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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 61, NO.

5, MAY 2014 2601


Design and Evaluation of a Low-Cost
High-Performance ADC for Embedded Control
Systems in Induction Heating Appliances
Oscar Jimenez, Student Member, IEEE, Oscar Lucia, Member, IEEE, Isidro Urriza,
Luis A. Barragan, and Denis Navarro
AbstractThe advantages of resonant power converters, such
as high efciency and high power density, make them a suitable
solution for domestic applications such as induction heating (IH)
cookers. The control systems of these appliances require perform-
ing accurate and smooth power control while assuring the safety
of the power devices. In order to accomplish these tasks, it is nec-
essary to have information about the target output power, which
is selected by the user, and the specic parameters of the out-
put current. In this paper, a single-bit second-order sigmadelta
() analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is proposed to measure
the magnitude of interest in resonant power converters. An opti-
mized digital low-pass lter architecture is proposed to extract the
output current from the digitized bit stream. This lter improves
the accuracy while having low logic-resource consumption. The
proposed ADC has been veried using a resonant inverter applied
to the IH cooktop application. The inverter switching frequency
is in the range of 4080 kHz. A statistical analysis of the nal
measurement system has been performed to assess the system
accuracy. The proposed system achieves good accuracy in the
inverter operating range.
Index TermsAnalog-to-digital converter (ADC), digital con-
trol, induction heating (IH), resonant power conversion.
I. INTRODUCTION
T
HE DOMESTIC induction heating (IH) market has ex-
perienced in recent years a signicant growth due to its
advantages such as safety, cleanliness, and higher efciency [1],
in comparison with its other classical counterparts. Fig. 1(a)
shows the block diagram of an IH system. The IH system is
composed of four main subsystems: a user interface, a power
converter, a digital control system, and a sigmadelta ()
analog-to-digital converter (ADC).
The user interface allows users to select the power delivered
to the vessel. The power converter transfers mains power to the
Manuscript received December 27, 2012; revised April 4, 2013 and
June 19, 2013; accepted August 4, 2013. Date of publication August 15, 2013;
date of current version October 18, 2013. This work was supported in part
by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation under Project TEC2010-
19207, Project CSD2009-00046, Project IPT-2011-1158-920000, and FPU
Grant AP2010-5267, in part by the Diputacin General de Aragn-Fondo
Social Europeo (DGA-FSE), and in part by the Bosch and Siemens Home
Appliances Group.
The authors are with the Department of Electronic Engineering and
Communications, University of Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza, Spain (e-mail:
ojimenez@unizar.es).
Color versions of one or more of the gures in this paper are available online
at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.
Digital Object Identier 10.1109/TIE.2013.2278524
load. Manufacturers usually choose resonant power converters
due to their high efciency and high power density implemen-
tation. The most used topologies in domestic IH are half-bridge
[2], [3], full-bridge [4], single-switch [5], and multiinverter
topologies [6], [7]. In this paper, the power converter features
a half-bridge resonant converter operating with switching fre-
quency f
sw
between 40 and 80 kHz. In order to reduce the
commutation losses, the half-bridge converter operates under
zero-voltage-switching conditions. The resonant load of the
power converter consists of a planar inductor situated below a
vessel and a series resonant capacitor C
r
. Usually, the coupling
between the inductor coil and the pan is modeled as a equivalent
series resistor R
eq
and inductor L
eq
[8]. Fig. 1(b) shows the
main waveforms of the power inverter.
The digital control system controls the power transferred to
the pan by adjusting the modulation parameters of the rst
power stage [7], [9], [10]; then, it performs the other required
tasks, such as verifying the proper switching conditions [11].
In order to assure that the power devices of the inverter are
kept inside the safe operational area, the control system re-
quires the values of the following parameters of output current
i
o
[see Fig. 1(b)]: peak value i
o, peak
, mean of the absolute
value i
o, mean
, and rms value i
o, rms
. These measurements are
computed at each half period of the mains T
B
. Then, the
control system can be divided into two blocks: the control unit
and the measurement block. The control unit block generates
the gating signals of the power devices (S1 and S2), taking
into account user input and output current measurements. The
measurement block measures the required current parameters
from the reconstructed output current i
r
provided by the
ADC. Despite that the nal system will be implemented in
an application-specic integrated circuit, in this paper, eld-
programmable gate array (FPGA) technology is used to verify
the digital system [12], [13].
The ADC subsystem digitizes the output current.
modulators are widely used in power electronics either
as ADCs [14][18] or pulsewidth modulators [19][21].
