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SOCIOLOGY & ANTHROPOLOGY


AS SCIENCES
Social Science - are all academic disciplines, which deal with man in their social context (Sociology,
Anthropology, Political Science, History, Economics, Psychology, Geography)
SOCIOLOGY derived from Latin word socious! meaning interaction
the scientific st"dy of patterns of h"man interaction that deals with the st"dy of gro"p life
systematic st"dy of the development, str"ct"re, interaction and collective #ehavior or organi$ed gro"ps of
h"man #eings
the st"dy of h"man social life, gro"ps and societies% &he practice of sociology involves gaining 'nowledge
a#o"t o"rselves, the societies in which we live, and other societies distinct from o"rs in space and time%
Sociological findings #oth dist"r# and contri#"te to o"r common(sense #eliefs a#o"t o"rselves and others%
(Giddens 1989)
Max e!e" defined sociology as science which attempts the interpretive "nderstanding of social action in
order to arrive at a ca"sal e)planation of its ca"se and effects!
#a$$e%e" defined sociology as systematic st"dy of the social #ehavior of individ"als
ANTHROPOLOGY ta'en from Gree' word anthropos! meaning man and logica!
st"dies
the scientific st"dy of man, his wor's, his #ody, his #ehavior and val"es, in time and space%
the scientific st"dy of physical, social and c"lt"ral development and #ehavior of h"man #eings since their
appearance on earth%
the st"dy of h"man'ind of ancient and modern people and their ways of living% (Ha""is 1991)
the science of h"manity and its society* scientific st"dy of h"manity, the similarities and diversity of c"lt"res
and attempts to present an integrated pict"re of h"man'ind%
&I''ERENT AREAS IN SOCIOLOGY
+% Social O"(ani)a*ion social gro"ps and instit"tions, ethnic relation, stratification and mo#ility
,% Social Ps%c+olo(% h"man nat"re as o"tcome of gro"p life, personality formation
-% Social C+an(e change in c"lt"re and social relations
.% H,$an Ecolo(% #ehavior of a given pop"lation and its relationship to the social instit"tions
/% Po-,la*ion S*,dies demography
0% Sociolo(ical T+eo"% & Resea"c+ application of theories as research tools
1% A--lied Sociolo(% application of sociological research
&I''ERENT AREAS IN ANTHROPOLOGY
1. C,l*,"al An*+"o-olo(%
A% Ethnography contemporary c"lt"re
2% Medical Anthropology #iological and c"lt"ral factors in health
3% Urban Anthropology city life, gangs and dr"g a#"se
4% Development Anthropology ca"ses of "nderdevelopment and development among the less
developed nations
.. A"c+eolo(%
A% Historic Archeology c"lt"res of the recent past #y means of written records and archeological
e)cavations
2% Industrial Archeology foc"ses on ind"strial factors and facilities
3% ontract Archeology archeological s"rveys for environmental impact statements
and protection of historic and prehistoric sites
/. P+%sical 01iolo(ical An*+"o-olo(%2
A% !rimatology social life, #iology of mon'eys, apes, great apes and other primates
2% Human paleontology st"dy fossil remains of early h"man species
3% "orensic anthropology identify victims of m"rders and accidents
4% !opulation #enetics st"dy hereditary differences in h"man pop"lation
3. Lin(,is*ics
A% Historical linguistics reconstr"ct the origins of specific lang"ages and of
families of lang"ages
2% Descriptive linguistics st"dy the grammar and synta) of lang"ages
3% $ociolinguistics st"dy the act"al "se of lang"age in the comm"nication #ehavior of daily
life
/% A--lied An*+"o-olo(% 5edical Anthropology, 4evelopment Anthropology, 6orensic Anthropology
Rela*ions+i- o4 An*+"o-olo(% and Sociolo(%
Sociology st"dies the str"ct"re of h"man interaction and esta#lishes that str"ct"re7s relationship with man8s
#ehavior%
