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Advanced Placement United States History

Directions: Each of the questions or statements below is followed by four or five suggested
answers or completions. Select the one that is BEST in each case and place what you think is the
correct letter on the answer sheet provided.
Unit I: The Colonial Era (1607-1763)

1. A central theme of the Puritan Ethic is its emphasis on:
(A) world economic dependency on the institution of slavery.
(B) the mobility of America's class structure.
(C) the damaging effects of slavery on the South's economy.
(D) patriotism and the glorification of the American nation.
(E) hard work, thrift, and sobriety as signs of election.

2. In colonial America the enlightened view that reason can solve humanity's problems helps
explain the:
(A) early growth of New England education.
(B) eighteenth century belief in Deism.
(C) lack of public libraries.
(D) Puritan and Quaker attitudes toward slavery.
(E) curriculum of higher education.

3. The competition for North American territory was a major cause of:
(A) the Mexican-American War.
(B) the French and Indian War.
(C) the Revolutionary War.
(D) the Civil War.
(E) the War of 1812.

4. To promote public libraries and the study of philosophy in colonial America was a major
objective of the:
(A) Moravian Community in colonial Pennsylvania.
(B) Knickerbocker magazine of the 1840's.
(C) Rappites and Shakers.
(D) American Phrenological Journal in the 1840's.
*(E) Philadelphia Junto Club.

5. A major objective of the New England Transcendentalists was to:
(A) expand humanity's vision of itself by stressing individual initiative.
(B) subject the community to the moral and political leadership of a few.
(C) promote the ideals of economic and political equality.
(D) raise the public's consciousness concerning the immorality of slavery.
(E) promote public awareness of the bad effects of alcohol by urging sobriety.

6. Who among the following was the first to circumnavigate the world, although he died on
route?
(A) Juan Ponce de Leon.
(B) Francisco Vasquez de Coronado
(C) Giovanni da Verrazano
(D) Hernando de Soto
(E) Ferdinand Magellan

7. All of the following are characteristics of the Puritans EXCEPT:
(A) a belief in hard work, sobriety, and material success.
(B) a respect for education.
(C) a belief that intellectual leadership is supplied by the clergy.
(D) a disbelief in Democracy.
(E) a toleration of other religious beliefs.

8. A central objective of John Rolfe was:
(A) to encourage centralization and cooperation.
(B) to increase the wealth of the mother country.
(C) to keep the colonies friendly.
(D) to develop the fur trade.
(E) to encourage the Virginia tobacco crop.

9. During colonial times, the Congregationalists settled in:
(A) Pennsylvania.
(B) New York.
(C) New Jersey.
(D) New England.
(E) Maryland.

10. A central objective of the early New England Puritan leadership was to:
(A) establish religious liberty for all.
(B) eliminate the use of alcohol and tobacco.
(C) eliminate any distinction between church and state.
(D) reproduce the ecclesiastical structure of the Church of England.
(E) establish the moral authority of the community over individual self-interest..

11. A region near a bay is called the:
(A) fall line.
(B) Great Divide.
(C) tidewater.
(D) Appalachians.
(E) Piedmont.

12. All of the following were religious leaders during colonial times EXCEPT:
(A) William Ellery Channing.
(B) Benjamin Rush.
(C) John Woolman.
(D) Cotton Mather.
(E) George Whitefield.

13. A tidewater refers to:
(A) a plain in the eastern region of the United States.
(B) an area where the directional flow of rivers changes.
(C) the major eastern mountain range.
(D) a region near a bay.
(E) the navigability of rivers.

14. Who among the following discovered Florida while searching for the legendary "Fountain of
Youth?"
(A) Francisco Vasquez de Coronado
(B) Juan Ponce de Leon *
(C) Ferdinand Magellan
(D) Giovanni da Verranzano
(E) Hernando de Soto

15. The First Great Awakening was:
(A) a religious revival that occurred throughout the American colonies. (B) a slave rebellion in
colonial South Carolina.
(C) an eighteenth century religious movement among Native Americans (Indians) dedicated to
reaffirming traditional values.
(D) the flowering of Enlightment political thought in colonial America.
(E) an early colonial protest against English imperial policy.

16. Which of the following MOST ACCURATELY describes the attitude of seventeenth century
Puritans toward religious liberty?
(A) Having suffered persecution in England, they extended toleration to everyone.
(B) The tolerated no one whose expressed religious views varied from their own views.
(C) They tolerated all Protestant sects, but not Catholics.
(D) They tolerated Catholics, but not Quakers.
(E) They had no coherent views on religious liberty.

17. Which of the following is a correct statement about the use of slave labor in colonial
Virginia?
(A) It was forced on reluctant white Virginians by profit-minded English merchants and the
mercantilist officials of the Crown.
(B) It was the first case in which Europeans enslaved Blacks.
(C) It fulfilled the original plans of the Virginia Company.
(D) It first occurred after the invention of Eli Whitney's cotton gin, which greatly stimulated the
demand for low-cost labor.
(E) It spread rapidly in the late seventeenth century, as blacks displaced white indentured
servants in the tobacco fields.

18. The French and Indian War was a pivotal point in America's relationship to Great Britain
because it led Great Britain to:
(A) encourage colonial manufactures.
(B) impose revenue taxes on the colonies.
(C) ignore the colonies.
(D) restrict immigration from England.
(E) grant increased colonial self-government.

19. Deists of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries believed that:
(A) natural laws, set by the Creator, govern the operation of the universe.
(B) prayer has the power to make significant changes in a person's life.
(C) the idea of God is merely the childish imagining of simple minds.
(D) the universe was created by a natural, spontaneous combining of elements.
(E) intuition rather than reason leads human beings to an awareness of the divine.

20. The mercantilist system in the eighteenth century led to:
(A) the restriction of governmental intervention in the economy.
(B) the protection of Native Americans (Indians) from European economic exploitations.
(C) the expansion of colonial manufacturing.
(D) the subordination of the colonial economy to that of the mother country.
(E) noncompetitive commercial relations among nations.

21. The tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy were distinctive in that they:
(A) were less militant than other Native American (Indian) tribes.
(B) all allied themselves with the American colonists against Great Britain during the
Revolutionary War.
(C) successfully resisted incorporation into the English fur-trading system.
(D) were converted to Anglicanism.
(E) formed the most important Native American political organization to confront the colonists.

22. According to a current widely accepted hypothesis , which of the following was common to
all of the native peoples of North and South America before 1492?
(A) Accurate astronomical calendars.
(B) Domestication of wild horses.
(C) Rotation of agricultural crops.
(D) Descent from Asian peoples.
(E) Mining of gold and silver.

23. In the creation of which of the following colonies was commercial profit the first and
foremost motive?
(A) Connecticut
(B) Maryland
(C) Virginia
(D) Pennsylvania
(E) Rhode Island

24. Great Britain's conquest of French North America was facilitated by which of the following?
(A) The large number of English-speaking settlers in Canada.
(B) The discovery of the Northwest Passage.
(C) The thin settlement of France's North American colonies.
(D) The munitions industry in England's Atlantic Seaboard colonies.
(E) The Battle of Austerlitz.

25. Benjamin Franklin's advice to eighteenth century American colonists that hard work and
thrift would lead them to wealth was an appropriate formula for the time because:
(A) taxes on income were needed by the government to raise revenues.
(B) land scarcity and a rapidly growing population seriously curtailed economic opportunities.
(C) most people of the period were unusually gullible and thus easily motivated by slogans and
proverbs.
(D) formal education and specialized skills were less necessary to economic success than they
would later become.
(E) legal restraints on the inheritance of wealth were increasing.
Unit II: "A Quarter Century of Revolution (1763 -1788)

26. The eighth Amendment to the Constitution that establishes the principle of "bail" deals with:
(A) the principle of reasonable search and seizure.
(B) the right to have an attorney provided by the government.
(C) the issue of preventing detention.
(D) the issues of tuition and tax credits private schools.
(E) the prohibition against self-incrimination.

27. The economic idea of regulating intrastate commerce best matches:
(A) the powers reserved by the states.
(B) the powers held concurrently.
(C) the powers delegated to the Congress.
(D) a loose interpretation of the Constitution .
(E) the Preamble to the Consititution.

28. Because of the Townshend Acts:
(A) the Committees of Correspondence were formed.
(B) the First Continental Congress was convened.
(C) the principle of "salutary neglect" ended.
(D) the colonists resented mercantilist economic policy.
(E) colonists demanded "no taxation without representation."

