You are on page 1of 6

I J SRD - I nternational J ournal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol.

1, I ssue 3, 2013 | I SSN (online): 2321-0613




All rights reserved by www.ijsrd.com
744
Enhancing the Performance & Emission for the Blend of Diesel &
Pyrolysis oil of Tyre

Hitesh L. Jadav
1
Dr. Pravin P. Rathod
2
Prof. J. J. Goswami
3
1
PG Student
2
Associate Professor
3
Associate Professor
1, 2, 3
Mechanical Engineering Department,
1, 2, 3
Government Engineering College, Bhuj-370 001 (Kutch-Gujarat-INDIA)

AbstractIncrease in energy demand, stringent emission
norms and depletion of oil resources led the researchers to
find alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. Many
alternate fuels like Alcohols, Biodiesel, LPG, CNG etc. have
been already commercialized in the transport sector. In this
context, pyrolysis of solid waste is currently receiving
renewed interest. The disposal of waste tyres can be
simplified to some extent by pyrolysis. The properties of the
Tyre pyrolysis oil derived from waste automobile tyres were
analysed and compared with the petroleum products and
found that it can also be used as a fuel for compression
ignition engine. In the present work, blends of Diesel-Tyre
pyrolysis oil was used in a diesel engine without any engine
modification. The entire work is concentrated to enhance the
performance and emission parameters of C.I. engine for the
blend of Diesel and pyrolysis oil of tyre. To enhance the
performance the effect of supercharging was used. The
experiment is carried out on C.I. engine using pure diesel
and various blends such as TPO10, TPO20 and TPO30 at
normal atmospheric pressure and at different supercharged
pressures 1.2 bar, 1.4 bar and 1.6 bar and results were
compared. It is observed from the results that at
supercharged pressures 1.2 bar and 1.4 bar, the performance
parameters like brake thermal efficiency and brake specific
fuel consumption and emission parameters like emission of
CO and HC have been improved. But the emission of NO
x

was not improved as there is rise in peak temperatures of
combustion due to supercharging the emission of NO
x

increases.

Keywords: Pyrolysis oil of tyre, C.I Engine, Supercharging,
brake specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency.
I. INTRODUCTION
Diesel engines are attracting greater attention due to higher
efficiency and cost effectiveness, because of that they have
been widely used as a power of engineering machinery,
automobile and shipping equipment. Oil provides energy for
95% of transportation. All countries including India are
grappling with the problem of meeting the ever increasing
demand of transport fuel within environment concerns and
limited resources. So, the most attentive question arises in
our country and at world level is How long we can use this
petroleum fuels? The solution of this question is in three
words `Reduce,' Reuse' and `Recycle'.
There is a predominant increase in tyre wastes due
to phenomenal increase in number of vehicles within India.
The annual disposal of waste tyre volume will increase at
the same rate as new tyre is manufactured. These discarded
wastes pose a threat to the environment and human health if
not handled properly. Thus timely action regarding
recycling of used tyres is necessary to solve the problem
keeping in view the increasing cost of raw material, resource
constraints and environmental problems including fire and
health hazards associated with the stockpiles of the used
tyres.
The recycling of waste tyre can be done by the
pyrolysis process. Pyrolysis is the process of thermally
degrading a substance into smaller, less complex molecules.
Pyrolysis produces three principal products: such as
pyrolysis oil, gas and carbon black.

Fig.1: Tyre Pyrolysis oil
The use of pyrolysis oil of tyre as a substitution to
diesel fuel is an opportunity in minimizing the utilization of
the natural resources. Several research works have been
carried out on the pyrolysis of waste automobile
tyres.Performance, exhaust emission and combustion tests
were carried out by many researchers on the CI engine using
blends of Pyrolysis oil of tyre and diesel. All tests were
conducted by starting the engine with Diesel fuel only. After
the engine was warmed up, it was then switched to pyrolysis
oil-diesel blend. The result showed that the engine operated
with pyrolysis oil-diesel blends give brake thermal
efficiencies marginally higher than Diesel fuel. But the
blends show higher Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC)
value than Diesel fuel due to the lower calorific value of
blend. The NO
x
, CO and HC emissions are higher for blend
than Diesel fuel.
The main objective of this study is to enhance the
performance and emission characteristics for the blend of
Diesel and Pyrolysis oil of Tyre in 4-stroke single cylinder,
water cooled CI engine using the effect of supercharging
experimentally. In this research work, the performance
parameters like brake thermal efficiency, brake specific
energy consumption and engine exhaust emissions of NO
x
,
HC and CO were measured.
Enhancing the Performance & Emission for the Blend of Diesel & Pyrolysis oil of Tyre
(IJSRD/Vol. 1/Issue 3/2013/0087)


