A l t h o u g h D S M h a s u s e d d i l i g e n t c a r e t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d h e r e i n i s a c c u r a t e a n d u p t o d a t e , D S M m a k e s n o r e p

r e s e n t a t i o n o r w a r r a n t y o f t h e a c c u r a c y , r e l i a b i l i t y , o r c o m p l e t e n e s s o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n . T h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d
h e r e i n i s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s a n d i s i n t e n d e d f o r b u s i n e s s t o b u s i n e s s u s e o n l y . T h i s p u b l i c a t i o n d o e s n o t c o n s t i t u t e o r p r o v i d e s c i e n t i f i c o r m e d i c a l a d v i c e , d i a g n o s i s , o r t r e a t m e n t a n d i s d i s t r i b u t e d w i t h o u t w a r r a n t y o f a n y k i n d , e i t h e r e x p r e s s l y
o r i m p l i e d . I n n o e v e n t s h a l l D S M b e l i a b l e f o r a n y d a m a g e s a r i s i n g f r o m t h e r e a d e r ' s r e l i a n c e u p o n , o r u s e o f , t h e s e m a t e r i a l s . T h e r e a d e r s h a l l b e s o l e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a n y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o r u s e o f t h e m a t e r i a l c o n t a i n e d h e r e i n . T h e c o n t e n t o f t h i s
d o c u m e n t i s s u b j e c t t o c h a n g e w i t h o u t f u r t h e r n o t i c e . P l e a s e c o n t a c t y o u r l o c a l D S M r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f o r m o r e d e t a i l s . A l l t r a d e m a r k s l i s t e d i n t h i s b r o c h u r e a r e e i t h e r r e g i s t e r e d t r a d e m a r k s o r t r a d e m a r k s o f D S M i n T h e N e t h e r l a n d s a n d / o r o t h e r c o u n t r i e s .
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F r e e p o r t , U S A
L a l d e n , S w i t z e r l a n d
X i n g h u o , C h i n a
S i s s e l n , S w i t z e r l a n d
B u l k m a n u f a c t u r i n g a n d f o r m u l a t i o n s i t e s
P r e m i x p l a n t s
G r e n z a c h , G e r m a n y
B e l v i d e r e , U S A
D a l r y , U K
V i l l a g e - N e u f , F r a n c e
DSM Vitamin Supplementation
Guidelines 2011
HEALTH • NUTRITION • MATERIALS
for domestic animals
G u i d e l i n e s f o r O p t i m u m V i t a m i n N u t r i t i o n
D S M v i t a m i n s u p p l e m e n t a t i o n g u i d e l i n e s a r e d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e
O p t i m u m V i t a m i n N u t r i t i o n u n d e r t y p i c a l i n d u s t r y p r a c t i c e s .
O p t i m u m V i t a m i n N u t r i t i o n p r o v i d e s a l l
v i t a m i n s i n t h e d i e t a t l e v e l s t h a t p e r m i t
o p t i m u m h e a l t h a n d p r o d u c t i v i t y o f
d o m e s t i c a n i m a l s . T h e s u p p l e m e n t a t i o n
l e v e l s r e q u i r e d t o a t t a i n O p t i m u m V i t a m i n
N u t r i t i o n g e n e r a l l y e x c e e d t h e l e v e l s
n e e d e d t o p r e v e n t c l i n i c a l d e f i c i e n c y s i g n s .
O p t i m u m i n t a k e c o m p e n s a t e s f o r t h e
m a n y f a c t o r s w h i c h c a n i n f l u e n c e t h e
a n i m a l s r e q u i r e m e n t s a n d t h e f e e d
l e v e l s t h u s , e n s u r i n g t h a t v i t a m i n
f o r t i f i c a t i o n d o e s n o t l i m i t p e r f o r m a n c e .
T h e s e g u i d e l i n e s a r e r a n g e s a n d b a s e d o n
e x t e n s i v e u n i v e r s i t y a n d i n d u s t r y
r e s e a r c h , p u b l i s h e d r e q u i r e m e n t s a n d
p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e . T h e y a c c o m m o d a t e
m o s t f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e t h e v i t a m i n
r e q u i r e m e n t s o f a n i m a l s , h o w e v e r e x t r e m e
f e e d p r o c e s s i n g c o n d i t i o n s m a y n e c e s s i t a t e
o v e r a g e s o f s e n s i t i v e v i t a m i n s .
T h e l i s t e d v i t a m i n l e v e l s a r e o n l y g u i d e l i n e s
a n d , i n a l l c a s e s , n a t i o n a l f e e d l e g i s l a t i o n
m u s t b e f o l l o w e d .