29. Wisconsin was carved out of the:
(A) annexation of Texas.
(B) Mexican Cessian.
(C) Oregon Territory.
(D) Northwest Territory.
(E) Louisiana Territory.

30. The United States Constitution provides for all of the following EXCEPT:
(A) two terms for the president.
(B) equality under the law.
(C) direct election of senators.
(D) presidential nominating conventions.
(E) trial by jury.

31. Which of the following had the LEAST number of followers in America in 1775?
(A) The Dutch Reformed
(B) The Anglicans
(C) The Congregationalists
(D) The Presbyterians
(E) The Unitarians

32. The quotation "... those who indulge themselves will soon drop to the lower levels of society"
best describes:
(A) a view of Alexander Hamilton.
(B) families dominating the older Atlantic states.
(C) a view of Benjamin Franklin.
(D) the life of Thomas Paine.
(E) Jefferson's delight in the exploration of the Northwest.

33. The United States Constitution provides for all of the following EXCEPT:
(A) delegated powers.
(B) concurrent powers.
(C) federalism.
(D) "elastic clause."
(E) immigration laws.

34. A result of the Macon Act was:
(A) an increase in sectional self-awareness.
(B) a boycott against England.
(C) improved conditions for construction of a canal through Central America.
(D) improvement of agricultural education.
(E) stimulation of migration westward.

35. Which of the following is a motive for the Currency Act of 1764?
(A) Taxes on newspapers
(B) The goal of regulating trade with the West Indies
(C) Prohibition of paper money in the colonies
(D) The prevention of frauds and abuses in trade
(E) Imposing high tariffs on imports from the West Indies.

36. Which of the following is true about the Boston Tea Party?
(A) Granted a virtual monopoly to the East India Company.
(B) Closed the port of Boston, changed the government of Massachusetts, and tried royal
officials in Great Britain.
(C) Ordered the colonists to remain on the eastern side of the Appalachians.
(D) Reaffirmed Parliament's right to tax the colonists.
(E) Defied the English by destroying English property.

37. Which event do we associate with "Governments are instituted among men, deriving their
just powers from the consent of the governed"?
(A) The issuing of the Declaration of Independence
(B) A naval victory of John Paul Jones
(C) The signing of the Mayflower Compact
(D) The First Continental Congress
(E) The outbreak of the American Revolution


38. The most important cause of the American Revolution was:
(A) the American desire to expand from the Atlantic to the Pacific.
(B) the struggle between England and France for world supremecy.
(C) the expansion of French influence in the Ohio and Mississippi valleys.
(D) the British abandonment of the policy of "salutary neglect."
(E) the British violation of the principle of "freedom of the seas."

39. The wealthiest people in pre-Revolutionary War America were primarily:
(A) lawyers, doctors, and other professtionals.
(B) northern merchants and southern planters.
(C) inland farmers.
(D) industrialists.
(E) local governmental officials.

40. The Ordinances of 1785 and 1787 were notable accomplishments because they:
(A) established the principle that western lands are the joint property of all the states.
(B) initiated a territorial policy that provided for the orderly creation of new states.
(C) made possible a policy of Native American (Indian) relations that enabled new western areas
to be settled peacefully.
(D) put land into the hands of the actual settler rather than the speculator.
(E) were the basis for the future settlement of the dispute with Britain over the northwest posts.

41. France's support for the United States during the American Revolutionary War was motivated
primarily by:
(A) enthusiasm for the revolutionary principles espoused by the Americans.
(B) a desire to weaken its rival, Great Britain.
(C) a desire to regain Canada and the Floridas.
(D) pressures from its ally, Spain.
(E) the hope of converting the United States into a French dependency.

42. By the time of the Revolution, the American colonists had generally come to believe that
creation of a republic would solve the problems of monarchical rule because a republic would
establish:
(A) a highly centralized government led by a social elite.
(B) a strong chief executive.
(C) a small, limited government responsible to the people.
(D) unlimited male suffrage.
(E) a society in which there were no differences of rank and status.

43. Marbury v. Madison (1803) is famous for establishing the principle of:
(A) the sanctity of contracts.
(B) the supremecy of the executive over the legislative branch.
(C) judicial review.
(D) due process of law.
(E) equal access by any citizen to federal courts.

QUESTIONS 44 AND 45 REFER TO THE FOLLOWING HISTORICAL PROBLEM:

It is popularly believed that Patrick Henry, in his speech against the Stamp Act of 1765, implied
that George III would be assassinated, and then concluded with the phrase, "If this be treason,
make the most of it." Four differing reports of this speech, two of which omit the concluding
phrase, are found in the following sources: the diary of a Frenchmen who was an eyewitness and
described the event the same day; a letter printed in a London newspaper about six weeks later; a
history of Virginia written in 1805; and a note written in 1817 by Thomas Jefferson.

44. The main issue raised by for historians by the differing reports of Henry's speech is the:
(A) formation of hypotheses about historical causation.
(B) validity of historical metaphor.
(C) credibility of historical evidence.
(D) use of anachronisms.
(E) form of historical citation.

45. Which of the following facts casts the greatest doubt on the accuracy of Jefferson's note
confirming the concluding phrase of Henry's speech?
(A) Jefferson and Henry had each served as governor of Virginia.
(B) Jefferson was only twenty-two in 1765.
(C) Jefferson's note was written to a man who was writing a biography of Henry.
(D) Jefferson was not actually a member of the House of Burgesses in 1765.
(E) Jefferson's note was written fifty-two years after the speech was delivered.

46. A major defect in the national government established by the Articles of Confederation was
that it lacked:
(A) a means of amending the Articles.
(B) the authority to tax.
(C) the power to declare war.
(D) the authority to make treaties.
(E) a legislative branch.

47. Which of the following was a widely held belief among the Founding Fathers of the United
States?
(A) Direct democracy is superior to representative government.
(B) Widespread ownership of property is a bulwark of republican government.
(C) Political parties are an inevitable outgrowth of republican government.
(D) Universal manhood suffrage is essential in a free government.
(E) The separation of legislative, executive, and judicial functions leads to governmental chaos.


48. After 1763, changes in the British imperial system threatened the interests of which of the
following groups of American colonists?
I. Land speculators with interests west of the Appalachians
II. Newspaper editors and lawyers
III. Farmers wishing to settle in the Ohio River Valley
IV. Boston smugglers
(A) III only
(B) IV only
(C) I and III only
(D) I, III, and IV only
(E) I, II, III, IV

49. The Stamp Act of 1765 was designed to:
(A) increase colonial postal rates.
(B) establish a colonial mint to stamp out silver coins.
(C) facilitate British postal censorship of colonial mails.
(D) establish a colonial postal service.
(E) increase British tax revenue from the colonies.

50. The French government supported the American Revolution primarily because:
(A) There was general support for the political ideals of the Englightenment in France.
(B) an American victory would enable France to recapture Canada.
(C) Benjamin Franklin and his scientific achievements inspired the admiration of the French.
(D) France wished to reduce the British empire and gain influence in North America.
(E) France's ally, Spain, was eager to recapture Gibralter from Britain.
Unit III: "A Nation Takes Shape (1789 -1841)
51. American belief in the progress of technology from 1830 to 1860 encouraged:
(A) free public libraries and museums.
(B) democratic goals of political, social, and economic equality.
(C) local communities to raise intellectual and moral standards.
(D) nineteenth-century reforms toward free public education.
(E) applied rather than theoretical science.

52. All of the following concepts are remembered about Washington's policy of neutrality
EXCEPT:
(A) the Era of Good Feeling.
(B) an American desire to avoid involvement in the Napoleonic Wars.
(C) Washington's Farewell Address.
(D) the development of political parties.
(E) the recall of Citizen Genet by the French government.

53. Andrew Jackson advocated all of the following issues EXCEPT:
(A) Democratic reform.
(B) the extension of suffrage.
(C) property qualifications for voting.
(D) the convention system.
(E) popular participation in government.

54. Martin Van Buren supported an independent treasury in order:
(A) to weaken a banking monopoly.
(B) to separate the national government from the banking system.
(C) to stimulate investment in the North and the West.
(D) to put United States credit on firm ground.
(E) to increase capital investment in the South.