ADCs combine oversampling and shaping of the quantization
noise to achieve high accuracy, which makes them a cost-
effective and efcient solution [18], [22], [23]. Due to do-
mestic IH being a cost-oriented application and the trend to
implement multiload hobs [24], this paper proposes a second-
order ADC as a cost-effective solution. Despite that some
integrated ADCs are available [16], [18], the modulator
0278-0046 2013 IEEE
2602 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 61, NO. 5, MAY 2014
Fig. 1. Domestic IH system. (a) General block diagram. (b) Power converter waveforms.
is implemented with discrete elements to optimize the converter
according to the target application.
The output current digitization is carried out in three steps.
First, the output current is sensed and conditioned to the
modulator dynamic range (DR). The conditioning circuit con-
sists of a current transformer with a turns ratio of CTR, and
a burden resistor R
T
. Second, a modulator digitizes the
conditioned output current x(t) into a single-bit data stream
i
bs
. Finally, the digital low-pass lter (LPF) block reconstructs
output current i
r
by ltering i
bs
.
The aim of this paper is to propose a measurement system for
measuring the current parameters of the power stage required
by the IH control system. This paper presents the analysis and
design of the ADC, the experimental verication of the
proposed system and, nally, a calibration process in order to
assess the quality of the measurements.
Several works have proposed rst-order single-bit
ADCs to digitize the output current of IH systems [1], [14].
Although this converter architecture has very low cost im-
plementation and achieves good accuracy in power measure-
ment, the measurements of current parameters, particularly
the peak current, do not achieve the desired accuracy. Hence,
this paper proposes a second-order single-bit ADCs in
order to improve the accuracy of the measurement system
while maintaining low-cost solution. The improvement of the
measurement quality would allow a control system to perform
a better control algorithm and to ensure the safety of the
converter. In [25], a second-order single-loop single-bit
ADC is presented for measuring the magnitude of interest in
power converters connected to a dc power supply. Based on
this study, we propose to use a ADC to measure the
output current in half-bridge power converters used in domestic
IH appliances [1]. The analysis presented in [25] has been
extended to cover rectied ac power supply, as shown in Fig. 1.
Several oversampling ratios (OSRs) have been considered, and
a statistical analysis of the nal measurement system has been
carried out in order to evaluate the system accuracy.
This paper is organized as follows. Section II explains the
modulator design. Section III describes the ADC
digital lter design. The main experimental results are shown
in Section IV. The calibration process is detailed in Section V.
Finally, the conclusions of this paper are drawn in Section VI.
Fig. 2. Second-order modulator block diagrams. (a) Continuous-time
diagram. (b) Discretized and linearized block diagram.
II. SIGMADELTA MODULATOR DESIGN
A. SigmaDelta Modulator Analysis
ADCs [26] use the modulation noise-shaping
property and oversampling techniques to allow high-resolution
conversion. Assuming white quantization noise, the oversam-
pling technique reduces the in-band quantization noise spread-
ing its power along the frequency range dened by sampling
frequency f
s
. Thus, the sampling frequency is usually selected
to be signicantly higher than the Nyquist rate. The sampling
frequency sets the OSR, which is dened as the quotient be-
tween sampling frequency f
s
and the Nyquist rate of the signal.
In addition, the noise-shaping property place most of the quan-
tization noise in the high frequency range to minimize in-band
noise. The noise shape depends on the modulator order.
Higher modulator orders allow higher in-band noise reduction.
Nevertheless, single-loop single-bit modulators with an
order higher than two have instability issues [26]. Thus, in
this paper, a continuous-time second-order single-loop single-
bit ADC has been chosen.
Fig. 2(a) shows the continuous-time block diagram of a
second-order single-loop single-bit modulator. It consists
of two integrator stages, a single-bit quantizer, and a sample-
and-hold circuit. This ADC digitizes input signal x(t) into
JIMENEZ et al.: DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF ADC FOR EMBEDDED CONTROL SYSTEMS 2603
single-bit signal i
bs
(k) at sampling rate f
s
. Fig. 2(b) shows the
linearized and discretized second-order modulator block
diagram. The transformation from the continuous-time domain
to the discrete-time domain has been done using the forward
Euler method. Thus, the integrators transfer functions are
I
1
(z) =
1
(1 z
1
)
(1)
I
2
(z) =
z
1
(1 z
1
)
. (2)
The rst integrator I
1
does not consider the delay term in the
numerator in order to obtain delay unity in the signal-to-output
transfer function (STF). In addition, sampling period T
s
has
been included in coefcients and to simplify the equations.
The relationships between the continuous-time and discrete-
time coefcients are
x
= a
x
T
s
and
x
= b
x
T
s
, respectively.
The nonlinear quantizer has been modeled as white noise
source n plus gain factor k
q
[26]. The STF and the noise-to-
output transfer function (NTF) for the proposed ADC are
STF =
y(z)
x(z)
=
k
q

