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ABOUT THE COMPANY
HCL Career Development Centre or CDC is an initiative that enables individuals
to benefit from HCL expertise in the space and become Industry ready IT
professionals. HCL dominates the IT space as a leader. 45,000 gifted professionals,
a colossal US $4 Billion turnover, an international presence in 17 countries, and
most importantly a deep-rooted commitment to innovate, makes it a true
Technology Giant. HCL CDC career program equips a student to meet emerging
industry challenges with finesse and ease. Opportunities to grow with HCL CDC
are limitless, catapulting a student to high level controlling positions in Mega
Corporates. With top HCL professionals as the trainers, customised career
programs, hands on experience, state of art infrastructure and world class training
program the student's career graph is bound to follow a steep rise.
HCL CDCs provide specially designed courses in high-end software, hardware and
networking integration to groom students into industry-ready professionals. HCL
CDCs also offer placement support to all their students who excel in their
academics and display a remarkable performance during the course.
As the training arm of HCL Infosystems, HCL Career Development Centre (CDC)
carries forth a legacy of excellence spanning across more than three decades. HCL
CDC is an initiative that enables individuals and organizations to benefit from
HCL's deep expertise in the IT space.
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Among the fastest growing IT education brands in India, HCL CDC offers a
complete spectrum of quality training programs on software, hardware, networking
as well as global certifications in association with leading IT organizations
worldwide.
Empowered with strategic alliances with leading IT organizations in India and
abroad, HCL CDC training solutions cater to diverse consumer profiles including
individuals, enterprises, academic institutions and Government enterprises.
As the fountainhead of the most significant pursuit of human mind (IT), HCL
strongly believes, "Only a Leader can transform you into a Leader". HCL CDC is a
formalization of this experience and credo which has been perfected over three
decades.
VISION
"Together we create the enterprises of tomorrow".
MISSION
"To provide world-class information technology solutions and services in order to
enable our customers to serve their customers better".
OBJECTIVE
"To fuel initiative and foster activity by allowing individuals freedom of action and
innovation in attaining defined objectives."
PEOPLE OBJECTIVE
"To help people in HCL Infosystems Ltd. share in the company's successes, which
they make possible; to provide job security based on their performance; to
recognize their individual achievements; and help them gain a sense of satisfaction
and accomplishment from their work."
CORE VAUE
 We shall uphold the dignity of the individual.
 We shall honor all commitments.
 We shall be committed to Quality, Innovation and Growth in every
endeavour.
 We shall be responsible corporate citizens
"To help people in HCL Infosystems Ltd. share in the company's successes, which
they make possible; to provide job security based on their performance; to
recognize their individual achievements; and help them gain a sense of satisfaction
t from their work."
We shall uphold the dignity of the individual.
We shall honor all commitments.
We shall be committed to Quality, Innovation and Growth in every
We shall be responsible corporate citizens
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"To help people in HCL Infosystems Ltd. share in the company's successes, which
they make possible; to provide job security based on their performance; to
recognize their individual achievements; and help them gain a sense of satisfaction
We shall be committed to Quality, Innovation and Growth in every
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1. INTRODUCTION
A JOURNEY TOWARDS CISCO-CERTIFIED NETWORK ASSOCIATION (CCNA)
To achieve CCNA Routing and Switching certification, one must earn a passing
score on Cisco exam #200-120, or combined passing scores on both the
"Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices" ICND1 #100-101 and ICND2 #200-101
exams. Passing the ICND1 grants one the Cisco Certified Entry Networking
Technician (CCENT) certification. Passing scores are set by using statistical
analysis and are subject to change. At the completion of the exam, candidates
receive a score report along with a score breakout by exam section and the passing
score for the given exam. Cisco does not publish exam passing scores because
exam questions and passing scores are subject to change without notice.
The certification is valid for three years; at the time a CCNA holder must either re-
take the CCNA or ICND exam, or take and pass an exam for one of the
Professional (e.g., CCNP) or Specialist level; certifications (excluding the sales
specialist exam), or pass the CCIE written exam.
These exams are conducted by authorized test centers at a cost of $295 USD for
the full CCNA exam..
Cisco Systems, Inc is a multinational corporation with more than 73,000
employees and annual revenue of US$48 billion as of 2013. Headquartered in San
J ose, California, it designs and sells networking and communications technology
and services under five brands, namely Cisco, Linksys, WebEx, IronPort, and
Scientific Atlanta.
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CCNA was launched by CISCO SYSTEMS. It stands for CISCO CERTIFIED
NETWORK ASSOCIATE. CISCO has 37% market shares in internetworking
devices. Hence, when we study and complete CCNA certification you are
recognized internationally. CCNA is recognized all over the world and prepares
you for carrier that spans all over theglobe.
INTERNETWORKING BASIC & DEVICES.
A network is a system that transmits any combination of voice, video and/or
databetween users. The main field on which we were working was networking and
the course was CCNA which includes all the parts of networking.
In a typical LAN, there are various types of network devices available as outlined
below.
 Hub Repeat signals received on each port by broadcasting to all the other
connected ports.
 Repeaters Used to connect two or more Ethernet segments of any media
type, and to provide signal amplification for a segment to be extended. In a
network that uses repeater, all members are contending for transmission of
data onto a single network. We like to call this single network a collision
domain. Effectively, every user can only enjoy a percentage of the available
bandwidth. Ethernet is subject to the "5-4-3" rule regarding repeater
placement, meaning we can only have five segments connected using four
repeaters with only three segments capable of accommodating hosts.