55. Arrange the following in their proper time order: (A) Webster-
Hayne Debate, (B) Missouri Compromise, (C) "corrupt bargain",
(D) South Carolina Exposition (1832)
(A) A-3, B-2, C-1, D-4
(B) A-4, B-2, C-3, D-1
(C) A-4, B-1, C-2, D-3
(D) A-2, B-3, C-1, D-4

56. Alexander Hamilton advocated all of the following policies EXCEPT:
(A) a lower duty on imports.
(B) the use of excise taxes.
(C) rule by the intelligentsia.
(D) a national bank.
(E) a protective tariff.


57. The era of the late 1830's was accompanied by:
(A) the prominent activism of the Beecher family.
(B) an economic panic abruptly ending labor reform.
(C) the upsurge of social reform.
(D) the continued expansion of the "Protestant Passion."
(E) a growing consensus for free public education.

58. All of the following are true of Protestantism in the nineteenth century EXCEPT:
(A) that most followers remained in the Congregational, Presbyterian, and Methodist churches.
(B) that the materialism of American society was incorporated into the religion.
(C) the belief that God continued to be active in human affairs.
(D) that Orthodox Calvinism grew more stringent.
(E) that ordained churchgoers still believed in the Trinity.

59. The heavy migration to the west called attention to the need for better roads and canals is true
about:
(A) the economic basis of sectionalism.
(B) the internal improvement policy of 1815.
(C) Jefferson's economic policy.
(D) rechartering the Second National Bank 1816.
(E) Jackson's economic policy.

60. Man's awareness of nature and its many natural wonders is a theme in:
(A) Thomas Jefferson's Notes on Virginia.
(B) Thomas Paine's "Common Sense" and Age of Reason.
(C) George Fitzhugh's Cannibals All and Sociology for the South.
(D) Benjamin Franklin's Poor Richard's Almanac.
(E) Jonathan Edward's "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God."

61. An historian studying the Tariff of 1828 most likely concludes that:
(A) it contained a sharp reduction of duties.
(B) it was a reasonable attempt at protectionist policy.
(C) it continued the policy of the tariff that preceded it.
(D) some who voted for it hoped it would fail.
(E) it was an attempt at a compromise.

62. Each of the following events is associated with the results of the War of 1812 EXCEPT:
(A) peace on the frontier for a full generation.
(B) the end of hostility by the Treaty of Ghent.
(C) a renewal of British settlement in the Northwest Territory.
(D) the rapid growth of manufacturing in the United States.
(E) the return to a policy of isolation by the United States.


63. All of the following events occurred during the administration of James Monroe EXCEPT:
(A) the closing of the Western Hemisphere to further colonization.
(B) the end of the "Era of Good Feeling" which was typified by a spirit of nationalism.
(C) the purchase of Florida from Spain.
(D) the convention of 1818 at which the boundary between the United States and Canada was
established.
(E) the Rush-Bagot Agreement in which the United States and Great Britain agreed to naval
disarmament on the Great Lakes.

64. The Non-Intercourse Act involves which of the following?
(A) State nullification
(B) Strong protection of new industries
(C) Free navigation on the Mississippi
(D) Protecting maritime rights
(E) An embargo bill lasting no more than sixty days

65. The Brook Farm experiment:
(A) stressed hard work, sobriety, and material success.
(B) stressed economic and social eqalitarianism.
(C) stressed complex marriage, birth control, and the eugenic selection of parents to produce
superior offspring.
(D) became the largest single Protestant body in the United States.
(E) believed in plain communal living and exalted thought.

66. De Witt Clinton supported government expenditures on transportation:
(A) to help the development of manufacturing in the South.
(B) to help the development of New York.
(C) to help create a new social order.
(D) to help the development of the West.
(E) as part of a plan known as the American System.

67. That there is wide use of the Gothic style is a trend evident in:
(A) eighteenth-century cabinetmaking.
(B) nineteenth-century cabinetmaking.
(C) America's Romantic Movement in the architecture of the 1840's and 1850's.
(D) public and private buildings such as those of colonial Williamsburg.
(E) America's public buildings of the federal style.

68. All of the following are true of Tecumseh EXCEPT:
(A) he fought against the forces of Indiana Territory Governor William Henry Harrison at the
Battle of Tippecanoe.
(B) he was chief of the Shawnee.
(C) he brought the Indians of the Northwest Territory into a confederation.
(D) he received aid from the British government.
(E) he successfully halted American settlement along the Mississippi River.


69. An historian studying the economy in 1837 most likely asks:
(A) "What effect did the railroad boom have on the economy as a whole?"
(B) "What effect did a sudden increase in specie have on the economy?"
(C) "What effect did a single invention have on the economy?"
(D) "What effect did canals have on the United States economic development?"
(E) "What effect did a crisis in financial institutions have on the entire economy?"

70. All of the following were among the fundamentalist denominations of the 1830's EXCEPT:
(A) the Disciples of Christ.
(B) the Primitives.
(C) the Mormons.
(D) the Free Willers.
(E) the Presbyterians.

71. Which of the following had the most effective influence on Edward Everett's public
popularity?
(A) America's growing interest in health and fitness.
(B) America's growing shift from an oral to a literary tradition.
(C) America's growing interest in free public education.
(D) America's growing apprecation of rhetoric and oratory.
(E) America's growing interest in the novel and unique.

72. The man responsible for scoring a decisive victory at the Battle of New Orleans is
remembered as:
(A) "Old Rough-and-Ready."
(B) having said "We have met the enemy and they are ours."
(C) having said "Don't give up the ship."
(D) "Old Hickory."
(E) "Old Fuss and Feathers."

73. The Cumberland Trail connects:
(A) the Northwest Territory with New Orleans.
(B) Cincinnati with Louisville.
(C) Omaha with Kansas City.
(D) Tulsa with Little Rock.
(E) Baltimore with Wheeling.

74. The Harford Convention pertains to which of the following?
(A) Importation of slaves until 1808, Three-Fifths Compromise, Elastic Clause, and "due
process."
(B) Petition by grievances, "All men are created equal", inalienable rights, and consent of the
governed.
(C) Opposition to slavery, opposition to the Kansas-Nebraska Act, Fugitive Slave Law, and the
protective tariff.
(D) Two-thirds vote to declare war, omission of slaves from the census, one term for presidents,
and opposition to the War of 1812.
(E) Sovereignty of each state, indivisibility of sovereignty, null and void, and the union as a
compact among states.

75. That it aided financial operations of the government is true about:
(A) Jefferson's economic policy.
(B) rechartering the Second National Bank of 1816.
(C) Jackson's economic policy.
(D) the internal improvement policy of 1815.
(E) the economic basis of sectionalism.
Unit IV: A House Divided (1846-1877)

76. All of the following concepts are associated with the settlement of California EXCEPT:
(A) the Forty-Niners contributing to a population explosion.
(B) the Mexican cession.
(C) the Bear Flag Revolt.
(D) John C. Fremont's proclaiming the Republic of California.
(E) French colonization during the eighteenth century.

77. Henry Clay is closely associated with all of the following EXCEPT:
(A) the American System.
(B) supporting War Hawks in 1812.
(C) compromising on slavery.
(D) writing the Compromises of 1850.
(E) opposing popular sovereignty

78. Stephen A. Douglas is closely associated with all of the following EXCEPT:
(A) the presidential candidacy in 1860.
(B) the Freeport Doctrine.
(C) Popular Sovereignty.
(D) the Kansas Nebraska Act.
(E) the abolition of slavery throughout the United States.

79. The term "abolitionist movement" refers to:
(A) a Southerner who controlled the new state governments following the Civil War.
(B) a black who is willingly subservient to white Americans.
(C) inhabitants of a territory deciding for themselves the issue of slavery.
(D) a series of secret stations used to smuggle runaway slaves out of the South.
(E) a vigorous anti-slavery movement demanding the freeing of slaves without compensation
to their old masters.

80. A feature of the Constitution that is often considered a guard against dictatorial acts of a
powerful president is:
(A) the Bill of Rights.
(B) the method of selecting Supreme Court Justices.
(C) the system of checks and balances.
(D) federalism.
(E) the impeachment power of Congress.

81. In pre-Civil War America, the main crop of Virginia was:
(A) tobacco.
(B) sugar.
(C) hemp.
(D) rice.
(E) corn.

82. Which of the following was an argument used by the United States to claim the Oregon
Territory?
(A) The refusal of the Mexican government to receive the American negotiator John Slidell.
(B) The Peace of Paris of 1783.
(C) The impressment of American sailors into the British navy.
(D) The Monroe Doctrine.
(E) The settling of American missionaries and fur traders after the exploration of Robert Gray
and Lewis and Clark.