A l l f i g u r e s a r e e x p r e s s e d i n t e r m s o f
v i t a m i n a c t i v i t y . I n g e n e r a l , a m o u n t s
g i v e n a r e p e r k g a i r - d r y f e e d , e x c e p t f o r
r u m i n a n t s a n d h o r s e s .
O p t i m u m V i t a m i n N u t r i t i o n c o n c e p t
A v e r a g e a n i m a l r e s p o n s e
C o n v e r s i o n f a c t o r s
S t a n d a r d D S M v i t a m i n s f o r a n i m a l n u t r i t i o n
F a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g v i t a m i n n e e d s o f a n i m a l s
u n d e r c o m m e r c i a l p r o d u c t i o n c o n d i t i o n s :
• D i r e c t f a c t o r s - S t r e s s o r s o n a n i m a l :
D i s e a s e
C o n f i n e m e n t
R e s t r i c t e d f e e d i n g
A n t a g o n i s t s
A i r q u a l i t y
T e m p e r a t u r e
• I n d i r e c t f a c t o r s - V a r i a t i o n s o f l e v e l s i n f e e d s t u f f s :
B i o a v a i l a b i l i t y
S t a b i l i t y
Q u a l i t y o f f e e d s t u f f s
L e g e n d s
' T o t a l v i t a m i n i n t a k e f r o m a l l s o u r c e s i n d i e t '
d e s c r i b e s t h e t o t a l q u a n t i t y o f v i t a m i n s f r o m a l l
d i e t a r y s o u r c e s , i . e . n a t u r a l c o n t e n t o f t h e
f e e d s t u f f s p l u s s u p p l e m e n t a t i o n .
' A v e r a g e a n i m a l r e s p o n s e ' r e f e r s t o a n y
a v e r a g e p r o d u c t i v i t y o r h e a l t h r e s p o n s e o f
a n i m a l s t o v i t a m i n i n t a k e , i . e . g r o w t h r a t e , f e e d
e f f i c i e n c y , r e p r o d u c t i v e p e r f o r m a n c e , w e l f a r e ,
h e a l t h o r i m m u n i t y .
' D e f i c i e n t ' o r ' m a r g i n a l ' v i t a m i n i n t a k e m e a n s
a l e v e l o f s u p p l e m e n t a t i o n b e l o w t h e
r e q u i r e m e n t s p u b l i s h e d b y N R C , A R C a n d o t h e r
o f f i c i a l l y p u b l i s h e d v i t a m i n r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s .
S u c h v i t a m i n s u p p l y p u t s a n i m a l s a t r i s k o f
d e v e l o p i n g c l i n i c a l d e f i c i e n c i e s a n d d i s o r d e r s
r e s u l t i n g f r o m i n a d e q u a t e v i t a m i n i n t a k e .
' S u b - o p t i m u m ' i n t a k e r e l a t e s t o s u p p l e m e n t a t i o n
l e v e l s , w h i c h t y p i c a l l y m e e t o r s l i g h t l y e x c e e d
t h e N R C , A R C a n d o t h e r o f f i c i a l l y p u b l i s h e d
v i t a m i n r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . T h e s e l e v e l s s h o u l d
p r e v e n t s u b - c l i n i c a l d e f i c i e n c y s i g n s u n d e r
g o o d c o n d i t i o n s , b u t a r e b y n o m e a n s a d e q u a t e
t o p e r m i t o p t i m u m h e a l t h a n d p r o d u c t i v i t y .
H o w e v e r , w i t h s t r e s s a n d d i s e a s e s , s u b - c l i n i c a l
d e f i c i e n c y m i g h t o c c u r .
' O p t i m u m ' i n t a k e o f f s e t s n e g a t i v e f a c t o r s
i n f l u e n c i n g a n i m a l h e a l t h a n d p e r f o r m a n c e ,
t h u s a l l o w i n g t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f t h e
p e r f o r m a n c e p o t e n t i a l o f m o d e r n a n i m a l b r e e d s .
' S p e c i a l a p p l i c a t i o n s ' l e v e l s o f v i t a m i n
s u p p l e m e n t a t i o n a r e s a f e a n d f o c u s e d i n
i m p r o v i n g c e r t a i n a t t r i b u t e s e . g . m e a t q u a l i t y
a n d i m m u n i t y .
A m o u n t o f v i t a m i n a c t i v i t y E q u i v a l e n t a m o u n t o f v i t a m i n s a l t a n d i s o m e r
1 I U V i t a m i n A 0 . 3 4 4 µ g V i t a m i n A a c e t a t e
1 I U V i t a m i n D
3
0 . 0 2 5 µ g V i t a m i n D
3
1 g V i t a m i n E 1 . 0 g D L - - T o c o p h e r y l a c e t a t e
1 g V i t a m i n K
3
( M e n a d i o n e ) 2 . 0 g M e n a d i o n e s o d i u m b i s u l f i t e = M S B
2 . 3 g M e n a d i o n e n i c o t i n - a m i d e b i s u l f i t e = M N B ( K 3 S t a b )
1 g V i t a m i n B
1
( T h i a m i n e ) 1 . 0 8 8 g T h i a m i n e m o n o n i t r a t e
1 . 1 2 g T h i a m i n e h y d r o c h l o r i d e
1 g V i t a m i n B
6