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 Bridge A layer 2 device used to connect different networks types or
networks of the same type. It maps the Ethernet addresses of the nodes
residing on each segment and allows only the necessary traffic to pass
through the bridge. Packet destined to the same segment is dropped. This
"store-and-forward" mechanism inspects the whole Ethernet packet before
making a decision. Unfortunately, it cannot filter out broadcast traffic. Also,
it introduces a 20 to 30 percent latency when processing the frame. Only 2
networks can be linked with a bridge.
 Switch Can link up four, six, eight or even more networks. Cut-through
switches run faster because when a packet comes in, it forwards it right after
looking at the destination address only. A store-and-forward switch inspects
the entire packet before forwarding. Most switches cannot stop broadcast
traffic. Switches are layer 2 devices.
 Routers Can filter out network traffic also. However, they filter based on
the protocol addresses defined in OSI layer 3(the network layer), not based
on the Ethernet packet addresses. Note that protocols must be routable in
order to pass through the routers. A router can determine the most efficient
path for a packet to take and send packets around failed segments.
 Router Has the best features of both routers and bridges in that it can be
configured to pass the unroutable protocols by imitating a bridge, while not
passing broadcast storms by acting as a router for other protocols.
 Gateway Often used as a connection to a mainframe or the internet.
Gateways enable communications between different protocols, data types
and environments. This is achieved via protocol conversion, whereby the
gateway strips the protocol stack off of the packet and adds the appropriate
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stack for the other side. Gateways operate at all layers of the OSI model
without making any forwarding decisions.
A computer network is a connection of two or more computers through a cable or
wireless connection. Computer network enable computer users to share hardware,
resources and information. Aside sharing information, the computer network
enables users to share internet access. The importance of networking two or more
computers can not be overemphasized. Networking in computer is unavoidable.
We need networks in most things we do in life.
I wonder what the world of computer will be without computer networks. In
computing, networking is a way of connecting two or more computers together.
When you network computers together, the computers can share information and
resources with one another. Networking is a very vital and delicate area in
computing.
We can not really quantify the importance of networking two or more PC.
Computer network is very important for every business, no matter how small a
business may be. Computer network helps in sharing resources. With computer
network, so many computers can share one printer, scanner and some other
hardware, which might be expensive for a company to acquire for every computer
user.
It is quite obvious that computer network helps to save cost for an organization.
Instead of buying all hardware for each computer, one can just share one via the
computer network In addition to this, let us just think of additional space that will
be occupied by providing printers or scanners for each of the computers in an
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organization. Networking two or more computer not only saves money but also
saves space. This in addition makes the user's environment friendly.
Do we ignore the communication aspect? No! Networking enhances effective
communication among members of an organization or a company. With
appropriate software, each computer user can communicate with other members or
staff of an organization or company. In addition to this, Computer network gives
users the opportunity to use remote programs and remote databases either of the
same organization or from other enterprises or public sources. The importance of
having a computer networks are really numerous.
Thus, it is a necessity for every organization or company. It makes effective
communication possible and helps to eliminate unnecessary waste of time and
duplication or resources.
The desire result was obtain in every experiments and work as a result we made a
successful network capable of strong communications. A network engineer handles
all of the “plumbing” for acompany’s computers, connecting offices with T1 lines,
hooking them up to the Internet, and configuring all internal systems such as net
routers and firewalls. This was very interesting field .
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2. OSI Model:
The OSI model is a layered model and a conceptual standard used for defining
standards to promote multi-vendor integration as well as maintain constant
interfaces and isolate changes of implementation to a single layer. It is NOT
application or protocol specific. In order to pass any Cisco exam, you need to
know the OSI model inside and out.
The OSI Model consists of 7 layers as follows:
Layer Description Device Protocol
Application
Provides network access for
applications, flow control and error
recovery. Provides communications
services to applications by identifying
and establishing the availability of
other computers as well as to
determine if sufficient resources exist
for communication purposes.
Gateway
NCP, SMB,
SMTP, FTP,
SNMP,
Telnet,
Appletalk
Presentation
Performs protocol conversion,
encryption and data compression
Gateway
and
redirectors
NCP, AFP,
TDI
Session
Allows 2 applications to communicate
over a network by opening a session
and synchronizing the involved
computers. Handles connection
Gateway NetBios
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establishment, data transfer and
connection release
Transport
Repackages messages into smaller
formats, provides error free delivery
and error handling functions
Gateway
NetBEUI,
TCP, SPX,
and NWLink
Network
Handles addressing, translates logical
addresses and names to physical
addresses, routing and traffic
management.
Router and
brouter
IP, IPX,
NWLink,
NetBEUI
Data Link
Packages raw bits into frames making
it transmitable across a network link
and includes a cyclical redundancy
check(CRC). It consists of the LLC
sublayer and the MAC sublayer. The
MAC sublayer is important to
remember, as it is responsible for
appending the MAC address of the
next hop to the frame header. On the
contrary,
LLC sublayer uses Destination Service
Access
Points and Source Service Access
Points to create links for the MAC
sublayers.
Switch,
bridge and
brouter
None
Physical
Physical layer works with the physical
media for transmitting and receiving
Multiplexer
and repeater
None
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data bits via certain encoding schemes.
It also includes specifications for
certain mechanical connection
features, such as the adaptor
connector.

Table 2.1- OSI Model
Here is an easy way to memorize the order of the layers:
All People Seem To Need Data Processing. The first letter of each word
corresponds to the first letter of one of the layers. It is a little corny, but it works.
The table above mentions the term "MAC Address". A MAC address is a 48 bit
address for uniquely identifying devices on the network. Something likes 00-00-
12-33-FA-BC, we call this way of presenting the address a 12 hexadecimal digits
format. The first 6 digits specify the manufacture, while the remainders are for the
host itself. The ARP Protocol is used to determine the IP to MAC mapping. And of
course, MAC addresses cannot be duplicated in the network or problems will
occur. For more information about ARP and related protocols, read Guide To ARP,
IARP, RARP, and Proxy ARP.