83. A major cause of the prosperity of the early 1850's was:
(A) bank failures.
(B) easy credit and land speculation.
(C) the increasing amount of gold in the economy.
(D) an embargo.
(E) the Commercial Revolution.

84. Stephen A. Douglas, leading spokesman for westward expansion, is most closely associated
with:
(A) states' rights.
(B) popular sovereignty.
(C) internal improvements of roads, canals, and railroads.
(D) the federal government's assumption of the national debt.
(E) the nationalist theory of the Union.

85. The Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) heightened the sectional crisis because it:
(A) repealed the Missouri Compromise.
(B) repealed the Fugitive Slave Act.
(C) made Kansas and Nebraska free states.
(D) stimulated Southern emigration to the territories taken from Mexico.
(E) signaled acceptance of the principle of the Wilmot Proviso.

86. During Reconstruction, Southern Blacks typically did which of the following?
(A) Worked as day laborers in towns and cities.
(B) Migrated Northward, exercising their new freedom.
(C) Owned and worked small farms.
(D) Worked in mines and factories.
(E) Tilled farms as renters and sharecroppers.

87. Which of the following BEST characterizes the response of Great Britain and France to the
American Civil War?
(A) They saw advantages in a divided Union, but pursued cautious policies toward both
sides.
(B) They favored restoration of the Union and actively worked to arbitrate the conflict.
(C) They favored permanent separation of the Union and openly supported the South.
(D) They favored permanent separation of the Union and openly supported the North.
(E) They had no interest in the conlict and remained aloof from it.

88. In part, President Lincoln refrained from taking action to emancipate slaves until the Civil
War had been in progress for almost two years because:
(A) he sought to retain the loyalty of the border states.
(B) slavery still existed in most Northern states.
(C) Congress had not granted him the authority.
(D) he was preparing a plan to send all of the slaves to Liberia.
(E) he feared hostile reaction on the part of the British and French.

89. " ... the descendants of Africans who were imported into this country, and sold as slaves ...
are not included, and were not intended to be included, under the word 'citizens' in the
Constitution, and can therefore claim none of the rights and privileges which that instrument
provides for and secures to citizens of the United States."

The passage above is from which of the following?
(A) Marbury v. Madison
(B) The Liberty Party Platform
(C) McCulloch v. Maryland
(D) Dred Scott v. Sanford
(E) The Freedmen's Bureau Act of 1865
90. Which of the following is a correct statement about the use of slave labor in colonial
Virginia?
(A) It was forced on reluctant white Virginians by profit-minded English merchants and the
mercantilist officials of the Crown.
(B) It was the first case in which Europeans enslaved Blacks.
(C) It fulfilled the original plans of the Virginia Company.
(D) It first occurred after the invention of Eli Whitney's cotton gin, which greatly stimulated
the demand for low-cost labor.
(E) It spread rapidly in the late seventeenth century, as blacks displaced white indentured
servants in the tobacco fields.

91. The Southern reaction to the Nat Turner revolt and the publication of The Liberator was to:
(A) begin to argue that slavery was a good institution.
(B) encourage the migration of slaves to the Middle West.
(C) agree to discuss the issue of abolition in Congress.
(D) invite Garrison to address the Virginia legislature on abolition.

92. The North's advantages over the South at the outbreak of the Civil War included all of the
following EXCEPT:
(A) greater agreement over war aims.
(B) more substantial industrial resources.
(C) a more extensive railroad network.
(D) dominance in foreign trade.
(E) naval supremecy.

93. Which of the following most likely increased Mexican suspicion of United States territorial
objectives in the 1830's and 1840's?
(A) Abolitionist agitation in the North.
(B) Jackson's policy toward the annexation of Texas (1836-37).
(C) The Webster-Ashburton Treaty
(D) Clay's speeches in the campaign of 1844.
(E) Rhetoric on "manifest destiny" in the American press.

94. In the presidential election of 1860, which of the following positions was asserted by the
Republican Party Platform with respect to slavery?
(A) Slavery should be abolished immediately by the federal government.
(B) The extension of slavery to other countries should be prohibited.
(C) The Missouri Compromise line (36 Degrees, 30 Minutes) should be extended to the
Pacific Ocean, and slavery should be prohibited in territories above that line.
(D) The gradual emancipation of the slaves should begin, and the federal government should
compensate slave owners for the loss of slave property.
(E) The extension of slavery to United States territories should be prohibited by the federal
government, but slavery should be protected in the states where it already existed.

95. All of the following elements of the Radical Republican program were implemented during
Reconstruction EXCEPT:
(A) provision of 40 acres to each freedman.
(B) enactment of the Fourteenth Amendment.
(C) military occupation of the South.
(D) punishment of the Confederate leaders.
(E) restrictions on the power of the President.

96. Which of the following had the greatest impact on the institution of slavery in the United
States in the first quarter of the nineteenth century?
(A) Demands of Southern textile manufacturers for cotton
(B) Introduction of corp rotation and fertilizers
(C) Use of more stringent techniques of slave control
(D) Invention of the cotton gin
(E) The "Three-fifths" Compromise

97. The Reconstruction Acts of 1867 provided for:
(A) temporary Union military supervision of the ex-Confederacy.
(B) federal monetary support of the resettlement of American blacks in Africa.
(C) denial of black property-holding and voting rights.
(D) implementation of anti-black vagrancy laws in the South.
(E) lenient readmission of the ex-Confederate states to the Union.

98. All of the following statements about pre-Civil War American slavery are true EXCEPT:
(A) Although experience varied from one plantation to another, investments in slaves
generally yielded rates of return equal to or better than other forms of investments of
comparable risk in the pre-Civil War American economy.
(B) Although Southern legal codes did not uniformly provide for the legalization and stability
of slave marriage, slaves were generally able to marry, and the institution of marriage was
common on Southern plantations.
(C) Although slaves were mainly employed in agriculture, by the 1850's they also were
employed as construction workers and industrial laborers.
(D) Because of the relative ease with which slaves could gain their freedom by manumission
or by purchase, the proportion of freedmen to slaves was almost equal in many areas of the
South.
(E) Despite the geographical diffusion of slavery throughout the South, at no time did the
majority of white families in the South own slaves.

99. POPULAR VOTE FOR PRESIDENTIAL ELECTORS, GEORGIA, 1848 AND 1852

Democratic Electors Whig Electors Webster Electors

1848 44,809 47,538 --------
1852 40,516 16,660 5,324

Using the table above, one might conclude that the most plausible explanation for the
Georgia Democrats' victory in 1852 following their defeat in 1848 was that:
(A) many new voters increased the turnout in 1852, to the advantage of the Democrats.
(B) many voters abstained from voting in 1852, to the disadvantage of the Whigs.
(C) Webster, who had not run in 1848, drew sufficient votes from the Whigs to cost them the
election of 1852.
(D) the Democrats, who had run a highly unpopular candidate in 1848, ran a highly popular
candidate in 1852.
(E) the Democrats cast fraudulent ballots to increase their share of the votes in 1852.