Anthropology esta#lishes the #ases of s"ch interaction or #ehavior% 9t also e)plain why man in these
str"ct"res #ehave the way they do%
SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES
STR5CT5RAL6'5NCTIONAL THEORY
6ramewor' for #"ilding theory that sees society as a comple) system whose parts wor' together to promote
solidarity and sta#ility %
9t asserts that o"r lives are g"ided #y social s*",c*,"es (relatively sta#le patterns of social #ehavior)% Each
social str"ct"re has social 4,nc*ions, or conse:"ences, for the operation of society as a whole%
;ey fig"res in the development of this approach incl"de A,(,s*e Co$*e, E$ile &,"7+ei$, He"!e"* S-ence",
and Talco** Pa"sons%
SOCIAL6CON'LICT THEORY
6ramewor' for #"ilding theory that sees society as an arena of ine:"ality that generates conflict and change%
5ost sociologists who favor the conflict approach attempt not only to "nderstand society #"t also to red"ce
social ine:"ality
;ey fig"res in this tradition incl"de ;arl 5ar), Harriet 5artinea", <ane Addams, and =% E% 2% 4" 2ois
>ne important type of conflict analysis is the (ende"6con4lic* a--"oac+? a point of view that foc"ses on
ine:"ality and conflict #etween men and women% &he gender(conflict approach is closely lin'ed to 4e$inis$,
the advocacy of social e:"ality for women and men%
Another important type of social(conflict analysis is the "ace6con4lic* a--"oac+, a point of view that foc"ses on
ine:"ality and conflict #etween people of different racial and ethnic categories%
SYM1OLIC INTERACTION THEORY
6ramewor' for #"ilding theory that sees society as the prod"ct of the everyday interactions of individ"als%
&he str"ct"ral(f"nctional and the social(conflict approaches share a $ac"o6le8el o"ien*a*ion, meaning that
they foc"s on #road social str"ct"res that shape society as a whole% 9n contrast, sym#olic(interactionism has a
$ic"o6le8el o"ien*a*ion* it foc"ses on patterns of social interaction in specific settings%
;ey fig"res in the development of this approach incl"de 5a) =e#er, George Her#ert 5ead, Erving Goffman,
George Homans, and Peter 2la"%
An*+"o-olo(ical Pe"s-ec*i8es
Comparative or cross-cultural perspective
( "se data from many different societies
( 4isting"ish what is +,$an from what is tr"e for one society
Holistic perspective
( St"dy any specific aspect of a c"lt"re within the widest possi#le conte)t
( @o part can #e "nderstood apart from the whole
Ethnocentrism
( <"dge others according to the values of yo"r own society
( 5isinterpret other c"lt"res #eca"se yo" "se the concepts of yo"r own c"lt"re
6 All socie*ies a"e e*+nocen*"ic.
( =estern ethnocentrism has had great impact on the world
Cultural relativism
( Anderstand the val"es and c"stoms of another c"lt"re in terms of that c"lt"re
( 5a'e the effort to "nderstand the other c"lt"re in its own terms
( 2e hesitant a#o"t B"dging
( &ry to "nderstand, not necessarily to accept or agree
Moral relativism
( &he position that there is no way for "s as individ"als to B"dge right from wrong% &his wo"ld mean that, as
individ"als, we co"ld never disapprove of what any society did%
( @>& PCA3&93E4 2D A@&HC>P>L>G9S&S
When confronting the culturally unfamiliar
( Ceact emotionally8 ethnocentrically
(privately if it is not appropriate to show yo"r reaction)
( S"spend B"dgment, investigate, try to #e c"lt"rally relative
( Ceach a tho"ghtf"l personal B"dgment
Emic Perspective
( &ry to "nderstand a c"lt"re the way its mem#ers do
( Learn to thin' li%e an insider
Etic Perspective
( Anderstand a c"lt"re in scientific terms
( 3ompare the c"lt"re to others
( 3oncepts "sed may not #e meaningf"l to mem#ers of the c"lt"re
Leadin( Sociolo(is*s
1. A,(,s*e Co$*e
9sidore A"g"ste 5arie 6rancoise Eavier 3omte
6ather of Sociology, coined the term sociology!