Data encapsulation takes place in the OSI model. It is the process in which the
information in a protocol is wrapped in the data section of another protocol. The
process can be broken down into the following steps:
User information ->data ->segments ->packets/datagrams ->frames ->bits.
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When discussing the OSI model it is important to keep in mind the differences
between "Connection-oriented" and "Connectionless" communications. A
connection oriented communication has the following characteristics:
 A session is guaranteed.
 Acknowledgements are issued and received at the transport layer, meaning if
the sender does not receive an acknowledgement before the timer expires,
the packet is retransmitted.
 Phrases in a connection-oriented service involve Call Setup, Data transfer
and Call termination.
 All traffic must travel along the same static path.
 A failure along the static communication path can fail the connection.
 A guaranteed rate of throughput occupies resources without the flexibility of
dynamic allocation.
 Reliable =SLOW (this is always the case in networking).
In contrast, a connectionless communication has the following characteristics:
 Often used for voice and video applications.
 Neither guarantee nor acknowledgement.
 Dynamic path selection.
 Dynamic bandwidth allocation.
 Unreliable =FAST.
Networks may be classified according to a wide variety of characteristics, such as
the medium used to transport the data, communications protocol used, scale,
topology, andorganizational scope.
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Communications protocols define the rules and data formats for exchanging
information in a computer network, and provide the basis for network
programming. Well-known communications protocols include Ethernet, a hardware
and link layer standard that is ubiquitous in local area networks, and the Internet
protocol suite, which defines a set of protocols for internetworking, i.e. for data
communication between multiple networks, as well as host-to-host data transfer,
and application-specific data transmission formats.
3. Types of Computer Networks
3.1. Local area network
A local area network (LAN) is a network that connects computers and devices in a
limited geographical area such as home, school, computer laboratory, office
building, or closely positioned group of buildings. Each computer or device on the
network is a node. Current wired LANs are most likely to be based on Ethernet
technology, although new standards like ITU-T G.hn also provide a way to create a
wired LAN using existing home wires (coaxial cables, phone lines and power
lines)
Fig 2.1- LAN
Typical library network, in a branching tree topology and controlled access to
resources. A sample LAN is depicted in the accompanying diagram. All
interconnected devices must understand the network layer (layer 3), because they
are handling multiple subne
have only 10/100 Mbit/s Ethernet connections to the user device and a Gigabit
Ethernet connection to the central router, could be called "layer 3 switches"
because they only have Ethernet interface
more correct to call them access routers, where the router at the top is a distribution
router that connects to the Internet and acade
routers.
The defining characteristics of LANs, in contrast to WANs (Wide Area Networks),
include their higher data transfer rates, smaller geographic range and no need for
leased telecommunication lines. Current Ethernet or ot
Typical library network, in a branching tree topology and controlled access to
resources. A sample LAN is depicted in the accompanying diagram. All
interconnected devices must understand the network layer (layer 3), because they
are handling multiple subnets (the different colors). Those inside the library, which
have only 10/100 Mbit/s Ethernet connections to the user device and a Gigabit
Ethernet connection to the central router, could be called "layer 3 switches"
because they only have Ethernet interfaces and must understand IP
more correct to call them access routers, where the router at the top is a distribution
router that connects to the Internet and academic networks' customer access
The defining characteristics of LANs, in contrast to WANs (Wide Area Networks),
include their higher data transfer rates, smaller geographic range and no need for
leased telecommunication lines. Current Ethernet or other IEEE 802.3
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Typical library network, in a branching tree topology and controlled access to
resources. A sample LAN is depicted in the accompanying diagram. All
interconnected devices must understand the network layer (layer 3), because they
ts (the different colors). Those inside the library, which
have only 10/100 Mbit/s Ethernet connections to the user device and a Gigabit
Ethernet connection to the central router, could be called "layer 3 switches"
IP. It would be
more correct to call them access routers, where the router at the top is a distribution
mic networks' customer access
The defining characteristics of LANs, in contrast to WANs (Wide Area Networks),
include their higher data transfer rates, smaller geographic range and no need for
IEEE 802.3 LAN
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technologies operate at data transfer rates up to 10 Gbit/s. IEEE has projects
investigating the standardization of 40 and 100 Gbit/s. LANs can be connected to
Wide area network by using routers.
3.2. Home area network
A home area network (HAN) is a residential LAN which is used for
communication between digital devices typically deployed in the home, usually a
small number of personal computers and accessories, such as printers and mobile
computing devices. An important function is the sharing of Internet access, often a
broadband service through a cable TV or Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) provider.
3.3 Storage area network
A storage area network (SAN) is a dedicated network that provides access to
consolidated, block level data storage. SANs are primarily used to make storage
devices, such as disk arrays, tape libraries, and optical jukeboxes, accessible to
servers so that the devices appear like locally attached devices to the operating
system. A SAN typically has its own network of storage devices that are generally
not accessible through the local area network by other devices. The cost and
complexity of SANs dropped in the early 2000s to levels allowing wider adoption
across both enterprise and small to medium sized business environments.
3.4 Campus area network
A campus area network (CAN) is a computer network made up of an
interconnection of LANs within a limited geographical area. The networking
equipment (switches, routers) and transmission media (optical fiber, copper plant,
Cat5 cabling etc.) are almost entirely owned (by the campus tenant / owner: an
enterprise, university, government etc.).
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In the case of a university campus-based campus network, the network is likely to
link a variety of campus buildings including, for example, academic colleges or
departments, the university library, and student residence halls.