100. "Manifest Destiny" was a slogan that referred to the:
(A) ultimate triumph of the "fittest" in the progress of industrial capitalism.
(B) eventual overthrow of slavery under God's design.
(C) right of United States vessels to trade without interference anywhere in the world.
(D) territorial expansion of the United States in North America.
(E) eventual domination of slavery over the territories acquired from Mexico.
Unit V: "The Gilded Age (1865-1900)
101. Which of the following economic realities is MOST CLOSELY associated with the
development of the factory system?
(A) Reduced need for skilled workers.
(B) Disruption of maritime commerce.
(C) Growth of slavery.
(D) Low wages to workers.
(E) Restrictions on the development of industry.
102. An economic weakness of the pre-Civil War labor movement was:
(A) the resultant damage to New England's economy.
(B) its emphasis on agricultural rather than commercial interests.
(C) the damage it caused the economy due to land speculators.
(D) its emphasis on skilled workers.
(E) the policy that the federal government should not have direct taxing powers.
103. The insufficient conditions facing the wage earner in sweatshops, debtor's prison, and
contract labor spurred:
(A) the spread of Calvinism to the middle colonies.
(B) the development of an independent culture.
(C) the development of the "underground railroad."
(D) foreign missionary activity.
(E) the push for unionization.
104. An educator seeking to improve the quality of public education was:
(A) Harriet Beecher Stowe.
(B) William Lloyd Garrison.
(C) Horace Mann.
(D) Susan B. Anthony.
(E) Frances Wright.
105. A person would be attending a religious meeting in the Midwest if he were:
(A) convinced of views held by James Fenimore Cooper.
(B) believing in the empiracal method of John Locke.
(C) admiring the accomplishments of Benjamin Latrobe.
(D) supporting the views of Horace Greely.
(E) listening to Peter Cartwright.
106. The worker movement of the 1840's was by nature a reform movement in the sense that:
(A) it was an argument between industrialists and agrarians.
(B) slavery remained an important institution in American life.
(C) it pressured those in power to make changes in the factory system.
(D) the lower levels of white society were not enfranchised and involved.
(E) it instigated Indian resistance and populism.
107. Novels exploring human nature and ideas are the most typical of literary expression found:
(A) in popular fiction of the 1840's and 1850's.
(B) in the 1820's and 1830's.
(C) in early colonial America.
(D) in serious fiction of the 1840's and 1850's.
(E) in America from 1775 to 1820.
108. Which amendment to the United States Constitution deals with federal income tax?
(A) The Sixteenth Amendment
(B) The Eighteenth Amendment
(C) The Fifteenth Amendment
(D) The Sixth Amendment
(E) The Nineteenth Amendment
109. The low wages of workers is most closely associated with:
(A) New England from 1808 to 1812.
(B) the abundance of labor in the North before 1860.
(C) the effects of mercantilism.
(D) the labor shortage.
(E) the development of the factory system.
101. The most typical form of literary expression influenced by Emerson in the 1840's is:
(A) literary critiques as part of the creative process in art.
(B) magazine articles expressing democratic ideals.
(C) rhetorical essays of a philosophic nature.
(D) table-talk essays filled with social wit and wisdom.
(E) essays on the aesthetics of art and poetry.
111. Which of the following trends is evident in the works of Thomas Cole and the Hudson River
School?
(A) An idealization of the American landscape.
(B) A shift away from the rationalism of the past toward more subjective emotional values.
(C) A popular interest in historical romances such as those of Sir Walter Scott.
(D) A renewed interest in classical forms (especially those of Greece).
(E) An imaginative use of America's past in creating national pride.
112. One may conclude that poetic conventions were being challenged by the 1850's from:
(A) sales data of music publishers from 1820 to 1860.
(B) sales data of American publishers from 1820 to 1860.
(C) attending a dedication ceremony of a public monument in the 1850's.
(D) attending symphonic concerts in the 1850's.
(E) an analysis of "Out of the Cradle Endlessly Rocking."
113. Which of the following encouraged free public libraries and museums?
(A) Industrial growth and expansion from 1820 to 1840.
(B) Support of the lyceum movement from 1820 to 1840.
(C) Belief in the progress of technology from 1830 to 1860.
(D) Support of popular democratization of knowledge.
(E) Support of the Sunday School movement from 1800 to 1860.
114. The American Transcendentalists may best by characterized as which of the following?
(A) A group of Northern intellectuals who shared a belief in the value of human intuition, the
presence of divinity in nature, and an emotional comprehension of God.
(B) A religious sect that believed in the concept of sin and the necessity for forgiveness from God
and from fellow worshippers.
(C) A number of loosely organized communitarians who engaged in sexual experiences outside
the confines of marriage.
(D) A sect of former Unitarian ministers who expected Christ to descend to earth within their
lifetimes.
(E) A persecuted band who had to flee to the West because of the unpopular ideas about
polygamy and other unconventional practices.
115. Of the following, which was the most important cause of agrarian discontent in the United
States in the last quarter of the nineteenth century?
(A) The end of free homesteads.
(B) The end of Republican party efforts to woo the farm vote.
(C) The exhaustion of the soil by poor farming methods.
(D) The feeling that the railroads were exploiting the farmers.
(E) The increase in the number of immigrants.
116. The horizontal integration of American industry (i.e., one firm acquiring control of other
firms that produce the same product) that occurred at the end of the nineteenth century was
primarily a response to:
(A) economic competition.
(B) high tariffs.
(C) powerful labor unions.
(D) federal monetary policy.
(E) federal regulation of business.
117. Which of the following would have been MOST LIKELY to support the presidential
campaign of William Jennings Bryan in 1896?
(A) A Kansas farmer
(B) A Chicago industrial merchant
(C) A Philadelphia merchant
(D) A university professor of economics
(E) A New York Republican party member
118. Which of the following statements is true about immigration to the United States during the
last two decades of the nineteenth century?
(A) United States immigrantion laws sharply reduced the number of eligible immigrants.
(B) Irish immigrants came in larger numbers than earlier in the century.
(C) Nativist agitation brought about a decline in immigration.
(D) The United States government entered into a "gentleman's agreement" to ban immigration
from certain countries.
(E) Southern and Eastern Europeans came in larger numbers than earlier in the century.
119. "In 1800 schoolchildren (ages 5-19) spent an average of only fourteen days in school each
year. By 1850 this figure had nearly doubled, going to twenty-six days, and by 1860 it had risen
to forty days per year, almost triple the figure for 1800. By 1860 the literacy rate at age twenty
had attained modern levels, exceeding ninety percent among whites."
This passage describes results brought about chiefly through:
(A) state and local efforts in behalf of public schools.
(B) the work of private philanthropists.
(C) the extension of federally supported school systems.
(D) the increasing ability of families to afford tutors.
(E) the establishment of church-supported schools.
120. In which year would the population of an Atlantic seacoast city most likely have appeared
as follows?
CATEGORIES (selected groups of total population) NUMBER
Born in United States of parents born in the United States (White) 70,352
Born in Ireland (White) 25,282
Born in United States of parents born in Ireland (White) 2,017
Born in Russia (White) 10
Born in United States of parents born in Russia (White) 2
Non-White born in United States 2,317
(A) 1790
(B) 1820
(C) 1850
(D) 1890
(E) 1930
121. All of the following were considered legitimate functions of the federal government in the
late nineteenth century EXCEPT:
(A) promoting industrial growth by means of a protective tariff.
(B) granting subsidies to encourage the construction of railroads.
(C) regulating immigration.
(D) assuring the welfare of the poor and unemployed.
(E) regulating the nation's currency.
122. The "Declaration of Sentiments and Resolves" issued by the Seneca Falls Convention
demanded:
(A) greater rights for women.
(B) the immediate termination of slavery.
(C) enlightened treatment of the insane.
(D) a new role for women in the antislavery movement.
(E) improvement in prison conditions.
123. In the pre-Civil War era, the railroad's most important impact on the economy was the:
(A) creation of a huge new market for railway equipment.
(B) creation of the basis for greater cooperation between Southern planters and Northern textile
manufacturers.
(C) generation of new employment opportunities for unskilled urban workers.
(D) participation of the federal government in the financing of a nationwide transportation
network.
(E) accessibility to Eastern urban markets provided to Midwestern farmers.
124. The hostility of the Know-Nothing Party was directed primarily against:
(A) the growth of cities and industrial manufacturing.
(B) Irish and German Catholic immigrants.
(C) Free Masons and members of other fraternal orders.
(D) abolitionists.
(E) slaveholders.
125. Which of the following would MOST LIKELY have said, " ... children should be children as
long as they can"?
(A) A New England Puritan
(B) A Southern slaveholder
(C) A mid-nineteenth century educational reformer
(D) An Irish immigrant in the Lowell mills.
(E) A parent of a pioneer family in the West.
Unit VI: The Age of Innocence: 1898-1914"

