeological finds from Tyras indicate that the city
maintained close contacts with the Getae until the 1
st
c BC.

131




THE CELTIC DISCOVERIES ON THE UPPER AND MIDDLE COURSE
OF THE RIVER OLT IN THE SECOND IRON AGE

Lucica Savu (Braov - Romania)


The arguments of a theme of study may be multiple. The geography is
often used in an attempt to argue the existence (or not) of a prevalence of an
ethnic group in a given area. Question that we intend to answer is whether the
upper and middle basin of the river OLT is a development zone of the
autochthonous population in the second Iron Age. For this purpose are to be
indexed the discoveries of Celtic tunes, in the territory defined above, and then
to be considered in the overall context of the period in that area. We hope to
complete such a small part of the puzzle for an overview is necessary, of course,
a major effort which is not the subject of this paper.




THE ODRYSEAN SETTLEMENTS
IN SOUTHEASTERN THRACE

M. H. Sayar (Istanbul Turkey)


Bizye, Salmydessos, Bergule, Selymbria and Apri are the main subjects
of this contribution. In southeastern Thrace can be follow the development and
changing of the nomadic tribes during the Hellenistic and Roman times. The
archaeological evidence and historical interpretations of the sources document
this process as well as.



132




DIE GETISCHEN DAVA VON RADOVANU IM LICHTE DER
NEUSTEN FORSCHUNGEN

Done erbnescu (Oltenia - Rumnien),
Cristian Schuster (Bukarest Rumnien),
Alexandru Morintz (Bukarest Rumnien)


Die Ortschaft Radovanu, Bezirk Clrai, liegt im Sden Rumniens,
am rechten Arge-Ufer. Im Umfeld des Dorfes wurden entlang der letzten fnf
Jahrzehnten mehrere archologische Forschungen unternommen. Unsere
Interesse galt in den vergangenen Jahren den Fundstellen der Geten, die durch
archologische Grabungen auf der Gorgana nti und Gorgana a doua teilweise
erforscht worden sind.
Im Falle der Gorgana a doua handelt es sich um einen Terrassensporn,
der sich im sd-stlichen Teil der Ortschaft befindet. Seine dreieckige Form
nimmt eine Flche von fast 4.000 m
2
ein und liegt ungefhr 35-38 m ber dem
Dorf. Er wird von der Terasse an seiner sd-westlichen Seite durch einen 10-15
m breiten Graben getrennt, der natrlichen Urspruns ist, spter aber, vielleicht in
der Bronzezeit oder eher von den Geten, erweitert und vertieft wurde. Sd-
stlich, etwa 300 m entfernt von diesem, ist ein weiterer Terrassensporn, die
Gorgana nti, zu sehen. Dieser besitzt eine kuppelartige Form und weist eine
kleinere Flche als die Gorgana a doua auf. Er hatte unter den anthropischen
Ttigkeiten (Bau des Kannals Bukarest-Donau) sehr zu leiden.
Obwohl in der Geten-Zeit der Fluss Arge sein Bett unmittelbar am
Fue der Hgel hatte, fliet er heute ungefhr 2,8 km stlich davon entfernt. Er
schliet sich damit den brigen in Oltenien und Muntenien flieenden
Gewssern an, die ihre ursprngliche Nord-Sd-Flussrichtung durch die
Rotationskraft der Erde im Laufe der Zeit allmhlich nach Osten verschoben
haben. Die Donau-Senke befindet sich etwa 10 km sdstlich.
Getische und bronzezeitliche Keramik wurde erstmals auf der Gorgana
a doua in den 30er Jahren des vorigen Jahrhunderts entdeckt. Archologische
Grabungen wurden 1971-1973, 1975-1977, 1979 sowie 1984 durchgefhrt und
2004 erneut, in einem internationalen Forschungsprojekt aufgenommen. Zurzeit
sind ungefhr 60% der Gesamtoberflche untersucht worden. Das Interesse galt
bis 1984 hauptschlich dem Sdwestteil des Sporns. Im Zuge der
Wiederaufnahme der Grabungen wurde auch der Nordostteil ins Auge gefasst. Je
nach Art der Befunde Erd- und ebenerdige Huser resp. Gruben erreichte die
Maximaltiefe der Fundschicht etwa 2,20-2,40 m. Auf der gesamten derzeit
133

ergrabenen Flche folgten unter dem 0,10-0,55 m dicken Humus eine 0,90-1,00
m mchtige getische Schicht und abschlieend eine im Durchschnitt 0,60 m
dicke bronzezeitliche Ablagerung, die im Sdostteil des Sporns wesentlich
dnner war, wie die 2004-2009 durchgefhrten Forschungen nahe legen.
Die lteren Grabungen ermglichten das Entdecken von
Befestigungsanlagen, d.h. ein U-frmiger Ringgraben (3,20/3,80m tief und 3,75-
/4,20 m breit) und Vallum um den ganzen Sporn. In der letzten Phase der
Existenz der Dava auf der Gorgana a doua, als die bewohnbare Flche der
Siedlung erweitert wurde, schtteten die Geten den Graben zu und ebneten den
Wall.

Viel interessanter und besser erhalten ist der Wall (2,50 m hoch und 15
m breit) und die zwei Graben (einer U- der andere V-frmig), die die Gorgana
nti befestigten. Die in den Jahren 2008 und 2009 durchgefhrten Forschungen
zeugen auch von anderen zwei (?) weiteren Abwehrgraben, diese aber gehrten
der Mittelbronzezeit (Tei-Kultur?) und dem neolithikum (Gumelnia-Kultur)
an. Der getische Wall und die zwei Graben sind an der Sdseite der Hgelkuppe
zu sehen. Ihre Funktion war, ein Hinderniss zwischen der Hochterrasse und dem
Sporn zu gestalten.
Die Keramik, einige Fibeln und die Mnzen (aus Callatis, Thassos,
mazedonische, rmische und einheimische Flschungen), welche in den beiden
Festungen gefunden wurden, erlauben von einer Lebensdauer der zwei Davae in
das II. und I. Jh. v.Chr. zu reden. Das heisst, dass die Abwehranlagen in
Radovanu wenigstens zeitgleich mit anderen Festungen in Muntenien, wie
Zimnicea, Popeti-Nucet, Piscul Crsani waren.
Radovanu-Gorgana nti und Gorgana a doua und Popeti-Nucet
kontrollierten das Arge-Becken mit seinen Nebenflssen und damit die von der
Donau nach Norden bis ins Herzen Mittelmunteniens Eindingmglichkeit. Eine
andere Dava, wie zum Beispiel die in Zimnicea, lag im Verbindunsknoten
Donau-Oescus (Isker, Fluss in Bulgarien)-Olt und kontrollierte dadurch die
Wege zum Turnu-Rou-, bzw. Rucr-Bran-Pass.
Auf der Hochterrasse zwischen den beiden Festungen in Radovanu
wurde die zivile Siedlung erbaut. Damit ist bewiesen, dass Radovanu ein
wichtiger Ansiedlungsort, der eine schwerwiegende witschaftliche und
militrische Rolle an der Arge-Mdung spielte, war. Die archologischen
Forschungen ermglichten die Feststellung, dass alle befestigte getische
Siedlung in Sdmuntenien ihr Ende anfang des I. Jh. n.Chr., unmittelbar in der
Zeit der Expedition des Sextus Aelius Catus gekannt haben. Wahrscheinlich aber,
mu im Falle der Dava in Radovanu von einem frheren Datum (Mitte des I. Jh.
v.Chr.) geredet werden.


134



BASARABI FEATURES IN THE CERAMIC COMPLEX
OF THE BILSK SETTLEMENT

B. Shramko (Kharkov Ukraine)


In the second half of the 8th century BC the migrants from the Dnipro
right bank forest steppe area founded a number of unfortified settlements in the
middle reaches of the Psiol and Vorskla. The material culture of the early A
horizon in these monuments correspond to the Zhabotin II-III horizon, and also
to the second phase of the Basarabi Middle Hallstatt Culture, the upper boundary
of which reached as high as the middle of 7th century BC. So far the layers of
those times have been singled out in a small area of the West Bilsk settlement
(the Psiol basin) and in the western excavations of the Pozharna Balka
settlement (the Vorskla basin).
The ceramics of the A horizon resembles mostly the ceramic complex of
the Zhabotin horizons II and III. In this case it has quite clearly distinguished
features of the Basarabi and Basarabi-Soldanesti culture, which are manifested
in the forms of a number of pottery articles, ornamentation techniques and
ornamental motifs.
Amidst the cookware attention is drawn to the pots with loopy handles,
handle stops and weakly profiled caldron type vessels, decorated with a fretted
cross on the edge of the crown and oblique cuts on the molded roller on the
vessel wall (A horizon). Basarabi features include closed and open bowls with
horizontal and oblique cannelures, in cross section forming an edge. Especially
demonstrative are the bowls with oblique riffling and projections-stops on the
walls, as well as open bowls with petaliform projection. All samples were found
in A2 layer of the first half of 7th century BC.
The Basarabi ceramic tradition of A horizon is also characterized by
plastic reliefs and oblique cannelures in the middle part of large pots, horned
shoots and shoots in the shape of a blade, bent thumb on the handles of scoops,
the radial ornament on scoops and bowls, grooved patterns on the walls of large
pots, sometimes supplemented with a large S-type stamp, as well as with spiral
patterns, cannelured garlands-semicircles under the handles-stops of the large
pots. Among a variety of ornamental elements the Maltese cross singles out,
which is a determinant attribute of the Basarabi culture. The earliest examples
were found in A2 horizon on the walls of large pots and scoop handles. One of
the crosses is made in the relief technique. Maltese crosses carved solely on the
scoop handles were found in large quantities in the B1overlapping horizon
135

(middle - third quarter of the 7th century BC), in which the Basarabi influence
was still quite noticeable.
Horned ledge as well as Maltese crosses is common for post-Zhabotin
times. The radial carved ornament covering the body of scoops and bowls
appears in A1 horizon, but it is more characteristic of A2 horizon. In the
Basarabi monuments, it is known in the 2nd stage of the Culture development.
The Basarabi ornamental motifs are present in all categories of black polished
ceramics. The system of symbolic elements in the carved and stamped design
(checkerboard, shaded triangles, squares, broken lines, spiral volutes, crosses,
etc.) is supplemented with some forms of shoots on scoop handles, which also
had some sacred meaning. On the whole, the ceramic complex of the second half
of 8th 7th century BC demonstrates a steady tradition, which features a
predominance of carved and delineated geometric ornament, usually in
conjunction with the imprints of the stamp in A1 layer, delineated geometric,
canellured decoration, combined with plastic reliefs in A2 layer. Such elements
as horned shoots and the Maltese cross characterize already the B horizon.
Along with the other features of material culture (buildings for public worship
with sacrificial altars ornamented with spiral patterns) the Basarabi features in
the ceramic complex demonstrate that the migrants were the bearers of cultural
traditions that filled their lives with rich sense of the sacred.


136


THE NECROPOLIS FROM TELIA-CELIC DERE (6
TH
3
RD
C. BC),
TULCEA COUNTY, ROMNIA. THE STUDY CASE OF TUMULUS T44

Valeriu Srbu (Braila, Bucharest Romania)
Maria-Magdalena tefan (Bucharest Romania)
Dan tefan (Bucharest Romania)
Gabriel Jugnaru (Tulcea Romania)
Tomasz Bochnak (Rzeszow Poland)


Excavated since 1985, the biritual tumuli and flat graves necropolis from
Telia-Celic Dere (Tulcea, Romania) has remained known to the scientific public
only through general and rather brief presentations, even if the archaeological
discoveries made here propose the site as one of the key elements for the
comprehension of the cultural processes and ethnic interactions happened at the
Lower Danube during the late Hallstatt and Early Second Iron Age (6
th
3
rd

centuries BC). Exhibiting archaeological features relevant for the North-
Thracians, but also for various North-Ponthic populations, including Scythians,
the site could give insight into the specific phenomena that characterized the
authority structures existing in Northern Dobroudja in the vicinity of Greek
colonies Orgame and Histria.
The authors, as members of a new research team engaged in the site
since 2006, present for the first time a complete and systematic picture of what is
considered to be a typical funerary monument of the necropolis a tumulus
grave (T44) by making reference to its location, structure, ritual and artifacts
as to chronology and research methodology. The mound was thoroughly
excavated and analyzed by employing a complex set of interdisciplinary
methods and techniques: geophysical prospecting with various methods, 3D
topography, pedological and chemical analyses of the sediment, anthropological
exams and radiocarbon analyses.


137

CREMATION GRAVES AND ITEM DEPOSITS (4
th
1
st
C. BC)
IN HUNEDOARA - GRDINA CASTELULUI (HUNEDOARA COUNTY)

Valeriu Srbu (Brila, Bucharest Romania),
Cristian Roman (Hunedoara - Romania)


The necropolis from The Castle Garden-Plateau is located in the
immediate vicinity of the famous medieval castle from Hunedoara, in the
southwestern part of Transylvania
On the Plateau there were identified 34 deposits with human bones, 7
deposits of objects without human bones and 5 deposits with animal bones. The
34 deposits with humans contained the bones of 57 individuals, 9 being
cremated and 48 inhumed. The vast majority of those inhumed were children, 38
of them being less than 7 years old and 20 less than one year old.

One will introduce and analyse eight cremation graves, with nine dead,
and six item deposits from the end the 4
th
c. until the middle/second half of the
1
st
c. BC, most of them with weapons, which points to rituals characteristic of
the Geto-Dacian warriors. This category of funerary vestiges is analysed in the
context of the local necropolis, which includes inhumation graves, particularly a
high number of children; from the 1
st
c. AD there have probably been found only
inhumations of small children. These funerary vestiges, together with those from
the nearby fortress and settlements attest the presence of Dacian communities in
the area during the second Iron Age.

The analysis of the cremation graves from the plateau in Grdina
Castelului can offer a number of important and interesting observations and
conclusions, because there is a solid documentary foundation for the following:
a) a relatively large number of graves; b) finding human bones in the same area
from a period of about four centuries, particularly when we take into account the
extreme scarcity of funerary vestiges from the last three centuries before the
Roman conquest of Dacia (106 AD), c) anthropological analyses for all the finds,
d) the possibility to compare the finds from the cremation graves with both the
contemporary item deposits and the children inhumations found in the same area
and dating, mostly, from the 1
st
c. BC, and e) the many items, mostly fibulae,
with a narrower dating.

For all these reasons, we believe that an analysis of just the cremation
graves can reveal not just their details, but also larger perspectives on the
evolution of Dacian funerary customs in this necropolis.

138


THE GETO-DACIAN FORTRESS IN PIETROASA MIC GRUIU
DRII, BUZU COUNTY

Valeriu Srbu (Brila, Bucharest Romania)
Sebastian Matei (Buzu - Romania)


The site on Gruiu Drii is on a dominating plateau (altitude 534m) at the
curvature of the Carpathians, in the Istria Massive, with excellent visibility
towards the hills and plains around it. It is surrounded by slopes on three sides,
some of them steep, with easy access solely from the west, where the plateau
goes on. To the north and east of the plateau was the Dara River. Since the site is
on a limestone massive, surrounded by woods and loess deposits, the local
community had the building materials for the walls, as well as for the houses or
cult deposits.
The archaeological excavations showed that the Gruiu Drii plateau was
outstandingly dynamic in terms of the evolution of the types of sites: at the end
of the 4
th
c. - 3
rd
c. BC and in the second half of the 2
nd
c. ultimately beginning
of the 1
st
c. BC, there was an unfortified settlement, in the 1
st
c. BC there was a
fortress and, in the 1
st
c. AD, there was an important Geto-Dacian cult site. The
construction of the wall of the fortress shows some Hellenistic influences two
faces from limestone blocks and filling. There are two stages visible in the
construction of the wall, as it was also used in the time of the sacred enclosure,
namely the 1
st
c. AD.
The surface of the fortress is small, and the slopes were steepened to
make access difficult. Also, stone structures were erected to support the
fortification. The habitation and household complexes, as well as the rich and
diverse inventory, place the fortress in the 1
st
c. BC.













139


FUNERARY PRACTICES DURING THE TRANSITION PERIOD FROM
THE ENEOLITHIC TO THE BRONZE AGE IN THE NORTH-EAST
CARPATHIAN AREA. GORDINETI CULTURAL GROUP

Ghenadie Srbu (Chiinu Rep. of Moldova)


A funeral rite, because of the close association with the religious and
cult views, illustrate one of the most conservative elements of the archaeological
culture. This is determined by at least two its own features: the reflection of
stable and meaningful components of culture, and the delay of innovative
changes, manifested primarily in the settlements.
After several decades since the discovery and later, numerous analyzes
and written studies did not allow solving existing dilemmas, so that issues that
concern the funerary rites practiced in the communities of the Cucuteni-
Tripolye cultural complex are still open for research.
We can not say that there were not any remains of human skeletons
either on the perimeter of settlements, within their limits or under the remains of
dwelling complexes. For early and middle stages there are only known placing
of bones inside a settlement; in the literature it was adopted the term intramural
burials.
The practice of intramural burials is known since the Paleolithic. Placing
the deceased in the immediate vicinity of the dwelling, according to L.A Avilova,
is a custom related to the collective organization through blood ( 1986).
Also, this practice is seen by some researchers as ritual sacrifices (
1953).
This aspect is reflected more complex in the period of transition from
the Eneolithic to the Bronze Age, when the funerary rite has undergone
significant changes. The burials were made outside the settlements, there
appeared family necropolises with different funerary practices and regional
characteristics, and were used different types of tombstones. The differences
usually comes down to the features of a funerary rite, position and orientation of
the deceased, the presence or absence of barrow mantle and cromlech, painting
of skeleton with ochre, presence of graves without inventory, placing of female
statuettes in graves, etc. ( 1960).
Mapping of funerary complexes demonstrates how complicated and
integral was the conceptual-philosophical system of the bearers of traditions of
the Gordineti-Horoditea cultural complex. According to experts, in this
cultural complex there have interlaced the features of the farmers communities
from the East and the Balkans, under the influence of which the Cucuteni-
140

Tripolye complex has appeared, presenting new elements of material culture
reflected in the barrow traditions of the nomadic tribes ( 1980).
Transformations in the Cucuteni-Tripolye culture, which occurred in the
final period of its development, were so obvious that provoked discussion about
the very meaning of the term Late Tripolye, generating objections from some
researchers to the cultural attribution of the late monuments of Tripolye culture
(Sulimirski 1950, 1968, 1970).
Currently, among the burial sites of the Gordineti group we could
distinguish five groups of monuments and funerary practices (Srbu 2011). The
first group consists of inhumation burials or cinerary remains under dwelling
complexes, cult pits or hearths (Tviklovti, Horoditea, Crniceni pe Coast). In
the second group there were classified graves on the perimeter of settlements
(Crniceni pe Coast, Mereeuca-Cetuie, Pocrovca V, Ttruca Nou XV).
The third group includes flat extramural graves/necropolises (Gordineti-Ms,
Tura Nou, Borosoaea iganca 2, Cunicea dealul Priansc, Ocsentia) The
fourth group contains barrow graves (Dumeni, Costeti, Obileni, Bursuceni,
Vratic, Zavinea). The fifth group includes all funerary complexes of the
Usatovo type, in which the pottery of Gordineti texture was found.
Detailed study of all materials specific for the abovementioned groups
will allow the reconstruction of the development of funerary ritual in the
communities of the East-Carpathian region during the period of transition from
the Eneolithic to the Bronze Age. Although this line of research, in general, is
important for South-Eastern Europe, yet the sites of Gordineti-Horoditea-
Kasperovti type were widespread, from the Eastern Carpathians to the areas on
the left bank of the Dnieper. Analysis of the discoveries in the territory of the
Republic of Moldova will contribute to the creation of an overall picture of the
spiritual culture of the tribes of South-Eastern Europe in the period of transition
from the Eneolithic to the Bronze Age.