3.5 Backbone network
A backbone network is part of a computer network infrastructure that interconnects
various pieces of network, providing a path for the exchange of information
between different LANs or subnetworks. A backbone can tie together diverse
networks in the same building, in different buildings in a campus environment, or
over wide areas. Normally, the backbone's capacity is greater than that of the
networks connected to it.
A large corporation which has many locations may have a backbone network that
ties all of these locations together, for example, if a server cluster needs to be
accessed by different departments of a company which are located at different
geographical locations. The equipment which ties these departments together
constitute the network backbone. Network performance management including
network congestion are critical parameters taken into account when designing a
network backbone.
A specific case of a backbone network is the Internet backbone, which is the set of
wide-area network connections and core routers that interconnect all networks
connected to the Internet.
3.6 Metropolitan area network
A Metropolitan area network (MAN) is a large computer network that usually
spans a city or a large campus.
\
Fig 2.2-Sample EPN made of
dialup remote access.
Fig2.3-Sample VPN used to interconnect 3 offices and remote users
Sample EPN made of Frame relayWAN connections and
Sample VPN used to interconnect 3 offices and remote users
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WAN connections and
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3.7 Wide area network
A wide area network (WAN) is a computer network that covers a large geographic
area such as a city, country, or spans even intercontinental distances, using a
communications channel that combines many types of media such as telephone
lines, cables, and air waves. A WAN often uses transmission facilities provided by
common carriers, such as telephone companies. WAN technologies generally
function at the lower three layers of the OSI reference model: the physical layer,
the data link layer, and the network layer.
3.8 Enterprise private network
An enterprise private network is a network built by an enterprise to interconnect
various company sites, e.g., production sites, head offices, remoteoffices, shops, in
order to share computer resources.
3.9 Virtual private network
A virtual private network (VPN) is a computer network in which some of the links
between nodes are carried by open connections or virtual circuits in some larger
network (e.g., the Internet) instead of by physical wires. The data link layer
protocols of the virtual network are said to be tunneled through the larger network
when this is the case. One common application is secure communications through
the public Internet, but a VPN need not have explicit security features, such as
authentication or content encryption. VPNs, for example, can be used to separate
the traffic of different user communities over an underlying network with strong
security features.VPN may have best-effort performance, or may have a defined
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service level agreement (SLA) between the VPN customer and the VPN service
provider. Generally, a VPN has a topology more complex than point-to-point.
3.10 Virtual Network
Not to be confused with a Virtual Private Network, a Virtual Network defines data
traffic flows between virtual machines within a hypervisor in a virtual computing
environment. Virtual Networks may employ virtual security switches, virtual
routers, virtual firewalls and other virtual networking devices to direct and secure
datatraffic.
3.11 Internetwork
An internetwork is the connection of multiple computer networks via a common
routing technology using routers. The Internet is an aggregation of many connected
internetworks spanning the Earth.
4.ETHERNET CABLING
Ethernet cabling is an important discussion, especially if you are planning on
taking the Cisco exams. Three types of Ethernet cables are available:
 Straight-through cable
 Crossover cable
 Rolled cable
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4.1 Straight Through Cable:
In case of straight through cable the 8 wires of cat 5 or cat 6 are connected with
Rj45 connectrors serially means 1 to 8.
The straight through cable is used to connect
 Host to switch or hub
 Router to switch or hub.
Means we can say straight through cable is used to connect different devices, the
only exception is that, if router’s Ethernet port is directly connected with computer
Ethernet port. Four wires are used in straight through cable to connect Ethernet
devices.
4.2 Cross Over Cable:
The cross over cable is used to connect same device, like…
 Switch to Switch
 Hub to Hub
 Hub to Switch
 Router Direct to Computer
 Computer to Computer
The same wires (like 1.2.3.6.) are used in this cable as in the straight through cable;
we just connect different pins together
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4.3 Rolled Over Cable
Although rolled over cable isn’t used to connect any Ethernet connections together,
you can use a rolled over Ethernet cable to connect a host to a router console serial
communication port.
If you have a Cisco Router or Switch, you would use this cable to connect your PC
running HyperTerminal to the Cisco hardware.
Straight Though Cable Pin Out for T568A:
Rj45 Pin # Wire Color
(T568B)
Wire Diagram
(T568B)
10Base-T Signal
100Base-TX Signal
1000Base-T Signal
1 White/Orange Transmit+ BI_DA+
2 Orange Transmit- BI_DA-
3 White/Green Receive+ BI_DB+
4 Blue Unused BI_DC+
5 White/Blue Unused BI_DC-
6 Green Receive- BI_DB-
7 White/Brown Unused BI_DD+
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8 Brown Unused BI_DD-
Cross Over Cable (T568B):
Rj45 Pin#
(END1)
Wire Color Diagram End
#1
Rj45 Pin #
(END 2)
Wire Color Diagram End
#2
1 White/Orange 1 White/Green
2 Orange 2 Green
3 White/Green 3 White/Orange
4 Blue 4 White/Brown
5 White/Blue 5 Brown
6 Green 6 Orange
7 White/Brown 7 Blue
8 Brown 8 White/Blue
5.ROUTER’S PORT
The first thing that you’ll notice when you pull a Cisco 2500 series router out of
the box is obviously its physical elements. A Cisco 2501 includes not only
Ethernet and serial ports, but also console and auxiliary ports. In this section we’ll
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look at the purpose of each, their physical characteristics and how devices are
attached and cabled. Note that hardware ports are numbered nominally starting at
0. Therefore on a system with only one Ethernet port, that port is referred to as
Ethernet 0.
5.1 ETHERNET PORT AND CONNECTOR WITH CABLE
A Cisco 2501 includes a single 10Mb Ethernet port. While many Cisco router
models now include an integrated 10/100 Rj-45 port, the 2500 series uses what is
referred to as a generic attachment unit interface (AUI) DB-15 port instead. The
name of this connector (DB-15) comes from the fact that it is physically shaped
like the letter ‘D’ and uses a 15-pin connector.