( P y r i d o x i n e ) 1 . 2 1 5 g P y r i d o x i n e h y d r o c h l o r i d e
1 g D - P a n t o t h e n i c a c i d 1 . 0 8 7 g C a l c i u m D - p a n t o t h e n a t e
2 . 1 7 4 g C a l c i u m D L - p a n t o t h e n a t e
1 g B i o t i n 1 . 0 g D - B i o t i n
1 g V i t a m i n C 1 . 0 g L - A s c o r b i c a c i d
1 g C h o l i n e 1 . 1 5 g C h o l i n e c h l o r i d e
A c t i v e s u b s t a n c e P r o d u c t n a m e D e s c r i p t i o n U s e *
V i t a m i n A R O V I M I X
®
A 1 0 0 0 P o w d e r o f s t a b i l i z e d v i t a m i n A i n a n e n c a p s u l a t e d D
b e a d l e t w i t h c r o s s l i n k e d m a t r i x
R O V I M I X
®
A 5 0 0 W S S p r a y - d r i e d p o w d e r o f s t a b i l i z e d v i t a m i n A d i s p e r s e d i n a m a t r i x D , W
V i t a m i n s A / D
3
R O V I M I X
®
A D
3
1 0 0 0 / 2 0 0 P o w d e r o f s t a b i l i z e d v i t a m i n A a n d D 3 i n a n e n c a p s u l a t e d D
b e a d l e t w i t h c r o s s l i n k e d m a t r i x
V i t a m i n D
3
R O V I M I X
®
D
3
5 0 0 S p r a y - d r i e d p o w d e r o f s t a b i l i z e d v i t a m i n D 3 d i s p e r s e d i n a m a t r i x D , W
2 5 -
O H - D
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®
H y • D
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1 . 2 5
% S p r a y - d r i e d p o w d e r o f s t a b i l i z e d c a l c i f e d i o l d i s p e r s e d i n a m a t r i x D , W
V i t a m i n E R O V I M I X
®
E - 5 0 A d s o r b a t e F r e e - f l o w i n g p o w d e r o f s t a b i l i z e d v i t a m i n E a d s o r b e d D
o n s i l i c i c a c i d
R O V I M I X
®
E 5 0 S D S p r a y - d r i e d p o w d e r o f s t a b i l i z e d v i t a m i n E d i s p e r s e d D , W
i n a m a t r i x
V i t a m i n K
3
M e n a d i o n e S o d i u m B i s u l f i t e F G F i n e c r y s t a l l i n e p o w d e r D , W
K 3 S t a b F G F i n e c r y s t a l l i n e p o w d e r o f m e n a d i o n e n i c o t i n a m i d e b i s u l f i t e D
V i t a m i n B
1
R O V I M I X
®
B
1
F i n e g r a n u l a r p o w d e r o f t h i a m i n e m o n o n i t r a t e D
T h i a m i n e H y d r o c h l o r i d e F i n e c r y s t a l l i n e p o w d e r o f t h i a m i n e h y d r o c h l o r i d e W
V i t a m i n B
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R O V I M I X
®
B
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8 0 - S D S p r a y - d r i e d p o w d e r o f v i t a m i n B
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d i s p e r s e d i n a m a t r i x D
R i b o f l a v i n
5 ’
- P h o s p h a t e S o d i u m F i n e c r y s t a l l i n e p o w d e r W
V i t a m i n B
6
R O V I M I X
®
B
6
F i n e g r a n u l a r p o w d e r o f p y r i d o x i n e h y d r o c h l o r i d e D , W
V i t a m i n B
1 2
V i t a m i n B
1 2
1 % F G C r y s t a l l i n e p o w d e r d i l u t i o n D
V i t a m i n B
1 2
C r y s t a l l i n e F i n e c r y s t a l l i n e p o w d e r W
N i a c i n R O V I M I X
®
N i a c i n F i n e g r a n u l a r p o w d e r o f n i c o t i n i c a c i d D
N i c o t i n a m i d e F i n e c r y s t a l l i n e p o w d e r W
P a n t o t h e n a t e s R O V I M I X
®
C a l p a n S p r a y - d r i e d p o w d e r o f c a l c i u m D - p a n t o t h e n a t e D , W
d i s p e r s e d i n a m a t r i x
F o l i c a c i d R O V I M I X
®
F o l i c 8 0 S D S p r a y - d r i e d p o w d e r o f f o l i c a c i d i n a m a t r i x D
F o l i c a c i d F i n e c r y s t a l l i n e p o w d e r W
B i o t i n R O V I M I X
®
B i o t i n S p r a y - d r i e d p o w d e r o f D - b i o t i n d i s p e r s e d i n a m a t r i x D , W
V i t a m i n C R O V I M I X
®
S T A Y - C
®
3 5
S p r a y - d r i e d p o w d e r o f s t a b i l i z e d ( p h o s p h o r y l a t e d ) v i t a m i n C D
R O V I M I X
®
C - E C P o w d e r o f e t h y l c e l l u l o s e - c o a t e d v i t a m i n C D
A s c o r b i c a c i d F i n e c r y s t a l l i n e p o w d e r o f L - a s c o r b i c a c i d W
ß - C a r o t e n e R O V I M I X
®
ß - C a r o t e n e 1 0 % P o w d e r o f s t a b i l i z e d ß - c a r o t e n e d i s p e r s e d i n a n D
e n c a p s u l a t e d b e a d l e t