Saw sociology as the prod"ct of a three(stage historical development%
T+eolo(ical s*a(e (#eginning of h"man history to the end of the E"ropean 5iddle Ages) people too' a
religio"s view of society and saw it as an e)pression of god7s will%
Me*a-+%sical s*a(e (Cenaissance) people "nderstood society as a nat"ral rather than s"pernat"ral
phenomenon%
Scien*i4ic s*a(e o4 +is*o"% applied the scientific approach to the st"dy of society%
.. Ha""ie* Ma"*inea,
&ranslated the wor's of A"g"ste 3omte from 6rench into English%
Cevealed the evils of slavery, rights of women, emancipation of slaves and religio"s tolerance%
9n her view, scholars and intellect"als sho"ld not simply offer o#servations of social conditions* they sho"ld act
"pon their convictions in a manner that will #enefit society%
/. He"!e"* S-ence"
3onsidered as the second fo"nder of sociology
#eca"se of his p"#lication of the first sociology
te)t#oo' in +F// entitled, Social Statics%!
3ompared society to the h"man #ody% &he parts of the h"man #ody f"nction interdependently to help the entire
organism to s"rvive, social str"ct"res (any sta#le pattern of #ehavior) wor' together to preserve society%
6ollowed the wor' of 3harles 4arwin7s theory of #iological evol"tion which holds that species change
physically over many generations as it adapts to its nat"ral environment% He proposed that society is a B"ngle!
with the fittest! people rising to the top and the wea' grad"ally sin'ing into misera#le poverty%
3. &a8id E$ile &,"7+ei$
Sees society as a god%! Society e)ists #eyond
o"rselves% 2eca"se it is larger than "s it has
the power to g"ide o"r tho"ghts and action%
People create society #"t once created,
it ta'es a life of its own%

P"#lished a st"dy on s"icide (+FG1) which demonstrates the great infl"ence "pon individ"al #ehavior of
varying forms and degrees of social integration%%
He classified s"icide as follows?
Altr"istic s"icide a person feels a deep sense of moral o#ligation an is willing to place the gro"p7s welfare
a#ove his8her own s"rvival (spy who gets ca"ght)%
Egoistic s"icide occ"rs when the individ"al feels little connection to the larger society and is not affected #y
social constraints against self(destr"ctive #ehavior%
Anomic s"icide occ"rs in a time of great social disorder or t"rmoil% Anomie refers to a loss of direction that is
felt in a society when social control of individ"al #ehavior has #ecome ineffective (normlessness)%
6atalistic s"icide related to the powerlessness that people feel when their lives are reg"lated to an intolera#le
e)tent (prisoners)
9. #a"l Ma"x
Philosopher, economist and political
activist #orn in &ier, Pr"ssia%
Economic 4eterminism ass"med that the most #asic tas' of any h"man society is providing food and shelter
to s"stain itself% &h"s, family str"ct"re, law, and religion all develop after adapting to the given economic
str"ct"re%

Social conflict str"ggle #etween segments of society over val"ed reso"rces% &he most significant form of
social conflict is class conflict arising from the way a society prod"ces material goods%
:. Max e!e"
Emphasi$ed how h"man ideas shape society%
9deasHespecially #eliefs and val"esHare the 'ey
to "nderstanding society% He saw modern society
not B"st as a prod"ct of new technology
and capitalism, #"t of a new way of thin'ing%
Cationali$ation of society the historical change from tradition to rationality as the dominant mode of h"man
tho"ght* mem#ers of pre(ind"strial societies are traditional whereas people in ind"strial(capitalist societies are
rational%
II. On Becoming Human
!. BIOC"#$"%!# E&O#"$IO' !'( H"M!' )%O"P*
3oncept of Evol"tion
Astronomers estimated that the "niverse has #een in e)istence for some +/ #illion years%
Some 1I million years ago, the first primates may have appeared% &hey are #elieved to #e ancestral to all