5.2 SERIAL PORT AND CONNECTOR WITH CABLE
A variety of Physical Layer standards are supported over synchronous serial
interfaces to connect to different types of DCE equipment. Some of the different
signaling standards and connectors that might be found on DCE equipment include
EIA/TIA-232, EIA/TIA-449, V.35, X.21, and EIA-530. Cisco and a variety of
other vendors manufacturer “transition” cables capable of connecting a router’s
DB-60 DTE port to DCE equipment using these different standards.
6. TCP/IP -
The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the core protocols of the
Internet Protocol Suite. TCP is one of the two original components of the suite,
complementing the Internet Protocol (IP), and therefore the entire suite is
commonly referred to as TCP/IP. TCP provides reliable, ordered delivery of a
stream of octets from a program on one computer to another program on another
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computer. TCP is the protocol used by major Internet applications such as the
World Wide Web, email, remote administration and file transfer. Other
applications, which do not require reliable data stream service, may use the User
Datagram Protocol (UDP), which provides a datagramservice that emphasizes
reduced latencyover reliability.
The Internet protocol suite is the set of communications protocols used for the
Internet and similar networks, and generally the most popular protocol stack for
wide area networks. It is commonly known as TCP/IP, because of its most
important protocols: Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol
(IP), which were the first networking protocols defined in this standard. It is
occasionally known as the DoD model due to the foundational influence of the
ARPANET in the 1970s (operated by DARPA, an agency of the United States
Department of Defense).
TCP/IP provides end-to-end connectivity specifying how data should be formatted,
addressed, transmitted, routed and received at the destination. It has four
abstraction layers, each with its own protocols. From lowest to highest, the layers
are:
 The link layer (commonly Ethernet) contains communication technologies
for a local network.
 The internet layer (IP) connects local networks, thus establishing
internetworking.
 The transport layer (TCP) handles host-to-host communication.
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 The application layer (for example HTTP) contains all protocols for specific
data communications services on a process-to-process level (for example
how a web browser communicates with a web server).
 The TCP/IP model and related protocols are maintained by the Internet
Engineering Task Force(IETF).
6.1 ARCHITECTURE OF TCP/IP MODEL
Fig 2.4- TCP/IP
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An architectural model provides a common frame of reference for discussing
Internet communications. It is used not only to explain communication protocols
but to develop them as well. It separates the functions performed by
communication protocols into manageable layers stacked on top of each other.
Each layer in the stack performs a specific function in the process of
communicating over a network.
Generally, TCP/IP is described using three to five functional layers. To describe
TCP/IP based firewalls more precisely, we have chosen the common DoD
reference model, which is also known as the Internet reference model.
Layer Description
Layer 4:
Application Layer
The Application layer consists of application
programs and serves as the windows, or network
interface. It is through this window that all
exchange of meaningful information occurs
between communication users. Examples include
Telnet and SMTP.
Layer 3:
Host-to-Host Transport Layer
Provides end-to-end data delivery services. The
protocols at this layer are TCP and UDP.
Layer 2:
Internet Layer
Defines the datagram or frame format and handles
routing data through an internetwork. Examples
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Field Name Size (bytes) Description
Source Port 2 Source Port: The 16-but port number of the process that
originated the TCP segment on the source device. This will
normally be an ephemeral (client) port number for a request
sent by a client to a server, or a well-known/registered (server)
port number for a reply from a server to a client.
Destination Port 2 Destination Port: The 16-bit port number of the process that is
the ultimate intended recipient of the message on the
destination device. This will usually be a well-known /
registered (server) port number for a client request, or an
ephemeral (client) port number for a server reply.
Sequence Number 4 Sequence Number: For normal transmissions, the sequence
number of the first byte of data in this segment. In a
connection request (SYN) message, this carries the initial
sequence number (ISN) of the source TCP. The first byte of
include IP and ICMP.
Layer 1:
Network Access Layer
Defines how to access a specific network topology
such as Ethernet or Token-Ring.
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data will be given the next sequence number after the
contents of this field, as described in the topic on sequence
number synchronization.
Acknowledgement
Number
4 Acknowledgement Number: When the ACK bit is set, this
segment Number is serving as an acknowledgement (in
addition to other possible duties) and this field contains the
sequence number the source is next expecting the destination
to send. See the topic describing TCP data transfer for details.
Data Offset 1/2
(4 bits)
Data Offset: Specifies the number of 32-bit words of data in
the TCP header. In other words, this value times four equals
the number of bytes in the header, which must always be a
multiple of four. It is called a “data offset” since it indicates by
how many 32-bit words the start of the data is offset from the
beginning of the TCP segment.
Reserved 3/4
(6 bits)
Reserved: 6 bits reserved for future use; sent as zero.
Control Bits 3/4
(6 bits)
Control Bits: As mentioned, TCP does not use a separate
format for control messages instead certain hits are sent to
indicate the communication of control information.
Window 2 Windows:Indicates the number of octets of data the sender of
this segment is willing to accept from the receiver at one time.
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This normal corresponds to the current size of the buffer
allocated to accept data for this connection. This field is, in
other words, the current receive window size for the device
sending this segment. See the data transfer mechanics topic
for details.
Checksum 2 Checksum: A, 16 nit checksum for data integrity protection
computed over the entire TCP datagram plus a special “pseudo
header” of fields. It is used to protect the entire TCP segment
against not just errors in transmission, but also errors in
delivery. Optional alternate checksum methods are also
supported.