R O V I M I X
®
ß - C a r o t e n e 1 0 % P P o w d e r o f s t a b i l i z e d ß - c a r o t e n e d i s p e r s e d i n a n D
e n c a p s u l a t e d c r o s s - l i n k e d b e a d l e t

N u t r i t i o n a l i n g r e d i e n t p r o d u c t i o n
R e l i a b l e t h r o u g h b a c k w a r d i n t e g r a t i o n
R e g i o n a l H e a d q u a r t e r s
D S M N u t r i t i o n a l P r o d u c t s A s i a P a c i f i c P t e L t d
¥ : + 6 5 6 6 3 2 6 5 0 0
u : m a r k e t i n g . d n p a p @ d s m . c o m
D S M ( C h i n a ) L i m i t e d
¥ : + 8 6 2 1 6 1 4 1 8 1 8 8
u : c h i n a . v i t a m i n s @ d s m . c o m
D S M N u t r i t i o n a l P r o d u c t s E u r o p e L t d
¥ : + 4 1 6 1 8 1 5 7 7 7 7
u : m a r k e t i n g . d n p e @ d s m . c o m
D S M P r o d u t o s N u t r i c i o n a i s B r a s i l L t d a
¥ : + 5 5 1 1 3 7 6 0 6 3 0 0
u : a m e r i c a - l a t i n a . d n p @ d s m . c o m
D S M N u t r i t i o n a l P r o d u c t s , L L C .
¥ : + 1 8 0 0 4 5 1 8 3 2 5
u : w e b s h o p . d n p n a @ d s m . c o m
w w w . d s m n u t r i t i o n a l p r o d u c t s . c o m
N a p e r v i l l e , U S A
V i t a m i n D
V i t a m i n B
6
V i t a m i n E
* D : F o r p r e m i x e s , s u p p l e m e n t s a n d c o m p l e t e d r y f e e d s .
W : F o r w a t e r d i s p e r s i b l e a p p l i c a t i o n s .
F o r m o r e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t f u r t h e r p r o d u c t s
a n d p r o d u c t f o r m s p l e a s e a s k y o u r l o c a l
D S M r e p r e s e n t a t i v e .
D e f i c i e n t
S u b - o p t i m u m
O p t i m u m
S p e c i a l
a p p l i c a t i o n s
T o t a l v i t a m i n i n t a k e f r o m a l l s o u r c e s i n d i e t
POULTRY
(1)
RUMINANTS
(1)
TURKEY
(1)
SWINE
(1)
FISH & SHRIMP
(1)
HORSES & OTHERS
COMPANION ANIMALS
ABOUT DSM
Nutritional ingredient production
Reliability through backward integration
DSM operates nine bulk manufacturing and formulation sites
across Europe, the United States and China. These sites produce
the majority of nutritional ingredients sold as straight products or
in premixes and concentrates.
Quality is at the heart of all our operations, and we work to a
global quality standard, backed by our unique backward
integration concept which gives unrivalled control over our supply
chain. DSM has a dedicated logistics network based on three main
distribution centres in Venlo (NL), Belvidere (USA) and Singapore.
Premixes and blending
Product services where customers need them
DSM has a comprehensive global network of premix plants with
over 40 plants dedicated to the production of feed premixes
and another six plants for human food premixes.
This network helps ensure high levels of customer service and
delivery, backed by the highest levels of traceability, quality and
food safety. Being close to our markets allows us to respond
quickly to changing market demands.
Category/Phase Duration Vit. A Vit. D
3
(2)
25OHD
3
Vit. E
(3)
Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
(7)
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin Vit. C
(8)(9)
Choline
(Hy•D)
(2)