living primates, incl"ding mon'eys, apes and h"mans%
&he early primates may or may not have lived in trees, #"t they had fingers and co"ld grasp things%
Later (a#o"t -/ million years ago) they #egan to #e replaced #y the first mon'eys and apes%
Some ,I million years after the appearance of mon'eys and apes, the immediate apeli'e ancestors of
h"mans pro#a#ly emerged%
At least /I,III years ago, modern! h"mans evolved%
E;OL5TION O' C5LT5RE AN& SOCIETY
H"mans are a prod"ct of the interaction of #iological and c"lt"ral evol"tion% 3"lt"rally, traits are
transmitted #y learning and imitation% 3"lt"ral evol"tion is more s"#Bect to conscio"s h"man control and
change than #iological evol"tion% Still, #oth types of evol"tion may #e s"#Bect to nat"ral selection%
PERIO&I<ATION O' THE ORL&
Paleoli*+ic Pe"iod
+% Lower Paleolithic J woodlands and savannas
>ldowan tool tradition pe##le tools, choppers K hand a)es
Homo ha#ilis most pro#a#ly lived in small #ands and were scavengers
Ache"lian tool tradition
5ore standardi$ed and speciali$ed* not all p"rpose tools li'e >ldowan
2asic tool 'it? c"tting, scraping, piercing, chopping and po"nding tools
Homo erect"s pro#a#ly "sed fire
,% 5iddle Paleolithic J 5o"sterian tool tradition
9ce age
Levallois #lades
Points were hafted to wooden spears
@eandertals h"nted #ig game (e)% wooly mammoth)
Had mort"ary practices
Social organi$ation incl"ded care of the infirmed and the aged
-% Apper Paleolithic J e)s% A"rignacian, Sol"trean, 5agdalenian tool traditions
greater pop"lation density
greater stylistic component to stone artifacts
differences may d"e to territorial8 social #o"ndaries, rit"als, ethnicity
emphasis on "se of #one and antler for tools
#roadening of s"#sistence #ase to incl"de #irds and fish
"se of personal ornaments li'e #one, antler, shell and stone
materials were o#tained from distant so"rces
art #oom cave painting and sc"lpt"re
Mesoli*+ic Pe"iod
e)% 5aglemosian tool tradition
warmer weather with forests
development of fishing technology (e)s% Hoo', line and sin'er* seine nets)
increased "se of wood in tools and weapons
Neoli*+ic Pe"iod
e)% <armo (9ran) and <ericho (9srael)
domestication of plants and animals
settled life
weaving with loom, pottery
swidden c"ltivation, hortic"lt"re, pastoralism8transh"mance
characteristic tools? digging stic' and hoe
Ci8ili)a*ion= S*a*es
agric"lt"ral prod"ctivity
division of la#or
trade and comm"nication
class stratification
social control and ta)ation
advances in 'nowledge (e)% writing, math,
calendrical rec'oning)
mon"mental architect"re
Ind,s*"ial Re8ol,*ion
"se of electricity
wage la#or
rise of factories
information technology #oom
$ime
+years ago,
)eological
Epoch
-ossil %ecor.
+ -irst appearance,
!rcheological
Perio.s
+Ol. Wor.,
Ma/or Cultural
(evelopments
+first appearance,
//II (-/II
2%3%)
Pleistocene Earliest h"mans in @ew
=orld
2ron$e Age
@eolithic
3ities K states*
social ine:"ality*
f"ll(time craft
specialists
4omesticated
plants K animals*
permanent villages
+I,III (FIII
23)
5esolithic
2road(spectr"m
food collecting*
increasingly
sedentary
comm"nities*
many 'inds of
microliths
+.,III
(+,,III 23)
Apper Paleolithic
3ave painting*
female fig"rines*
many 'ind of #lade
tools
/I,III
5odern h"mans
Homo
sapiens
5iddle
Paleolithic
Celigio"s
#eliefs(L)* #"rials*
5o"sterian tools
+II,III
,/I,III
1II,III
@eanderthal
H& sapiens
Lower Paleolithic
Ase of fire*
Ache"lian tools
H"nting and8or
scavenging*
seasonal
campsites*
>ldowan tools
+,/II,III
+,FII,III
Homo erectus
Pliocene
,,III,III
-,III,III
Homo habilis
Earliest
hominids
Australolithe
cus
Earliest stone tools
/,III,III
+,,III,III
,,,/II,III
5iocene
Diversification of
apes
Sivapithecin
es
Dryopithecin
es
,G,III,III
-,,III,III
-F,III,III
>ligocene
Earliest apes (?)
Propliopithe
cids e.g.