Urgent Pointer 2 Urgent Pointer: Used in conjunction with the URG control bit
for priority data transfer. This field contains the sequence
number of the last byte of urgent data. See the priority data
transfer topic for details.
Options Variable Options: TCP includes a generic mechanismfor including one
or more sets of optional data in a TCP segment. Each of the
options can be either one byte in length or variable in length.
The first byte is the Option-Kind subfield.
Subfield
Name
Size
(bytes)
Description
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Option-Kind 1 Option-Kind: Specifies the
option type.
Option-Length 1 Option-Length:The length of
the entire option in bytes,
including the Option-Kind
and Option-Length fields.
Option-Data Variable Option-Data: The option
data itself in at least one
oddball case, this fields
omitted (making Option-
Length equal to 2)
Padding Variable Padding:If the Option field is not a multiple 0f 32 bits in length
enough zeroes are added to pad the header so it is a multiple
of 32 bits.
Data Variable Data:The bytes of data being sent in the segment.
6.2 TCP/IP ENCAPSULATION AND DECAPSULATION:
Encapsulation is used to isolate each of the layers in the protocol stack. Each layer
frames the data prepending the data with its own header information. In the
sending machine, the layer places its own header information in front of the data it
gets from the layer above before passing it to the layer below. In the receiving
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machine, each layer first interprets and then strips the header information from
frames received from the layer below before passing them up to the layer above. In
reality it is not quite so simple.
7. IP TERMINOLOGY
Internet Protocol (IP) Technology was developed in the 1970s to support some of
the first research computer networks. Today, IP has become a worldwide standard
for home and business networking as well. Our network routers, Web browsers,
email programs, instant messaging software – all rely on IP or other network
protocols layered on top of IP.
IPv4 uses 32-bit (four type) addresses, which limits the address space to
4,294,967,296 (2
32
) possible unique addresses. However, some are reserved for
special purposes such as private networks (~18 million addresses) or multicast
addresses (~16 million addresses). This reduces the number of addresses that can
be allocated as public Internet addresses.
IP DEFINITION
Internet Protocol is a unique ID which distinguishes one computer from all the
other in the world when connected to the internet. The IP is a series of numbers
which is called your IP address. IP was first standardized in September 1981. if a
device wants to communicate using TCP/P, it needs an IP address. The
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specification required that each system attached to an IP-based Internet be assigned
a unique, 32-bit Internet address value.
IP RANGE
Class Valid Network
Numbers
Total Numbers For
This Class Of
Network
Number Of Hosts
Per Network
Purpose
A 1.0.0.0 to
126.0.0.0
2
7
– 2 (126) 2
24
-2
(164,777,214)
Few large
organizations
B 128.0.0.0 to
191.255.0.0
2
14
(16,384) 2
16
-2 (65,534) Medium-size
organizations
C 192.0.0.0 to
223.255.255.0
2
21
(2097152) 2
8
– 2 (254) Relatively
small
organzations
7.1 CLASS A NETWORKS (/8 PREFIXES)
Each class A network address has an 8-bit network prefix, with the highest order
bit set to 0 (zero) and a 7-bit network number, followed by a 24-bit host number.
Today, Class A networks are referred to as “/8s” (pronounced “slash eight” or just
“eights” ) since they have an 8-bit network prefix.
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7.2 ZERO ADDRESSES
Au with the loopback range, the address range from 0.0.0.0 through
0.255.255.255 should not be considered part of the normal Class A range. 0.x.x.x
addresses serve no particular function in IP, but nodes attempting to use them
will be unable to communicate properly onthe Internet.
7.3 IP LOOPBACK ADDRESS
127.0.0.1 is the loopback address in IP. Loopback is test mechanism of network
adapters. Messages sent to 127.0.0.1 do not get delivered to the network.
Instead, the adapter intercepts all loopback messages and returns them to the
sending application.
7.4 CLASS B NETWORKS (/16 PREFIXES)
Each class B network address has 16-bit network prefix, with the two highest
order bits set to 1-0 and a 14-bit network number, followed by a 16-bits host
number. Class B networks are now referred to as “/16s” since they have a 16-bit
network prefix.
7.5 AUTOMATIC PRIVATE ADDRESS
An automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA), feature that will automatically assign
an Internet Protocol address to a computer on which it installed. This occurs
when the TCP/IP protocol is installed, set to obtain its IP address automatically
from a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol server, and when there is no DHCP
server present or the DHCP server is not available.
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7.6 CLASS C NETWORKS (/24 PREFIXES)
Each Class C network address has a 24-bit network prefix, with the three highest
order bits set to 1-1-0 and a 21-bit network number, followed by an 8bit host
number. Class C networks are now referred to as “/24s” since they have a 24-bit
network prefix.
7.7 CLASS D AND MULTICAST
The IPv4 networking standard defines Class D addressed as reserved for multicast.
Multicast is a mechanism for defining groups of nodes and sending IP messages to
that group rather than to every node on the LAN (broadcast) or just one other
node (unicast).
7.8 CLASS E AND LIMITED BROADCAST
The IPv4 networking standard defines Class E addressed as reserved, meaning
that they should not be used on IP networks. Some research organizations use
Class E addressed for experimental purposes. However, nodes that try to use
these addresses on the internet will be unable to communicate properly. A special
type of IP address is the limited broadcast address 255.255.255.255.
Class Leftmost bits Start address Finish address Purpose
D 1110 224.0.0.0 239.255.255.255 Multicast
E 1111 240.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 Experimental
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7.9 SUBNET MASK
A subnet allows the flow of network traffic between hosts to be segregated based
on a network configuration. By organizing hosts into logical groups, subnetting
can improve network security and performance.
Perhaps the most recognizable aspect of subnetting is the subnet mask. Like IP
addresses, a subnet mask contains four bytes (32bits) and is often written using
the same “dotted-decimal” notation.
