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Problem set 6 of the remote radar sensing course taught by Professor David Hysell at Cornell University.

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HOMEWORK 6: Detection

Reference: Lectures 31-34 Due: 2014 April 11

Problem 1. In class, we discussed (in the context

of target detection, false alarms, and missed detec-

tions) the fact that, if the probability density func-

tions (PDFs) for raw receiver voltages V = x + iy

are Gaussian, the PDF for the magnitude of those

voltages |V | is something dierent.

Consider the output of a quadrature receiver re-

ceiving noise only. Let the PDFs of the in-phase and

quadrature components of the output voltages have

Gaussian distributions so that

P(x)dx =

1

2

e

x

2

2

2

dx

P(y)dy =

1

2

e

y

2

2

2

dy

Since the two components are statistically indepen-

dent, P(x, y) = P(x)P(y), and so the probability

of producing a voltage in a given dx, dy interval is

P(x, y)dxdy = P(x)P(y)dxdy.

Now, we can change variables from x and y to |V |

and where |V |

2

= x

2

+y

2

and = atan(y/x). Con-

verting everything to polar coordinates and recalling

that dxdy = |V |d|V |d, we can rewrite the PDF for

the receiver output as

P(|V |, )d|V |d =

1

2

2

e

|V |

2

2

2

|V |d|V |d

Integrating over all phase angles then, we can write

the PDF for V as

P(|V |) =

|V |

2

e

|V |

2

2

2

which is a Rayleigh distribution.

Now the question: suppose that, in addition to

noise, a deterministic signal is also present that

makes a constant added contribution to the output

voltage of the form V

= a + ib, with V

2

= a

2

+ b

2

and

Sketch it for the cases where the deterministic signal

is much weaker than and much stronger than the

noise.

Hint:

2

0

exp(c cos(

)) = 2I

(c) where I

is

the modied Bessel function of the rst kind of order

zero, I

(0) = 1, and I

(x) exp(x)/

2x for large

x. The result you nd is called a Rician distribution.

Problem 2. A 300 MHz radar transmits 20 s

pulses, giving a range resolution of 3 km, towards a

target 75 km away. The IPP is 2 ms, and we as-

sume that range aliasing is not occurring. The radar

cross section of the target is such that the S/N ra-

tio for each individual pulse is -20 dB. The target is

approaching the radar at 40 m/s, and the Doppler

spread caused by the target tumbling is about 2 Hz.

Design a data processing scheme, consisting of coher-

ent FFT processing (discrete Fourier transform of 2

n

samples, giving 2

n

frequency bins) followed by inco-

herent averaging of the resulting power spectra, that

will give the best output S/N ratio. In other words,

what is the largest useful value of n, and how many

spectra can you average incoherently? What is the

resulting output S/N ratio, roughly? The idea is to

make the FFT such that all the signal is more or less

in one frequency bin, giving the best S/N ratio in

that bin, and then to incoherently average as many

of these spectra as possible. How many can you av-

erage, given that you want the target to remain in

one range gate during the averaging?

Problem 3. Range aliasing. A radar searching

for aircraft transmits a long series of pulses with

an IPP of 500 s. An echo is observed at delay of

300 s. The radar operator suspects that the target

may actually be range aliased, however, and checks

this by changing the IPP to 400 s. The echo de-

lay changes to 200 s. What is the smallest possible

target range?

Problem 4. Frequency aliasing. Suppose that,

in the above example, the observed Doppler shift of

the target also changed from +400 Hz for the orig-

inal IPP to +900 Hz for the second IPP. What is

the smallest possible (in absolute value) true Doppler

shift consistent with these observations?

CORNELL UNIVERSITY c DAVE HYSELL (14/03/22)

HW 61

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