All rights reserved by www.ijsrd.com
745
II. EXPERIMENTAL SET UP AND PROCEDURE
The experimental set up consists of a single-cylinder, four
stroke, direct injection diesel engine of 3.7 kW rated power
diesel engine, fuel measuring equipment and exhaust gas
analyser. The engine is coupled to a rope brake
dynamometer through a load cell. The schematic layout of
the experimental set-up is shown in Figure 1. A
reciprocating air compressor was used for supercharging
purpose. A surge tank with a valve is provided to maintain
uniform inlet air pressure.

Fig. 2: Schematic layout of the experimental set-up
Pyrolysis oil of tyre was used as a test fuel in
different proportion with diesel fuel. The Pyrolysis oil was
blended with commercial diesel in TPO0 (Tyre Pyrolysis
Oil 0% + Diesel 100%), TPO10 (Tyre Pyrolysis Oil 10% +
Diesel 90%), TPO20 (Tyre Pyrolysis Oil 20% + Diesel
80%), and TPO30 (Tyre Pyrolysis Oil 30% + Diesel 70%).
Parameters Diesel
Make Bajaj
Engine
Single cylinder DI diesel
engine
Cooling water-cooled
Power 3.7 kW/ 5hp
Compression
Ratio
16.0:1
Bore stroke 80mm 110mm
Rated Speed 1500 rpm
Capacity 553 cc
Table. 1: Specifications of diesel engine
Experimental Procedure:
1) Engine was run at constant speed of 1500 rpm and the
fuel injection pressure was kept at recommended value
of 180 bar.
2) The various blends like TPO10 (Tyre Pyrolysis Oil 10%
+ Diesel 90%), TPO20 (Tyre Pyrolysis Oil 20% +
Diesel 80%), and TPO30 (Tyre Pyrolysis Oil 30% +
Diesel 70%) was prepared for experiment.
3) First only diesel fuel was used and engine performance
parameters like Brake thermal efficiency and Brake
thermal efficiency and emission parameters such as
CO, HC and NO
x
emission was taken. Then using
various blends such engine parameters was observed.
4) After first set of reading without supercharged pressure,
then reading was taken using the different supercharged
pressure. The supercharged pressure used was 1.2, 1.4,
1.6 bar. Then Following engine performance and
emission parameters were analysed.
Performance Parameters:
1) Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC). Kg/kwh
2) Brake thermal efficiency, %
3) Brake Power, kW
Emission Parameters:
1) Carbon Monoxide (CO), % vol.
2) Hydrocarbon (HC), ppm
3) Nitrogen Oxide, ppm
III. RESULT AND DISCUSSION.
In performance analysis the engine parameters such as
Brake specific fuel consumption and Brake thermal
efficiency analysis were carried out.
Brake Specific Fuel Consumption
The variation of BSFC with load for pure diesel is shown in
the figure 3 for normal atmospheric pressure and for 1.2, 1.4
and 1.6 bar supercharged pressure. It is observed that there
is reduction in the BSFC at different supercharged pressure.
But at the higher load it increases. So there is reduction of
the BSFC using the effect of supercharging.
The variation of BSFC with load for blend of
TPO10 (Tyre Pyrolysis Oil 10% + Diesel 90%) is shown in
the figure 4 for normal atmospheric pressure and for 1.2, 1.4
and 1.6 bar supercharged pressure.

Fig. 3: Variation of BSFC with Load for pure diesel fuel
TPO10
Load (kg)
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
B
S
F
C

(
k
g
/
k
W
h
)
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
0.50
0.55
Atm Pressure
1.2 bar pressure
1.4 bar pressure
1.6 bar pressure

Fig. 4: Variation of BSFC with Load for Blend TPO10
Enhancing the Performance & Emission for the Blend of Diesel & Pyrolysis oil of Tyre
(IJSRD/Vol. 1/Issue 3/2013/0087)


All rights reserved by www.ijsrd.com
746
For the blend of TPO10, BSFC is 0.499 kg/kWh for the 4kg
of load at normal atmospheric pressure which became 0.491
kg/kWh at 1.2 bar supercharged pressure and 0.480 kg/kWh
at 1.4 bar pressure. So there is reduction in BSFC using the
effect of supercharging. But for 1.6 bar supercharged
pressure it increases again and became 0.484 kg/kWh.
Therefore up to 1.4 bar supercharged pressure there is
reduction in the Brake Specific fuel consumption. Again for
various loading condition, there is reduction in BSFC up to
1.4 bar supercharged pressure then after it increases.
Similarly for the blend of TPO20 and TPO30 at
normal atmospheric pressure the Brake specific fuel
consumption is higher compared to that with the
supercharged pressure up to 1.4 bar then after it starts
increasing. Figure 5 and figure 6shows the variation of
BSFC with load for TPO20 and TPO30 respectively.