7.10 APPLYING A SUBNET MASK
A subnet mask neither works like an IP address, nor does it exists independently
from them. Instead, subnet masks accompany an address and the two values
work together. Applying the subnet mask to an IP address splits the address into
two parts, an “extended network address” and a host address.
For a subnet mask to be valid, its leftmost bits must be set to ‘1’. For example,
00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000
is an invalid subnet mask because the leftmost bit is set to ‘0’.
Conversely, the rightmost bits in a valid subnet mask must be set to ‘0’ not ‘1’.
Therefore,
11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111
is invalid.
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7.11 PUBLIC ADDRESS
Public IP addresses are IP addresses that are visible to the public. Because these IP
addresses are public, they allow other people to know about and access your
computer, like a Web server. In some cases, you do not want people to access
your computer or you want to restrict certain individuals from accessing your
computer or server.
7.12 PRIVATE ADDRESSES
The IP standard defines specific address ranges within Class A, Class B and Class C
reserved for use by private networks (intranets). The table below lists these
reserved ranges of the IP address space.
Class Private start address Privatefinish address
A 10.0.0.0 10.255.255.255
B 172.16.0.0 172.31.255.255
C 192.168.0.0 192.168.255.255
Nodes are effectively free to use addresses in the private ranges I they are not
connected to the Internet, or if they reside behind firewalls or other gateways
that use Networks Address Translation (NAT).
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7.13 BROADCAST ADDRESS
In computer networking, a broadcast address is an IP address that allowa
information to be sent to all machines on a given subnet rather than a specific
machine. That exact notation can vary by operating system.
Generally, the broadcast address is found by taking the bit complement of the
subnet mask and then OR-ing it bitwise with the IP address.
Example: to broadcast a packet to an entire class B subnet using a private IP
address space, the broadcast address would be 172.16.255.255.
8.ROUTING
There are 2 main types of routing, which are static and dynamic, the third type of
routing is called Hybrid. Static routing involves the cumbersome process of
manually configuring and maintaining route tables by an administrator. Dynamic
routing enables routers to "talk" to each other and automatically update their
routing tables. This process occurs through the use of broadcasts. Next is an
explanation of the various routing protocols.
8.1RIP:
Routing Information Protocol(RIP) is a distance vector dynamic routing protocol.
RIP measures the distance from source to destination by counting the number of
hops(routers or gateways) that the packets must travel over. RIP sets a maximum
of 15 hops and considers any larger number of hops unreachable. RIP's real
advantage is that if there are multiple possible paths to a particular destination and
the appropriate entries exist in the routing table, it will choose the shortest route.
Routers can talk to each other, however, in the real routing world, there are so
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many different routing technologies available, that it is not as simple as just
enabling Routing Information Protocol (RIP).
8.2OSPF:
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a link-state routing protocol that converges
faster than a distance vector protocol such as RIP. What is convergence? This is
the time required for all routers to complete building the routing tables. RIP uses
ticks and hop counts as measurement, while OSPF also uses metrics that takes
bandwidth and network congestion into making routing decisions. RIP transmits
updates every 30 seconds, while OSPF transmits updates only when there is a
topology change. OSPF builds a complete topology of the whole network, while
RIP uses second handed information from the neighboring routers. To summarize,
RIP is easier to configure, and is suitable for smaller networks. In contrast, OSPF
requires high processing power, and is suitable if scalability is the main concern.
We can tune the network by adjusting various timers. Areas that are tunable
include: the rate at which routing updates are sent, the interval of time after which
a route is declared invalid, the interval during which routing information regarding
better paths is suppressed, the amount of time that must pass before a route is
removed from the routing table, and the amount of time for which routing updates
will be postponed. Of course, different setting is needed in different situation. In
any case, we can use the "show ip route" command to display the contents of
routing table as well as how the route was discovered.
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8.3 IGRP and EIGRP:
RIP and OSPF are considered "open", while IGRP and EIGRP are Cisco
proprietary. Interior Gateway Routing Protocol(IGRP) is a distance vector routing
protocol for the interior networks, while Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing
Protocol (EIGRP) is a hybrid that combines distance vector and link-state
technologies. Do not confuse these with NLSP. Link Services Protocol (NLSP) is a
proprietary link-state routing protocol used on Novell NetWare 4.X to replace SAP
andRIP. For IGRP, the metric is a function of bandwidth, reliability, delay and
load. One of the characteristics of IGRP is the deployment of hold down timers. A
hold-down timer has a value of 280 seconds. It is used to prevent routing loops
while router tables converge by preventing routers from broadcasting another route
to a router which is off-line before all routing tables converge. For EIGRP,separate
routing tables are maintained for IP, IPX and AppleTalk protocols. However,
routing update information is still forwarded with a single protocol.
9. Switch
A network switchor switching hubis a computer networking devicethat connects
network segments or network devices. The term commonly refers to a multi-port
network bridgethat processes and routes data at the data link layer (layer 2) of the
OSI model. Switches that additionally process data at the network layer (layer 3)
and above are often referred to as layer-3 switches or multilayer switches.A switch
is a telecommunication device which receives a message from any device
connected to it and then transmits the message only to the device for which the
message was meant. This makes the switch a more intelligent device than a hub
(which receives a message and then transmits it to all the other devices on its
network). The network switch plays an integral part in most modern Ethernet local
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area networks (LANs). Mid-to-large sized LANs contain a number of linked
managed switches. Small office/home office(SOHO) applications typically use a
single switch, or an all-purpose converged devicesuch as a residential gateway to
access small office/home broadband services such as DSL or cable Internet. In
most of these cases, the end-user device contains a router and components that
interface to the particular physical broadband technology
Fig 2.4- Showing the Switch IP Address
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10. OUTCOME OF TRAINING
WORK ASSIGNMENT -1
Objective
Describe the features and operation of static routing.