141

SCHATZFUND VON EPURENI UND DIE SILBSERNEN FIBELN
THRAKISCHER SCHEMA. ZUSAMMENFASSSUNG

Daniel Spnu (Bukarest Rumnien)


1922 wurde der Schatzfund von Epureni (Bez. Vaslui, Ost-Rumnien) in
unbekannten Umstnde entdeckt. Selbst heute, 90 Jahre nach der Erworbung des
Hortes, bildet die Vergesellschaftung von silbernen Fibeln thrakischer Schema,
Armringe und barbarischen Mnzen von Typ Hui-Vovrieti ein Unicum. Einige
Autoren haben die Autentizitt der Vergesellschaftung verzweifelt.
Die rumlichen Verbreitungen und die chronologischen Stellungen der
Hui-Vovrieti Mnzen und der Fibeln thrakischer Schema unterscheiden sie
sich kaum. Schatzfunde mit Fibeln thrakischer Schema, als auch Mnzhorte mit
lokalen Nachahmungen der Tetradrachmen Philipps der 2. sind in den
Siedlungen von Buneti, Poiana, Stolniceni u.a. belegt. Das autenthischen
Charakter des Hortes von Epureni kann aber auf Grund der Analyse der
Gewichte der Beigaben festgestellt werden. Die Mnzen und die Schmuckstcke
von Epureni widerspiegeln ein gemeinsames Gewichtssystem.

142


CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE STUDY OF GETO-DACIAN HABITAT
FROM EASTERN WALLACHIA (2
nd
c. BC 1
st
c. AD)
BY NON-INVASIVE TECHNOLOGIES

Dan tefan (Bucharest - Romania)


The significant prevalence of dava fortified settlements in the Northern
Thrace a type of site analogous to the large pre-Roman oppidum settlements,
spread all across the Western and Central Europe, marked the transition to an
incipient urban landscape. We can assume that many of these fortified
settlements were residential centres ruled by local chieftains, exercising various
kinds of authority as in extension and intensity. Complex spatial and functional
organization of these early urban centres have long been concerning the
archaeologists, but a full understanding of the subject has not yet been possible
only by the means of systematic archaeological research, traditionally oriented
towards the study of sites central areas (so called acropolis). Large areas
located beyond the archaeological excavations are concealing elements and
structures essentials for the understanding of the complex nature of these sites; it
was the lack of means of investigation, efficient but accurate, which postponed
the enquiry for decades. The emergence of new geophysical methods and
equipment combined with low altitude remote sensing will create a significant
impact over the current state of the art regarding archaeology and history of the
Dacian classical period.
The paper will address questions about the functional organisation of
space and identification of boundaries of several major political, economic and
religious Geto-Dacian centres, presenting preliminary results from investigations
undertaken in 4 of the most significant Dacian centers located in the eastern part
of Wallachia: Crlomneti, Pietroasa Mic Gruiu Drii, Piscul Crsani, and
Trcov Piatra cu lilieci.
Investigations were carried out by effective, accurate and non-invasive
interdisciplinary methods, such as magnetometry, electrical resistivity
tomography (ERT) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) combined with low
altitude imagery, taken with unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV imagery), in order
to delineate and characterize subsurface archaeological remains on site extent
areas, beyond the central core of the sites where archaeologists usually excavate.

143


TUMULI AND FLAT GRAVES AT THE LOWER DANUBE
IN THE 5
TH
3
RD
CENTURIES BC A COMPARISON OF MODELS

Maria-Magdalena tefan (Bucharest - Romania)


During the early second Iron Age, the Thracian communities in the
Balkans apparently favoured the burial in mounds, by following earlier traditions.
Early Hellenistic cultural and social developments in the Balkans, Aegean and
Asia Minor contributed to an enhancement of Thracians ostentatious behaviour
translated into funerary practices and funerary architecture. Thus, mounds were
built ever larger, often covering elaborate buildings and items circulated more
far into northern realms. For some fifteen decades, the tumulus grave was the
most representative source of archaeological information regarding the social
changes suffered by the North-Balkan Thracian communities. The rhythm in
which various communities reacted to these new trends in funerary fashion and
acquired imported goods certainly varied. Some communities remained
conservative, other exhibited very subtle changes in funerary architecture and
inventories. In turn, cemeteries with flat graves were identified in a relatively
limited area of the Thracian culture, mainly at the Lower Danube (Romanian
counties Teleorman, Clrai, Tulcea, Constana and Bulgarian districts Dobrich
and Silistra) and in few more northern sites in Moldova and Covasna.
If Bulgarian archaeology was traditionally focussed on researching
burial mounds, Romanian archaeologists have paid little attention and only in
accidental circumstances to tumuli, customary considering the flat grave as
being the typical Thracian interment after excavating several thousands of them.
Recent researches by interdisciplinary methods point however to a more
complex funerary landscape, abundant in flattened mounds even in the
Romanian territories from the Lower Danube.
The paper aims to explore this archaeological reality by assessing the
relation between two synchronous funerary models - tumuli and flat graves
cemeteries at the Lower Danube, attempting to advocate for the frequent blended
implement of the two models in the same cemeteries, inquiring thus for their
relevance in terms of social differentiation.. Topographical aspects, chronology,
types of funerary structure and categories of inventory will be taken in
consideration. The investigation of the coexistence in the same space-time
interval of large mounds, very small mounds and flat graves is expected, if
associated with comparative inquiries of their inventories and chronology, to
reveal the conditions in which cultural and social models evolved within the
North Thracian communities, bringing light in the blurry beginning of Thracian
chiefdoms, formation of authority centers and rising of regional warlords.
144



NEWLY DISCOVERED MONUMENTS OF THE ANCIENT IRON
METALLURGY:
RESEARCH PERSPECTIVE AND EXPECTED OUTCOMES

Nino Sulava, Rusudan Chagelishvili, Nino Kalandadze (Georgia)


The Colchis culture (with its local hubs and infiltration zones) spread on
the east bank of the Black Sea has originated on a strong copper-bronze and iron
metallurgy base, which is now confirmed by one more new discovery.
The richness of metals is precisely what provoked the interest towards
Colchis, which is well reflected in mythological and written sources (Greek
historian and geography Strabo writes about Colchis The richness of this
country (Colchis) with gold, silver, iron and copper explains the ground for the
/Argonauts/ march. Phrixus was the first to start a journey with this purpose
[I, 2, 39]).
Despite the fact, that early use of iron is known in many countries of the
Old East, there is no documentary evidence of its early manufacturing in this
region such as early existence of iron smelting workshops. In this sense, the
situation on the territory of west Georgia is exceptional in Colchis, which is
rich with metals (gold, silver, copper, iron), there is also proof of early groups of
iron producing workshops.
Until today, the existence of the early groups of iron producing
workshops in south-west Colchis and central Colchis territories (now Adjara,
Guria, Samegrelo see: Khakhutaishvili D. 2009. The Manufacture of Iron in
Ancient Colchis, Oxford) was only known.
Till recently this region was famous for just the Late Bronze- Early Iron
Age works (a large quantity of which is preserved in Hermitage (Russia, St
Petersburg), as well as other artifacts connected with ancient metallurgy (bronze
bars, slags, casts see: Sulawa N. 2001. Letschchumi - eine bedeutendste frhe
Metallurgie - Region in der Kolchis. GEORGIEN, Schtze aus dem Land des
goldenen Vlies, Bochum.).
This time, however the existence of iron (perhaps even bronze) smelting
workshop remains (coating furnace fragments, foundry, slags) was confirmed.
Revision of publication about the geological construction and related ore
mineralization of the district enables to assume, that it belongs to copper-
pyrrhotite belt of the Southern Slope of the Great Caucasus. (Tvalchrelidze G.A.,
Kofmann R.G., Nosov A.A. 1982, Stages of ore and ore bearing geological
formation of the Caucasus. Problems of the Caucasus geodynamics. Moscow
(in Russian). It is rich in different occurrences associated with Jurassic volcano-
145

sedimentary suites and are represented mainly by copper-pyrite ores (Gabunia K.
1933. Mineral Resources of GSSR. Tbilisi. pp. 536-539 (in Russian)). Our initial
observations point out close spatial relationship between artifact localization and
local ore occurrences in abovementioned suites.
Based on the non-destructive XRF (X-ray fluorescence spectroscope
ELVAX) _research of artifacts (coating furnace fragments, foundry, slags)
discovered in mountainous Colchis (Lechkhumi), that in these samples the
largest quantity of metals is iron (80-95%), and in one of the slag samples 41%
of copper has been detected, which allows us, on this stage to assume the
simultaneous existence of copper and iron smelting furnace-workshops.
Researching the newly discovered monuments using modern means and
methods opens a wide perspective for solving a number of Bronze-Iron Age
Caucasus problematic archaeological issues, and similarly for the determination
of the Caucasus-Europe contact times and variances.

146


PRESENCE OF SPECIAL GOODS WITH UNIQUE VALUE
(PREMONETARY ITEMS) AND ARROWHEADS MONETARY-SIGNS
IN THE LOCAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE LOWER DANUBE
(7th-4th CENTURIES BC)

Gabriel Talmachi (Constana Romania)


With time, depending on the level of development that it reached at one
point a local community or area, a number of products in crude state or
processed begin to have a larger look on the market, compared with others,
being transformed, through a "game" of circumstances, into units of value. The
author presents two possible categories of premonetary metal tools that were part
of the coastal areas (or close to them) inhabited by Thracian, Scythian and Greek
populations from the west coast of Pontus Euxinus.
A first category is the silver and bronze axes were poured into individual
molds. They could be used either as jewelry either symbols of power, were
"linked" in necklaces or bracelets worn individually or as a neck collar.
Recovery of attempts of lead, similar in form, points us to variety forms, more or
less close to, existing in the Getic world. It is very difficult to determine if these
parts serve a religious celebration, however, seem to integrate the category of
"special goods with unique value." The parts mentioned are found in Dobrudja
and could be produced, probably Thracian space being brought about trade. In
the dating we turn to the period VII-V centuries BC, being specific, appeared
after our opinion, to the local communities ("physical as arms and symbolic by
tradition").
A second category is the most probable premonetary signs of metal
bows, made all in miniature version. They would copy the Scythian bow, from
Histria chora, and are cast in different patterns. And these seem, in our opinion,
to be dated to the VII-V centuries BC. (although only available archaeological
context for this type of discovery would suggest including the fourth century!).
The last category is analyzed is the monetary-sign arrowheads. Their
discoveries in Chora, in sites that are specific to local population, with
predilection along the banks of the Danube and in Dobrudja or immediate
neighborhood (but not exclusively) reveal the existence of early commercial
relations. The author also takes the view that monetary signs adapted from the
fighting tops of the second typological group (with three edges, with or without
fins, with or without lead and with the tip cut) could be the work of natives
interested in purchasing signs of exchange requested on the local market. As this
context was taken into account and that these monetary signs discovered in
contexts, including archaeological, and in which occurred "classic" fighting
147

arrowheads (their number varies from a few copies up to tens or even hundreds,
mixed with actual monetary signs).
For monetary signs arrowheads, especially those cast for this purpose,
the author opines that the pieces "thin", long, sharp as a leaf, with an obvious ax,
without thickened edges, have a form that is not necessarily anything to do with
the willow leaf or the laurel leaves so often mentioned in literature. The laurel
leaf likened retains thickened rim, the proportions are significantly enhanced, is
a certain rounding etc.. Rather, personal observations, the earlier pieces illustrate,
as a form (including ribs, etc.) an olive leaf. The resemblance is even considered
as striking. However, the leaf and olive branch, had, among others, a
significance of peace, Olympian, dedicated to the goddess Athena. This peaceful
symbolism blended perfectly with the tactics adopted by the Ionic Greek
colonizing elements from the local population of the western coast of Pontus
Euxin. Even if at Miletus there is no practice in this regard, the contact with the
natives, while developing and enhancing the work of colonization of the
northern and western shores of the Black Sea, could offer the possibility of
transforming a peaceful symbol of the Greek world in a proper material form to
maintain and gain political and economic connections with local communities.
Trade and economic contacts between local population and Greek
communities have known early stages, during which they were taken over and
changed many innovative aspects, superior material culture, social etc., between
the two sides being created a true network of relationships that looked most
aspects of the everyday life. With the economic changes and acceleration based
on standard exchange, Thracian Getic local society reached a certain level of
understanding and knowledge of specific era of economic mechanisms. And
monetary signs were intended precisely encouraging the practice of economic
exchanges between local and Greek environments.


148




TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONAL ELECTRORESISTIVITY
SURVEYS OF THRACIAN BURIAL MOUNDS

Nikola Tonkov (Sofia Bulgaria)


Burial mounds are undoubtedly amongst the most remarkable
monuments remaining from the times of the Thracians. That is why, reasonably,
they have always been of special scholar interest since the dawn of Bulgarian
archaeology. Geophysical surveys of Thracian barrows have also long history in
Bulgaria. For a long time, however, they have been focused mainly on the
discovery of large structures monumental tombs. Development of geophysical
equipment as well as of computer programming in recent years have allowed the
technique of geophysical prospection to be improved and thus maximum useful
information to be derived.
This enhanced technique includes the joint application of routine
electroresistivity and geomagnetic mapping supplemented now by the new
opportunities provided by the continuous vertical electrical sounding (CVES)
and, respectively, by the two and three dimensional inverse modelling known
also as two and three dimensional resistivity tomography (2D and 3D ERT).
First successful 2D ERT survey was performed on Svetitsa tumulus of Shipka
necropolis where not only a stone grave was detected but its dimensions and
depth beneath the surface were precisely determined. Inverse modelling
indicated also that the grave had been probably built into an already raised
tumulus embankment. In the present communication the potential of 2D ERT is
illustrated with more examples of surveys of several Thracian barrows where
wide range of structures has been detected and their characteristics successfully
predicted: a stone tomb, stone heaps, crepises, primary mounds, etc. The only
example of tumulus 3D ERT whose prognosis for the presence of a primary
mound has been checked by subsequent archaeological excavations is also
reported.







149




GOLD WREATHS FROM THRACE

Milena Tonkova (Sofia Bulgaria)


The study considers the time of the appearance, distribution and function
of the gold wreaths in Thrace. The finds itself have been analysed in their
archaeological context as well as the iconographic monuments. Epigraphic
evidence is has been adduced. The necessary comparison with the wreaths of
bronze and clay has also been done.
Appearance and distribution. Gold wreaths appeared in Thracian
aristocrats' rich graves of the second part of the 4th century BC according to the
arguments set forth herein. This was a short-lived fashion and did not go beyond
the limits of the Last Classical and Early Hellenistic Age. All the known finds
come from the inside of Thrace. From the western Black Sea coast there is
information for only one gold wreath from the so-called Kavarna treasure.
Over the following centuries, from the mid 3rd to 2nd century BC, gold
wreaths were not evidenced in Thrace. They reappeared in rich Thracian graves
on the Black Sea coast of the 1st century BC and the early 1st century AD and
later in the mainland Thrace.
Wreath types. The most wide spread in Tharce is the laurel wreath
represented by famous samples from Vratza and Rozovetz which are quite
similar, contemporary and spread within a relatively well differentiated territory.
These wreaths evidence a high quality workmanship and in terms of style and
specific features of the technique they can be attributed to the output of an
eminent Greek workshop, most likely from the Egean region. Another simpler
variant comes from the region of the Thracian necropolis near Strelcha. It
closely resembles well-known Macedonian models.
The newly found oak wreath in a rich royal grave from the Kazanlak
valley shows that the type was known in the inner Thrace, too. Until recently it
was know mainly by the superb examples from the region of the Straights. A
gold leaf from a grave from Ressilovo in the valley of Struma suggests for
diffusion in Thrace of the gold ivy wreaths, a type well known in Macedonia.
Function. The multimeaning of the wreath serves as a starting point of
the analysis. The similarities and the differences with the wreaths of bronze and
clay, considered as burial, have been drawn. It has been shown that the gold
laurel wreaths in Thrace belong sooner to another category of wreath, which
according to R. Higgins are stout enough to have been worn by the living and
too elaborate to have been made solely for the dead. The pointed typological
150

connection between the gold wreaths found in Thrace and the examples from the
region of the Straights and Macedonia helps for their acceptance as a sign of
power, political gift, tribute or a trophy.



SOME NOTES ON THE URBANISTIC DEVELOPMENT OF
PHILIPPOPOLIS (4
TH
-2
ND
C. BC.)