126. The presence of American merchants and ships in foreign ports aided:
(A) the spread of Calvinism to the middle colonies.
(B) the development of the "underground railroad."
(C) the development of an independent culture.
(D) the push for unionism.
(E) foreign missionary activity.
127. The public's response to Upton Sinclair's novel The Jungle helped bring about:
(A) antitrust legislation.
(B) the Meat Inspection Act of 1906.
(C) the Mann Act.
(D) a strengthening of the power of urban political machines.
(E) the Panic of 1907.
128. " ... the policy of the government of the United States is to seek a solution which may bring
about permanent safety and peace to China, preserve Chinese territorial and administrative entity,
protect all rights guaranteed to friendly powers by treaty and international law, and safeguard for
the world the principle of equal and impartial trade with all parts of the Chinese empire."
This quotation is part of:
(A) Burlingame Treaty
(B) Open Door Policy
(C) Boxer Protocol
(D) Kellogg-Briand Pact
(E) Stimson Doctrine
129. Which of the following has NOT been offered by historians as an explanation for the United
States entry into the war with Spain in 1898?
(A) President McKinley was too weak to withstand the multitude of pressures forcing him
toward a decision for war.
(B) Yellow journals created an irresistible war fever by publicizing atrocities allegedly being
committed by the Spanish in Cuba.
(C) American businessmen wanted to protect their investments in Cuba and assure a Cuban
market for their products.
(D) By the late 1890's the United States had assumed a world role that made it seem necessary to
dominate the Caribbean.
(E) Spain was blatantly interfering with United States maritime rights as a nonbelligerent power.
130. The ideas and ideals of Progressive reformers were NOT represented in which of the
following?
(A) The Keating-Owen Child Labor Act
(B) The Fourteen Points ___ Also Unit IX___
(C) The Volstead Act
(D) The National Origins Act
(E) The Taft-Hartley Act
AMERICAN FOREIGN TRADE, 1900-1920 (in millions of dollars)
Export Import
1900 $1,499 $ 930
1905 1,660 1,199
1910 1,919 1,646
1915 2,966 1,875
1920 8,664 5,784
131. The table above shows which of the following for the period between 1900 and 1920?
(A) The United States was losing its industrial predominacne in the world economy.
(B) The United States had a favorable trade balance.
(C) There was an excess of foreign investments in the United States.
(D) Farmers opposed the expansion of markets abroad.
(E) American merchants were becoming complacent in their competition with foreign merchants.
132. The United States policy toward China at the turn of the century was expressed in the:
(A) Open Door Policy.
(B) Gentlemen's Agreement.
(C) Good Neighbor Policy.
(D) Lend-Lease Act.
(E) Marshall Plan.
133. Which of the following novels had the greatest significance in arousing public interest in the
need for a major social reform?
(A) Huckleberry Finn
(B) Gone with the Wind
(C) The Scarlet Letter
(D) The Jungle
(E) All the King's Men
134. One reason why Woodrow Wilson won the United States presidential election in 1912 was
that:
(A) the Socialist Party supported the Democrats.
(B) an economic depression made the Republicans unpopular.
(C) the Republican Party divided its vote between two candidates.
(D) he promised to keep the nation out of any foreign wars.
(E) he received the political support of Theodore Roosevelt.
135. In terms of relative voter support the most successful third-party movement in twentieth
century America was the:
(A) Progressive Party of 1912.
(B) Socialist Party of 1920.
(C) Union Party of 1936.
(D) Progressive Party of 1948.
(E) American Party of 1968.
136. Which of the following reforms was LEAST frequently advocated during the Progressive
Era?
(A) Direct election of United States senators
(B) Factory inspection laws
(C) The use of the initiative and the referendum
(D) Prosecution of trusts
(E) Laws prohibiting racial discrimination
137. Which of the following has NOT been suggested by historians as an explanation for the
development of American imperialism in the 1890's?
(A) The search for markets and raw materials by business.
(B) Pressure for military action by a growing officer corps in the army.
(C) The example of European colonial powers in Asia and Africa.
(D) Support for the idea of the "White Man's Burden."
(E) Competition for newspaper readership by the "yellow press."
138. As a result of the treaty ending the Spanish-American War, the United States acquired:
(A) Puerto Rico and Guam.
(B) Panama and Hawaii.
(C) the Virgin Islands and Cuba.
(D) Guam and Hawaii.
139. Criticism of Booker T. Washington arose in the black community in the early 20th century
because:
(A) his public efforts at stopping segregation were a failure.
(B) he stifled opposition within the black community.
(C) he lived in the South, but most blacks lived in the urban ghettoes.
(D) Roosevelt and Wilson refused to invite him to the White House.
140. The "New Nationalism" of Theodore Roosevelt meant a:
(A) return to the "laissez-faire" principles of the late 19th century.
(B) program to end government regulation of industry and commerce.
(C) program to increase the regulatory powers of the state governments.
(D) strengthening of the regulatory powers of the federal goverment.
141. Theodore Roosevelt's foreign policy in the Western Hemisphere is BEST characterized by
his belief in:
(A) American intervention in the affairs of nations when political stability was threatened.
(B) the need to allow European nations to intervene in Latin America.
(C) American recognition of the independent sovereign rights of each hemispheric nation.
(D) repudiation of the Monroe Doctrine.
142. Progressives believed that the ills of modern society could be solved by all of the following
methods EXCEPT:
(A) eliminating political corruption.
(B) limiting the powers of government.
(C) applying the skills of technical experts to social problems.
(D) good planning and sound management.
143. Muckraking journalists were most successful at:
(A) formulating a new philosophy of social reform.
(B) identifying the symptoms of social disorder.
(C) analyzing the causes of political corruption.
(D) prescribing solutions to social problems.
144. Of the following, the lowest priority in the progressives' list of needed political reforms
was:
(A) the initiative, referendum, and recall.
(B) voting rights for blacks.
(C) the primary system of party nomination.
(D) direct election of senators.
145. Which of the following is LEAST related to the other three?
(A) Robert La Follette
(B) the "Wisconsin Idea"
(C) City manager government
(D) Regulatory commissions
QUESTION #146 REFERS TO THE FOLLOWING QUOTATION:
"Will you affirm by your vote that you are an infidel to American power and practical sense? Or
will you say that ours is the blood of government; ours the heart of dominion; ours the brain and
genius of administration? Will you remember that we do but what our fathers did -- we but pitch
the tents of liberty farther westward, farther south-
ward -- we only continue the march of the flag."
146. Which individual would have been MOST LIKELY to have uttered the above quotation?
(A) Interventionist
(B) Imperialist
(C) Isolationist
(D) Anti-imperialist
(E) Pragmatist
QUESTION #147 REFERS TO THE FOLLOWING QUOTATION:
"The opportunity to earn a dollar in a factory just now is worth infinitely more than the
opportunity to spend a dollar in an opera house."
147. Which of the following would have been MOST LIKELY to have made the statement
above?
(A) Theodore Roosevelt
(B) W.E.B. Du Bois
(C) Booker T. Washington
(D) Woodrow Wilson
(E) Josiah Strong
148. The Underwood-Simmons Tariff, one of the first major pieces of legislation passed in
Wilson's administration, was significant in that:
(A) it was passed over the president's veto.
(B) it caused a major split in the Democratic party.
(C) it substantially lowered the tariff and enacted an income tax.
(D) although touted as a reform measure, through "log rolling", it actually raised the rates.
149. Which of the following statements BEST describes President Woodrow Wilson's Latin
American policy?
(A) Wilson's policy was no different from that of President Roosevelt and President Taft.
(B) Wilson's policy was moral in nature based upon his increased awareness of the rise of Latin
American dictators.
(C) Wilson's policy cultivated friendship and confidence among Latin American nations.
(D) Wilson's policy was to use diplomacy for American business interests and use money to
advance foreign policy goals.
150. Theodore Roosevelt:
(A) hated big business above all things.
(B) believed that big business was the major obstacle to increased production and technological
progress.
(C) believed in free, old-time, uncontrolled competition.
(D) approved of big business as long as it used its power fairly.
Unit VII: A Time of Transition: 1914-1932"

151. Which of the following accurately describes the Ku Klux Klan in the 1920's?
(A) Its activities were limited to the South.
(B) It favored immigration restriction as well as white supremacy.
(C) It repudiated fundamentalist Protestantism.
(D) Many of its members were elected to Congress.
(E) It appeared for the first time during this decade.

152. The principle foreign policy issue confronting the Wilson administration between the
outbreak of the First World War in 1914 and United States involvement in the conflict in 1917
was:
(A) future of United States overseas possessions.
(B) territorial and political integrity of Poland.
(C) freedom of the seas.
(D) question of a Pan-American collective security organization.
(E) issue of war debt repayment by the Allies.

153. Which of the following did NOT contribute to American prosperity during the "Coolidge"
years?
(A) America's new position as a world creditor.
(B) The prosperity of older industries such as textiles and shipping.
(C) The pro-business attitude of the federal government.
(D) Federal help in the form of low Federal Reserve interest rates and a very high tariff.
(E) New technology which created new consumer goods.
154. An important factor contributing to the Great Depression in the United States in the 1930's
was the:
(A) large military expenditure in the 1920's.
(B) decline in farm prosperity during the 1920's.
(C) rapid depletion of the nation's mineral resources.
(D) increased importation of foreign goods.
(E) increase in population due to immigration.