Fig. 5: Variation of BSFC with Load for Blend TPO20
It can be also observed that up to 12kg of load there is
reduction in the BSFC using the effect of supercharging.
Further, for 16kg of the load BSFC increases.

Fig. 6: Variation of BSFC with Load for Blend TPO30
Therefore it can be concluded that the performance
parameter like brake specific fuel consumption can be
enhanced using the effect of the supercharging. For pure
diesel and for blends like TPO10, TPO20 and TPO30 up to
supercharged pressure 1.4 bar there is reduction in BSFC for
load up to 12 kg. Then after for 1.6 bar supercharged
pressure there is increase in the values of BSFC.
Brake Thermal Efficiency
As shown in shown in the figure 7, the graph of Load Vs
Brake thermal Efficiency for the pure diesel. The Brake
thermal efficiency for 4kg of load at normal atmospheric
pressure is 17.19%. Now using the supercharged pressures
1.2 bar, 1.4 bar and 1.6 bar the Brake thermal efficiencies
are 17.46%, 17.62% and 17.43% respectively. It can be
observed from the graph that there is improvement in the
Brake Thermal Efficiency up to 1.4 bar supercharged
pressure and for 1.6bar pressure it decreases again. Similarly
for loads 8kg, 12kg and 16kg similarity can be seen.

Fig.7: Load Vs Brake Thermal Efficiency for Pure diesel
The graph of Load Vs Brake thermal efficiency for blend
TPO10 is shown in figure 8.

Fig.8: Load Vs Brake Thermal Efficiency for Blend TPO10
The Brake thermal Efficiency for the blend TPO10 for 4kg
of load at normal atmospheric pressure is 16.70%. For
supercharged pressures 1.2 bar, 1.4 bar and 1.6 bar the brake
thermal efficiencies are 16.98 %, 17.35% and 17.20 %
respectively. It can be seen that there is improvement in the
brake thermal efficiency up to 1.4 bar supercharged
pressure. For 1.6 supercharged pressure there is decrease in
the brake thermal efficiency.
The graph of Load Vs Brake thermal efficiency for
blend TPO20 is shown in figure 9. The Brake thermal
Efficiency for the blend TPO20 for 4kg of load at normal
atmospheric pressure is 16.41%.
TPO20
Load (kg)
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
B
T
E

%
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
Atm Pressure
1.2 bar Pressure
1.4 bar pressure
1.6 bar pressure

Fig. 9: Load Vs Brake Thermal Efficiency for Blend TPO20
Enhancing the Performance & Emission for the Blend of Diesel & Pyrolysis oil of Tyre
(IJSRD/Vol. 1/Issue 3/2013/0087)


All rights reserved by www.ijsrd.com
747
For supercharged pressures 1.2 bar, 1.4 bar and 1.6
bar the brake thermal efficiencies are 16.55 %, 16.63 % and
16.53 % respectively. It can be seen that there is
improvement in the brake thermal efficiency up to 1.4 bar
supercharged pressure. For 1.6 bar supercharged pressure
there is decrease in the brake thermal efficiency.
Similarly for the blend TPO30, the brake thermal
efficiency from normal pressure to supercharged pressure up
to 1.4 bar increase and for 1.6 bar supercharged pressure
there is decrease in the efficiency. The graph of Load Vs
Brake thermal efficiency for blend TPO30 is shown in
figure 10.

Fig. 10: Load Vs Brake Thermal Efficiency for Blend
TPO30
Therefore it can be concluded that the performance
parameter like brake thermal efficiency can be enhanced
using the effect of the supercharging. For pure diesel and for
blends like TPO10, TPO20 and TPO30 up to supercharged
pressure 1.4 bar there is improvement in brake thermal
efficiency for load up to 12 kg. Then after for 1.6 bar
supercharged pressure, thermal efficiency decreases.
Carbon Monoxide (CO) Emission
Carbon monoxide in the exhaust emission is the indication
of an extent of incompleteness of combustion. The variation
of CO emission for various loads is shown in the figure 11
for pure diesel. It can be observed that as the load increases
the emission of CO also increases. At normal atmospheric
pressure the emission of CO is 0.02%vol. for 4kg of load. At
different supercharged pressures there is little decrease in
the emission of the CO as compared with the normal
atmospheric pressure it can be seen from the graph.
Pure Diesel
Load (kg)
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
C
O

(
%
v
o
l
.