Ivo Topalilov (Shumen Bulgaria)


The present paper deals with two main questions concerning the urban
development of the city known by the written historical sources as Philippopolis:
the establishment of the city itself and the decline that is to be observed in the
second century BC. The recent archaeological excavation as well as other
sources such as numismatics, allows tracing the way how the city was
established initially by a border fort of the Macedonian state which become the
core of the later city. This fortress is regarded as a consequence of the
Macedonian policy in Thrace during the time of Philipp II, a link that will be
lasted for the next 500 years, i. e. nearly the time of the Roman emperor Trajan.
Around this fort emerged a settlement which in 3
rd
c. BC which will have the
features of a polis.
The other question that the present paper deals with is the obvious
decline that happened in the 2
nd
c. BC when the city territory was reduced,
possibly by some Barbarian invasion.

151




NOUVELLES DONNEES CONCERNANT LA FIN DE LAGE DU
BRONZE ET LE DEBUT DE LA PREMIERE EPOQUE DU FER DANS
LA REGION DE SUD-OUEST DE LA MUNTENIE

Ion Torcic (Alexandria Roumanie)


Lge du bronze dans la rgion de sud-ouest de la Muntnie a t moins
cherch dans dernire priode par rapport lnolithique. La recherche de la
premire poque du fer est dans la mme situation. Dans le dpartement de
Teleorman, les dernires recherches ont t effectues par A. D. Alexandrescu
dans la ncropole de Zimnicea et E. Moscalu dans le tumulus de Meri.
Dans les collections du Muse Dpartemental de Teleorman nous avons
trouv quelques exemplaires despces cramiques typiques pour le groupe
culturel Bistre Ialnia. Les vases ont de petites dimensions, deux anses
surmontes et le corps est ralis avec quatre coins. Dans les dernires annes,
les vases similaires ont t trouvs dans les villages de Mgura et Coneti
(dpartement de Teleorman) la suite des recherches de terrain.
Pendant les annes 2011et 2012, une station prhistorique a t
dcouverte loccasion des fouilles de sauvetage qui ont t effectues
Buzescu, dans le dpartement de Teleorman. Elle a t date dans la fin de lge
du Bronze et le dbut de la premire poque du Fer. Dans une surface avec
longueur de 200 m et une largeur de 20 m, ont t entirement fouills plus de
100 complexes. Le niveau archologique avait une paisseur de 50 cm. La
majorit des complexes ont t des fosses mnagres, 2 huttes, 2 habitations de
surface, structures de combustion. Le matriel archologique est constitu de
cramique, pices en silex, os, bronze, pierre polie et une matrice. La cramique
avec ces deux espces grossire et fine a des lments caractristiques pour
le groupe culturel Bistre Ialnia.
Ces dcouvertes ont complt les informations archologiques
concernant la fin de lge du Bronze et le dbut de la premire poque du Fer
dans la rgion de sud-ouest de la Muntnie et peuvent conduire lextension de
laire du groupe culturel Bistre Ialnia.

152


LATE LA TNE BELT BUCKLES FROM URUG

Stanko Trifunovic (Novi Sad Serbia)


The settlement from Late La Tne period is being investigated at multi-
layered site Stari Vinogradi in urug in Baka since 1997. Cemetery with
cremation burials preliminary dated to the transition from old to new era has
been investigated from 2008 to 2011at the site Detelinara 400 meters far from
Stari Vinogradi. The graves are shallow dug rectangular burial pits almost
always without urns. It is without doubt that cemetery belongs to the settlement
as they fully correspond chronologically and culturally.
Among many archaeological objects from the settlement just few
fragments of astragal belts have been discovered. Such finds have been also
confirmed in some of the graves. But in the graves were also found buckles of
astragal belts and the belt buckles of Laminci type. Fourteen buckles of latter
type have been discovered in total and they are of different state of preservation.
Only one of these buckles was found in one of two urns. At least some of these
buckles did not burn on pyre as they do not show traces of burning or
deformations. These belt buckles are of different size, from 10 to 25 cm long.
One of them is conspicuously bent in three fragments most probably for
symbolic reasons. In one grave seven small iron plates bent at the ends for easier
application were found next to the belt buckle of this type. They might have
been applied to the leather belt and making garniture set with belt buckle.
Buckles from urug according to decoration and shape have closest analogies
with buckles from Laminci although the buckle from Gomolava is very similar
to the urug specimens.
Besides the buckles of Laminci type fragments of astragal belts have
also been also found in few instances. In contrast to the Laminci type complete
buckles of these belts have not been found so far and it seems that they were
mostly burning on pyre. Also in contrast to the Laminci type buckles fragments
of astragal belts are frequent not only in the close vicinity of urug but also in
the entire southeast Europe.
Considering that mentioned finds come from recent archaeological
excavations it is the first time that we have opportunity to study such large
amount of belt buckles of both types together and in entirely unambiguous
context. This will provide possibilities for drawing innovative and better
conclusions about the population using them.



153




ETHNO-SOCIO-ANTHROPOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS
REGARDING THE ARISTOCRATIC BURIALS IN THE EXTRA-
CARPATHIAN ZONE, BETWEEN THE 5
TH
-3
RD
CENTURIES B.C.

Rodica Naniu-Ursu, Alexandra Coma (Bucharest Romania)


Even from the first finds, signaled by systematic or excavations done by
hazard and up to the identification of some Getic artifacts in the antiquities
collections from abroad, the issue of the funerary monuments in the extra-
Carpathian zone between the 5th-3rd centuries B.C. had always continued to stir
the interest of the scholars. This is why, it had been tackled under its various
aspects, like: funerary rite and ritual, construction typology, diversity and
functionality of the grave goods, decoration motifs, as well as the interpretations
about the significance of the iconography rendered on the inventory items. In this
entire context, an important element belonging to a complex investigation
namely the anthropological observation and study had been often eliminated,
from objective or subjective causes.
This contribution is aimed at presenting the anthropological data, as much
as its authors had access to the osteologial materials, in their connection with the
other information, all referring to the Getic aristocratic graves and their possible
ethnic assignment.

154



GREEK ART AND FEMALE REPRESENTATIONS IN THE ART OF
EUROPEAN SCYTHIA (ON THE QUESTION OF CULTURAL
INFLUENCE AND LOCAL PECULIARITY)

Marina Ju. Vakhtina (Sankt-Petersburg Russia)


The female depictions, represented goddesses and priestess, are known
for the territory of the European Scythia in 7
th
-4
th
cent. BC. As all humanlike
images they appeared in Scythian world under the influence of other cultural
traditions, among them the leading role played the Greek art. Female images,
occurred mostly on the objects of Greek metalwork, form a special group which
demands special study. Almost all of them had been found in complexes of
burial equipment in Scythian royal barrows and belong to masterpieces of so-
called Greek-Scythian toreutics. We can determine two principal periods in their
establishing and spreading at the territory of Scythia: 7
th
first half of 5
th
c. BC
and the second half of the 4
th
c. BC.
Female depictions firstly penetrated in the nomadic world about the
middle of the 7
th
cent. BC, most of them decorated the objects imported from
Greece. After the Greek colonies had been founded in the coastal area of the
Black Sea many items were exported to remote areas of Scythia. By the end of
archaic period the extension of trade and cultural relations with the Greeks
considerably increased the Hellenic influence upon Scythian culture. The
workshops catering to the tastes and demands of the barbarian aristocracy
appeared in the 5
th
cent. BC in Olbia, Panticapaeum and other Greek cities. Later
the leading role in manufacturing the objects of arts for nomadic kings played
Bosporan Kingdom. Bosporan workshops produced objects decorated both in
animal style and by anthropomorphous images.
In the 4
th
c. BC the Scythian kingdom reached the highest point of its
power and wealth. The second half of the century is considered to be the period
of flourishing of Greek-Scythian toreutics. In the frames of this period the most
famous masterpieces decorated by female images were fabricated. For the end of
the 4
th
c. BC we can fix the production of barbarian workshops which created
anthropomorphous images, among them objects, represented local goddesses.
One of the principal questions is the question of cultural belonging of concrete
images, showing different levels of Hellinization. Two main approaches are
well known. One of them is the most popular now and considers the whole range
of depictions fabricated by Greek artists for Scythian customers as appeared in
the result of development of one of the branches of peripheral Greek art. On the
contrary the other approach offers to see the local peculiarities, reflected the
155

ideology of nomadic society, in almost all known images. We suppose that the
iconographical and comparative analysis of the depictions can give us a chance
to reveal and value different levels of hellenization or barbarization of
concrete depictions and to outline several lines in development of female images
on the territory of Scythia.







A FRAGMENT OF THE CRATER WITH THE IMAGE OF THE
THRACIAN PELTASTS FROM CHERSONESOS

Irina Vdovichenko (Simferopol Ukraine)


Last years were marked by the emergence of new book and articles,
which are devoted to the study of various aspects of the political history of the
ancient Chersonesos: its culture, religion, and economics. They are based on the
richest materials, received as a the result of archaeological excavations of the
monument. Our task is to enter into the scientific circulation, to make it available
to the researchers to get in such an informative historical source as an ancient
painted pottery. In this very moment the group of researchers : I.I. Vdovichenko,
S.G.Ryzhov, G.I. Zhestkova are preparing the full publication of painted
pottery of the archaic and classical time from the excavations of S.G. Ryzhov.
The collection, gathered during these excavations from 1976 to 2011, and it was
carried out mainly in the North and the North-Eastern part of the settlement. It
consists of more than 500 fragments of vessels, which are distributed in a wide
chronological range from the mid-VI until the last quarter of IV BC.
In 1977 painted pottery were found in a north-eastern district, during
excavations of the VI street, located between VI and by the VII quarters. A
trench, tunnelled in the layers of IV-III B.C., went on the middle of street, a
bottom of it was in the layers of V- IV cent. B.C. A lot of fragmens of Attic
painted pottery were found here. Stands out among them the fragment of crater
with the image of personage which stands in a type turn to the right. On him a
cloak below than knees, decorated the horizontal bars of geometrical decorative
pattern, knee-boots with lacing. Numerous analogies allow supposing that it is
an image of thracian peltast, which stands, leaning against a dart (small part was
saved at the level of breast). The images of thracian warriors often meet on the
red-figured vases of classic period. The same figure quietly standing peltast is
156

represented on the fragmented of crater from athenian Agora (Moore 1997:191,
pl.44,330), on the front of which is placed the subjects "Orpheus and the
Thracians" We see the same cloaks and knee-boots on other images of Thracian
warriors on Attic vases, for example on a red-fured crater from Apollonia of
Pontiyskoy (Fol, Marazov 1977:126,127) (Tabl.2,1). The stylistic features of
painting allow to date this fragment by the end of the second - to beginning of
last third quarter of V B.C.
So, the careful study of collections of Chersonesos gives many
interesting information about an economy and culture of this city. The fragment
with the image of Thracian warrior gives us the opportunity to go back to the
theme of Thracian substrat in the ancient colonies of North Black Sea Coast and
in particular in Chersonesos. Appearance in the last third V c. B.C. among a
ceramic import from Attic the fragment with the image of Thracian shows
interest of citizens to this ethnic group and possibly co-operating with its
representatives. Later cultural infiltration touching onomastikon of Chersonesos
(Krykin, 1988) in IV-II B.C. went mainly through Asia Minor due to
connections with a mother city and appearance of migrants from Asia Minor and
Western Pont, exposed by Macedonian aggression (Lancov,2008).


157




TYPES OF RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTIONS, NEO-ENEOLITHIC
AND BRONZE AGE WORK-MATERIALS AND BUILDING
TECHNIQUES IN THE AREA OF BUCHAREST CITY,
ILFOV DISTRICT

Camelia-Mirela Vintil (Bucharest - Romania)


The aim of this article is present the current study on the types of
residential constructions, the work-materials and building techniques used in the
cultural area of Dudeti, Boian, Gumelnia, Gumelnia and Tei situated in the
central part of current Romanian Plains territory (Bucharest town, Ilfov district).
The discovered results center on old searches, made since early 1930s.
The study of Neo-Eneolithic and Bronze Age on the current territory of
Bucharest town and Ilfov district began after 1920, when, under the aegis of
National Antiquities Museum was founded the Bucharest Archeological Site,
lead by V. Prvan, with the help of I. Andrieescu.
After the 1990s, the Bucharest territory and Ilfov area benefit an
increased attention from the archeologists, but, unfortunately, the majority of the
searches has a rescue character or simply is shallow. From here derives the
incomplete image (on location type, on archeological complex, and even on the
material culture).
The archeological searches from Bucharest and Ilfov district have
allowed the identification of some sites and have defined characteristic cultural
manifestations from the Neo-Eneolithic epoch and Bronze Age.
In the proper analysis of the living constructions, we have considered the
following categories of information: shape, dimensions, orientation, as well as
the building techniques and the work-materials used.
To avoid the divergent interpretations, we feel obliged to specify that
these categories of information depend on the type of search and the conception
of excavation, which together have generated a certain character of
informational base. Considering that these categories of information have not
been mentioned in all cases, in the presentation we will mention only the dates at
which we had access through the publications. All these arguments, at which we
can add others, form into a motivation for the prudence of the undertaking
analysis.
The main types found in the research, from the area had in study, where
hut and the building on top of them, an easy structure to made, slightly oval,
158

elongated oval or rectangular with rounded edges, of small dimensions,
sometimes having a hearth inside it.
At the surface of the building we encounter: the monocellular dwelling
(the often encountered), with two rooms, with an external fitting (from stones,
most likely a porch) and the seasonal one.
Next to these were found series of pits, which can be: housekeepers
(circular or oval), pits used in the construction of the dwelling-house or the hut
(for the support of the roof).
The raw materials used were clay, burnt clay, wood, branches, straws
and sand.



TRANSCARPATHIAN FINDS OF STAMPED CERAMICS

Izabela Wnuczek (Rzeszow Poland)


The theme of the speech is the problem of the spreading stamped
ceramics identified with Basarabi culture on the transcarpathian areas. This
phenomenon is dated between the 2nd half of the VIII century BC and the VI
century BC. The research included the Poland and Ukraine areas, where for
many years there has been a case of this type of ceramic finds. Previous findings
from the Dolny lsk allowed believing the penetration of these monuments by
the Sudeten passes. However new findings from the area of the Maopolska and
Podkarpacie Province make it a major role in this process seem to play
Carpathian passes. It is also interesting that the lack of such findings (or a very
small amount) on the grounds of today's Czech Republic and Slovakia. In the
case of any finds of stamped ceramics attendance can speak only for Moravia.
According to, it is appropriate to reflect on the causes of this phenomenon. The
paper therefore remain issues raised not only the characteristics of the individual
findings, but also the analysis of intercultural contacts that have influenced the
formation of this process and descriptions the relationship of operating in this
period trade routes.

159




BROTLAIBIDOLE/TAVOLETTE ENIGMATICHE EIN
UNGELSTES RTSEL ALTBRONZEZEITLICHER
KULTURBEZIEHUNGEN ZWISCHEN UNTERER DONAU,
SDDEUTSCHLAND UND ITALIEN.

David Wolfgang (Manching Deutschland)


In bronzezeitlichen Siedlungen der Zeit zwischen etwa 1850 v. Chr. und
1450 v. Chr. wurden immer wieder kleine lngsovale Objekte aus gebranntem
Ton entdeckt, die auf ihrer Oberflche charakteristische Gruppen von Linien und
Eindrcken unterschiedlicher Form tragen. Die Anordnung und Kombination der
Linien und Eindrcke erfolgte offenbar nicht zufllig oder in beliebiger Weise.
Vielmehr scheint eine Art System dahinter zu stehen. Regelhaftigkeiten lassen
an ein Zeichensystem denken, mglicherweise zur Darstellung von
Mengenangaben oder anderer Informationen. Tragen manche dieser Objekte gar
eine Vorform der Schrift?
Viele Brotlaibidole sind offenbar absichtlich zerbrochen worden und
unvollstndig berliefert. Die Fundumstnde weisen sie als Gegenstnde des
alltglichen Gebrauchs aus. Sie stammen aus Siedlungen, wobei ein
Zusammenhang mit kultischen Aktivitten nicht erkennbar ist. Eindeutige
Belege aus Grbern scheinen ebenfalls zu fehlen.
Ein aufflliges Merkmal ist ihre weitrumige Verbreitung zwischen dem
Mittelrheingebiet im Nordwesten und Oltenien an der Unteren Donau im
Sdosten, zwischen Nordostungarn im Nordosten und Latium bzw. Korsika im
Sdwesten. Verbreitungsschwerpunkte befinden sich in Norditalien, in der
Sdwestslowakei und beiderseits des Eisernen Tores in Rumnien und in
Serbien. Dieses Verbreitungsbild weist die Brotlaibidole als Zeugen eines frhen
europischen Kommunikationsnetzes zwischen ganz unterschiedlichen
Kulturgruppen aus.
Die sdstlichste Verbreitungsregion der Brotlabidole stellt die Zone
beiderseits des Eisernen Tores im heutigen Serbien und in Sdrumnien dar. Die
dortigen Vorkommen von Brotlaibidolen stehen mit der sogenannten uto Brdo-
Grla Mare-Kultur in Verbindung, die sich durch kunstvoll verzierte inkrustierte
Keramik auszeichnet. Vogelrasseln, Miniaturxte sowie menschen- und
tiergestaltige Plastiken aus Ostrovu(l) MareBivolrii in Oltenien tragen eine
symbolreiche Ornamentik, in der sich vielleicht ein Schlssel zum Verstndnis
der Zeichen auf den Brotlabidolen verbirgt.
160

Stehen die Brotlaibidole im Zusammenhang mit Gtertausch oder
Fernhandel beispiels-weise von Metallen, Bernstein oder Tieren? Handelt
es sich zumindest bei manchen von ihnen um Zhlsymbole, die je nach Art der
Gter im Hinblick auf Form oder Zeichen formal differenziert waren? Knnte
es sich um eine Art Warenbegleitschein gehandelt haben oder um
Eigentumsmarken? Oder dienten sie zur Dokumentation von Anzahl und Art
von Wirtschaftsgtern? Gebrauchte man sie zur Speicherung von Informationen
oder gar zur bermittlung von Nachrichten in codierter, nur von einem
bestimmten Personenkreis zu entschlsselnder Form ber grere Entfernungen?
Fungierten sie zur Legitimierung mndlicher Nachrichten bzw. als
Erkennungszeichen? Oder aber dienten sie zur Aufzeichnung zyklischer
Geschehen bzw. als Kalender? Knnte es sich auch um Talismane oder
Amulette handeln?
Und warum gerieten die Brotlaibidole bald nach Mitte der 2.
Jahrtausends v. Chr. offenbar gnzlich auer Gebrauch? Bei ihnen handelt sich
nmlich um ein zwar auffllig weitrumig verbreitetes, aber letztlich doch nur
vorbergehendes Phnomen. Ihre hauptschliche Verwendung fllt in die Zeit
der vollen Entfaltung der altbronzezeitlichen Kulturen Mitteleuropas und der
Blte der sptminoisch-frhmykenischen Hochkultur in Sdgriechenland
(17./16. Jh. vor Chr.).