Aegyptopithe-cus
Earliest
anthropoinds
Parapithecid
s
/I,III,III
/-,/II,III
Eocene
Plesiadapis
0/,III,III Paleocene
1I,III,III Late
3retaceo"s
Earliest primates
Purgatorius
999% 3"lt"re as Social >rgani$ation
!. C"#$"%E !'( *OCIE$0
CONCEPT O' C5LT5RE
3"lt"re is #asically a #l"eprint for living in a partic"lar society% 9n common speech, people are often refer to
a c"lt"red person! as someone with an interest in the arts, literat"re or m"sic, s"ggesting that individ"al has a
highly developed sense of style or aesthetic appreciation of the finer things!% &o sociologists, however, every
h"man #eing is c"lt"red!% All h"man #eings participate in a c"lt"re, whatever they are ed"cated or illiterate
and living in a primitive society% 3"lt"re is cr"cial to h"man e)istence%
C,l*,"e is define as all that human beings learn to do, to use, to produce, to %now, and to believe as they
grow to maturity and live out their lives in the social groups to which they belong%
According to E.war. $ylor, c"lt"re is that whole comple) which incl"des 'nowledge, #elief, art,
morals, c"stoms and any other capa#ilities and ha#its ac:"ired #y people as mem#ers of the society!%
3"lt"re is "ni:"e to h"man persons and varies from society to society% 9t comprises all that o#Bects, ideas,
#eliefs, norms of a gro"p of people and the meaning that the gro"p applies to each c"lt"ral element (Cla"7 &
Ro!le%)%
C,l*,"e S+oc7
Every social gro"p has its own specific c"lt"re, its own way of seeing, doing and ma'ing things, its own
traditions% Some c"lt"res are :"ite similar to one another* others are very different% Sociologists "se the term
culture shoc1' to descri#e the di((iculty people have ad)usting to a new culture that di((ers mar%edly (rom their
own% 3"lt"re shoc' can also #e e)perienced within a person7s own society%
E*+nocen*"is$ and C,l*,"al Rela*i8is$
People often ma'e )udgements about other cultures according to the customs and values o( their own, a
practice sociologists call e*+nocen*"is$% Ethnocentrism can lead to preB"dice and discrimination and often
res"lts in the repression or domination of one gro"p #y another%
9mmigrants, for instance, often enco"nter hostility when their manners dress, eating ha#its, or religio"s
#eliefs differ mar'edly from those of their new neigh#ors% 2eca"se of this hostility and #eca"se of their own
ethnocentrism, immigrants often esta#lish their own comm"nities in their adopted co"ntry%
&o avoid ethnocentrism in their own research, sociologists are g"ided #y the concept of c,l*,"al
"ela*i8is$, the recognition that social groups and cultures must be studied and understood on their own terms
be(ore valid comparisons can be made% 3"lt"ral relativism is an approach in doing o#Bective cross(c"lt"ral
research% 9t does not re:"ire researches to a#dicate their personal standards%
>enocen*"is$ the e)act opposite of ethnocentrism or pre(erence (or anything that is (oreign% 9t is the
conviction that what comes from far away has special :"ality or charm which the local prod"ct can never
e:"al% 9n contradiction to Eenocentrism is xeno-+o!ia, which is a distrust o( anything (oreign and is e:"ally
irrational%
C,l*,"al la( ( &his concept was e)po"nded first #y =illiam >g#"rn which means the dysf"nctions in, or
ina#ility of a given society to adopt a c"lt"re immediately as a res"lt of the disparity in the rate of change
#etween the material and non(material elements of the c"lt"re%
Co$-onen*s o4 C,l*,"e
1. Ma*e"ial C,l*,"e
3onsists of h"man technology
.. Non6$a*e"ial C,l*,"e
3onsists of the totality of 'nowledge, #eliefs, val"es and r"les for appropriate #ehavior
a. #no?led(e refers to the total range of what has #een learned or perceived as tr"e* #ody of information
which are acc"m"lated thro"gh e)perience, st"dy or investigation
!. Social no"$s idea in the minds of the mem#ers of a gro"p p"t into a statement specifying what
mem#ers of the gro"p sho"ld do, o"ght to do or are circ"mstances% Prescriptions or standards of #ehavior
e)pected to #e followed%
-ol1ways commonly 'nown as the c"stoms, traditions and conventions of a society% 6ol'ways have
to do with the c"stomary ways and ordinary conventions #y which we carry o"t o"r daily activities% 9t is
general r"les, c"stomary and ha#it"al ways and patterns of e)pected #ehavior within the society where
it is followed, witho"t m"ch tho"ght given to the matter%
