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Problem set 4 of the remote radar sensing course taught by Professor David Hysell at Cornell University.

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Reference: Lectures 16-20 Due: 2014 March 7

Problem 1. In class, we found that the angular

spectrum of an aperture antenna can be written as

|F(k

x

, k

y

)|

2

E(x

, y

)e

jkr

ds

2

(1)

where the integration is over the aperture and where

r

uniform phase aperture, the main beam will be in

the direction normal to the aperture (k r

= 0), and

the power density in the direction of the maximum

can then be written as:

p

max

=

k

2

32

2

Z

E(x

, y

)ds

2

(2)

where the appropriate constants have been lled in

for the rst time. Finding the total radiated power

by integrating (1) over all angles would be quite dif-

cult in practice. However, since we know all the

power radiated had to pass through the aperture, we

can cleverly calculate the total radiated power by in-

tegrating the usual expression for the power density

of an electromagnetic wave over the aperture:

p

total

=

1

2Z

|E(x

, y

)|

2

ds

(3)

Combining (2) and (3), we can calculate the direc-

tivity of the aperture radiator:

D 4

p

max

p

total

=

4

E(x

, y

)ds

|E(x

, y

)|

2

ds

=

4

2

A

phys

|E|

2

|E|

2

=

4

2

A

e

(4)

The above express the reciprocity theorem and the

denition of the eective area of an aperture in terms

of its physical area. The aperture eciency is the

ratio of the eective to the physical area.

Now the question: using the Schwartz inequality

given below, prove that an aperture with uniform

amplitude excitation has the largest eective aper-

ture and hence the highest directivity.

AB ds

A

2

ds

B

2

ds

Hint: let A=1 and B be the aperture eld.

Problem 2. The above calculations can be used

to show that the aperture eciency for a uniformly

illuminated aperture is unity. Now, do the calcula-

tion numerically. Consider a large square aperture in

the xy plane (at z = 0) measuring 40 wavelengths

on a side containing a uniform tangential eld.

a) Write down the spatial Fourier transform ex-

pressing the radiation eld.

b) Calculate the power pattern in the xz plane

( = 0) and plot it. The plot should make clear

the HPBW and the level of the rst sidelobe at

least.

c) Now integrate the entire pattern to get the

total radiated power and from that, the direc-

tivity. Be careful with your limits of integration.

Find the eective area from the directivity and

compare it with the physical area. If they dont

agree to within a few percent, youve done some-

thing wrong.

Problem 3. Tapered aperture distributions pro-

duce beams with lower sidelobes than distributions

with sharp edges. Suppose we have a circular aper-

ture of diameter D=50 where the aperture distribu-

tion depends only on the distance r

Neglecting the Fresnel term, we have seen that the

radiation eld F is then related to the aperture dis-

tribution E through the integral

F()

E(r

)J

(kr

sin)r

dr

the aperture plane, which we take to be the x y

plane here, and where the radiated power density is

proportional to |F()|

2

.

a) Verify numerically the known result that, for

a uniform aperture distribution, the half power

beamwidth (HPBW) is 1.02/D radians and the

rst sidelobe level is 17.6 dB below the main

beam. Make a properly scaled plot to show this.

b) Now, suppose the aperture eld is uniform

out to r

r

to zero at r

the new HPBW and the rst sidelobe level, and

plot the radiation pattern.

c) Calculate the aperture eciency and the ef-

fective area for both cases directly.

Problem 4. Investigate the power pattern of

an antenna in the Fresnel zone. Consider a one-

dimensional aperture that is uniformly illuminated

CORNELL UNIVERSITY c DAVE HYSELL (02/21/14)

HW 41

EAS487: Radar Remote Sensing Spring 2014

HOMEWORK 4: Aperture antennas

Reference: Lectures 16-20 Due: 2014 March 7

in the x direction. Neglect the y dependence in

this problem (no integrals in the y direction needed).

Take L

x

= 200 m and = 1 m. Calculate the dis-

tance where the transition from the Fresnel zone to

the Fraunhofer zone occurs and call this r

. Now,

using the full expression for the aperture integral,

including the quadratic Fresnel zone term, calculate

the power pattern |F(k

x

)|

2

at a distance of 0.1r

and

10r

pattern should agree with the far eld (sinX/X)

2

pattern. In the Fresnel zone, meanwhile, the pattern

should start to resemble a searchlight pattern with

steep walls.

CORNELL UNIVERSITY c DAVE HYSELL (02/21/14)

HW 42

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