161




THRAKISCH UND DAKISCH SPRACHEN ODER DIALEKTE?

Svetlana Yanakieva (Sofia Bulgarien)


Das Problem der sprachlichen Homogenitt auf dem Gebiet zwischen
den Karpaten und dem gischen Meer wurde bis zur Mitte des 20. Jahrhunderts
nicht in Frage gestellt. W. Tomaschek und D. Detschew fassten die thrakische
Sprache als einheitlich innerhalb dieser Grenzen auf.
Vl. Georgiev war es, der zum ersten Mal eine Auffassung ber die
Existenz des Thrakischen und des Dako-Msischen als zwei Einzelsprachen
vorlegte. Seine Hypothese findet eine Anzahl von Anhngern (Duridanov,
Vlahov, Velkova, Poghirc). Andere nehmen die Idee von zwei Einzelsprachen
nicht an (Russu, Bernstein, Gindin, Crossland, Mihailov, Rdulescu) oder
zgern hinsichtlich der Frage, ob es um Einzelsprachen geht, oder nur um
Dialekte (Polom, Vraciu, Brixhe-Panayotou, Bojadshiev u. a.).
Auf Grund sowohl von Appellativa (Glossen), als auch von Onomastik
(Anthroponyme, Theonyme, Ethnonyme, Hydronyme, Siedlungsnamen u.s.w.)
wird im Vortrag an erster Stelle das Vorhandensein wesentlicher phonetischer
Unterschiede (z.B. das Fehlen, bzw. das Vorhandensein einer Verschiebung der
stimmlosen und der stimmhaften Explosivlaute) zwischen dem thrakischen und
dem sogenannten dako-msichen Gebiet berprft. Die Aufmerksamkeit wird
auf die Angaben ber Namen aus den zwei Gebieten gelenkt, die aus demselben
Wortstamm abgeleitet sind. Verschiedene grafische Varianten bei der
Schreibung anderer Namen werden erforscht, damit die Ursache dieser
Erscheinung untersucht werden kann.

162



"AGE AND SERVICE OF THE THRACIANS
IN THE 2ND -3RD CENTURIES LEGIONS".

Mihail Zahariade (Bucharest - Romania)


The paper presents in a statistic form the limits in which lifetime of the
legionaries of Thracian origin unfolded, from the recruitment age until the
moment and place of their death. Commentaries on a highly rich epigraphic
material stresses on the categories of age, from the earliest to the latest, age and
intensity of recruitment, the political and military factors as ground for
recruitment, circumstances of the decease.
It is relevant that the life of most of the individuals ends in their 30s and
40s, evidence which, compared to the place where tombstones were set,
represents a clear indication of direct involvement in active events in different
parts of the Roman Empire .On the other hand it shows that more experienced
contingents were used in such occasions, while the individuals in their 20s hold
a low percentage.





















163











































164






REPORT OF THE CENTER
OF THRACOLOGY










165



166

CENTER OF THRACOLOGY
THE ACTIVITY BETWEEN 2008-2013


It has been 10 years since the Centre of Thracology, following the
administrative reorganization of the Romanian Institute of Thracology
became part of the Vasile Prvan Institute of Archaeology inside the
larger structure of the Romanian Academy. If at the beginning there were
some malfunctions in the harmonization of the research projects
(members of the Centre included specialists outside the field of
archaeology), in the period 2008-2013 the things entered on a normal
path, enabling efficient activities in the field of Thracological research.

In this presentation we will synthetize the results of this activity,
trying to highlight the interdisciplinarity of the work done by the
colleagues from the Centre and by their collaborators. It must also be
mentioned that various bi- and multi-lateral research projects were and
still are going on between the Institute of Archaeology Centre of
Thracology and various institutions from Romania and abroad. Among
our partners we are pleased to mention ArchaeoCommunity Foundation
and EnviroSystems Inc. (U.S.A.), the universities of Heidelberg, Berlin,
Edinburgh, Rome, Sofia, Belgrade, Skopje, Lisbon, Washington,
Flagstaff, Fargo, Bucureti, Trgovite, Galai, Iai, the institutes of
archaeology and museums from Sofia, Russe, Isperich, Tutrakan,
Heidelberg, Frankfurt am Main, Berlin, Belgrade, aak, Alexandria,
Braov, Brila, Caracal, Clrai, Constana, Craiova, Drobeta-Turnu
Severin, Giurgiu, Oltenia, Piatra Neam, Rmnicu Vlcea, Sfntu
Gheorghe, Slobozia, Trgovite, Trgu Jiu, Tulcea etc.

As part of the Program no. 2 of the Institute of Archaeology The
North Thracian world in the light of pluridisciplinary research
(coordinators: 2008-2010 - Mihail Zahariade, 2010-2013 - Cristian
Schuster) a series of projects took place or are still going on. Specialists
from the Centre participate at these projects together with collaborators
from Romania and abroad. A few examples would be: The Arge and
Dmbovia basins during the Final Bronze Age, Hallstatt and Latne.
Interdisciplinary study (Cristian Schuster, Alexandru Morintz,
Alexandra Coma, Georgeta El Susi), The monograph study of the
167

fortified settlement of Bzdna-Calopr Citadel (4
th
Century BC 1
st

Century AD) (Vlad Zirra), The Thraco-Geto-Dacian civilization in the
light of the excavations at Crlomneti, Buzu County (Vlad Zirra,
Despina Mgureanu, Georgeta El Susi), The 1
st
Century BC 3
rd
Century
AD discoveries from the Clrai and Ialomia Counties. The Sarmatian
finds and the Roman imports (Valeriu Srbu), The Geto-Dacian and
Daco-Roman funerary archaeology (Vlad Zirra, Anca Ganciu, Daniel
Spnu), Goldsmith pieces from Dacia from 2
nd
Century BC to 1
st
Century
AD (Daniel Spnu), The Thracians during the Roman period (Mihail
Zahariade, Georgeta El Susi), Locals, Romans and migrators in the
Extreme Scythiae Minoris: the Halmyris case (Mihail Zahariade), The
Dacian and Roman settlements on the Teleajen Valley (Mihail
Zahariade), Spatial analysis in the Romanian archaeological research
(Alexandru Morintz), The cult of the skull in the Prehistory of Romania
(Alexandra Coma).

For the finalization of the above mentioned projects and of others
coordinated by our colleagues from the Vasile Prvan Institute of
Archaeology or from other research institutions from Romania and
abroad, the field work was combined with lab work, and with work done
in the deposits, archives and libraries from Romania, Europe and the
United States of America (as part of national and international grants: V.
Srbu, V. Zirra, M. Zahariade, D. Spnu, A. Coma, G. El Susi, C.
Schuster). When we refer to field work, we must mention the
archaeological excavations coordinated by specialists from the Centre of
Thracology and those where the specialists of the Centre are members in
the research team: Murighiol-Halmyris (international excavation;
scientific coordinator Mihail Zahariade), Radovanu (international
excavation; scientific coordinators Done erbnescu and Cristian
Schuster), Iepureti (international excavation; scientific coordinators
Cristian Schuster and Raluca Koglniceanu), Crlomneti (scientific
coordinator Vlad Zirra), Pietroasa Mic-Gruiu Drii (scientific
coordinator Valeriu Srbu), Telia-Celic Dere (scientific coordinator
Valeriu Srbu), Stelnica (scientific coordinator Vlad Zirra), Mironeti
(scientific coordinator Cristian Schuster), Drajna de Sus (scientific
coordinator Mihail Zahariade).

168

The results of the investigations in the field of Thracology
archaeology, history, anthropology, archaeozoology, linguistics,
ethnography etc. were materialized in publications (books, chapters,
studies, articles, notes, and reviews), in communications at international,
national and local scientific meetings (congresses, symposia), in
exhibitions (see the lists with some of the scientific outputs*).

Concerning the publications, it must be noted that, following the
tradition of the former Romanian Institute of Thracology, the Centre edits,
in a renewed series, the prestigious journal Thraco-Dacica, whose board
includes renowned specialists from Europe and Romania. The editing
board, due to the efforts of the colleagues Vlad Zirra (scientific secretary)
and Anca Ganciu and with the help of Liliana Zaharia and Daniela Roman
managed to confer the journal a more adequate image in conformity with
the present day required exigencies.
At the editing of the journal and of some books in the field of
Thracology, the Centre collaborated very efficiently with well-known
publishing houses such as Academy PH, Archaeopress, Cetatea de Scaun,
Istros, Mega, Pelican, Simetria.

As it could be noted from the above, the Centre of Thracology,
through its activity, proves to be one of the most dynamic departments of
the Institute of Archaeology. Together with the research activities,
didactic activities also characterize the Centre, such as the archaeological
practice and the work in the labs for the students, and also the activities
specific of a doctoral school.

It is obvious that the members of the Centre did not resume
strictly to the work specified in their job description but, together with
colleagues from the Institute of Archaeology, also contributed to activities
that brought extra-budgetary funding (C. Schuster, A. Morintz, D.
Mgureanu, A. Ganciu, A. Coma, G. El Susi), more than welcome in the
present day financial environment.

Cristian Schuster
Director of the Center of Thracology
Vasile Prvan Institute of Archaeology
Romanian Academy
169

* COMMUNICATIONS AT INTERNAIONAL AND
IMPORTANT NATIONAL MANIFESTATIONS

- D. erbnescu, A. Coma, Necropola Boian de la Sultana, jud.
Clrai, Symposium Institute of Archaeology, Bucharest, 25
th
-27
th

February, 2008.
- A. Coma, Bucureti Militari Cmpul Boja Monumente funerare ale
sec. XIX d. Chr. Cteva date antropologice, Symposium University
Spiru Haret, Bucharest, 25
th
May, 2008
- A. Coma, Obolul lui Charon in necropole din primul mileniu p.Chr.
de pe teritoriul Romniei, Symposium Zilele antropologiei romneti
De la troc la cardul electronic, Sibiu, 6
th
-8
th
June, 2008.
- A. Coma, Viaa i activitateai arheologului dr. Eugen Coma,
Symposium ARA, Institute of Archaeology, Bucharest, 24t
h
-26
th
April,
2009.
- A. Coma, I. Szucs-Cillit, The Andesite Sun in the Carpathian
Mountains, UISPP 4
th
Commission (Data Management and
Mathematical Methods in Arcaheology) Quantitative Methods for the
Challenges in the 21
st
Century Archaeology, Budapest, 5
th
-6
th
June,
2009.
- A. Coma, Focul purificator in morminte preistorice de pe teritoriul
Romniei, Symposium Etnoreligie. Idei, credine simboluri: Sanctuare
naturale. Ritualuri n sanctuare, 22
nd
April, 2009.
- A. Coma, Metode moderne n antropologia romneasc, Symposium
Arheometrie 2010, Bucharest, 28
th
-29
th
Octomber, 2010.
- R. Ursu, A. Coma, Viaa de dup moarte. Pregtirea defunctului
pentru existena post mortem in culturile indo-europene din mileniul I.
.Chr., Conference 70 de ani de la nfiinarea Institutului de
Antropologie Francisc Rainer Corp i corporalitate, Bucharest, 11
th

November, 2010.
- R. Ursu, A. Coma, Death as Extension of Life. Considerations
Regarding the Social Status of the Dead in the Getic world of the 5
th
-3
rd

Centuries B.C., Annual Meeting of the European Association of
Archaeologists, Hage,1
st
-5
th
September, 2010.
- A. Coma. I. Szcs-Cillik, G. Miu, A comparison between some
elements of funerary customs in two Neolithic necropolises from
Romania, Symposium Idei, credine, simboluri - Sanctuare naturale.
Ritualuri n sanctuare, Iai, 29
th
April, 2011.
170

- A. Coma, Trupul i sufletul in necropolele preistorice din Romnia,
Symposium Zilele antropologiei romneti. Ediia a XVIII-a Trupul si
sufletul. Evoluei i simbol, Sibiu, 8
th
-11
st
September, 2011.
- I. Szcs-Cillik, A. Coma, The East-West alignment in Neolithic of the
south-eastern Romania, Congress Arheoinvest, Iai, 9
th
-10
th
June, 2011.
- A. Coma, The Burial from Radovanu, in the Context of the Yamnaya
Funerary Finds from Romania, Symposium Culture and Civilisation at
the Lower Danube. East and West, edition XIV. Clrai-Ruse, 12
nd
-14
th

October, 2011.

- G. El Susi, Analiza resturilor faunistice din sanctuarul dacic de la
Piatra Craivii, jud. Alba, campania 2008, Symposium Unitate,
continuitate i independen n istoria poporului romn. 90 de ani de la
Marea Unire (1918-2008), Alba Iulia, 14
th
-15
th
November, 2008.
- G. El Susi, Date preliminare asupra resturilor de faun provenite din
cetatea medieval a Devei, incinta I, Symposium Muzeului Civilizaiei
Dacice i Romane, Deva, 10
th
-12
th
June, 2009
- G. El Susi, Reconstituirea inventarului animal dintr-o locuin
incendiat la cucerirea roman de la Raco-Piatra Detunat (jud.
Braov), Symposium Arheometrie, Bucharest, 28
th
-29
th
October, 2010.
- G. El Susi, Cercetri arheozoologice n aezarea culturii Petreti de la
Mona, jud. Sibiu, Symposium Unitate, continuitate i independen n
istoria poporului romn. 92 ani de la Marea Unire (1918-2010), Alba
Iulia, 25
th
-26
th
November, 2010.
- G. El Susi, Cercetri arheozoologice recente n aezri ale culturii
Monteoru din S-E Romniei, Congress Arheoinvest, Iai, 10
th
-11
th
June,
2011.
- G. El Susi, New data on Livestock in late Roman Settlements from
Dobrudja through the Research at Murighiol (Tulcea County),
Symposium Culture and Civilisation at the Lower Danube. East and
West, edition XIV. Clrai-Russe, 12
nd
-14
th
October, 2011.
- G. El Susi, Some Considerations on Farming and Hunting in the Late
Neolithic and Early Eneolithic Sites in Banat (SW Romania): Similarities
and Differences, Internationl symposium: The Transition from the
Neolithic to the Eneolithic in Central and South-Eastern Europe in the
Light of Recent Research, Timioara, 10
th
-11
th
November, 2011.
- G. El Susi, Preliminary Report on Faunal Remains from Uivar (Timi
County), Workshop on Uivar project, Berlin, 9
th
-11
th
December, 2011.
171

- G. El Susi, Studiul resturilor de animale din nivelele La Tne de la
Crlomneti (com. Vernesti, jud Buzu), Symposium Institute of
Archaeology Vasile Prvan, Bucureti, 14
th
-16
th
March, 2012.
- G. El Susi, Date asupra speciilor de animale exploatate n locuirile din
secolele II-IV i VI-VII p. Chr. de la Militari-Cmpul Boja, Bucureti.
Campaniile 2003, 2005, Symposium Arheologia mileniului I p. Chr,
ediia IX-a, Ploieti, 23
rd
-25
th
August, 2012.
- G. El Susi, Animal Management by Precucutenian Communities and
their Impact on the Environment in Light of recent Research on Sites in
Eastern Romania, Symposium Impactul antropic asupra mediului natural
n neo-eneoliticul sud-est european, Piatra Neam, 24
th
-26
th
October,
2012.
- G. El Susi, Studiul resturilor de animale din nivelele de epoca
bronzului de la Crlomneti (com. Vernesti, jud Buzu), Symposium
Institute of Archaeology Vasile Prvan, Bucharest, 27
th
-29
th
March,
2013.

- P Guillot, L. Therese, V.V. Zirra, Ph. Belenguer, C. Muja, A. Ganciu,
Archaeological material elemental analysis, Symposium Atlasul
Arheologic al Romniei de la paleolitic la anul 1000 p. Chr., Bucureti,
April, 2008.
- L. Laquay, A. Ganciu, La ncropole crmation de Zimnicea
(Roumanie, 4
me
-3
me
s. av. J.-C.) : bilan prliminaire, 4
me
Colloque de
Pathographie, Ministre de lEnseignement Suprieur et de la Recherche
et du Ministre de la Culture et de la Communication, Saint-Jean-de-
Cle (Dordogne), 13
th
-15
th
May, 2011.
- A. Ganciu, Gh. Matei, P. Charlier, Rites et rituels funraires dans le
monde gte. Le cas de Stelnica, II
e
Atelier franco-roumain darchologie,
Grecs en pays gte: Regard crois sur les rites funraires, ANR Pont-
Euxin , Centre Camille Jullian, Universit Aix-Marseille I, Institut
darchologie Vasile Prvan , Institut dEtudes Sud-Est Europennes,
Ambassade de France la Bucureti, Service de coopration et d'action
culturelle, Bucarest, 25
th
-26
th
November, 2011.
- L. Laquay, A. Ganciu, P. Charlier, Etude de la necropole de Stelnica
(Roumanie, IVIII
e
sicle avant notre ere) premieres resultats
antropologiques des cremations, Recherches croises en Dobrogea,
Bucharest, 17
th
-18
th
Mai, 2012.
172

- A. Ganciu, G. Matei, L.a Laquay, P. Charlier, Ncropole gtique de
Stelnica - "Grditea Mare", Recherches croises en Dobrogea,
Bucharest, 17
th
-18
th
May, 2012.