2
z
1
1 +z
1
(k
q

2
+k
q

2
2) +z
2
(1 k
q

2
)
(3)
NTF =
y(z)
n(z)
=
(1 z
1
)
2
1 +z
1
(k
q

2
+k
q

2
2) +z
2
(1 k
q

2
)
. (4)
Thus, the low-frequency gain of the modulator is
G

= STF(z = 1)

1
. (5)
The modulator coefcients (
1
,
2
,
1
, and
2
) de-
ne the ADC performance, which can be specied with the
converter attributes shown in Fig. 3, i.e., SNR, the signal-
to-noise-plus-distortion ratio (SNDR), the overload amplitude
level (OL), and the DR [26]. Fig. 3 shows how SNR and
SNDR curves fall for higher amplitudes. The OL point is the
maximum amplitude of the input sinusoidal signal, for which
the modulator still works correctly. In this paper, the OL point is
set at the amplitude where the SNDR falls 6 dB below the peak
SNDR value. Finally, the DR value is the rms amplitude range
between the smallest detectable amplitude and the overload
level.
The converter attributes also depend on the OSR. Due
to the fact that, in this paper, the clock frequency of the digital
systemis f
clk
= 40 MHz, three sampling frequencies have been
analyzed: 10, 20, and 40 MHz. Considering an input signal
bandwidth of B
i
= 250 kHz, the selected sampling frequencies
entail the following OSRs, respectively, i.e., 20, 40, and 80.
The converter coefcients and the OSR have been chosen
through Matlab simulations [27]. The simulation test bench
consists of two simulation levels. The rst level obtains the
SNR or SNDR value for a specic set of converter parameters
at a given input signal amplitude A
in
. In this level, an input
Fig. 3. Second-order ADC performance characteristics for f
s
=
20 MHz,
1
= 0.134,
1
= 0.15,
2
= 0.7, and
2
= 0.448.
signal composed by a sine wave (175 kHz for SNR and 75 kHz
for SNDR) of amplitude A
in
and white noise (
2
N
= 130 dB)
is used. The output bit stream is ltered by an eighth-
order Butterworth LPF with a cutoff frequency of f
c
= B
i
to remove all out-of-band noise. Finally, the IEEE sine-wave
tting method [28] is applied to the ltered signal to extract
the SNR or SNDR value at this amplitude. The second level
of simulation, making use of the rst level, performs amplitude
sweeps of the input signal to obtain the SNR and SNDR curves.
Prior to the converter coefcient selection, two design con-
straints are introduced.
1) Stability criteria: The modulator has to be stable,
which means that
2

1
/
2
< 3/4, as in [27].
2) Full-scale (FS) input support: The modulator op-
erates in a high-noise environment due to the presence of
a switched-mode inverter. To maximize the input signal
x(t) SNR parameter, it is advisable to make the most
of the ADC input range. Thus, the modulator is
designed to operate with an FS input, i.e., OL = FS.
The FS value takes the value of the supply voltage V
CC
when implementing a dual supply or half of it when
implementing a single supply. The overload level can be
tuned using coefcient
1
. For specic
2
,
1
, and
2
co-
efcients, the SNR and SNDR curves can be horizontally
shifted by tuning
1
, and consequently, OL is also shifted.
If coefcient
1
is increased, the curves are shifted to
the left.
B. Selection Procedure
The selection procedure can be divided into two steps. In
the rst step, different converters with an ADC gain of 1, i.e.,

1
=
1
, have been tested for the three OSRs. This analysis
allows extracting the attributes of the converter for specic