155. All of the following were factors in the failure of the United States to join the League of
Nations after the First World War EXCEPT:
(A) fear of further involvement in foreign wars.
(B) personal and political rivalries between President Woodrow Wilson and Senator Henry Cabot
Lodge.
(C) President Wilson's illness.
(D) a group of United States senators who opposed American participation on any terms.
(E) the influence of the Soviet Union within the League.

156. Which of the following celebrated trials BEST illustrates the cultural conflict in the 1920's
between fundamentalism and modernism?
(A) The Scottsboro Trial
(B) The Leopold-Loeb Trial
(C) The John T. Scopes Trial
(D) The Albert B. Fall Trial
(E) The Sacco-Vanzetti Trial

157. Which of the following is TRUE about the concept of isolationism?
(A) It emphasized the avoidance of binding political commitments to other nations.
(B) It usually stressed the avoidance of commercial as well as political ties to other nations.
(C) It had almost no influence on United States foreign policy after 1900.
(D) It was generally applied to Europe and Latin America but not to Asia.
(E) It became obsolete with the formulation of the Monroe Doctrine.

158. Which of the following accurately describe(s) the Harlem Renaissance?
I. It flourished during the 1920's.
II. It was centered among blacks in the South.
III. It consisted of a period of dramatic black intellectual and artistic creativity.
IV. It brought about significant gains in civil rights.

(A) I only
(B) I and III only
(C) II and IV only
(D) I, II, and IV only
(E) I, III, and IV only

159. All of the following help to explain the presence of large numbers of expatriate American
intellectuals in Europe during the 1920''s EXCEPT:
(A) repressive effects of Prohibition and the resurgence of conservatism in the United States.
(B) attraction of European cities, especially Paris, as centers of innovation and creativity.
(C) tradition among American writers of taking up temporary residence in Europe.
(D) claims of young American writers and critics that American culture was materialistic and
hostile to the development of their art.
(E) European tradition of wealthy patrons supporting struggling American artists and writers.

160. Which of the following is true about the Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928?
(A) It created an alliance between the United States and France.
(B) It was a bilateral pact for naval disarmament.
(C) It was rejected by the Senate.
(D) It was a multilateral pact condemning recourse to war.
(E) It contained provisions ("teeth") for enforcement of peace.

161. Which of the following is correct about the Washington Naval Conference of 1921-1922?
(A) It was convened to equalize naval strength among the five major powers.
(B) It imposed specific limitations on the number of battleships allowed to the signatory nations.
(C) It outlawed the use of submarines in warfare.
(D) It confirmed the isolationist nature of United States foreign policy during the 1920's.
(E) It underscored the Harding administration's indifference to Japanese expansion in the Far
East.

162. Which of the following was the most important factor in the American decision to enter the
First World War?
(A) The Bolshevik Revolution in Russia.
(B) German submarine operations in the Atlantic Ocean.
(C) Formation of a German-Japanese alliance directed against the United States.
(D) The outbreak of a revolution in Mexico.
(E) The German conquest of France.

163. John T. Scopes was:
(A) an anarchist accused of inciting the 1886 Haymarket bombing in Chicago.
(B) the assassin of President James A. Garfield.
(C) a teacher tried for discussing evolution in a Tennessee public school.
(D) a character in a novel by William Faulkner.
(E) an immigrant anarchist tried and executed on a murder and robbery charge in Massachusetts
in the 1920's.

164. The only amendment to the United States Constitution that has been repealed dealt with:
(A) the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages.
(B) prayer in public schools.
(C) the voting rights of blacks.
(D) draft exemption of conscientious objectors.
(E) the federal income tax.

165. The work of the "lost generation" of American writers in the 1920's was marked by:
(A) a rejection of prevailing middle-class values.
(B) extreme prudishness and morality.
(C) a glorification of God and country.
(D) an obvious desire to keep things as they were.
(E) an attempt to recreate the values of the pre-World War era.

166. Which of the following was true of the Socialist Party of America during the period
1900-1918?
(A) It advocated reforms which in many instances were subsequently espoused by the two major
parties.
(B) It gave women and blacks positions of primary responsibility in the national party leadership.
(C) It induced the American Federation of Labor to pursue a policy of industrial unionism.
(D) It supported unanimously the entry of the United States into the First World War.
(E) It led the fight for the adoption of the prohibition amendment in such cities as Milwaukee
and St. Louis.

167. Most of the immigrants who came to the United States between 1880 and 1920 were from:
(A) Northern and Western Europe.
(B) China and Japan
(C) Ireland.
(D) Latin America
(E) Southern and Eastern Europe

168. Which of the following was NOT a factor in the declining public significance of the
organized feminist movement in the 1920's?
(A) The successful conclusion of the campaign for women's suffrage.
(B) The consequences of changing manners and morality.
(C) Dissension among women's groups concerning goals.
(D) Declining prominence of the progressive reform movement.
(E) Passage of legislation requiring that women receive equal pay for equal work.

169. Which of the following was a significant development in the United States during the
1920's?
(A) The reduction of tariff barriers.
(B) The rapid growth of unions.
(C) The widespread purchase of common stock.
(D) Abandonment of the gold standard.
(E) Federal legislation governing wages and hours.

170. Prior to ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, women
could vote in:
(A) states that had granted them the right to do so.
(B) no state.
(C) all states.
(D) national elections only.
(E) state and local elections only.

171. The "clear and present danger" doctrine, adopted unanimously by the United States
Supreme Court in 1919, declared that:
(A) the formation of the American Communist Party was illegal because it constituted a "clear
and present danger" to the security of the United States.
(B) the federal government may restrict the expression of ideas that tend to place the nation's
security in imminent danger.
(C) the war danger having passed, governmental restrictions on freedom of speech and press
were unconstitutional.
(D) governmental restrictions on freedom of speech and press comprised a "clear and present
danger" to the liberties guaranteed by the First Amendment.
(E) constitutional guarantees of "due process of law" could legally be suspended in wartime.

172. Garveyism was identified with all of the following EXCEPT:
(A) Pan-Africanism.
(B) Black nationalism.
(C) racial integration.
(D) Black economic development.
(E) Black pride.

173. Which of the following accounts for the fact that in the United States in the 1920's real
income per person increased despite the growth in population and the decline in hours worked?
(A) Lowering of tariff barriers
(B) The development of the corporate holding company
(C) The growth of viable trade unions
(D) The development of a sound banking system
(E) Rapid technological advances

174. The isolationist tradition in United States foreign policy can best be characterized as:
(A) total avoidance of involvement with other nations.
(B) avoidance of economic and political but not cultural involvement.
(C) avoidance of cultural and economic but not political involvement.
(D) rhetorical avoidance of involvement with other nations but covert political, economic, and
cultural dealings.
(E) avoidance of political but not cultural or economic involvement.

175. In the 1920's, the number of Mexicans and Puerto Ricans migrating to the continental
United States increased. One reason for this was that:
(A) their transportation from home was subsidized by the United States government.
(B) they were accepted into unions whose members worked in sectors of the economy
experiencing labor shortages.
(C) White Protestant Americans dropped their prejudices against people from Hispanic cultures.
(D) they wished to escape recurrent epidemics that were decimating their home populations.
(E) neither group was affected by the restrictive immigration acts of 1921 and 1924.
Unit VIII: The Age of FDR: 1933-1945"

176. All of the following occurred during the Second World War EXCEPT:
(A) a dramatic increase of married women entering the paid work force.
(B) the forced relocation of Japanese-Americans from the West Coast to camps in the interior.
(C) the prohibition of interstate travel without government permission.
(D) the federal rationing of gasoline and sugar.
(E) an increase in Black immigration to urban areas.

177. Franklin D. Roosevelt's farm policy was primarily designed to:
(A) reduce farm prices to make food cheaper for the consumer.
(B) increase production by opening new lands to farmers.
(C) reduce production in order to boost farm prices.
(D) use price and wage controls to stabilize farm prices.
(E) end federal controls over agriculture.

178. The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor occurred after:
(A) diplomatic negotiations with the United States reached a stalemate.
(B) the United States declared war on Japan.
(C) Japan invaded the Philippines.
(D) Japanese-Americans were forcefully evacuated from the West Coast.
(E) Germany declared war on the United States.

179. The main purpose of the Wagner Labor Relations Act of 1935 was to:
(A) end the sit-down strike in Flint, Michigan.
(B) settle the struggle between the AFL and the CIO.
(C) ensure workers' right to organize and bargain collectively.
(D) guarantee workers a minimum wage.
(E) exempt organized labor from the Sherman Antitrust Act.