- A. Morintz, Cernavoda Area. A proposal for the reconstruction of the
prehistoric landscape, WAC-6. Sixth World Archaeological Congress,
Dublin, 29
th
June -4
th
July 2008.
- A. Morintz, Spatial Databases From 2D to 3D, Workshop 13.
Archologie und Computer. Kulturelles Erbe und Neue Technologien,
Vienna, 3
rd
-5
th
November, 2008.
- A. Morintz, 3D reconstruction beyond the pretty face, Workshop 14.
Archaeology and Computer. Cultural Heritage and New Technologies,
Vienna, 16
th
-18
th
November, 2009.
- A. Morintz, R. Koglniceanu, Intra-site Spatial Analysis of a Neolithic
Cemetery (Cernica, Bucharest), CAA 2009. Computer Applications and
Quantitative Methods in Archaeology. Making History Interactive,
Williamsburg, Virginia, 22
nd
-26
th
March, 2009.
- A. Morintz, Survey in archaeology, often a neglected science, The
Second Annual Symposium, Survey in archaeology, often a neglected
science, Giurgiu, 23
rd
-26t
h
October, 2011.
- A. Morintz, The disturbance of a particular funerary context (tumulus):
clues, hypotheses and proofs, EAA 17
th
Annual Meeting, Oslo, 14t
h
-18
th

September, 2011.
- A. Morintz, The Stories of the First Topographer, 16t
h
International
Conference on Cultural Heritage and New Technologies, Vienna, 14
th
-
16
th
November, 2011.
- R. Koglniceanu, A. Morintz, Solving Old Problems with New
Methods: Considerations about a Neolithic Cemetery, CAA 2009.
Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology.
Making History Interactive, Williamsburg, Virginia, 22
nd
-26
th
March,
2009.
- R. Koglniceanu, A. Morintz, Documentation of the 3D-Position of
archaeological objects at a regular raster excavation in Iepureti,
Romania, Workshop 14. Archaeology and Computer. Cultural Heritage
and New Technologies, Vienna, 16
th
-18
th
October, 2009.
- R. Kogniceanu, A. Morintz, C. Markussen, Non-intrusive surveying of
a prehistoric site (Iepureti, Giurgiu County): from the air, at the ground
level, and beneath the ground, CAA 2010. Computer Applications and
173

Quantitative Methods in Archaeology. Fusion of Cultures, Granada, 6
th
-
9
th
April, 2010.
- C. Markussen, A. Morintz, D. Monsees, Topographic and Spatial
Referencing of Magnetic Data at Radovanu Gorgana a doua, Southern
Romania, CAA 2010. Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods
in Archaeology. Fusion of Cultures, Granada, 6
th
-9
th
April, 2010.

- D. Mgureanu, Crlomneti Cetuia, Internaional Symposium The
Necropolises and the Environment (1
st
mill. BC), 11
th
International
Colloquium of Funerary Archaeology, Buzu, 22
nd
-24
th
Octomber, 2009.

- C. Schuster, A. Morintz, Using Computers in Romanian Archaeology:
An Anthropological Approach, CAA 2009. Computer Applications and
Quantitative Methods in Archaeology. Making History Interactive.
Williamsburg, Virginia, 22
nd
-26
th
March, 2009.
- C. Schuster, A. Morintz, R. Koglniceanu, Funerary monuments on the
A2 Highway (Cernavoda-Medgidia segment). Case study: Tumulus no. 3,
International Symposium on Funerary Anthropology. Homines, Funera,
Astra, 1 Decembrie 1918 University of Alba Iulia, Alba Iulia, 5
th
-8
th

June, 2011.

- V. Srbu, Coins from the Sacred Getic-Dacian Areas, The International
Symposium Coins, Medals, Badges Documentary and Artistic Values,
Braov, 27
th
-28
th
March, 2008.
- V. Srbu, V. Stoian, Dacian sites from South-East of Romania,
International Symposium The Museum Patrimony of the Lower Danube
and the Carpathian area, in European context, Tulcea, 11
th
-12
th
April,
2008.
- V. Srbu, G. Florea, Geto-Dacian Clay Vessels (2
nd
century BC-1
st
century AD): imitation and originality, Pontika 2008. Recent Research
on the Northern and Eastern Black Sea in Ancient Times, International
Colloquium at the Institute of Archaeology, Jagiellonian University,
Krakow, 21
st
-26
th
April, 2008.
- V. Srbu, V. Cavruc, D. Buzea, A Dacian Necropolis Dated in the 4
th

3
rd
Centuries B.C. at Olteni (South-eastern Transylvania), 9
th

International Colloquium of Funerary Archaeology Funerary Practices of
the Bronze and Iron Ages in Central and South-Eastern Europe, Bistria,
9
th
-11
th
May, 2008.
174

- V. Srbu, M. Duescu, D. tefan, The symbols of power at the
periphery: The north-Thracian tumuli graves (5
th
-3
rd
centuries BC),
International Colloquium The Iron Gates Region during the Second Iron
Age: Settlements, Necropolises, and Treasures, Drobeta -Turnu Severin,
6
th
-7
th
June, 2008.
- V. Srbu, An Important Dacian Site in the Carpathian Mountains:
Pietroasa Mic-Gruiu Drii: from Fortified Settlement to Sacred
Enclosure, 6
th
World Archaeological Congress, Dublin, 29
th
June-4t
h

July, 2008.
- V. Srbu, Gender at the Northern Thracians: Iconography and
Archaeological Discoveries, 14
th
Annual Meeting of European
Association of Archaeologists, La Valetta, 16
th
-21
st
September, 2008.
- V. Srbu, D. tefan, M. Duescu, Telia - Celic Dere, Tulcea County.
Landscape Studies, 10
th
International Colloquium of Funerary
Archaeology Funerary Practices in Central and Eastern Europe (10
th
c.
BC 3
rd
c. AD), Tulcea, 10
th
-12
th
October, 2008.
- V. Srbu, M. Duescu, D. tefan, Refining the past view with the help of
technology. The case of the Iron Age archaeological complex from Telia-
Celic Dere (Romania), 13
th
International Congress Cultural Heritage and
New Technologies, Vienna, 2
nd
-5
th
November, 2008.
- V. Srbu, D. tefan, Statistical Tools as Landscape Archaeology,
Annual Meeting of the UISPP 4
th
Commission Quantitative Methods for
the Challenges in 21
st
Century Archaeology, Budapesta, 5
th
-6
th
June,
2009.
- V. Srbu, S. Matei, Pietroasa Mic-Gruiu Drii (jud. Buzu) de la o
aezare (sec. IV-III a. Chr.) la un centru sacru dacic (sec. I a. Chr. I
p.Chr.), Symposium Civilizaia geto-dac cercetare-prezervare-
integrare, Sfntu Gheorghe, 2
nd
-4
th
July, 2009.
- V. Srbu, Figurative representations on the Sarmatian and Geto-Dacian
phalerae: resemblances and differences, Fourth International Congress on
Black Sea Antiquities, The Bosporus: Gateway between the Ancient
West and East (1
st
Millennium BC-5
th
Century AD) , Istanbul (Turkey),
14
th
-18
th
September, 2009.
V. Srbu, Geto-Dacian Settlements and Necropolises: Three Case Studies
(Coslogeni, Olteni, Hunedoara), 11
th
International Colloquium of
Funerary Archaeology The Necropolises and the Environment (1
st
mill.
BC), Buzu, 22
nd-
24
th
October, 2009.
175

- D. tefan, V. Srbu, Al. Barnea, M.-M. tefan, Challenges in the
Archaeological ePublishing in the Context of the New Generations of
Web Services, Computer Applications in Archaeology (CAA), Granada,
6
th
-9
th
April 2010.
- V. Srbu, M.-M. tefan- Gender in the Getae princely tumuli graves
(5
th
-3
rd
c. BC), Some considerations, 12
th
International Colloquium of
Funerary Archaeology The weaponry and the combat or parade gear
marks of the prestige and social status in the tombs of the Bronze and
Iron Ages,, Brila, 22
nd
-24
th
October, 2010.
- T. Soroceanu, V. Srbu, Die Hhle von Nucu-Fundu Peterii: ein
hervorragendes Denkmal mit bronzezeitlichen Waffendarstellungen in
den rumnischen Karpaten, Deutsches Archologisches Institut, Berlin,
30
th
March, 2011.
- V. Srbu, T. Soroceanu, Une grotte avec des reprsentations darmes
de lge du Bronze, Nucu, dp. de Buzu (Roumanie), XXIV
Valcamonica Symposium Art and Communication in Pre-literate
societies, Capo di Ponte, 13
th
-18
th
July, 2011.
- V. Srbu, Agighiol and Peretu graves of Getae Basilei (350-300 BC)
at the Lower Danube, XVI UISPP World Congress, Florianopolis
(Brazil), 2
nd
-10
th
September, 2011.
- V. Srbu, R. Asndoaie, Tumuli graves of the Getae basilei in the 4
th
-3
rd

c. BC (general considerations and south Balkans influences), International
Symposium, Strumica, 3
rd
-6
th
November, 2011.
- V. Srbu, C. Croitoru, Brboi dans le contexte des vnements au Bas
Danube: de la dava au castrum, International Symposium Romanii la
Marea Neagr n vremea lui Augustus: evidena izvoarelor literare,
arheologice i numismatice, Tulcea, 5
th
-9
th
June, 2012.
- V. Srbu, G. Jugnaru, D. tefan, M.-M. tefan, R. Asndoae, M.
Constantin, T. Bochnak, Telia-Edirlen: une cit gtique au nord de la
Dobroudja, International Symposium Arheologia preistoric la Dunrea
de Jos ntre tradiie i inovaie, Tulcea, 20
th
-22
nd
Septembrie, 2012.
- V. Srbu, M.-M. tefan, Between Norm and Ambiguity Expressing
Gender in Second Iron Age North-Balkan Thrace, 13
rd
International
Colloquium of Funerary Archaeology Bronze and Iron Ages Graves
from Eurasia: Gender between Archaeology and Anthropology, Buzu-
Srata Monteoru, 17
th
-20
th
October, 2012.

176

- V. Srbu, D. tefan, Cr. Roman, Gender Roles in Flux: A study in Social
Dynamics in Second Iron Age Necropolis from Hunedoara Grdina
Castelului, 13
rd
International Colloquium of Funerary Archaeology
"Bronze and Iron Ages Graves from Eurasia: Gender between
Archaeology and Anthropology, Buzu-Srata Monteoru, 17
th
-20
th

October, 2012.
- L. Oa, V. Srbu , Seb. Matei, Male and female grave-goods in
Sarmatian tombs found in Wallachia, 13
rd
International Colloquium of
Funerary Archaeology "Bronze and Iron Ages Graves from Eurasia:
Gender between Archaeology and Anthropology, Buzu-Srata
Monteoru, 17
th
-20
th
October, 2012.
- V. Srbu, Hunedoara-Grdina Castelului (Romania): a Dacian
Necropolis from the Second Iron Age, 7
th
World Archaeological
Congress, The Dead Sea Jordan, 13
th
-18
th
January, 2013.

- D. Spnu, Die kaiserzeitliche Nekropole von Poieneti, Eurasia
Department of the D.A.I., Berlin, 24
th
June, 2009.
- D. Spnu, Probleme ale caselor eneolitice pe baza cercetrilor din
suprafaa F de pe tellul Gorgana de la Pietrele, jud. Giurgiu,
Symposium Arhitectur-Restaurare-Arheologie, Bucharest,15
th
April,
2011.
- D. Spnu, Probleme ale necropolelor est-carpatice din secolele II-III,
Symposium Institute of Archaeology Vasile Prvan, Bucharest, 24
th

Mai, 2011.
- D. Spnu, Semnificaie i simbol brrile de aur dacice, SimpARA,
Roia Montan, 11
th
September, 2011.
- D. Spnu, Cronologia necropolelor de tip Poieneti-Vrticoiu i
problema ptrunderii carpice n Transilvania, Symposium Milenii
tezaurizate, creaie i spiritualitate, Srata Monteoru, 25
th
November,
2011.
- D. Spnu, Sighioara - Dealul Viilor. Campaniile 2010-2011. Un
mormnt de incineraie provincial trziu i teoria ptrunderii carpice n
Transilvania, Symposium Institute of Archaeology Vasile Prvan,
Bucharest, 15
th
-20
th
februarie, 2012.
- D. Spnu, Spaiul tezaurelor. Tezaure n spaiu. Cazul dacic,
Symposium ARA, Bucharest, 19
th
April, 2012.
177

- D. Spnu, Spthellenistische Einflsse in der sptlatnezeitlichen
Silber-Kunst Dakiens. International Symposium Archologie und
Linguistik, Yalta, 22
nd
September, 2012.
- D. Spnu, Tumulii de epoc trzie La Tne de la Poiana. Cercetrile
Ecaterinei i ale lui Radu Vulpe, Symposium Movile funerare din
Romnia. Cercetri i discuii, Bucharest, 27
th
February, 2013.
- D. Spnu, Tezaurul de monede i podoabe din secolul al III-lea a. Chr.
de la Epureni, Presentation Centrul de Tracologie, Bucharest, 8
th

March, 2013.
- D. Spnu, Seciunea cercetat la Sighioara Dealul-Viilor n campania
2012, Symposium Institute of Archaeology Vasile Prvan, Bucharest,
29
th
March, 2013.

- M. Zahariade, The Funerary Monument from Halmyris: Circumstances
of discovery, methodology of restoration, 17
th
International Symposium
of Restoration and Conservation, Italy, 2008.
- M. Zahariade, Art religion and Romanization at the Lower Danube: the
case of Halmyris, 7
th
International Congress of Classical Studies, Italy,
2008.
- M. Zahariade, Scythia Minor and Notitia Dignitatum; a structural and
chronological analysis, 22
nd
International Limes Congress, Newcastle
upon Tyne, 2009.
- M. Zahariade,The role of Lower Moesia in the first Dacian War,
International Conference Wars, weapons and strategy in Balkan
Peninsula from Antiquity to the Middle Ages, Varna, October, 2009.
- M. Zahariade, From ora maritime to litus Scythicum,4
th
International
Congress of Pontic Studies, Istanbul, 2009.
-M. ZahariadeCercetari magnetometrice la Murighiol in 2012,
International Symposium Pontica, Constanta, 5
th
-7
th
November, 2012.
- M. Zahariade, The Roman Army in Extrema Scythiae minoris,
International Scientific Session on the Roman Frontiers, Frankfurt am
Main, April, 2012.
-M. Zahariade, Legio II Herculia and the Halmyris west gate,
International session on the Augustan beginnings of the Roman Limes at
the Lower Danube, Tulcea, June, 2012.
- M. Zahariade, O propunere de restituire a portii de nord in faza I a
castrului de la Halmyris, ARA Session, Bucharest, April, 2013.

178

- V.V. Zirra, Le site La Cetate. tablissement fortifi gtique.
Problmes de stratigraphie gnrale et particulire; provenance et
prlvement des chantillons cramiques, Centre Universitair J. P.
Champollion, Albi, March, 2008.
- V.V. Zirra, Raport de sptur Bzdna-Cucuioava campania 2007,
Symposium Institute of Archaeology, Bucharest, March, 2008.
- V.V. Zirra, Le stade de la recherche sur les fibules latniennes en
Roumanie. Considrations gnrales, Symposium Thracians and Celts,
Bistria, May, 2008.
- V.V. Zirra, Bzdna-Calopr (jud. Dolj), punctul La Cetate. Aezare
fortificat getic. Caracteristici principale, importan, ritualuri de
fondare, Symposium Al. I. Cuza University, Iai, November, 2008.
- V.V. Zirra, Characterising some ceramic samples through X-ray
microscopy; applications in archaeology, Symposium Shumen,
Octomber, 2008.
- V.V. Zirra, Repere spaiale i indicii de cronologie absolut privind
aezarea fortificat de la Bzdna (com. Calopr), punctul "La Cetate",
Symposium Olteniei Museum, Craiova, 7
th
-10
th
Cctomber, 2010.
- V.V. Zirra, Research stage of the La Tne scheme fibulae in Romania.
Critical general approach, 3
rd
WSEAS International Conference on
Cultural Heritage and Tourism, Corfu Island, 22
nd
-24
th
July, 2010.
- V.V. Zirra, An Archaeological Sex Approach of the Celtic Burials
from Transylvania, Symposium Iron Age Rites and Rituals in the
Carpathian Basin, Trgu Mure, 7
th
-9
th
Octomber, 2011.
- V.V. Zirra, The Birth of a Late Iron Age Fortification. A Preliminary
Archaeological and Osteological Approach (with Vl. Dumitracu),
Symposium WSEAS CUHT 2011, Corfu, 15
th
-17
th
July, 2011.
- V.V. Zirra, About the Problem of the Fired Materials Fortifications in
Southwestern Romania, Symposium WSEAS TED `11 (Tourism and
Economy Development), Turnu Severin 27-29 octombrie 2011.
- V.V. Zirra, Contribuia metodelor fizice de investigaie n cunoaterea
siturilor de la Coofenii din Dos i Bzdna, Symposium ATMA
Materialitatea arheologic n Epoca metalelor. De la descoperirea la
reconstruirea trecutului, Iai, December, 2011
- V.V. Zirra, Un car funerar celtic n contextul su, Symposium
Oltenia. Interferene culturale, Craiova, 17
th
-19
th
October, 2012.