1
,
2
, and
2
coefcients. However, FS input support is not
assured. The second step modies the gain of the converter by
selecting coefcient
1
for conguring the converter with FS
input support.
The converters analyzed in the rst step of the selection
process are the combination of coefcients
1
and
2
in the
range of [0.05, 1] with a step of 0.05, and the coefcient
2
in the range of [S
lim
, 5S
lim
] with a step of 0.2 S
lim
, where
S
lim
is the stability limit with respect to
2
and
2
, i.e.,

2
> S
lim
=
2

1
4/3. For each converter, the SNR and SNDR
curves have been obtained in order to extract the attributes
2604 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 61, NO. 5, MAY 2014
Fig. 4. SNR curves of the best analyzed second-order converter for
each OSR.
of the converter. The chosen converter parameters are those
that yield the maximum values of SNR and SNDR. Fig. 4
shows the SNR curves of the converters selected for each OSR
value. The coefcients of the converter with OSR = 20 are

1
=
1
= 0.25,
2
= 0.6, and
2
= 0.44; the coefcients of
the converter with OSR = 40 are
1
=
1
= 0.15,
2
= 0.7,
and
2
= 0.448; and the coefcients of the converter with
OSR = 80 are
1
=
1
= 0.15,
2
= 0.5, and
2
= 0.28. As
expected, the attributes of the converter with OSR = 40 signif-
icantly improve the attributes of the converter with OSR = 20.
However, due to system noise, the attributes of the converter
with OSR = 80 slightly improve the attributes of the converter
with OSR = 40. In view of these results, a second-order
ADC with OSR = 40 has been chosen to be implemented.
The second step of the selection process tunes the
1
coef-
cient to obtain FS input support, leading to
1
= 0.134. The
integrator coefcients result in the ADC performance shown
in Fig. 3, where SNR
max
= 56.7 dB, SNDR
max
= 54.2 dB,
OL = FS, DR = 58.1 dB, and gain G = 0.89.
C. Circuit Implementation
The schematic circuit of the designed ADC is shown
in Fig. 5. The supply voltage of the converter is V
CC
= 3.3 V.
The relationship between the passive components and the
modulator coefcients are given by
R

n
C
n
=
1
f
s

n
(6)
where
n
=
1
,
2
,
1
, or
2
. The selected values for the
passive components are R

= 2.5 k1%, R

= 2.21 k1%,
C
1
= 150 pF 10%, R

= 475 1%, R

= 750 1%, and


C
2
= 150 pF 10%. Thus, the resulting coefcients are

1
= 0.133,
1
= 0.151,
2
= 0.702, and
2
= 0.444.
The ADC stability has been veried in the component
tolerance ranges. The converter attributes for the nominal com-
ponent values are SNR
max
= 56.3 dB, SNDR
max
= 54.9 dB,
OL = FS, DR = 60 dB, and G = 0.884.
III. DIGITAL FILTER DESIGN
In order to measure the required current parameters, i.e.,
i
o,peak
, i
o, mean
, and i
o, rms
, output current i
o
has to be ex-
tracted from the ADC output i
bs
. A digital LPF archi-
tecture reconstructs the output current by removing most of the
Fig. 5. Second-order sigmadelta ADC schematic circuit.
Fig. 6. Implementation block diagram for the CIC lter.
quantization noise. In this paper, a cascaded integratorcomb
(CIC) lter has been chosen as a hardware-effective solution
[29], [30]. The difference equation for the rst-order CIC
lter is
m(k) =
1
d
d1

i=0
y(k i). (7)
CIC lters perform a moving average over the last d sam-
ples. To minimize the logic-resource consumption, this lter
has been implemented as shown in Fig. 6. Moreover, the d
parameter has been selected to be a power of two to avoid
the hardware division implementation. According to [31], the
CIC lter order has been selected to be one order more than the
modulator order, i.e., a third-order lter has been chosen.
The LPF removes most of the quantization noise while allow-
ing the desired bandwidth to pass through with low attenuation.
The CIC lter frequency response is a sinc whose rst zero
is placed at f
z
= f
s
/d. Thus, the d parameter sets both, i.e.,
the rst zero position and cutoff frequency f
c
. In this paper,
three lters have been evaluated: a second-order CIC lter with
d = 8, a third-order CIC lter with d = 8, and a cascade of a
second-order CIC lter with d = 8 and a rst-order CIC lter
with d = 16. Fig. 7 shows the frequency response magnitude
for the evaluated lters. The frequency responses show that
the CIC
2
8
+ CIC
16
lter has the higher attenuation at high
frequencies, which entails better quantization noise ltering,
but it also has higher attenuation at the highest frequencies of
the signal bandwidth.
The performance of the proposed lters has been evaluated
through simulation. Fig. 8 shows the current measurement
relative errors
r
for the three lters and the proposed second-
order ADC. The relative error has been dened as