(Menadione) thenic acid

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Broilers

Starters 1 - 10 days 11000-15000 3000-5000 0.069 150-300
(4)
3 - 4 3 - 4 8 - 10 4 - 6 0.02 - 0.04 60 - 80 15 - 20 2 - 2.5 0.2 - 0.4 100-200 400-700
Growers 11 - 24 days 10000-12500 3000-5000 0.069 50-100
(5)
3 - 4 2 - 3 7 - 9 4 - 6 0.02 - 0.03 60 - 80 12 - 18 2 - 2.5 0.2 - 0.3 100-200 400-700
Finishers 25 days - market 10000-12500 3000-5000 0.069 50-100
(5)(6)
3 - 4 2 - 3 6 - 8 4 - 6 0.02 - 0.03 50 - 80 10 - 15 2 - 2.5 0.2 - 0.3 100-200 400-600
Broiler breeders
Starters & growers 0 - 18 wks 10000-12000 3000-4000 0.069 80-100
(4)
3 - 5 2 - 3 6 - 8 3 - 5 0.02 - 0.03 30 - 60 13 - 15 1.5 - 2 0.2 - 0.4 100-150 350-700
Layers 19 wks - end 12000-15000 3000-5000 0.069
10)
100-150
(5)
5 - 7 3 - 3.5 12 - 16
4 - 6
0.03 - 0.04 50 - 60 15 - 25 2 - 4 0.25 - 0.4 100-150 350-700
(& male breeders)
Hen & ducklayers
Starters (pullets) 0 -10 wks 12000-13000 3000-4000 0.069 50-100
(4)
3 - 3.5 2 - 2.5 6 - 7 4.5 - 5.5 0.025 - 0.03 50 - 60 15 - 17 1 - 1.5 0.15 - 0.2 100-150 200-400
Rearing (pullets) 10 wks - 2% lay 10000-12000 2000-3000 0.069 30-35 3 - 3.5 2 - 2.5 5 - 6 3 - 5 0.02 - 0.025 30 - 60 12 - 15 1 - 1.5 0.1 - 0.15 100-150 200-400
Layers Laying phase 8000-12000 3000-4000 0.069 20-30
(5)
2.5 - 3 2.5 - 3 5 - 7 3.5 - 5 0.015 - 0.025 30 - 50 8 - 12 1 - 1.5 0.1 - 0.15 100-200 300-500
Layer breeders
Growers & layers 0 wks - end 10000-15000 3000-4500 0.069
(10)
50-100
(5)
2 - 5 2.5 - 3.5 10 - 12 5 - 6 0.02 - 0.04 45 - 60 15 - 20 2 - 3 0.25 - 0.4 150-200 300-500
(& male breeders)
Ducks and geese 12000-15000 3000-5000 0.069 40-80 3 - 5 2 - 3 7 - 9 5 - 7 0.02 - 0.04 60 - 80 10 - 15 1 - 2 0.1 - 0.15 100-200 300-500
Partridges. quails 12000-13500 3000-4000 0.069 50-80 2 - 4 2 - 4 5 - 7 4 - 6 0.03 - 0.05 50 - 80 15 - 25 1.5 - 2 0.15 - 0.25 100-200 400-600
and pheasants
Ostriches and emus 12000-16000 3000-4000 0.069 40-60 2 - 4 3 - 5 10 - 20 6 - 8 0.05 - 0.1 80 - 100 12 - 20 2 - 4 0.2 - 0.35 200-250 600-800
(1)
Added per kg air-dry feed.
(2)
Local legal limits of Vitamin D
3
activity need to be observed.
(3)
When dietary fat is higher than 3% then add 5 mg/kg feed for each 1% dietary fat.
(4)
Higher level for optimum immune function.
(5)
Under heat stress conditions increase
level up to 200 mg/kg.
(6)
For optimum meat quality increase level up to 200 mg/kg.
(7)
Use upper level as reference for animal protein free diets and when cobalt is supplemented at very low levels or removed.
(8)
Recommended under heat stress condition and to
enhance reproductive performance in breeders.
(9)
Use ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
(ascorbyl-monophosphate) for reducing losses during processing.
(10)
Improve hatchability by using MAXICHICK
®
. the combination of Hy•D
®
(25-OH-D
3
) with 60 ppm of CAROPHYLL
®
Red
(Canthaxanthin). The use of MAXICHICK
®
is covered by a DSM Nutritional Products international patent application WO 2010 057811 nationalized in US and Europe amongst others. MAXICHICK
®
is a trademark registered in Europe and the US amongst others.
Category/Phase Duration Vit. A Vit. D
3
(2)
25OHD
3
Vit. E
(3)
Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
(7)
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin Vit. C
(8)(9)
Choline
(Hy•D)
(2)

(Menadione) thenic acid

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Turkeys
Starters 0 - 6 wks 12000-15000 4000-5000 0.092 100-250
(4)
4 - 5 4.5 - 5 15 - 20 6 - 7 0.04 - 0.05 100 - 150 30 - 35 4 - 6 0.25 - 0.4 100-200 1000-1200
Growers 7 - 12 wks 10000-12000 3000-5000 0.092 60-80 3 - 4 3 - 5 10 - 15 5 - 7 0.03 - 0.04 80 - 100 20 - 25 2 - 3 0.25 - 0.3 100-200 500-1000
Finishers 1 13 - 18 wks 8000-10000 3000-4000 0.092 30-50
(5)(6)
3 - 4 3 - 4 8 - 10 3 - 6 0.02 - 0.03 60 - 80 15 - 20 2 - 2.5 0.2 - 0.25 100-200 400-600
Finishers 2 18 wks - market 6000-9000 2000-3000 0.092 30-50
(5)(6)
3 - 4 2 - 3 8 - 10 3 - 6 0.015 - 0.025 50 - 60 15 - 20 2 - 2.5 0.2 - 0.25 100-200 400-600
Turkey breeders
Starters 0 - 6 wks 12000-14000 4000-5000 0.092 100-250
(4)
4 - 5 4.5 - 5 15 - 20 6 - 7 0.04 - 0.05 100 - 150 30 - 35 4 - 6 0.4 - 0.6 100-200 1000-1200
Growers 7-29 wks 8000-10000 4000-5000 0.092 60-80 2 - 4 2 - 3 10 - 15 6 - 7 0.03 - 0.04 60 - 80 25 - 30 2 - 3 0.4 - 0.6 100-200 1000-1200
Layers Laying phase 12000-14000 4000-5000 0.092
(10)
100-150
(5)
4 - 5 4 - 5 15 - 20 6 - 7 0.04 - 0.05 80 - 120 30 - 35 4 - 6 0.4 - 0.6 100-200 500-1000
(& male breeders)
(1)
Added per kg air-dry feed.
(2)
Local legal limits of Vitamin D
3
activity need to be observed.
(3)
When dietary fat is higher than 3% then add
5 mg/kg feed for each 1% dietary fat.
(4)
Higher level for optimum immune function.
(5)
Under heat stress conditions increase level up to 200 mg/kg.
(6)
For optimum meat quality increase level up to 200 mg/kg.
(7)
Use upper level as reference for animal protein free diets and when cobalt is
supplemented at very low levels or removed.
(8)
Recommended under heat stress condition and to enhance reproductive performance in
breeders.
(9)
Use ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
(ascorbyl-monophosphate) for reducing losses during processing.
(10)
Improve hatchability by using
MAXICHICK
®
, the combination of Hy•D
®
(25-OH-D
3
) with 60 ppm of CAROPHYLL
®
Red (Canthaxanthin). The use of MAXICHICK
®
is covered
by a DSM Nutritional Products international patent application WO 2010 057811 nationalized in US and Europe amongst others. MAXICHICK
®
is a trademark registered in Europe and the US amongst others.
Category/Phase Duration Vit. A Vit. D
3
(2)
25OHD
3
Vit. E
(3)
Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
(7)
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin Vit. C
(8)(9)
Choline ß-Carotene
(Hy•D)
(2)