179

ORGANIZERS OR CO-ORGANIZERS
FOR SCIENTIFIC REUNIONS, COLLOQUIA, SYMPOSIA
AND SESSIONS AS PART OF CONGRESSES

- Funerary Practices of the Bronze and Iron Ages in Central and South-
Eastern Europe, The 9
th
International Colloquium of Funerary
Archaeology, Bistria, 9
th
-11
th
May, 2008 (V. Srbu).
- The Iron Gates Region during the Second Iron Age: Settlements,
Necropolises, and Treasures, International Colloquium, Drobeta-Turnu
Severin, 6
th
-7
th
June, 2008 (V. Srbu).
- Funerary Practices in Central and Eastern Europe (10
th
c. BC 3
rd
c.
AD), The 10
th
International Colloquium of Funerary Archaeology, Tulcea,
10
th
-12
th
October, 2008 (V. Srbu).
- The Necropolises and the Environment (1
st
Mill. BC), The 11
th

International Colloquium of Funerary Archaeology, Buzu, 22
nd
-24
th

October, 2009 (V. Srbu).
- The weaponry and the combat or parade gear marks of the prestige
and social status in the tombs of the Bronze and Iron Ages, 12
th

International Colloquium of Funerary Archaeology, Brila, 22
nd
-24
th
,
October, 2010 (V. Srbu).
- Bronze and Iron Ages Graves from Eurasia: Gender between
Archaeology and Anthropology, 13
rd
International Colloquium of
Funerary Archaeology, Buzu - Srata Monteoru, 17
th
-20
th
October 2012
(V. Srbu).
- The Second Annual Symposium, Survey in archaeology, often a
neglected science, Giurgiu, 23
rd
-26
th
October, 2011 (A. Morintz,
R. Koglniceanu).
- 13
rd
International Colloquium of Funerary Archaeology, Bronze and
Iron Ages Graves from Eurasia: Gender between Archaeology and
Anthropology, Buzu-Srata Monteoru, 17
th
-20
th
October, 2012 (V.
Srbu).
- Tumuli Graves Status Symbol of the Dead in Bronze and Iron Ages in
Europe, Session of the XVI IUPPS World Congress / XVI Congrs
Mondial USPP, Florianpolis - Brasil, 4
th
-10
th
September, 2011 (V.
Srbu, Cr. Schuster).
- Gender and burial customs in the Bronze and Iron Ages between the
Atlantic Ocean and Ural Mountains, Session of 7
th
World
Archaeological Congress, The Dead Sea - Jordan, 14
th
-18
th
January, 2013
(V. Srbu, Cr. Schuster).

180

ORGANIZERS OR CO-ORGANIZERS OF EXHIBITIONS

- 175 years serving archaeology, Romanian Academy, Institute of
Archaeology, Bucharest, April-May, 2009 (D. Mgureanu).

- Dobrogea entre terre et mer l`empreinte du temps et des hommes,
Recherches croises en Dobrogea, Bucharest 17
th
-18
th
May, 2012 (A.
Ganciu).


AUTHORS OR CO-AUTHORS OF VOLUMES

- M. Negru, C. Schuster, A. Bdescu, A. Coma, A. Morintz, Militari
Cmpul Boja. Series IV. Archaeological excavations from 2006-2007,
Trgovite, 2008.
- C. Schuster, Transportul terestru n Preistorie, cu privire special la
inutul Dunrii de Jos, Trgovite, 2008.
- C. Schuster, T. Popa, Mironeti. I. Locuri, cercetri arheologice,
monumente i personaje istorice, Bibliotheca Musei Giurgiuvensis III,
Giurgiu, 2008.
- V. Srbu, S. Ailinci, G. Simion, Jijila-Cetuie, jud. Tulcea: o aezare
fortificat a culturii Babadag n nord-vestul Dobrogei/Jijila-Cetuie,
dp. de Tulcea: un tablissement fortifi de la culture Babadag au nord-
ouest de la Dobroudja, Brila, 2008.
- C. Schuster, T. Popa, Cercetri arheologice pe Clnitea. Schitu-Bila-
Cmineasca, Bibliotheca Musei Giurgiuvensis IV, Giurgiu, 2009.
- C. Schuster, R. Koglniceanu, A. Morintz, The Living and the Dead.
An Analysis of the Relationship between the Worlds during Prehistory at
Lower Danube, Trgovite, 2009.
- L. Oa, V. Srbu, Sarmaii din judeul Brila/The Sarmatians in Brila
County, Brila, 2009.
- M. Zahariade, The Thracians in the Roman Imperial Army from the
first to the third Century A.D. I AUXILIA, Cluj-Napoca, 2009.
- M. Zahariade, R. Alaiba, V. Alaiba, O. Leviki, R. Simalcsik,
Cunoaterea prin cercetri interdisciplinare a vechilor aezri rurale din
spaiul carpato-dunrean, Iai, 2009.
- C. Schuster, T. Popa, Fingerprints of the Past in the Giurgiu County.
The Bronze Age, Bibliotheca Musei Giurgiuvensis V, Giurgiu, 2010.
181

- V. Srbu, G. Florea, Dacia. History and Art. Treasures of Romanian
Archaeology, UNOVEINTE S.L., Valladolid, Castilla y Leon, Spain,
2010 (also, versions in French and Spanish).
- M. Irimia, N. Conovici, A. Ganciu, Sondajul arheologic de la Satu
Nou Vadu Vacilor (com. Oltina, jud. Constana), Bibliotheca Tomitana
V, Constana, 2011.
- M. Mare, D. Tanase, F. Draovean, G. El Susi, S. Gal Szilard,
Timioara-Freidorf. Cercetrile arheologice preventive din anul 2006,
Cluj-Napoca, 2011.
- C. Schuster, A. Morintz, R. Koglniceanu, C. tefan, A. Coma, G. El
Susi, M. Constantin, C. Constantin, G. Murean, Cercetrile arheologice
de pe tronsonul Cernavod-Medgidia al autostrzii A2. Tumulul nr. 3,
Trgovite, 2011.
- V. Srbu, S. Matei, D. Costache, L. Grigora, G. El Susi, Pietroasa
Mic-Gruiu Drii, jud. Buzu. Vestigiile din epocile eneolitic i a
bronzului, vol. III, Brila-Buzu, 2011.
- D. Spnu, Tezaurele dacice. Creaia n metale preioase din Dacia
preroman, Bucureti, 2012.
- R. Harhoiu, D. Spnu, E. Gll, Barbari la Dunre. In: N. Bocan
(coord.), Istorie. Documente. Mrturii, Cluj-Napoca, 2011.
- M. Zahariade (General Editor), Lexicon of the Greek and Roman Cities
and Place Names in Antiquity Ca 1500 B.C. Ca A.D. 500, Fasc. No. 9-
10, Amsterdam, 2011.
- M. Zahariade, Cr. G. Alexandrescu, Greek and Latin Inscriptions from
Halmyris, British Archaeological Reports, Oxford 2011.
- C. Schuster, T. Popa, V. Barbu, Cercetri arheologice n bazinul
Argeului (judeul Giurgiu), Bibliotheca Musei Giurgiuvensis VI,
Giurgiu, 2012.
- C. Schuster, T. Popa, Mironeti. II. Locuri, cercetri arheologice,
monumente i personaje istorice, Bibliotheca Musei Giurgiuvensis VII,
Giurgiu, 2012.
- A. Coma, Aspects of Archaeic medicine: human and animal
trephination on the territory of Romania, Trgovite, 2013.
- G. Miu, D. Botezatu, A. Coma, G. El Susi, Ostrovul Corbului ntre km
fluviali 911-912. Analiz antropologic i arheozoologic, Bucureti,
2013.


182

EDITORS OF VOLUMES

- Funerary Practices of the Bronze and Iron Ages in Central and South-
Eastern Europe (Eds. V. Srbu, D. L. Vaida). Proceedings of The 9
th

International Colloquium of Funerary Archaeology, Bistria (Romania-
Transylvania), May 9 11, 2008, Cluj-Napoca, 2008.
- The Iron Gates Region during the Second Iron Age: Settlements,
Necropolises, and Treasures (Eds. V. Srbu, I. Stng). Proceedings of
International Colloquium Drobeta-Turnu Severin, 6-7 June 2008, Craiova,
2008.
- Funerary Practices in Central and Eastern Europe (10
th
c. BC 3
rd
c.
AD) (Eds. V. Srbu, R. tefnescu). Proceedings of The 10
th

International Colloquium of Funerary Archaeology, Tulcea, 10-12
October 2008, Brila-Braov, 2008.
- Necropola roman de incineraie de la Tul Corna, partea I, (Ed. P.
Damian -, A. Bltc, S. Coci, V. Moga, A. Pescaru, M. Simion, C.
tirbulescu, O. entea, V.V. Zirra), Alburnus Maior (III), Cluj-Napoca,
2008.
- The Necropolises and the Environment (1
st
Mill. BC). (Eds. V. Srbu
and D. Ciobanu). Proceedings of The 11
th
International Colloquium of
Funerary Archaeology, Buzu - Romania, 22
nd
- 24
th
October 2009,
Mousaios, XIV, Buzu-Brila, 2009.
- Miscellanea Historica et Archaeologica in Honorem Professoris Ionel
Cndea (Eds. V. Srbu, Cristian Luca), Brila, 2009.
- The weaponry and the combat or parade gear marks of the prestige
and social status in the tombs of the Bronze and Iron Ages, Proceedings
of 12
th
International Colloquium of Funerary Archaeology (Ed. V. Srbu),
Brila, 22
nd
-24
th
October 2010, Istros, XV, Brila, 2010.
- Recent Studies on Past and Present I. Human Heritage and Community:
Archaeology in the Carpathians and Lower Danube Area From
Prehistory to the Early Medieval Age, (Eds. R. Bjenaru, G. Bodi, C.
Opreanu, V.V. Zirra), Transylvanian Review Vol. XIX, Supplement No.
5, 1, Cluj-Napoca, 2010.
- Archaeology: making of and practice. Studies in honor of Mircea Babe
at his 70
th
anniversary, (Eds. D. Mgureanu, D. Mndescu, S. Matei),
Piteti, 2011.
- Survey in archaeology, often a neglected science (Eds. A. Morintz, R.
Kogniceanu), Archaeological Debates, nr.2, 2012.
183

- Un monument din Carpaii Orientali cu reprezentri din Preistorie i
Evul Mediu - Nucu-Fundu Peterii, judeul Buzu = Un monument des
Carpates Orientales avec des reprsentations de la Prhistoire et du
Moyen ge - Nucu Fundu Peterii , dpartement de Buzu (Eds. V.
Srbu, Sebastian Matei), Brila, 2012.
- Tumuli Graves Status Symbol of the Dead in Bronze and Iron Ages in
Europe (Eds. V. Srbu and C. Schuster). Proceedings of the XVI IUPPS
World Congress (Florianopolis, 4-10 September 2011) / Actes du XVI
Congrs Mondial UISPP (Florianpolis, 4-10 Septembre 2011), Tome 2,
BAR S2396, 2012.
- Bronze and Iron Ages Graves from Eurasia: Gender between
Archaeology and Anthropology, (Eds. Valeriu Srbu and Sebastian
Matei), Proceedings of 13
rd
International Colloquium of Funerary
Archaeology Buzu - Srata Monteoru, 17
th
-20
th
October 2012, Buzu,
2013.
- Lexicon of the Greek and Roman cities and place names. Ca. 1500 B. C.
Ca. A. D. 500, Amsterdam (General Editor M. Zahariade), 2007-2013.
- The Encyclopedia of Hellenic World, Athens, London, New York
(Contributor M. Zahariade - 14 articles), 2010.
- Encyclopedia of Ancient History, London, New York (Contributor M.
Zahariade - 10 articles) 2012.
- Cunoaterea prin cercetri interdisciplinare a vechilor aezri rurale
din spaiul carpato-dunarean (Ed. M. Zahariade), Iai 2009.
- Halmyris Monographs. Vol. II. Greek and Latin Inscriptions from
Halmyris (in colaboration with Cr. Alexandrescu) (General Editor M.
Zahariade), Oxford 2011.












184

AUTHORS OR CO-AUTHORS OF CHAPTERS IN VOLUMES

- D. Spnu, The Spoon-Bow Fibula Retrieved from the Giurgiu Customs.
Observations on the Spoon-Bow Fibulae from the Lower Danube Area, p.
85-94. In: Treasure Lost, Treasure Regained, The Heritage Series No. 1,
Ed. B. Tnsescu. Giurgiu 2009.
-V. Srbu, S. Matei, Cercetrile din peter i din zona
nconjurtoare/Les fouilles dans la grotte et ses environs, p. 101-118. In:
Un monument din Carpaii Orientali cu reprezentri din Preistorie i
Evul Mediu - Nucu-Fundu Peterii, judeul Buzu = Un monument des
Carpates Orientales avec des reprsentations de la Prhistoire et du
Moyen ge - Nucu Fundu Peterii, dpartement de Buzu; Eds. V.
Srbu, S. Matei, Brila, 2012.
- T. Soroceanu, V. Srbu, Petera de la Nucu din neolitic pn n epoca
bronzului/La grotte de Nucu du nolithique lge du Bronze, p. 119-
336. In: Un monument din Carpaii Orientali cu reprezentri din
Preistorie i Evul Mediu - Nucu-Fundu Peterii, judeul Buzu = Un
monument des Carpates Orientales avec des reprsentations de la
Prhistoire et du Moyen ge - Nucu Fundu Peterii, dpartement de
Buzu, Eds. V. Srbu, S. Matei. Brila, 2012.
- V. Srbu, Consideraii finale /Considrations finales, p. 493-499. In: Un
monument din Carpaii Orientali cu reprezentri din Preistorie i Evul
Mediu - Nucu-Fundu Peterii, judeul Buzu = Un monument des
Carpates Orientales avec des reprsentations de la Prhistoire et du
Moyen ge - Nucu Fundu Peterii, dpartement de Buzu; Eds. V.
Srbu, S. Matei. Brila, 2012.
- M. Zahariade, V.Chirica, R. Alaiba, Descoperiri din secolul al IV-lea
n subunitile geografice ale Podiului Central Moldovenesc. Privire
special aupra judeului Iai (Fourth Century Discoveries in the
geographical subunits of the Central Moldavian Plateau), p. 17-38. In:
Cunoaterea prin cercetri interdisciplinare a vechilor aezri rurale din
spaiul carpato-dunrean, Iai, 2009.
- M. Zahariade, R. Alaiba, Descoperiri din secolul al IV-lea n
subunitile geografice din Podiul Brlad. Privire special asupra
judeului Vaslui (The Fourth Century Discoveries in the geographical
subunits in the Barlad Plateau. A particular view on the Vaslui County, p.
38-55. In: Cunoasterea prin cercetari interdisciplinare a vechilor asezari
rurale din spatial carpato-dunarean, Iai 2009.
185


AUTHORS AND CO-AUTHORS OF STUDIES, ARTICLES,
NOTES, REVIEWS

- A. Coma, Trephination as cultural tradition and social innovation in
the Romanian Prehistory, p. 170-177. In: Soialne innovaii v kulturnom
proesse: strategii razvitija I preobrazovanija, Mejdunaronaja nauciono-
prakticeskaja Konferenija, International conference, Social Innovations
In Cultural Process, Samara, 9
th
-10
th
December 2004 (Ed. Vl. Ionesov),
Samara, 2008.
- A. Coma, Antropologia fizic - trecut, prezent i perspective, p. 91-98.
In: Arheometrie n Romnia, vol. 3 (1991-2008) (Eds. Z. Maxim, D.
Bindea, L. Ssran), Cluj-Napoca, 2008.
- A. Coma, Date antropologice privind dou morminte descoperite in
necropola de la Iclod, p. 191-193. In: Arheometrie n Romnia, vol. 3
(1991-2008) (Eds. Z. Maxim, D. Bindea, L. Ssran), Cluj-Napoca, 2008.
- A. Coma, Anthropological data regarding the skeletons of the tumular
ochre burials from Sultana-Movila Mare, Drobeta, XVIII, 2008, p. 45-56.
- A. Coma, Cranial trauma from the Neolithic times up to the Bronze
Age of Romania, Litua, 12, 2009, p. 103-110.
- A. Coma, Cultura Catacombnaia pe teritoriul Romniei. O abordare
antropologic, Drobeta, XIX, 2009, p. 57-62.
- A. Coma, The 13
th
Annual Meeting of the European Association of
Archaeologists, Zadar, Buletinul Muzeului Teohari Antonescu Giurgiu,
XII, 2009, p. 176-179.
- A. Coma, Cranial trauma from the Neolithic Times up to the Bronze
Age of Romania, Litua, 12, 2009, p. 103-109.
I. Szuecs-Cillit, A. Coma, Z. Maxim, Archaeoastronomy in Romania,
Romanian Astronomical Journal vol. 20, Supplement, 2010, p. 197-200.
- A. Coma, Getae-Dacians and the after world, Tracii i vecinii lor n
antichitate (The Thracians and their Neighbours in Antiquity), p. 133-
139. In: Studia in honorem Valerii Srbu (Ed.I. Cndea), Brila, 2010.
- A. Coma, Evolution of the structural methods in the physical
anthropology from Romania, p. 236-247. In: International Scientific
Conference. Diversity and Identity: Humanistic Foundations of World
Heritage and Multicultural Development in honour of C. Levi-Strauss,
26-27 Nov. 2009, Samara, Rusia, Samara, 2010.