180. The principal reason for the economic boom in the United States after the Second World
War was:
(A) full employment, because the United States kept ten million men in the armed services as a
precautionary measure.
(B) the continual production of war materials on a round-the-clock basis.
(C) a shortage of consumer goods combined with a reserve of purchasing power in the form of
accumulated savings.
(D) the continuance of the federal government's operation of some of the basic industries, such
as railroads.
(E) strong action by the federal government in behalf of organized labor.

181. The Good Neighbor Policy promised all of the following EXCEPT:
(A) an end to Latin America as a sphere of influence of the United States.
(B) restraint in the use of American military forces.
(C) more caution in defending exploitative practices.
(D) increased consultations with Latin America.
182. During the New Deal, President Franklin D. Roosevelt recommended legislation to achieve
all of the following EXCEPT:
(A) nationalization of the banks.
(B) legal protection for workers who sought collective bargaining.
(C) government payments to farmers who plowed up their crops.
(D) the development of public power-generating facilities.
(E) government-business cooperation in formulating "codes" of fair competition.

183. The Federal Emergency Relief Act, authorizing aid to states for relief, established the
governmental precedent of:
(A) grants rather than loans for relief.
(B) aid for basic living necessities rather than aid to strengthen business institutions.
(C) Both A and B
(D) Neither A nor B
184. During the Manchurian crisis of 1931-1932, the Hoover administration did which of the
following?
(A) Levied an embargo on Japanese goods.
(B) Banned the sale of arms to either side.
(C) Ordered the United States ground forces to Mukden.
(D) Withdrew diplomatic representation from Tokyo.
(E) Refused to recognize Japan's new conquests.

185. The legislation of the first New Deal set a NOTABLE precedent by its:
(A) acceptance of deficit spending and government intervention to
assure public well-being.
(B) effort to combine private and government forms of relief.
(C) commitment to "pump priming" as a way to induce economic growth.
(D) abandonment of any "laissez-faire" approach to government.

186. Those who attacked Roosevelt for using too much federal power in New Deal measures
feared:
(A) the rise of totalitarian government.
(B) the destruction of the free enterprise system.
(C) the loss of local and state government's power.
(D) All of the above

QUESTION #187 REFERS TO THE FOLLOWING QUOTATION:

"With millions of men and women still unemployed and the whole industrialized world critically
dependent upon the scope and vigor of the American economic recovery, veto of the tax cut
would be poor public policy, which political headline-hunting could not justify."

187. The above quotation suggests all but which of the following?
(A) The United States continues to be in a depression.
(B) A presidential veto would be harmful to the nation.
(C) Other nations are heavily affected by the U.S. economy.
(D) The president in determining policy should be guided solely by political impact of the policy.
(E) The unemployment rate is high in the nation.

188. The Great Depression of the 1930's contributed LEAST to which of the following?
(A) Emergence of the Democratic party as the majority party.
(B) Establishment of federal aid and support programs for agriculture.
(C) Desegregation of federal facilities.
(D) Unionization of mass production industries.
(E) Establishment of a social security system.

189. The Works Progress Administration (WPA), established during the administration of
Franklin D. Roosevelt, was the federal agency empowered to:
(A) protect employees from unfair labor practices.
(B) provide financial aid to western farmers suffering from low grain prices.
(C) provide aid to dependent children.
(D) investigate charges of discrimination against women in job hiring practices.
(E) provide jobs for the unemployed.

190. Those who favored more government participation in resolving depression ills believed:
(A) business institutions were not expanding their funds to increase production.
(B) the free enterprise system was no longer capable of generating economic growth.
(C) the wealth of the nation was not equitably distributed.
(D) only the government had access to large funds needed for relief.

191. The court-packing plan threatened which principle set forth by the Constitution?
(A) The independence of the judicial branch of government.
(B) The size deemed most effective for efficient operation of the Court.
(C) Life appointments of Supreme Court Justices.
(D) Balanced political representation on the Court.

192. The handling of the depression problems by the Roosevelt admini-
stration revealed:
(A) the irrelevance of "rugged individualism" during an intense depression.
(B) the social basis, as well as economic, for levying taxes to collect revenue.
(C) Both A and B
(D) Neither A nor B

193. The Neutrality Acts of the 1930's permitted:
(A) the shipment of arms and munitions to belligerents.
(B) the President to institute an embargo if a state of war exists between nations.
(C) American vessels to carry nonmilitary goods to belligerents on a "cash and carry" basis.
(D) None of the above

194. Which of the following have historians perceived as ending American neutrality and
committing the United States to an Allied victory?
(A) The collapse of France
(B) The passage of the Lend-Lease Act
(C) The ABCD Encirclement
(D) The invasion of Manchuria
(E) The Neutrality Act of 1939

195. Prior to the attack on Pearl Harbor, President Roosevelt's policies were primarily criticized
by isolationists on the grounds that they:
(A) were giving too much attention to strengthening American defenses.
(B) oscillated between cooperation with the Allies and adherence to strict neutrality.
(C) were misleading the American people and maneuvering the nation into war.
(D) were failing to educate the American people as to their responsi-
bilities in halting aggression.

196. President Roosevelt's policies between 1939 and 1941:
(A) stand in sharp contrast to Wilson's preceding the nation's entry into World War I.
(B) were supported by a very powerful majority of the American people.
(C) were clearly designed to lead to this nation's intervention into
World War II.
(D) All of the above.

197. The "Hundred Days" refers to:
(A) the period immediately after Roosevelt's election in 1932 and his inauguration.
(B) the period immediately after Roosevelt's first inauguration.
(C) the feverish last days of the presidential campaign of 1932.
(D) None of the above

198. The New Deal coalition included significant support from all of the following EXCEPT:
(A) organized labor.
(B) the urban masses.
(C) wealthy businessmen
(D) blacks in northern cities.
(E) midwestern farmers.

199. A major objective of the federal government during World War II was:
(A) to allow wage increases only within certain limits.
(B) to avoid strikes in war-related industries.
(C) to prevent businesses from overcharging the public for goods in short supply.
(D) All of the above

200. Probably the MOST important factor in Roosevelt's decision to seek an unprecedented third
term was:
(A) the worsening depression.
(B) the threats to democratic security imposed by the actions of an aggressive Germany.
(C) his strong dislike for Wendell Wilkie.
(D) his desire to balance the budget before leaving the Presidency.
++++++++++++++++++++++++
Key

1. E
2. B
3. B
4. E
5. A
6. E
7. E
8. E
9. D
10. E
11. C
12. B
13. D
14. B
15. A
16. B
17. E
18. B
19. A
20. D
21. E
22. D
23. C
24. C
25. D
26. C
27. A
28. A
29. D
30. D
31. E
32. C
33. E
34. B
35. C
36. E
37. A
38. D
39. B
40. B
41. B
42. C
43. D
44. C
45. E
46. B
47. B
48. E
49. E
50. D
51. B
52. A
53. C
54. B
55. C
56. A
57. B
58. D
59. B
60. A
61. D
62. C
63. B
64. D
65. E
66. B
67. C
68. E
69. E
70. E
71. D
72. D
73. E
74. D
75. B
76. E
77. E
78. E
79. E
80. E
81. A
82. E
83. C
84. B
85. A
86. E
87. A
88. A
89. D
90. E
91. A
92. A
93. E
94. E
95. A
96. D
97. A
98. D
99. B
100. D
101. A
102. E
103. D
104. A
105. E
106. C
107. D
108. C
109. E
110. E
111. E
112. C
113. A
114. A
115. A
116. A
117. A
118. E
119. B
120. C
121. D
122. B
123. D
124. D
125. B
126. E
127. B
128. B
129. E
130. E
131. B
132. A
133. D
134. C
135. E
136. E
137. B
138. A
139. B
140. D
141. A
142. B
143. B
144. B
145. C
146. B
147. C
148. C
149. B
150. D
151. B
152. C
153. B
154. B
155. E
156. C
157. A
158. B
159. E
160. D
161. B
162. B
163. C
164. A
165. A
166. A
167. E
168. E
169. C
170. A
171. B
172. C
173. E
174. E
175. E
176. C
177. C
178. A
179. C
180. C
181. A
182. A
183. C
184. E
185. A
186. D
187. D
188. C
189. E
190. C
191. A
192. C
193. B
194. B
195. C
196. A
197. B
198. C
199. D
200. B