)
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
Atm Pressure
1.2 bar pressure
1.4 bar pressure
1.6 bar pressure

Fig. 11: Load Vs CO Emission for Pure diesel
TPO10
Load (kg)
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
C
O

(
v
o
l
.
%
)
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.10
Atm Pressure
1.2 bar Pressure
1.4 bar pressure
1.6 bar pressure

Fig. 12: Load Vs CO Emission for Blend TPO10
The graph of Load Vs CO emission for blend TPO10 is
shown in figure 12.It can be seen from the graph that for the
blend TPO10, the emission of CO decreases at different
supercharged pressures compared with the normal
atmospheric pressure.

Fig. 13: Load Vs CO Emission for Blend TPO20
TPO30
Load (kg)
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
C
O

(
v
o
l
.
%
)
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.10
0.11
0.12
Atm Pressure
1.2 bar pressure
1.4 bar pressure
1.6 bar pressure

Fig. 14: Load Vs CO Emission for Blend TPO30
Similarly for blend TPO20 and TPO30 the result is same.
The emission of CO decreases at different supercharged
pressures compared with the normal atmospheric pressure.
The graph of Load Vs CO emission for blend TPO20 and
TPO30 is shown in figure 13 and figure 14 respectively.
Therefore it can be concluded that with the effect
of supercharging there is little decrease in the emission of
the CO. CO is formed when there is insufficient O
2
to oxide
the fuel fully during the combustion of fuel.[11] As due to
supercharging the inlet pressure is increases so sufficient air
Enhancing the Performance & Emission for the Blend of Diesel & Pyrolysis oil of Tyre
(IJSRD/Vol. 1/Issue 3/2013/0087)


All rights reserved by www.ijsrd.com
748
for combustion is available. So there is decrease in the
emission of CO due to supercharging effect.
Hydrocarbon (HC) Emission
The graph of load Vs HC emission for pure diesel is shown
in figure 15. It can be observed that emission of
hydrocarbon decreases as there is increase in the
supercharged pressure. At normal atmospheric pressure the
HC emission at 4kg load is 29 ppm and at supercharged
pressures 1.2 bar, 1.4 bar and 1.4 bar are 28 ppm, 27 ppm
and 26 ppm respectively.
Pure Diesel
Load (kg)
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
H
C

(
p
p
m
)
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
Atm pressure
1.2 bar Pressure
1.4 bar pressure
1.6 bar pressure

Fig. 15: Load Vs HC Emission for Pure diesel
For the loads 8kg, 12kg and 16kg also at supercharged
pressures there is decrease in the emission of the HC. With
supercharging pressures the HC emissions decreased
because of the reduction in the delay period of combustion
and improved homogeneity of the mixtures. [1]

Fig. 16: Load Vs HC Emission for Blend TPO10
The graph of Load Vs HC emission for blend TPO10 is
shown in the figure 15. Here also from the graph it can be
seen that emission of HC decreases with increasing the
supercharged pressure. Similarly for blend TPO20 and
TPO30 the result is same. The graph of Load Vs HC
emission for TPO20 and TPO30 is shown in the figure 17
and 18 respectively.
Nitrogen Oxide (NO
x
)
NO
x
formation is effected by the temperature and fuel air
residence time. At higher temperatures the nitrogen
dissociates into nitrous oxide which is a harmful pollutant.
[1] The variation of NO
x
with load for diesel and various
blends at atmospheric pressure is shown in figure 19.
TPO20
Load (kg)
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
H
C

(
p
p
m
)
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
Atm Pressure
1.2 bar Pressure
1.4 bar Pressure
1.6 bar Pressure

Fig. 17: Load Vs HC Emission for Blend TPO20

Fig. 18: Load Vs HC Emission for Blend TPO30

Fig. 19: Load Vs NOx Emission at atmospheric pressure
It can be noticed that with the increase of engine load NO
x

formation increased because of the rise in peak temperatures
of combustion. With the effect of supercharged pressure
there is a slight increase in formation of NO
x
due to a rise in
temperature of combustion. The graph of Load Vs NO
x
emission for inlet pressure of 1.2bar is shown in the figure
20.

