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EAS487: Radar Remote Sensing Spring 2014

HOMEWORK 1: Math review


Reference: Lectures 1-7 Due: 2014 February 5
This problem set is intended as a review of some
mathematics useful for solving antenna problems.
The problems should be fairly simple but may re-
quire you to review some basic concepts in complex
vector operations. They will also require you to be-
come procient with programs that perform numeri-
cal integration such as Mathcad, Matlab, Mathemat-
ica, Macsyma, or Maple. If you are not familiar with
any of these programs, now is the time to become so!
Problem 1. Suppose
E
1
= E

(j x + 2 y)e
j(tkz)
E
2
= E

(2 x e
j/4
y)e
j(tkz)
Find |E
1
|
2
, |E
2
|
2
, E
1
E

2
, and the average power
density associated with E
2
if this is the electric eld
of an electromagnetic wave propagating in vacuum in
the z direction. Also, sketch or plot [E
2
(t, z = 0)].
Problem 2. Suppose a function dened in spheri-
cal coordinates by f(, ) has a peak in the direction
of the z axis where its value is f
max
. Suppose fur-
ther that we want to approximate this function with
a sector pattern dened by:
g(, ) = f
max
, 0 < <

= 0, >

where g is further constrained to have the same av-


erage value as f. We can think of f as representing
the radiation pattern of an antenna and g as an ap-
proximation of the pattern. Find an expression for
the angle

in terms of the ratio of the peak to av-


erage values of f. For small values of

, you can
show that
2

f
max
/f = 4. Next, nd the solid angle
associated with the given

. Finally, relate to
f
max
/f.
Hint: be sure you know how to evaluate the aver-
age of a function in spherical coordinates. Making a
sketch of the problem might help you to understand
it better.
Problem 3. We will soon learn that the radia-
tion pattern of a half-wave dipole antenna has the
functional form:
f() =

cos(

2
cos )
sin

2
where is the usual polar angle measured from the
z axis, which is aligned with the dipole.
Suppose that the dipole is now reoriented so that
it is aligned with the x axis. Express the radiation
pattern for this conguration in polar coordinates
(, ). Repeat the process for a dipole aligned with
the y axis. Note that you cannot just exchange and
, for example. Your results will be helpful when
we consider arrays of dipole antennas that are not
aligned with the z axis.
Hint: note that cos() is another way to write z r
and that sin
2
() = 1 cos
2
(). You can therefore
replace the trigonometric terms in f with factors of
z r. Next, replace z with x and y, and rewrite these
products in terms of polar coordinates to nd the
desired answers.
Problem 4. Evaluate

0
f() sind numerically
where f() is the function supplied in problem 3.
Hint: the answer is somewhere between 1 and 2. This
problem pertains to nding the total power radiated
by a half-wavelength dipole antenna.
Problem 5. Using Cartesian coordinates, inte-
grate numerically the function exp(x
2
y
2
) in two
dimensions over the circular region in the rst quad-
rant dened by x
2
+y
2
1, x 0, and y 0. Check
your answer by performing the integral analytically.
Hint: do the second part in polar rather than rect-
angular coordinates.
CORNELL UNIVERSITY c DAVE HYSELL (14/1/14)
HW 11