r
= 100

I
meas
I
I

(8)
JIMENEZ et al.: DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF ADC FOR EMBEDDED CONTROL SYSTEMS 2605
Fig. 7. Magnitude of the frequency responses of the evaluated lters.
Fig. 8. Current measurement relative errors for different lters. (a) Error in
positive peak. (b) Error in mean of the absolute value. (c) Error in rms value.
where I is the reference magnitude obtained through a circuital
simulation during T
B
= 10 ms, and I
meas
is the same magni-
tude measured with the proposed system.
Fig. 8(a) shows the error in the current positive peak for
the whole power-converter frequency range of operation. The
peak error for the CIC
3
8
lter reaches 20%, which is insufcient
for the IH application. Thus, the CIC
2
8
+ CIC
16
lter has been
selected to perform this measurement. Fig. 8(b) and (c) shows
the error in mean and rms current values, respectively. In these
measurements, the CIC
2
8
+ CIC
16
lter shows higher error
than the CIC
3
8
lter due to the lter attenuation on the signal
bandwidth. As expected, these errors get worse as the current
Fig. 9. Selected lter architecture.
frequency increases. Thus, the CIC
3
8
lter has been chosen for
the mean of the absolute and rms calculation.
Fig. 9 shows the nal lter architecture and the measure-
ments obtained from each lter. This lter topology has been
optimized to achieve the required accuracy while keeping the
lter to a reasonable size. The measurement block measures
the current parameters during the mains half-cycle from the
reconstructed currents i
r
. The peak value is obtained as the
maximum of the reconstructed signal i
r,CIC
2
8
+CIC
16
. The mean
of the absolute is computed as
i
o, mean
=
1
N
N1

n=0

i
r,CIC
3
8
(n)

(9)
where N is the number of samples taken into account in the
measurement, i.e., the number of samples of a mains half-cycle.
Finally, the current rms value is computed as
i
o, rms
=