Mores (more(ays) special fol'ways which are important to the welfare of the people and their
cherished val"es which are #ased on ethical or moral val"es% People "s"ally attach moral significance
to mores and they define people who violate them as sinf"l, evil and wic'ed% 3onse:"ently, the
p"nishment for violators of a society7s mores is severe* they may #e p"t to death, imprisoned, cast o"t,
m"tilated or tort"red%
#aws formali$ed norms, enacted #y people who are vested with governmental power and enforced
#y political and legal a"thorities designated #y the government%
c. 1elie4s em#ody people7s perception of reality and incl"de the primitive ideas of the "niverse as well as
the scientist7s empirical view of the world%
d. ;al,es are #road ideas regarding what is desira#le, correct and good that most mem#ers of a society
share or an a#stract concepts of what is important or worthwhile* #asis of o"r B"dgement what we consider
good, desira#le and correct%
S%$!ols and Lan(,a(e
S%$!ols ( are acts or o#Bects that have come to #e socially accepted as standing for something else% &hey
come to represent other things thro"gh the shared "nderstandings people have%
Lan(,a(e a socially str"ct"res system of so"nd patterns (words and sentences) with specific and ar#itrary
meanings% Lang"age is a cornerstone of every c"lt"re%
C+a"ac*e"is*ics o4 C,l*,"e
+% C,l*,"e is s+a"ed% 3"lt"re is transmitted in society #y o#serving, listening and interacting% 6or a tho"ght or
action to #e considered c"lt"ral, it m"st commonly share #y some pop"lation or gro"p of individ"als%
,% C,l*,"e is lea"ned% @ot all things shared generally #y a pop"lation are c"lt"ral% &he hair color for instance
is not c"lt"ral nor is eating% 6or something to #e considered c"lt"ral, it m"st #e learned as well as shared%
H"mans eat #eca"se they m"st, #"t what and when and how they eat are learned and vary from c"lt"re to
c"lt"re%
-% C,l*,"e is -a**e"ned% 5"ch of the #ehavior of h"man appears to #e c"lt"rally patterned #y different sets of
val"es and dominant personality traits%
.% C,l*,"e is ada-*i8e% 3"lt"re is the primary means #y which h"man #eings adapt to the challenges of their
environment% Adaptation is the process #y which h"man #eings adB"st to changes in their environment%
&he meaning of sym#ols are entirely ar#itrary, a matter of c"lt"ral convention% Each c"lt"re attaches its
own meanings to things% &h"s, c"lt"re may #e said to consist of shared patterns of meanings e)pressed in
sym#ols%
0% C,l*,"e is d%na$ic% @o c"lt"re is ever in permanent state% 9t is constant changing% &he changes may #e
impercepti#le, #"t they are changes nonetheless% &he practices of today will never #e the same tomorrow%
A c"lt"re is changing #eca"se new ideas and new techni:"es are added and old ways are constantly #eing
modified and discarded%
Two simple mechanisms are responsible for cultural evolution: innovation and diffusion. Innovation is the
source of cultural traits that is, items of a culture such as tools, materials used, beliefs, values and typical ways
of doing things. Innovation takes place in several different ways, including recombining in a new element
already available to a society,
S>39AL S&CA3&ACE
&he interweaving of people7s interactions and relationships in more(or(less rec"rrent and sta#le patterns%
S*a*,s ( represents a position within a gro"p or society% 9t is #y means of stat"ses that we locate one another
in vario"s social str"ct"res% Stat"ses and roles are #"ilding #loc's for more comprehensive social str"ct"res,
incl"ding gro"ps% Coles lin' "s within social relationships%
Role ( A set of e)pectations that define the #ehavior people view as appropriate and inappropriate for the
occ"pant of a stat"s%
G"o,-s consist of two or more people who share a feeling of "nity and who are #o"nd together in relatively
sta#le patterns of social interaction%
Ins*i*,*ions is an abstraction which is an organi*ed system o( social norms, belie(s, values and material
ob)ects (ormed around the social needs o( people% &he vario"s instit"tions in society tend to #e interrelated and
integrative%
Socie*ies incl"des the totality o( social organi*ation and the complex networ% o( interconnected,
interdependent and overlapping social relationships% Every society has its own distinct and "ni:"e c"lt"re%
3"lt"re and society are interdependent% All mem#ers of the society share the common c"lt"re% However,
s"#c"lt"res e)ist%