Fig 3.1- Router(a)
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Fig 3.2-router(b)
Fig 3.3-Static routering
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Fig 3.4- Routing Protocol
Static routing is a concept describing one way of configuring path selection of
routersin computer networks. It is the type of routingcharacterized by the absence
of communication between routers regarding the current topology of the network.
This is achieved by manually adding routes to the routing table. The opposite of
static routing is dynamic routing, sometimes also referred to as adaptive routing.
In these systems, routes through a data network are described by fixed paths
(statically). These routes are usually entered into the router by the system
administrator. An entire network can be configured using static routes, but this type
of configuration is not fault tolerant. When there is a change in the network or a
failure occurs between two statically defined nodes, traffic will not be rerouted.
This means that anything that wishes to take an affected path will either have to
wait for the failure to be repaired or the static route to be updated by the
administrator before restarting its journey. Most requests will time out (ultimately
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failing) before these repairs can be made. There are, however, times when static
routes can improve the performance of a network. Some of these include stub
networksand default routes.
WORK ASSIGNMENT -2
Objective
Start a router and recognize the normal boot sequence.
Fig 3.5-Bootup output from router.
Fig 3.7
Fig 3.6-Initial configuration dialog
Fig 3.7- Setup Initial Global Parameters
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Fig 3.8
Fig 3.9
3.8- Setup Initial Protocol Configurations
Fig 3.9- Setup Script Review and Use
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Fig 3.10- login to router
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WORK ASSIGNMENT -3
Objective
Complete the initial device configuration, given a functioning router and Configure IP
addresses and IP subnet masks on router interfaces, given a functioning router.
Fig 3.11- Router Module
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Fig 3.12- Configuring router identification.
Fig 3.12-Configurating a Router Password
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Console line command
Private control session timeout
Configuring a Serial Interface

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Enabling and disabling an interface
Introducing IP Addresses

Fig 3.13-IP Addresses
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IP Addressing
IP Address classes
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Fig 3.14- Host addressing
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Fig 3.15- Addressing without subnet
Fig 3.16- Addressing with subnet
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Fig 3.17- Subnet Addressing
Subnet Mask
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WORK ASSIGNMENT -4
Objective
Describe the features and operation of EIGRP
Fig 3.18-EIGRP
Fig 3.19- Terminology EIGRP
Configuration EIGPR

Fig 3.20-EIGPR Configuration
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WORK ASSIGNMENT -5
Objective
Describe the features and operation of IGRP.
Configuration IGRP
Describe the features and operation of IGRP.
Fig 3.21- IGRP
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Fig 3.22-IGRP Configuration
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WORK ASSIGNMENT -6
Objective
Describe the features and operation of OSPF. Describe the features and operation of OSPF.
Fig 3.23- OSP
Fig3.24-Shortest path algorithm
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OSPF
Configuration OSPF
Fig 3.25- OSPF Configuration
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WORK ASSIGNMENT -7
Objective
Describe the features and operation of RIP Describe the features and operation of RIP
Fig 3.26- RIP
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IP Routing Configuration Task
Dynamic Routing Configuration
RIP Configuration
IP Routing Configuration Task
Fig 3.27- Routing Configuration.
Dynamic Routing Configuration
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`

Fig 3.28- RIP Configuration
11. CONCLUSION
This above work done illustrates the wide area of Network Design with the use of
the latest technology and devices. These designs can be further expanded for the
modifications as per the customers need. So, there is no end for the network. This
Design gives a fair idea of creating an optimum cost Network which will benefit
various Corporate Organizations and Institutions. This can be implemented in any
organizations by fulfilling the given requirements. The above work done by us
under different classes and the following work done in software were an artificial
network was establish. The work allotted was done successful with desired results
and hence , the training was beneficial.
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REFERENCES
Cisco Systems, Inc. Deploying IPv6 in Campus Networks at
www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/solutions/Enterprise/Campus/CampIPv6.html
Shannon McFarland, Muninder Sambi, Nikhil Sharma, and Sanjay Hooda. IPv6 for Enterprise
Networks (Cisco Press, 2011)
Cisco Systems, Inc. Designing Large-Scale IP Internetworks at
www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/internetworking/design/guide/nd2003.html
Cisco IOS IP Routing: BGP Command Reference at
www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/ios/iproute_bgp/command/reference/irg_book.html
Cisco IOS IP Routing: EIGRP Command Reference at
www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/ios/iproute_eigrp/command/reference/ire_book.html
Cisco IOS IP Routing: ISIS Command Reference at
www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/ios/iproute_isis/command/reference/irs_book.html
Cisco IOS IP Routing: ODR Command Reference at
www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/ios/iproute_odr/command/reference/ird_book.html
Cisco IOS IP Routing: OSPF Command Reference at
www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/ios/iproute_ospf/command/reference/iro_book.html
Cisco IOS IP Routing: Protocol-Independent Command Reference at
www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/ios/iproute_pi/command/reference/iri_book.html
Cisco IOS IP Routing: RIP Command Reference at
www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/ios/iproute_rip/command/reference/irr_book.html
The Internet Engineering Task Force. RFC 1793: Extending OSPF to Support Demand Circuits
at www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1793.txt
The Internet Engineering Task Force. RFC 2328: OSPF Version 2 at www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2328.txt
The Internet Engineering Task Force. RFC 4456: BGP Route Reflection—An Alternative to Full
Mesh IBGP at www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4456.txt
The Internet Engineering Task Force. RFC 5065: Autonomous System Confederations for BGP at
www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc5065.txt