1
N
N1

n=0
i
2
r,CIC
3
8
(n). (10)
IV. EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION
The experimental verication of the designed second-order
ADC has been carried out in two steps. The rst step
veries the modulator by means of frequency analysis
and the extraction of the modulator parameters. The second
one veries the ADC behavior while working under real
conditions.
Fig. 10 shows the test bench used for the experimental
verication [32]. It is made up of four subsystems: the power
converter, the modulator, the FPGA board, and the user
interface. The power converter features a half-bridge series-
resonant inverter designed for the IH application. The power
converter operates with switching frequencies between 40 and
80 kHz. In addition, this stage implements the output-current
conditioning circuit. The modulator board implements the
proposed second-order modulator. The ADC sampling
frequency is 20 MHz. The digital system has been embedded in
a Xilinx Spartan-6 FPGA included in an ATLYS development
board fromDigilent. Finally, a Matlab-based graphical interface
is using for controlling the modulation parameters of the power
converter and retrieving the system results.
2606 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 61, NO. 5, MAY 2014
Fig. 10. Experimental test bench.
TABLE I
PARAMETERS OF PSD ESTIMATION
A. ADC Analysis
In this analysis, the designed modulator is tested. First,
the noise-shaping capability of the modulator is veried by
means of a frequency analysis. Second, the attributes of the
ADC are obtained by using the IEEE standard sine-wave tting
method. In both analysis, analog input signal x(t) is generated
by a Tektronix AFG3022 sine-wave generator.
The verication of the modulator noise-shaping prop-
erty has been carried out by computing the power spectral
density (PSD) estimation of the modulator output i
bs
. The
PSD has been calculated by using Welchs method P
w
(e
jw
)
[33] with the parameters shown in Table I. Both frequency
and amplitude sweeps of the input sine-wave signal have been
performed to verify the modulator behavior in the whole
operating range.
Fig. 11 shows the simulated and experimental PSD estima-
tions of the second-order modulator output i
bs
for an input
sine-wave signal of amplitude A
sin
= 0.5 V and frequency
f
sin
= 75 kHz.
Following the frequency analysis, the attributes of the ADC
are measured from the SNR and SNDR curves. To obtain these
curves, amplitude sweeps of the input sine-wave signal x(t)
have been performed for the whole ADC DR. In Fig. 12,
simulation and experimental results of the ADC performance
are merged together. Because SNR and SNDR curves are
affected by the noise in the system, Fig. 12 represents the mean
value of 50 measurements per amplitude. The SNR and SNDR
curves show good agreement between simulation and experi-
mental results. The attributes of the implemented second-order
ADC are SNR
max
= 56.5 dB, SNDR
max
= 53.4 dB, and
Fig. 11. PSD estimation of the ADC output i
bs
. Simulation versus experi-
mental results.
Fig. 12. ADC performance characteristics. Simulation versus experi-
mental results.
OL = 0.971. The DR attribute cannot be measured due to sine-
wave generator limitations.
The DR of the ADC allow measuring output current
amplitudes up to 90 A, which covers the normal inverter op-
erating conditions. However, the output current amplitude may
be higher than this value due to abnormal operating conditions
such as short circuit or vessel removal. An output current
amplitude higher than 90 A deteriorates the modulator
behavior or may even cause modulator instability. In spite
of the fact that the modulator does not work properly, the
peak current measurement is able to detect that the maximum
current value has been reached. This overcurrent detection is
enough for the high-level control algorithm to execute the
corresponding security measures.
B. Complete System Verication
The complete system verication has been performed while
under real operating conditions. Fig. 13 shows the power deliv-
ered to the vessel versus switching frequency for the induction
load detailed in Table II. The values of the equivalent resis-
tance R
eq
and inductance L
eq
depend on the resonant inverter
operating point. Hence, these values have been specied at
the resonant frequency f
o
. The efciency of the half-bridge
resonant inverter depends on its operating point. Typically, the
inverter efciency is in the range of 89%97% [34]. IH load
characteristics in conjunction with the power levels available in
domestic induction appliances entail output current values of
up to 90 A. To adapt these current levels to the ADC
DR (03.3 V), a current transformer with CTR = 200, and a
burden resistor of R
T
= 3.65 have been selected.
JIMENEZ et al.: DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF ADC FOR EMBEDDED CONTROL SYSTEMS 2607
Fig. 13. Output power versus switching frequency in the whole operating
range.
TABLE II
INDUCTION LOAD PARAMETERS
In Fig. 14, the error in current measurements for the lters
included in the digital control system in the whole range of
operation is shown. Fig. 14(a) shows the error in the positive
inductor current peak, Fig. 14(b) shows the error in the cur-
rent mean of absolute, and Fig. 14(c) shows the error in the
rms measurement. The experimental values used for the error
calculations at each frequency are the mean of 50 independent
measurements. The experimental values have been compared
with the measurements of a Tektronix TCP0030 current probe
and a Tektronix DPO7354 oscilloscope congured to work with
high resolution (> 11 bits), a sampling rate of 20 megasamples
per second (MSPS), and calculation time of 10 ms. As expected,
the best results are obtained when using the (CIC
8
)
2
+ CIC
16
lter for the peak measurement, and the (CIC
8
)
3
lter for the
mean of the absolute and the rms measurements. Then, the lter
architecture presented in Fig. 9 is selected to be implemented in
the nal measurement system.
The experimental output voltage and current at the limits of
the switching frequency range for the load detailed in Table II
are shown in Fig. 15. Fig. 15(a) shows the output voltage and
output current at the peak of the mains cycle when the inverter
works with a switching frequency of f
sw
= 40 kHz, i.e., close
to resonance. Fig. 15(b) shows the same waveforms when the
inverter works with a switching frequency of f
sw
= 40 kHz.
Close to resonance, the output current waveform has a sinusoid-
like shape and high amplitude. However, as the switching
frequency increases, the waveform shape gets a triangular form
and the amplitude decreases.
Finally, Fig. 16 shows the experimental time-domain wave-
forms of the output current when the inverter works with a
switching frequency of f
sw
= 40 kHz. The results show good
accuracy in the reconstruction of the output power.
V. SYSTEM CALIBRATION
The inductor current measurements are affected by several
error sources in addition to the error caused by the algo-
Fig. 14. Error in current measurements for different lters. (a) Error in
positive peak value. (b) Error in the mean of the absolute value. (c) Error in
rms value.
rithms. Among these error sources are the accuracy of the
current sensor, the tolerance of the passive components, and the
nonidealities of the analog parts. For these reasons, the nal
measurement system has to be calibrated [35]. This calibration
process assesses the quality of the proposed system measure-
ments by using the measurements performed with a working
measurement standard, which is a measurement standard used
to calibrate instruments. In this paper, the working measure-
ment standard is a Tektronix TCP0030 current probe and a
Tektronix DPO7354 oscilloscope congured to work with high-
resolution, a sampling rate of 20 MSPS, and calculation time of
10 ms.
The measurement systems denote the accuracy of the system
by means of the uncertainty u. In metrology, the uncertainty of
a measurement is the margin of error that limits the range of
values that likely encloses the true value i. For that reason, the
measurement result is given as
i =L u
L =i
m
i (11)
where i
m
is the value calculated by the measurement system,
and i is the bias of the measurement system. The uncertainty
2608 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 61, NO. 5, MAY 2014
Fig. 15. Experimental output voltage v
o
(50 V/div) and output current i
o
(15 A/div) waveforms. (a) Experimental results at switching frequency f
sw
=
40 kHz. (b) Experimental results at switching frequency f
sw
= 80 kHz. The
time is 5 s/div.
Fig. 16. Experimental time-domain waveforms of the output current. From
top to bottom: output current, 1-bit data stream ADC output, recon-
structed current with lter CIC
2
8
, reconstructed current with lter CIC
3
8
, and
reconstructed current with lter CIC
2
8
+ CIC
16
.
can be specied by multiplying the standard deviation of the
measurement system s
y
by a factor k, i.e.,
u = ks
y
. (12)
A. Calibration at Each Calibration Point
The rst step in the calibration process is to obtain the
bias and the uncertainty of the measurement system in each
Fig. 17. Bias in current measurements. (a) Values of the measurements
performed with the working measurement standard. (b) Bias in the positive
peak. (c) Bias in the mean of the absolute and rms values.
operation point. In order to perform this task, in this paper,
n
c
= 50 measurements have been captured at each calibration
point j. Then, the bias at each calibration point j, i.e., i
cj
, is
calculated as
i
cj
= i
cj
i
oj
(13)
where