186

- A. Coma, Boundaries and transitions in discourse of anthropological
study of ancient migration and cultural mobility, p. 167-175. In:
International Scientific Seminar. Heritage and Humanism: Urgent
Anthropoloy in Service to Humanity. 100 year anniversary Anne
Hohenwart-Gerlachstein, November, 29, 2010, Samara, Rusia, Samara,
2010.
- I. Szcs Cillit, A. Coma, Z. Maxim, I. Szcs, Case studies of
archaeoastronomy in Romania, Archeologia e calcolatori, 21, 2010, p.
325-337.
- A. Coma, Some Human-Environmental Interactions in Necropolises of
the Neolithic and Metal Ages on the Territory of Romania, p. 145-149. In:
The Lower Danube in Prehistory: Landscape Changes and Human-
Environment Interactions, Proceedings of the International Conference,
Alexandria, 3-5 November, 2010, Publicaiile Muzeului Judeean
Teleorman, III (Eds.S. Mills, P. Mirea), Bucharest, 2011.
- A. Coma, Some social aspects of the Romanian prehistory as rendered
by the funerary rituals, p. 390-393. In: Theoretical and Practical
Approaches in the Fields of Education, Linguistics, Literature, History,
Economy and International Relations. Prospects and Challenges of
Interdisciplinarity in the 21
st
Century (Ed. S. Chirimbu), Iai, 2011.
- A. Coma, Trephination in the Bronze Age of Romania, Drobeta, XX,
2010, p. 87-98.
- A. Coma, Unele consideraii despre trup i suflet n preistoria
Romniei, Istorie i tradiie n spaiul romnesc, 9, 2011, p. 9-26.
- A. Coma, Some considerations regarding the the package burials in
the necropolises belonging to the Monteoru culture, Annales dUniversit
Valahia Trgovite, Tome XIII, Numro 2, 2011, p. 99-110.
- A. Coma, R. Koglniceanu, A. Nlbitoru, The Burial beneath the Getic
Earthen Defence Wall of the dava from Radovanu-Gorgana nti, Thraco-
Dacica S.N., II-III, 2012, p. 31-38.
- L. Oa, - A. Coma,, Un mormnt sarmatic descoperit la Clrai,
Materiale VIII, S.N., 2012, p. 97-106.
- A. Coma, Date antropologice rezultate din studiul necropolei
Hallstattiene de la Celic Dere (jud. Tulcea), Peuce, S.N., X, 2012, p. 209-
234.
- A. Coma,, Anthropological data regarding the burials from Ripiceni,
Drobeta, XXII, 2012, p. 180-188.
187

- A. Coma, Cranial trauma from the Neolithic times up to the Bronze
Age of Romania, Litua, 12, 2012, p. 103-110.
- A. Coma,, S. Chirimbu, The Cucuteni Civilization. A Spectacular
Culture for Archaeology and an Enigma for Anthropology, p. 367-373.
In: Modern Approaches to Interdisciplinary Studies 3, Second edition,
Interdisciplinary Researches in the 21
st
Century Collection, Sandy-Utah,
2012.
- A. Coma, Date antropologice rezultate din studiul necropolei
hallstattiene de la Celic Dere (jud. Tulcea), Peuce S.N., X, 2012, p. 209-
234.
- D. erbnescu, A. Coma, The Yamnaya burials from Sultana, in the
context of the similar finds on the territory of Romania, p. 23-27. In:
Tumuli graves Status Symbol of the Dead in the Bronze and Iron Ages
in Europe/Les tombes tumulaires symboles du statut des dfunts dans
les ges du Bronze e du Fer en Europe, BAR International Series 2396
(Eds. V. Srbu, C. Schuster), Oxford, 2012.

- G. El Susi, Data about hunting practiced at Halmyris (Murighiol
Tulcea county) in the 4
th
-7
th
centurie A.D., Cultur i Civilizaie la
Dunrea de Jos, XXIV, 2008, p. 201-221.
- G. El Susi, Ofrande animale descoperite n morminte Grla Mare de la
Crivina, judeul Mehedini, Drobeta, XVIII, 2008, p. 85-86.
- G. El Susi, Raport preliminar asupra materialului faunistic de la Giroc-
Mescal (judeul Timi), Drobeta, XVIII, 2008, p. 57-65.
- G. El Susi, The animal husbandry of the La Tne communities from the
imleu Depression (laj County), p. 161-191. In: Dacian Studies, (Ed.
H.Pop), Cluj Napoca, 2008.
- G. El Susi, Analiza unui eantion faunistic din aezarea culturii
Coofeni de la Clnic Dealul Mare (judeul Alba), Apulum, XLVI,
2009, p. 659-673.
- G. El Susi, Data about animal exploitation at Raco-Piatra
Detunat/Durduia (County Braov, Romania) in the Bronze age and
Halstattian habitations, Acta Terrae Septemcastrensis, VIII, 2009, p. 227-
243.
- G. El Susi, New data on livestock and hunting in the precucutenian
settlement at Costia - Cetuie (Neam County), Studii de Preistorie, 6,
2009, p. 113-135.
188

- G. El Susi, Cercetri faunistice recente n fortificaia getic de la
Radovanu Gorgana a doua (judeul Clrai). Campania 2008,
Drobeta, XIX, p. 138-152.
- G. El Susi, The faunal remains at Hunedoara-Grdina Castelului
(Hunedoara County), Thraco-Dacica SN, I (XXIV), 1-2, 2009, p. 25-37.
- G. El Susi, Faunal remains from La Tene levels at Raco-Piatra
Detunat/Durduia, Braov County, Brukenthal Acta Musei, V/1, p. 93-
113.
- G. El Susi, Animal exploitation in the settlement from 2nd-3rd centuries
AD at Timioara-Freidorf (Timi County), Drobeta, XX, 2010, p. 192-
209.
- G. El Susi, Preliminary data on the faunal remains from Piatra
Craivii(Cricu commune, Alba County). Campaign 2008, Thraco-
Dacica, II-III, 2012, p. 123-131
- G. El Susi, Date asupra gospodririi animalelor n aezri ale Culturii
Verbicioara n Oltenia, Drobeta, XXII, 2012, p. 54-67.
- G. El Susi, Management of animal resources by precucutenian
communities and their impact on the environment based on recent
research in sites from eastern Romania, Studii de Presitorie, 9, 2012, p.
85-100.
- G. El Susi, Resturi de animale dintr-o fntn datat n bronzul
timpuriu (cultura Nagyrv) de la Foeni-Gaz (judeul Timi). Campania
2009, Buridava, X, 2012, p. 31-42.

- N. Conovici, M. Irimia, A. Ganciu, Le site gtique de Satu Nou (Comm
dOltina, dp. de Constana), le lieu dit Vadu Vacilor. Observations
prliminaires, Istros XIV, 2007 (2008), p. 81-118.
- A. Ganciu, P. Charlier, Recherche Archologique - La Ncropole
gtique de Stelnica-Grditea Mare, BE Roumanie 13 >> 10/03/2011,
http://www.bulletins-electroniques.com.
- N. Conovici, A. Ganciu, M. Irimia, V.V. Zirra, Repere cronologice
pentru nivelurile de locuire getice timpurii de la Satu Nou Valea lui
Voicu (com. Oltina, jud. Constana), Thraco-Dacica S.N., II-III (XXV-
XXVI), 2010-2011, p. 71-100.

- D. Mgureanu, C. Bojic, Bneasa lac. Descoperiri de epoc Latne,
CAB VII, 2007 (2008), p. 101-126.
189

- C. Alexandrescu, D. Mgureanu, N. Palinca, A. Mgureanu, C.
Bojic, Cercetrile arheologice preventive de la Dmroaia. Note privind
spturile din 2005 i 2006 din Aleea Scrovitea, CAB VII, 2007 (2008),
p. 127-180.
- D. Mgureanu, C. Georgescu, Cercetare - Conservare. Traseul unei
vetre decorate descoperite n aezarea de epoc geto dacic clasic de
la Crlomneti, Caiete ARA. Arhitectura. Restaurare. Arheologie, nr. 1,
2010, p. 25-36.
- D. Mgureanu, Note asupra siturilor arheologice i istorice din judeul
Buzu. Valorificarea fondului Pamfil Polonic aflat n arhiva Institutului
de Arheologie (I), Mousaios, XV, 2010, p. 341-376.
- D. Mgureanu, Zimnicea Fragmentarium, p. 87 -102. In:
Archaeology: making of and practice. Studies in honor of Mircea Babe
at his 70
th
anniversary (Eds. D. Mgureanu, D. Mndescu, S. Matei).
Piteti, 2011.
- D. Mgureanu, M. Vintil;, Noi descoperiri n aezarea getic de la
Vadu Anei (com. Brneti, jud. Ilfov), p. 66-101. In: O jumatate de veac
in slujba istoriei Bucuretilor. Omagiu profesorului Panait Ion Panait, la
80 de ani (Ed. Gh. Mnucu-Adameteanu). Bucureti, 2011.
- D. Mgureanu, Mirela VINTIL, Not asupra descoperirilor de sec.
II-I a. Chr. din situl arheologic Bneasa - La Stejar, Buletinul
Muzeului Judeean Teleorman, Seria Arheologie, 4, 2012, p. 183-196.
- D. Mgureanu, Note asupra siturilor arheologice i istorice din judeul
Buzu. Valorificarea fondului Pamfil Polonic aflat n arhiva Institutului
de Arheologie (II), Mousaios, XVII, 2012, p. 277-287.
- D. Mgureanu, Pamfil Polonic and the dawn of romanian
archaeological cartography, Caiete ARA 4, 2013, p. 77-90.

- A. Morintz, R. Koglniceanu, A first step towards the spatial analysis
of the Hamangia (Neolithic) necropolis from Cernavoda, Romania,
Origini. Preistoria e protoistoria delle civilt Antiche, XXX, Nuova serie,
Roma, 2008, p. 165-186.
- A. Morintz, R. Koglniceanu, Orientarea mormintelor necropolei neo-
eneolitice de la Cernica. O nou abordare, Istros 15, 2009, p. 9-45.

- C. Schuster, M. Negru, Ceramica Tei III de la Bucureti-Militari
Cmpul Boja, Sectorul D, Drobeta XVII 2008, p. 52-61.
190

- C. Schuster, Erwgungen zu den befestigten bronzezeitlichen
Siedlungen an der Unteren Donau (Sdrumnien), Studii de Preistorie 4,
2008, p. 179-187.
- C. Schuster, T. Popa, M. Panait, D. Panait, Cu privire la un idol de la
nceputul Bronzului timpuriu (?) de la Mironeti Malul Rou, Buletinul
Muzeului Teohari Antonescu Giurgiu, XIII/10, 2008, p. 149-157.
- T. Popa, C. Schuster, Descoperiri din Hallstatt-ul Mijlociu (cultura
Basarabi) la Mironeti, Buletinul Muzeului Teohari Antonescu
Giurgiu, XIII/10, 2008, p. 159-180.
- C. Schuster, Date noi cu privire la cultura Sntana de Mure n centrul
Munteniei (judeul Giurgiu), Buridava V (2007), 2008, p. 42-54.
- C. Schuster, About an Early Bronze Age Clay Phallus from Drgneti-
Olt-Corboaica, Southern Romania, Istros XIV (2007), 2008, p. 247-261.
- C. Schuster, M. Negru, Ansa cornuta in Bucureti-Militari-Cmpul
Boja. Betrachtungen zur Frhhallstattzeit im Bukarester Raum, p. 44-55.
In: Omagiu lui Gavril Simion la a 80-a aniversare (Eds. S.C. Ailinci,
C. Micu, F. Mihail), Tulcea, 2008.
- C. Schuster, T. Popa, A. Morintz, R. Koglniceanu, Cernavod III-
finds at Mironeti, Giurgiu County, p. 3-17. In: Miscellanea Historica et
Archaeologica in Honorem Professoris Ionel Cndea (Eds. V. Srbu, C.
Luca), Brila, 2009.
- D. erbnescu, C. Schuster, A.S. Morintz, Despre vetrele-altar din
dava de la Radovanu-Gorgana a doua, jud. Clrai, Romnia, p. 245-
254. In: Studia Archeologiae et Historiae Antiquae. Doctissimo viro
Scientiarum Archeologiae et Historae Ion Niculi, anno septuagesimo
aetatis suae dedicator (Eds. A. Zanoci, T. Arnut, M. B), Chiinu,
2009.
- M. Negru, C. Schuster, Bucureti Militari Cmpul Boja. Aezarea
din secolele II-IV p.Chr., . 317-326. In: Studia Archeologiae et Historiae
Antiquae. Doctissimo viro Scientiarum Archeologiae et Historae Ion
Niculi, anno septuagesimo aetatis suae dedicator (A. Zanoci, T. Arnut,
M. B), Chiinu, 2009.
- M. Negru, C. Schuster, Bucureti Militari-Cmpul Boja 50 de ani de
la primele cercetri arheologice (1958-2008), Analele Universitii Spiru
Haret, Seria Istorie, nr. 11 (2008), 2009, p. 81-82.
- C. Schuster, M. Negru, Militari-Cmpul Boja. Vestigiile din preistorie,
Analele Universitii Spiru Haret, Seria Istorie, nr. 11 (2008), 2009, p.
83-92.
191

- C. Schuster, M. Negru, Militari-Cmpul Boja. Aezrile din epoca
fierului, Analele Universitii Spiru Haret, Seria Istorie, nr. 11 (2008),
2009, p. 93-100.
- C. Schuster, T. Popa, Contribuie la repertoriul arheologic al judeului
Giurgiu. II. Cultura Glina, Buletinul Muzeului Teohari Antonescu
XIV/11 (2008), 2009, p. 83-89.
- C. Schuster, Not cu privire la un vas din Bronzul Final de la
Clugreni, jud. Giurgiu, Buletinul Muzeului Teohari Antonescu
Giurgiu, XIV/11 (2008), 2009, p. 149-162.
- C. Schuster, M. Negru, A. Morintz, Cercetri arheologice preventive
la Voluntari (judeul Ilfov), Buridava VI (2008), 2009, p. 29-35.
- M. Negru, C, Schuster, A. Bdescu, A. Morintz, Consideraii privind
aezrile din secolele IV-VII de la Bucureti-Militari Cmpul Boja,
Analele Universitii din Craiova, Seria Istorie, a. XIV, nr. 1(15), 2009, p.
45-56.
- C. Schuster, T. Popa, Not cu privire la Canis familiaris n mediul
Glina, Drobeta XVIII (2008), 2009, p. 38-44.
- C. Schuster, T. Popa, R. Koglniceanu, The Early and Middle Iron Age
in Lower Arge Basin, n I. Cndea (ed.), Tracii i vecinii lor n
antichitate/ The Thracians and Their Neighbours in Antiquity. Studia in
Honorem Valerii Srbu, Brila, 2010, p. 459-478.
- C. Schuster, T. Popa, M. Panait, Gedanken zur Cernavod II-Kultur
(im Lichte der neusten Forschungen von Mironeti-Malul Rou, Bezirk
Giurgiu), Thraco-Dacica S.N. I (XXIV)/1-2 (2009), 2010, p. 5-23.
- C. Schuster, Cu privire la Eneoliticul Final de pe cursul inferior al
Argeului, Buridava 7 (2009), 2010, p. 30-33.
- C. Schuster, Carpaii Meridionali, Dunrea i Oltul, obstacole sau
liani cul;turali n epoca bronzului din Oltenia?, Litua 12 (2009),
2010, p. 59-67.
- C. Schuster, Archaeologia Mundi I. Malta preistoric i un anumit tip
de idol al ei, Buletinul Muzeului Judeean Teohari Antonescu Giurgiu,
XV/12 (2009), 2010, p. 63-76
- C. Schuster, T. Popa, L. Mecu, Cercetri arheologice n judeul
Giurgiu. Aezarea de la Schitu La conac, Drobeta XIX (2009), 2010, p.
128-137.
- C. Schuster, T. Popa, L. Mecu, O aezare din Epoca Bronzului din
Muntenia Central, Buridava, VIII (2010), 2011, p. 48-59.
192

- C. Schuster, Landscape and Demographic Dynamics in Southern
Romanian Bronze Age, p. 133-143. In: The Lower Danube in Prehistory:
Landscape Changes and Human Interactions. Proceedings of The
International Conference, Alexandria, 3-5 November 2010, Publicaiile
Muzeului Judeean Teleorman III (Eds. S. Mills and P. Mirea), Bucureti,
2011.
- C. Schuster, T. Popa, Die neolithischen/kupferzeitlichen
Siedlungshgel aus dem Bezirk Giurgiu Erinnerungsorte fr
nachfolgende Gemeinschaften?, p. 97-119. In: Tells at the Lower Danube.
Proceedings of the I Archaeological Symposium, Giurgiu, November 25
th
,
2010, Archaeological Debates, nr. 1 (Eds. R. Koglniceanu and A.S.
Morintz), Giurgiu, 2011.
- C. Schuster, i totui cnd ncepe i cnd sfrete Bronzul Timpuriu n
Sudul Romniei, p. 133-138. In: Arheologie i istorie n spaiul carpato-
balcanic (Ed. D. Cprroiu), Trgovite, 2011.
- C. Schuster, Zur spten Bronzezeit und frhen Eisenzeit an der Unteren
Donau, p. 163-175. In: Interdisziplinre Forschungen zum Kulturerbe auf
der Balkanhalbinsel, 19.-22. November, 2009, Sofia, Bulgarien, (Eds. V.
Nikolov, K. Bacvarov, H. Popov), Sofia, 2011.
- C. Schuster, Probleme der Bronzezeit in Sdrumnien im Lichte der
neusten Forschungen, p. 125-133. In: Der Schwarzmeerraum vom
neolithikum bis in die Frheisenzeit (5000-500 v.Chr.), Band 2. Globale
Entwicklung versus Lokalgeschehen. Internationale Fachtagung von
Humboldtianern fr Humboldtianer im Humboldt-Kolleg in Chiinu,
Moldavien (4.-8.; Oktober 2010), Prhistorische Archologie in
Sdosteuropa, Band 27 (Eds. E. Sava, B. Govedarica and B. Hnsel),
Rahden/Westf., 2011.
- C. Schuster, Gedanken zu einigen bronzezeitlichen Tei-Metallobjekte
aus dem Bezirk Giurgiu, Rumnien, Annales dUniversit Valahia
Trgovite, Section dArcheologie et dHistoire XIII/1, 2011, p. 55-62.
- C. Schuster, I. Tuulescu, I. Dumitrescu,: Cteva gnduri cu privire la
exploatarea srii n nord-estul Olteniei. Din preistorie i pn n epoca
modern, Angustia 14 (2010), 2011, p. 261-270.
- C. Schuster, T. PopaCu privire la unele descoperiri getice din judeul
Giurgiu, Drobeta XX (2010), 2011, p. 180-191.
- C. Schuster, T. Popa, About the Sntana de Mure Culture on the
Lower Arge River, n Orient i Occident/ East and West, Cultur i
Civilizaie la Dunrea de Jos XXVIII, 2011, p. 210-214.
193

- C. Schuster, I. Tuulescu, Some Remarks about the Tools used for
Obtaining Salt in Prehistory in Northern Oltenia, n Orient i Occident/
East and West, Cultur i Civilizaie la Dunrea de Jos XXVIII, 2011, p.
139-152.
- C. Schuster, T. Popa, Not cu privire la vestigiile culturii Dridu de la
Mironeti, judeul Giurgiu, Pontica XLIV, 2011, p. 379-386.
- C. Schuster, Cteva gnduri cu privire la dansatorii din Preistorie,
Buridava IX, 2011, p. 34-42.
- C. Schuster, I. Tuulescu, I. Dumitrescu, Zum Salz im Nordosten
Olteniens (Rumnien) in der Vorgeschichte bis ins Mittelalter. Eine
Einfhrung, p. 201-212. In: Salz und Gold: die Rolle des Salzes im
prhistorischen Europa/ Salt and Gold: The Role of Salt in Prehistoric
Europe. Provadia-Veliko Tarnovo (Eds. V. Nikolov & K. Bacvarov),
Sofia, 2012.
- C. Schuster, Early Bronze Age burial mounds in South Romania, p. 29-
33. In: Tumulii Graves Status Symbol of the Dead in Bronze and Iron
Ages in Europe. Proceedings of the XVI World Congress of the
International Union of Prehistoric and Protohistoric Sciences
(Florianopolis, Brazil, 4-10 September 2011). 2, BAR S2396 (Eds. V.
Srbu, C. Schuster), Oxford, 2012.
- C. Schuster, A. Coma, Gender and funerary inventory in the Bronze
Age of Southern Romania. An archaeological and anthropological
approach, Mousaios, XVIII, 2013, p. 79-104.