(Menadione) thenic acid

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Fattening pigs
Pre-starters < 5 kg 10000-20000 1800-2000 0.05 100-150
(4)
8 - 10 3.5 - 5.5 10 - 15 6 - 8 0.05-0.07 60 - 80 30 - 50 1.5 - 3 0.2 - 0.4 100-200 500-800
Starters 5 - 30 kg 10000-15000 1800-2000 0.05 100-150 5 - 6 3 - 5 10 - 15 6 - 8 0.04-0.06 35 - 55 25 - 45 1.5 - 2.5 0.2 - 0.4 100-200 250-400
Growers 30 - 70 kg 7000-10000 1500-2000 0.05 60-100 2 - 4 2 - 3 7 - 10 2.5 - 4.5 0.03-0.05 20 - 40 25 - 45 1 - 1.5 0.15 - 0.3 150-300
Finishers 70 kg to market 5000-8000 1000-1500 0.05 60-100
(5)
2 - 4 1 - 2 6 - 10 2 - 3.5 0.03-0.05 20 - 40 25 - 45 0.5 - 1 0.1 - 0.2 100-200
Breeders
Replacement gilts 10000-12500 1800-2000 0.05 80-100 1.5 - 3 1 - 2 6 - 10 3.5 - 5.5 0.03-0.05 20 - 30 15 - 30 3.5 - 5.5 0.3 - 0.5 200-300 250-500
Sows 10000-15000 1500-2000 0.05 100-150
(6)
4.5 - 5 2 - 2.5 6 - 10 3.5 - 5.5 0.03-0.05 25 - 45 30 - 35 3.5 - 5.5 0.5 - 0.8 200-300 500-800 300
(10)
Boars 10000-15000 1500-2000 0.05 100-150 4.5 - 5 1 - 2 6 - 10 3.5 - 5.5 0.03-0.05 25 - 45 20 - 30 3.5 - 5.5 0.5 - 0.8 200-500 500-800
(1)
Added per kg air-dry feed.
(2)
Local legal limits of Vitamin D
3
activity need to be observed.
(3)
When dietary fat is
higher than 3% then add 5 mg/kg feed for each 1% dietary fat.
(4)
For optimum immune health: additional 100 mg/kg
feed.
(5)
For optimum meat quality: additional 150 mg/kg feed.
(6)
For optimum piglet health: during late pregnancy and
lactation total 250 mg/kg feed.
(7)
Use upper level when cobalt is supplemented at very low levels or removed.
(8)
Recommended in stress condition and to enhance reproductive performance in breeders.
(9)
Use ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
(ascorbyl-monophosphate) for reducing losses during processing.
(10)
For improved sow fertility: to be fed per animal
per day immediately after weaning until confirmed conception.
Category/Phase Vit. A Vit. D
3
Vit. E

Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin Vit. C Choline ß-Carotene
(Menadione) thenic acid

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Calves, milk replacer
0-3 months 20000-32000 1400-1800 100-150 1 - 1.5 2.5 - 5 2.5 - 4.5 2.5 - 4.5 0.04 - 0.08 9 - 18 7 - 9 0.2 - 0.3 0.05 - 0.1 250-500 500-750 100
(11)
Heifers
Rearing 20000-40000 2500-4000 500 10 - 20
(9)
300-500
(12)
6-4 wks 20000-40000 2500-4000 1000-3000 10 - 20
(9)
500-1000
(13)
before calving
Beef cattle
Growing 50000-70000 6000-9000 200-300 60 - 250
(7)
10 - 20
(9)

Fattening & finishing 50000-70000 5000-7000 500-2000
(4)
60 - 250
(7)
10 - 20
(9)