i
cj
is the mean value of the measurements at the cali-
bration point j, and i
oj
is the working standard measurement.
Fig. 17(a) shows the value of the measurements obtained
with the working measurement standard at the calibration
points considered in the calibration process. Fig. 17(b) and (c)
shows the bias values at each calibration point for the three
measurements.
The uncertainty of each calibration point is obtained through
the variance calculation. In order to obtain the variance of
the measurements at each calibration point, the propagation of
uncertainty rule is applied to the error effects in the calibration
chain as follows:
s
2
j
= s
2
oj
+s
2
cj
+s
2
mj
(14)
where s
2
j
is the variance of the measurement at the calibration
point j, s
2
oj
is the variance of the working standard measurement,
JIMENEZ et al.: DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF ADC FOR EMBEDDED CONTROL SYSTEMS 2609
Fig. 18. Uncertainty in current measurements for the selected lter
architecture.
s
2
cj
is the estimated value of the variance of the measures used
in the calibration process, and s
2
mj
is the estimated value of
the variance of the measurement sample working under real
conditions. The variance at each calibration point leads to
s
2
j
= s
2
oj
+
s
2
icj
n
c
+
s
2
icj
n
(15)
where s
icj
is the standard deviation of the measurements used
in the calibration process at the calibration point j, and n is
the number of samples used for each current measurement at
real working conditions, which is in the implemented system
n = 1. Fig. 18 shows the uncertainties of the measurements at
each calibration point u
cj
setting k = 2 in order to obtain an
interval of condence of 95%, considering the uncertainty of
the working standard 1% with an interval of condence of 99%.
B. Calibration in the Whole Measurement Range
In the second step in the calibration process, a unique value of
uncertainty is given for the whole operating range that considers
the variance and the bias. For calculating the global uncertainty,
rst, the uncertainty of each point of calibration is obtained with
an interval of condence of 95% (k = 2). Considering (10) and
(13), and including the bias in the error chain, the uncertainty
can be calculated using
u
j
=