- V. Srbu, Agighiol - La tombe dun basileus gte de la Dobroudja, p.
268-283. In: Phosphorion. Studia in Honorem Mariae iikova, Sofia,
2008.
- V. Srbu, Ritual Inhumations and Depositsof Children among the
Geto-Dacian, p. 71-90. In: Deviant Burial in the Archaeological Record
(Ed. E. M. Murphy), Oxbow Books, Oxford, 2008.
- V. Srbu, Les figurines anthropomorphes et zoomorphes dcouvertes
dans lenceinte sacre dace de Pietroasa Mic-Gruiu Drii (dp. de
Buzu), p.177-193. In: Mlanges la mmoire de Niculae Conovici (Eds.
Al. Avram, V. Lungu, M. Neagu), Clrai, 2008.
- Fl. Costea, L. Savu, V. Srbu, R. tefnescu, A. Blos, Military Gear
Found in the Dacian Fortress of Racoul de Jos Piatra Detunat,
Braov County, p. 154-169. In: Omagiu lui Gavril Simion la a 80-a
aniversare (Eds. S. Ailinci, G. Jugnaru, C. Micu), Tulcea, 2008.
194

- V. Srbu, V. Cavruc, D. Buzea, A Dacian Necropolis Dated in the 4
th

3
rd
Centuries B.C. at Olteni (South-Eastern Transylvania), p. 191-228. In:
Funerary Practices of the Bronze and Iron Ages in Central and South-
Eastern Europe (Eds. V. Srbu, D. L. Vaida), Proceedings of The 9
th

International Colloquium of Funerary Archaeology, Bistria, 9-11 May
2008, Cluj-Napoca, 2008.
- V. Srbu, M. Duescu, D. tefan, The symbols of power at the
periphery: The north-Thracian tumuli graves (5
th
-3
rd
centuries BC), p. 78-
94. In: The Iron Gates Region during the Second Iron Age: Settlements,
Necropolises, and Treasures (Eds. V. Srbu, I. Stng), Proceedings of the
International Colloquium, Drobeta -Turnu Severin, 6-7 June 2008,
Craiova, 2008.
- V. Srbu, D. tefan, M. Duescu, Telia - Celic Dere, Tulcea County.
Landscape Studies, p. 201-214. In: Funerary Practices in Central and
Eastern Europe (10
th
c. BC 3
rd
c. AD) (Eds. V. Srbu, R. tefnescu),
Proceedings of The 10
th
International Colloquium of Funerary
Archaeology, Tulcea, 10-12 October 2008.
- V. Srbu, Idologie et symbolisme dans lart nord-thrace, p. 113-120.
In: Prehistoric Art and Ideology. Proceedings of the XV UISPP World
Congress (Lisbon, 4-9 September 2006) (Ed. E. Amati), vol. 16, Session
C27. BAR S1872, 2008.
- V. Srbu, V. Cavruc, D. Buzea, O comunitate dacic din sec. IV III a.
Chr. la Olteni, jud. Covasna, Angustia, XII, 2008, p. 109-148.
- Fl. Costea, V. Srbu, R. tefnescu, L. Scurtu, A. Blos, O cecu
dacic cu valene cultuale descoperit n fortificaia de la Raco - Piatra
Detunat, judeul Braov, p. 263-275. In: Studia Archaeologiae et
Historiae Antiquae. Doctissimo viro Scientiarium Archaeologiae et
Historiae Ion Niculi, Chiinu 2009.
- V. Srbu, A Sacred Dacian Enclosure at Pietroasa Mic-Gruiu Drii:
the center of a future archaeological park?, CCDJ, XXVII, Clrai,
2009, p. 45-52.
- V. Srbu, Observaii privitoare la un ritual funerar insolit la tracii
nordici din sec. V-III a. Chr., Istros, XV, 2009, p. 47-80.
- V. Srbu, M. Duescu, D. tefan, Burials as identity statements. Some
remarks about North-Thracian funerary phenomenon in the 4
th
-3
rd

centuries BC, p. 427-453. In: The Early Iron Age, Proceeding by the 60
th

Anniversary Sergey Skory, Doctor of Archaeology, Kyiv-Poltava, 2009.
195

- V. Srbu, Figurine, statuete i capace antropomorfe i zoomorfe geto-
dacice din Muntenia (sec. IV a. Chr.-I p. Chr.), Thraco-Dacica, I (XXIV),
2009, p. 37-69.
- V. Srbu, Bols gto-daces a dcor en relief et reprsentations
figuratives, p. 19-31. In: Miscellanea Historica et Archaeologica in
Honorem Professoris Ionel Cndea (Eds. V. Srbu, C. Luca), Brila,
2009.
- V. Srbu, Pratiques mortuaires chez les Thraces nordiques: la socit
des vivants - la communaut des dormeurs (les V
er
s. av. J.-C. I
er
s.
ap. J.-C.). In: In Memoriam Alexandri Fol, Thracia, XVIII, Sofia, 2010,
p. 125-163.
- D. tefan, V. Srbu, Statistical Tools as Landscape Archaeology,
Archeologia e Calcolatori, 21, 2010, p. 333-350.
- V. Srbu, M.-M. tefan, Gender in the Getae princely tumuli graves
(5
th
-3
rd
c. BC). Some considerations, p. 235-265. In: The weaponry and
the combat or parade gear marks of the prestige and social status in the
tombs of the Bronze and Iron Ages., Proceedings of the 12
th
International
Colloquium of Funerary Archaeology (Ed. V. Srbu), Brila, 22
nd
-24
th

October 2010, Istros, XIV, 2010.
- V. Crian, V. Srbu, Covasna Fairies Fortress, a Carpathian
Mountain Fortified by Dacians, p. 265-285. In: Identiti culturale locale
i regionale n context European. Studii de arheologie i antropologie
istoric. In Memoriam Alexandri V. Matei, Cluj-Napoca, 2010.
- V. Srbu, G. Hurezan, The Dacian Deposit of Iron Items from Neudorf
Prul Roia, Arad County. A New Assessement, Istros, XVII, 2011, p.
11-30.
- V. Srbu, G. Florea, Geto-Dacian pottery vessels (2
nd
c. BC-1
st
c. AD):
imitation and originality, p. 311-318. In: Proceedings of International
Conference at the Institute of Archaeology, Jagiellonian University,
Krakow, 21
st
-26
th
April, 2008, Pontika 2008: Recent Research on the
Northern and Eastern Black Sea in Ancient Times (Eds. E. Papuci-
Wladika, M. Vickers, D. Braund), BAR International Series 2240.
- V. Srbu, C. Bodo, Coins from Geto-Dacian Sacred Sites, p. 207-218.
In: Proceedings of the international Colloquium The Eastern Celts : the
communities between the Alps and the Black Sea Vrsac (Serbia), 1-4
noiembrie 2007 (Ed. M. Gutin M. Jevti), Koper-Beograd, 2011.
- V. Srbu, M. Pene, Situl dacic de la Bneti-Dealul Domnii, judeul
Prahova - Observaii preliminare -, Peuce, SN, IX, 2011, p. 437-457.
196

- V. Srbu, Dou pumnale de tip sica din coleciile Muzeului Naional de
Istorie a Romniei, Pontica, XLIV, 2011, p. 251-257.
- L. Oa, V. Srbu, A. Grosu, Morminte sarmatice pe teritoriul Judeului
Olt, Muzeul Oltului, 2, Slatina, 2012, p. 201-216.
- V. Srbu, Le casque grco-illyrien reprsentations figuratives (VI
e
I
e

sicles av. J.-C.) de Gvojdia, dep. de Timi, Analele Banatului, Serie
nou, XX, 2012, p. 33-56.
- V. Srbu, Agighiol and Peretu Graves at Getae Basilei (350-300 BC)
at Lower Danube, p. 85-92. In: Tumuli Graves Status Symbol of the
Dead in Bronze and Iron Ages in Europe, Proceedings of the XVI IUPPS
World Congress (Florianopolis, 4-10 September 2011) / Actes du XVI
Congrs Mondial UISPP (Florianpolis, 4-10 Septembre 2011), Tome 2
(Eds. V. Srbu and C. Schuster), BAR S2396, 2012.
- L. Oa, V. Srbu, La ceramique dacique dans les tombes sarmatiques
de Valachie, Istros XVIII, 2012, p. 125-163.
- V. Srbu, M. Constantin, Geto-Dacian Materials from Piscul Crsani
(Crsanii de Jos, com. Balaciu, Ialomia County). Bogdan and Alexandru
tefan Collection, Istros XVIII, 2012, p. 77-112.
- V. Srbu, D. Dvnc, Un poignard du type sica decouvert dans
lenceinte sacre de Pietroasa Mic Gruiu Drii, dp. de Buzau, Istros
XVIII, 2012, p. 113-123.
- V. Srbu, M.-M. tefan, Between Norm and Ambiguity Expressing
Gender in Second Iron Age North-Balkan Thrace, p. 13-25. In:
Proceedings of 13
rd
International Colloquium of Funerary Archaeology
"Bronze and Iron Ages Graves from Eurasia: Gender between
Archaeology and Anthropology (Eds. V. Srbu and S. Matei), Buzu-
Srata Monteoru, 17
th
-20
th
October 2012, Buzu, 2013.
- L. Oa, V. Srbu, S. Matei, Male and female grave-goods in
Sarmatian tombs found in Wallachia, p. 325-352, In: Proceedings of
13
rd
International Colloquium of Funerary Archaeology "Bronze and Iron
Ages Graves from Eurasia: Gender between Archaeology and
Anthropology (Eds. V. Srbu and S. Matei), Buzu-Srata Monteoru,
17
th
-20
th
October 2012, Buzu, 2013.

- D. Spnu, Research Issues regarding the Grditea de Munte Spiral
Gold Bracelets Hoards. An Essay. Revue Roumaine dHistoire 48, 1-2,
2009, p. 3-17.
197

- D. Spnu, Un mormnt cu fibul Glasinac descoperit pe situl "Cetate"
de la Zimnicea, Analele Banatului 17, 2009 (2010), p. 277-292.
- D. Spnu, Zur Analyse der Goldspiralen von Grditea de Munte,
Rumnien, Das Altertum 55, 4, 2010, p. 271-314.
- D. Spnu, Semnificaii ale tezaurului de la Slitea, Caietele ARA 1,
2010, p. 5-23.
- D. Spnu, Meanings of the Dacian golden spiral bracelets. Outlines,
Caietele ARA 2, 2011, p. 23-37.
- D. Spnu, Iovelirnoe iskusstvo v Dakii na rubeje er (I v. do n.e. I
v.n.e.), Stratum plus 4, 2011, p. 211-224.
- D. Spnu, Dezbaterea necropolei din secolele II-III de la Poieneti n
istoriografia romneasc, p. 153-170. In: Archaeology: Making of and
Practice: Studies in Honor of Mircea Babe at his 70
th
Anniversary (Eds.
D. Mgureanu, D. Mndescu, S. Matei), Piteti, 2011.
- D. Spnu, Brrile de aur dacice ca simbol, Arhitectura. Revista
Uniunii Arhitecilor din Romnia (Bucureti), nr. 6/2011, p. 112-117.
- D. Spnu, Zur Transformation der Bestattungssitten stlich der
Karpaten im Kontext der rmischen Eroberung Dakiens, Prhistorische
Zeitschrift 87, 1, 2012, p. 161-188.
- D. Spnu, Kantharos Cups in Sncrieni-hoard: restauration and
manufacturing issues, Caiete ARA 3, 2012, p. 11-22.
- D. Spnu, Probleme ale genezei i restaurrii cupelor de tip kantharos
de la Sncrieni, Materiale i Cercetri Arheologice SN 8, 2012, p. 69-85.
- D. Spnu, Probleme ale cronologiei necropolelor Poieneti-Vrticoiu,
Mousaios 17, 2012 (2013), p. 121-144.
- D. Spnu, V. Cojocaru, The Dacian Hoard from Bucureti-Herstru.
Archaeological and Archaeometallurgical Approaches, Materiale i
Cercetri Arheologice SN 5, 2009, p. 97-116.
- D. Spnu, Consideraii pe marginea primei publicaii tiinifice
dedicate brrilor de aur dacice. SCIVA 59-60, 2009-2010, p. 193-202.
- D. Spnu, Hausmodelle, p. 113-119. In: S. Hansen, M. Todera, A.
Reingruber, D. Nowacki, H. Nrgaard, D. Spnu, J. Wunderlich, Die
kupferzeitliche Siedlung Pietrele an der Unteren Donau. Bericht ber die
Ausgrabungen und geomorphologischen Untersuchungen im Sommer
2010. Eurasia Antiqua 17, 2011 (2012).
- D. Spnu, Documentarea grafic n arheologia preistoric. Un crochiu.
Discuie (4 p. & 7 fgs.) http://artout.ro/ no. 15 (January 2013).

198

- M. Zahariade, Veterans of Thracian origin in the auxilia of Roman
Imperial army and their social mobility, Thraco-Dacica S.N., I/1-2, 2009,
p. 87-106.
- M. Zahariade, Epigraphica Halmyridensia. I, Thraco-Dacica S.N., I/1-
2, 2009, p. 107-123.
- M. Zahariade, Late Roman pieces of military equipment from
Halmyris, Thraco-Dacica S.N., I/1-2, 2009, p. 125-129.
- M. Zahariade, The episcopal basilica from Halmyris and the crypt of
Epictetus and Astian, Thraco-Dacica S.N., I/1-2, 2009, p. 131-150.
- M. Zahariade, Cuneus equitum Arcadum and Classis [In]palteypegiis
at Halmyris. An exchange of troops between Egypt and Thrace during
theodosius reign.The case of Scythia, p. 347-354. In: Near and beyond
the Roman Frontier, Rmnicu Valcea, 2009.
-M. Zahariade, The Roman Garrison in N. Wallachia in A. D. 101-118:
composition, size and structure. In: The Army and Frontiers of Rome,
Portsmouth 2009, p. 153-162.
- M. Zahariade, Once again on the Troys Thracian allies, Thraco-
Dacica S.N., II-III, 2011, p. 63-70.
- M. Zahariade, Castrul Roman de la Berzovia 1977. Cercetari
arheologice in canabae si in castrul roman, Bibliotheca Historica et
Archaeologica Universitatis Timisiensis XIII, Timisoara 2011, p. 101-
124.
- M. Zahariade, Two problems of topography and historical geography
in Dobrudja. I. Reginasse regi (C. Just. IV 20. 8. 21.10; Proc.
De Aedif., IV 11. 20); II Gratiana (ND Or. XXXVIII 27; Proc. De Aedif.IV
11.20), Dacia N.S., LV, 2011, p. 137-148.
- M. Zahariade, Managing environmental archaeology: some fresh
thoughts on old subjects-the Halmyris, Peuce S.N., X, 2012, p. 39-52.
- Z. Covaceff, M. Zahariade, Noi descoperiri arheologice la Halmyris,
Pontica, XLIV, 2012, p. 187-198.

- V.V. Zirra, Two Thacian Fibulae, p. 82-85. In: Treasure lost, Treasure
regained (Ed. B. Tnsescu), Giurgiu 2009.
- V.V. Zirra, Research stage of the La Tne scheme fibulae in Romania.
Critical general approach, p. 191-196. In: Latest Trends on Cultural
Heritage and Tourism, 3
rd
WSEAS International Conference on Cultural
Heritage and Tourism, Corfu Island, Greece, July 22-24, Corfu, 2010.
199

- V.V. Zirra, Fortifications of burned building materials in Oltenia
(Lesser Wallachia) IVIII century BC. Some major aspects, p. 251-263.
In: Transylvanian Review, Recent Studies on Past and Present I. Human
Heritage and Community: Archaeology in the Carpathians and Lower
Danube Area From Prehistory to the Early Medieval Age, Vol. XIX,
Supplement No. 5: 1, 2010.
- V.V. Zirra, Research stage of the La Tne and Thracian scheme fibulae
in Romania - Dynamics and exclusion. Critical general approach, p. 1-
12. In: WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, Issue 1,
Volume 7, January, 2011.
- V.V. Zirra, V. Dumitracu, The Birth of a Late Iron Age Fortification.
A Preliminary Archaeological and Osteological Approach, p. 359-364.
In: RECENT RESEARCHES in MECHANICS, Proceedings of the 4
th

WSEAS International Conference on Cultural Heritage and Tourism
(CUHT '11), Corfu Island, Greece July 14-16, Corfu, 2011.
- V.V. Zirra, About the Problem of the Fired Materials Fortifications in
Southwestern Romania, p. 500-505. In: Recent Researches in Tourism
and Economic Development, Proceedings of the 1
st
International
Conference on Tourism and Economic Development (TED '11),
University Center, Drobeta Turnu Severin, Romania, October 27-29,
2011.
- N. Conovici A. Ganciu, M. Irimia, V.V. Zirra, Repere cronologice
pentru nivelurile de locuire getice timpurii de la Satu Nou Valea lui
Voicu (com Oltina, jud. Constana), Thraco-Dacica S.N., Tomul II-III
(XXV-XXVI), 2010-2011, p. 71-100.



200