Beef cows 50000-120000 5000-10000 300-500 20
(9)
300-500
(12)
Dairy cows
Far-off & close-up
(2)
75000-100000 25000-35000 1000-3000
(5)
20
(10)
500-1000
(14)
Transition
(3)
75000-100000 25000-35000 1000-3000
(5)
5000-10000
(8)
20
(10)
500-800
(15)
Lactation 100000-150000 30000-50000 500-1000
(6)
5000-10000
(8)
20
(10)
300-500
(16)
Breeding bulls 50000-120000 5000-10000 300-500 20
(9)

Sheep & goats 5000-10000 600 200-400 100 5
(11)


(1)
Added per animal per day.
(2)
Far-off: from 8-3 weeks before calving; Close-up: from 3 weeks before calving to calving.
(3)
Transition: from 4-3 weeks before calving to 3-4 weeks after calving.
(4)
Upper level for improved color
shelf life.100-120 days pre-marketing.
(5)
Upper level from 21 days pre-partum through 28 days post-partum.
(6)
Upper level for optimum udder health.
(7)
Upper level for cattle on high concentrate rations.
(8)
From 2 weeks
before parturition until peak lactation.
(9)
For optimum hoof health and optimum meat marbling.
(10)
For optimum hoof health and milk yield.
(11)
For 2 weeks after colostral period.
(12)
6-8 weeks before first insemination/mating
when intake of green forage is low.
(13)
Lower level 8 weeks before first calving; upper level 4 weeks before first calving when intake of green forage is low.
(14)
Lower level during entire dry period (far-off and close-up);
upper level 3-4 weeks before calving (close-up only).
(15)
500-800 mg from 3-4 weeks before calving and 300-500 mg 4-6 week after calving.
(16)
Dry and fresh: beginning dry period until pregnancy is confirmed.
Category/Phase Vit. A Vit. D
3
Vit. E

Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin Vit. C
(3)
Choline Astaxanthin
(Menadione) thenic acid (Carophyll Pink)

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Salmon/trout
(2)
3000-6000 2000-2500 200-400
(4)
8 - 12 10 - 20 20 - 30 15 - 25 0.03 - 0.05 150-200 40 - 60 6 - 10 0.8 - 1 150-250
(6)
500-1000 50 - 100
(7)
Warm-water fish
(2)
8000-11000 1500-2000 100-300 5 - 10 10 - 20 15 - 20 15 - 25 0.02 - 0.05 80-120 40 - 50 4 - 7 0.5 - 1 150-250 600-1000
Carp/tilapia/cat-fish
Eels
(2)
8000-12000 1500-2000 150-300 3 - 6 15 - 25 20 - 30 10 - 15 0.1 - 0.2 80-120 50 - 60 4 - 6 0.3 - 0.5 150-300 800-1200
Seabream/seabass
(2)
8000-12000 1700-2200 150-300 8 - 12 20 - 30 20 - 30 20 - 25 0.1 - 0.2 100-140 50 - 100 4 - 6 0.8 - 1 150-250 600-1000
Shrimp
(3)
12000-15000 2000-3500 150-300 40 - 60 50 - 100 40 - 80 50 - 120 0.02 - 0.05 100-250 100 - 180 10 - 20 1 - 2 250-500 400-600 15 - 50
(1)
Added per kg air-dry feed
(2)
Amount to be increased by 30% for fry and broodstock
(3)
At low stock density (< 10pl/m
2
) the lower levels are recommended
(4)
Additional 200 mg may be required to optimise flesh quality dependent on dietary fat levels
(5)
Use ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
(ascorbyl-monophosphate) for reducing losses during processing
(6)
During winter feeding for wound healing and immune function: total 1000 mg/kg feed
(7)
For flesh pigmentation
(1)
Added per animal per day, based on average weight of 250 kg.
(2)
Added per animal per day,
based on average weight of 550 kg.
(3)
Added per kg air-dry feed.
(4)
Dietary fat higher than 3%:
additional 5 mg/kg feed for each 1% dietary fat.
(5)
When feeding raw fish: additional 50 mg/kg feed.
(6)
For fur production rabbits: 0.6 mg/kg feed.
(7)
Recommended in stress condition and to enhance
reproductive performance in breeders.
(8)
Use ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
(ascorbyl-monophosphate) for
reducing losses during processing.
(9)
From 4 weeks before until 10 weeks after parturition.
Category/Phase Vit. A Vit. D
3
Vit. E
(2)
Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
(4)
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
(5)
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin
(6)
Vit. C
(7)
Choline ß-Carotene
(8)
(Menadione) thenic acid