0.44u
2
oj
+k
2
s
2
icj

1
n
c
+
1
n

+ i
2
cj
(16)
where u
i
is the uncertainty of the calibration point j, and u
oj
is the working standard uncertainty in the calibration point
j. Finally, the uncertainty of the measurement system is the
maximum of the obtained uncertainties; thus, u = max(u
j
).
The global uncertainties of the measurements performed
with the proposed measurement system (second-order
ADC) are presented in Table III, together with the uncertainties
obtained with a measurement system that performs a rst-order
ADC. These results show that the proposed measurement
system offers better accuracy in the measurements while keep-
ing low-cost implementation. The uncertainty is a conservative
value that indicates the maximum absolute error in the whole
operating range with an interval of condence of 95%. In
addition to this, the experimental results show that the proposed
system achieves accuracy better than 9% for the peak current
and better than 1% for the mean and rms values.
TABLE III
GLOBAL UNCERTAINTY
VI. CONCLUSION
In this paper, a low-cost solution for measuring the main
required current parameters of a resonant power converter
applied to IH has been presented. The proposed system consists
of a second-order single-bit ADC and a digital lter
architecture. Ageneral design procedure for designing the ADC
has been explained, and an optimized lter architecture has
been proposed to improve the accuracy and hardware resources.
The proposed architecture has been experimentally tested
with an induction-heating resonant converter. A calibration
process has been performed in order to assess the quality of the
measurement system. This calibration process shows that the
measurement system achieves accuracy better than 9% in peak
current measurement and 1% in mean of the absolute and rms
measurements. The achieved accuracy is good enough to both
perform proper output power control and to ensure the safety of
the converter.
In addition, the proposed architecture can be easily extended
to any other power converter. This paper considers the output
current DR from 90 to 90 A when operating under nor-
mal conditions. However, the measurement system DR can
be adapted to the specic application by selecting the current
transformer turns ratio CTR value and/or the burden resistor
R
T
value.
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Oscar Jimenez (S10) received the M.Sc. degree
in telecommunication engineering from the Univer-
sity of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain, in 2009. He is
currently working toward the Ph.D. degree in the
Department of Electronic Engineering and Commu-
nications, University of Zaragoza.
His current research interests include domestic
induction heating, resonant inverters, and digital con-
trol applied to power converters.
Mr. Jimenez is a member of the Aragon Institute
for Engineering Research.
Oscar Lucia (SM04M11) received the M.Sc. and
Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from the Uni-
versity of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain, in 2006 and
2010, respectively.
He has been with the Department of Electronic
Engineering and Communications, University of
Zaragoza, where he is currently an Assistant Profes-
sor. His main research interests include multiple out-
put converters, digital control, and resonant power
conversion for induction heating applications.
Dr. Lucia is a member of the Aragon Institute for
Engineering Research.
Isidro Urriza received the M.Sc. and Ph.D. de-
grees in electrical engineering from the University
of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain, in 1991 and 1998,
respectively.
He is currently an Associate Professor with the
Department of Electronic Engineering and Commu-
nications, University of Zaragoza. He has been in-
volved in various research and development projects.
His main research interests include digital im-
plementation of modulation techniques for power
converters.
Dr. Urriza is a member of the Aragon Institute for Engineering Research.
JIMENEZ et al.: DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF ADC FOR EMBEDDED CONTROL SYSTEMS 2611
Luis A. Barragan received the M.Sc. and Ph.D.
degrees in physics from the University of Zaragoza,
Zaragoza, Spain, in 1988 and 1993, respectively.
He is currently an Associate Professor with the
Department of Electronic Engineering and Commu-
nications, University of Zaragoza. He has been in-
volved in various research and development projects
on induction heating systems for home appliances.
His research interests include digital circuit design
and digital control of inverters for induction heating
applications.
Dr. Barragan is a member of the Aragon Institute for Engineering Research.
Denis Navarro received the M.Sc. degree in mi-
croelectronics from the University of Montpellier,
Montpellier, France, in 1987 and the Ph.D. degree
from the University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain,
in 1992.
Since September 1988, he has been with the
Department of Electronic Engineering and Commu-
nications, University of Zaragoza, where he is cur-
rently an Associate Professor. In 1993, he designed
the rst SPARC microprocessor in Europe. He is
involved in the implementation of new applications
of integrated circuits. His current research interests include computer-aided de-
sign for very large scale integration, low-power application-specic integrated
circuit design, and modulation techniques for power converters.
Dr. Navarro is a member of the Aragon Institute for Engineering Research.