Fig. 20: Load Vs NO
x
Emission at inlet pressure of 1.2 bar
Enhancing the Performance & Emission for the Blend of Diesel & Pyrolysis oil of Tyre
(IJSRD/Vol. 1/Issue 3/2013/0087)


All rights reserved by www.ijsrd.com
749
Comparing the NO
x
emission at normal
atmospheric pressure and at 1.2 bar supercharged pressure,
it is found that there is increase in the amount of NO
x
as the
inlet pressure is increase. NO
x
emissions are more at full
load condition due to lower combustion chamber
temperature at part load.
IV. CONCLUSION
The following are the conclusions from the results obtained
after experimentations.
1) The performance parameter like Brake specific fuel
consumption (BSFC) was enhanced using the effect of
supercharging. For supercharged pressures 1.2 bar and
1.4 bar there was reduction in BSFC and it started
increasing again for supercharged pressure 1.6 bar for
all loads. Similarly in the case of Brake thermal
efficiency also there was increase in of BTE for
supercharged pressures 1.2 bar and 1.4 bar for all loads
and for 1.6 bar.
2) Due to the effect of supercharging there is little
decrease in the emission of the CO. For supercharged
pressures 1.2 bar and 1.4 bar there was decrease in the
emission of CO. But for supercharged pressure 1.6 bar
there was increase in the emission of CO. Similar
condition for HC also for 1.2 bar and 1.4 bar
supercharged pressure there was decrease in the
emission of HC then for 1.6 bar supercharged pressure
there is increase in the emission of HC. But the
emission of NO
x
is increase using the effect of
supercharging.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We would like to sincerely acknowledge the en-courageous
efforts of Mechanical Engineering Department of
Government Engineering College, Bhuj. Our heartfelt
thanks to faculty members who helped us in prepare paper
and give direction with their precious suggestions & rich
experience.
REFERENCES
[1] Donepudi Jagadish et al, The effect of supercharging
on performance and emission characteristics of
compression ignition engine with diesel-ethanol-ester
blends, Thermal science, Vol. 15, No. 4, 1165-1174,
2011.
[2] G. Amba Prasad Rao et al, Effect of supercharging on
the performance of a DI Diesel engine with cotton seed
oil, Energy Conversion and Management 44 (937
944), 2003.
[3] lkl, C. and H. Aydn et al, "Fuel production from
waste vehicle tires by catalytic pyrolysis and its
application in a diesel engine." Fuel Processing
Technology 92(5): 1129-1135, 2011.
[4] P. Podevin and G. Descombes, Effect of supercharging
pressure on internal combustion engine performance
and pollutants emission Nation conservatory of Arts
and Craft chair and turbo engines, < http://turbo-
moteurs.cnam.fr/publications/pdfECOS2000.PDF>
[5] P. T. Williams et al, Combustion of tyre pyrolysis oil,
Process Safety and Environmental Protection 76(4):
291-301, 1998.
[6] S. Hariharan et al, "Effect of diethyl ether on Tyre
pyrolysis oil fueled diesel engine." Fuel 104: 109-115,
2013.
[7] S. Murugan et al, "A comparative study on the
performance, emission and combustion studies of a DI
diesel engine using distilled tyre pyrolysis oildiesel
blends." Fuel 87(10-11): 2111-2121, 2008.
[8] S. Murugan et al, Influence of distillation on
Performance, Emission, and Combustion of a DI diesel
engine using tyre pyrolysis oil diesel blends, Thermal
Science: Vol. 12, No.1,157-167, 2008.
[9] S. Murugan et al, The use of tyre pyrolysis oil in diesel
engines, Waste Management 28(12): 2743-2749, 2008.
[10] S. Murugan et al, Performance, emission and
combustion studies of a DI diesel engine using Distilled
Tyre pyrolysis oil-diesel blend, Fuel Processing
Technology 89(2): 152-159, 2008.
[11] V. M. Domkundwar, A Course in I.C.Engines
(S.I.Units), Dhanpatrai& CO., 3rd Edition, 2009, pp:
23.11.
[12] M. L. Mathur and R. P. Sharma, I. C. Engine,
Dhanpatrai Publications, 4th Edition, 2010.
[13] Debalaxmi Pradhan, M. tech thesis Recovery of value
added fuels from waste polyolefins bicycle tyre and
tube department of chemical engineering, NIT,
Rourkela, 2011.
[14] Kline, S. J., and McClintock, F. A., Describing
Uncertainty in Single-Sample Experiments, Mech.
Engg. , vol.75, pp. 38, 1953.
[15] http://www.pyrolysisplant.com/plastic-and-tyre-
pyrolysis/
[16] http://www.dgengineering.de/Pyrolysis-Scrap-Tyre-
Plant-MINI-05.htm