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Dogs 15000-22000 780-1300 100-250 1 - 2 4 - 8 13 - 22 6 - 11 0.03-0.05 50-170 30 - 60 0.6 - 2 0.25-0.8 100-200 1300-2700 30 - 50
Cats 15000-40000
(1)
780-1300 150-300 1 - 2
(3)
5 - 10 22 - 27 11 - 14 0.03-0.1 50-170 30 - 60 0.6 - 2 0.25-0.8 100-200 1300-2700 30 - 50
(1)
Vitamin A: preformed vitamin A is vital in diets for cats.
(2)
Vitamin E: supplemental levels should at least be
5 mg/kg of dry food for each 1% of PUFA in the diet. Higher levels above are recommended to support the
total antioxidant capacity of the dog and cat.
(3)
Vitamin K: supplementation is particularly important in
canned catfoods that contains >25% fish when fed for long periods.
(4)
Vitamin B
1
: levels of up to 18 mg/kg
dry food for dogs and 35 mg/kg for cats are reported to help improve meal acceptance and stimulate
appetite.
(5)
Vitamin B
12
: increased supplemental levels up to 0.8 mg/kg dry food help in the support of liver
function. Supplementation might need to be increased in vegetarian diets as plants are a poor source of this
vitamin.
(6)
Biotin: Higher levels, up to 2 mg/day, are recommended in high fat diets and also as an aid in the
improvement of coat and skin condition for cats and dogs and to help hepatic glucose excretion and thus
fasting blood glucose levels in dogs with diabetes.
(7)
Use ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
(ascorbyl-monophosphate)
for reducing losses during processing and supporting the total antioxidant capacity of the animal.
(8)
ß-Carotene: recommended for supporting the total antioxidant capacity of the dog or cat and as an
immune system modulator and for supporting reproductive physiology.
Recommendations are expressed per kg air-dry food. The values are based on the diets containing 4000 kcal ME/kg dry matter.
Diets that deviate in energy content >12.5% or have feeding recommendations that restrict energy intake should have the
supplemental vitamin levels adjusted accordingly.
With over 75 years’ experience, DSM is the world’s leading supplier of fat-soluble and water-
soluble vitamins, carotenoids, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, enzymes, eubiotics
and nutraceuticals to the feed, food, pharmaceutical and personal care industries.
Category/Phase Vit. A Vit. D
3
Vit. E

Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin Vit. C
(7) (8)
Choline ß-Carotene
(Menadione) thenic acid

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Foals. 1st year
(1)
25000-30000 4500-5500 250-500 8 - 12 20 - 25 20 - 30 15 - 20 0.15-0.3 25 - 50 20 - 30 15 - 20 2 - 3 500-750 300-400
Leisure horses
(2)
35000-45000 3500-4500 500-1000 6 - 12 40 - 55 30 - 40 25 - 35 0.35-0.65 55 - 85 45 - 65 25 - 35 15 - 20 600-900
Race horses
(2)
65000-85000 6500-8500 1000-2000 11 - 22 70 - 110 70 - 85 40 - 55 0.55-0.85 110 - 200 50 - 80 45 - 65 15 - 20 1000-2000 1000-1400
Mares & stallions
(2)
65000-85000 6500-8500 1000-2000 11 - 22 70 - 110 70 - 85 40 - 55 0.55-0.85 110 - 200 50 - 80 45 - 65 15 - 20 1000-2000 1000-1400 400-800
(9)
Rabbits
(3)
8000-12000 800-1200 40-60 1 - 2 1 - 2 3 - 6 2 - 3 0.01-0.02 40 - 60 10 - 15 0.2 - 0.5 0.1 - 0.2
(6)
150-250 600-800 10-20
Mink & foxes
(3)
10000-15000 1500-2000 100-200
(4)
1 - 2 20 - 50
(5)
10 - 20 10 - 20 0.03-0.06 20 - 40 8 - 20 0.6 - 1 0.3 - 0.6 100-200
POULTRY
(1)
RUMINANTS
(1)
TURKEY
(1)
SWINE
(1)
FISH & SHRIMP
(1)
HORSES & OTHERS
COMPANION ANIMALS
ABOUT DSM
Nutritional ingredient production
Reliability through backward integration
DSM operates nine bulk manufacturing and formulation sites
across Europe, the United States and China. These sites produce
the majority of nutritional ingredients sold as straight products or
in premixes and concentrates.
Quality is at the heart of all our operations, and we work to a
global quality standard, backed by our unique backward
integration concept which gives unrivalled control over our supply
chain. DSM has a dedicated logistics network based on three main
distribution centres in Venlo (NL), Belvidere (USA) and Singapore.
Premixes and blending
Product services where customers need them
DSM has a comprehensive global network of premix plants with
over 40 plants dedicated to the production of feed premixes
and another six plants for human food premixes.
This network helps ensure high levels of customer service and
delivery, backed by the highest levels of traceability, quality and
food safety. Being close to our markets allows us to respond
quickly to changing market demands.
Category/Phase Duration Vit. A Vit. D
3
(2)
25OHD
3
Vit. E
(3)
Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
(7)
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin Vit. C
(8)(9)
Choline
(Hy•D)
(2)

(Menadione) thenic acid

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Broilers

Starters 1 - 10 days 11000-15000 3000-5000 0.069 150-300
(4)
3 - 4 3 - 4 8 - 10 4 - 6 0.02 - 0.04 60 - 80 15 - 20 2 - 2.5 0.2 - 0.4 100-200 400-700
Growers 11 - 24 days 10000-12500 3000-5000 0.069 50-100
(5)
3 - 4 2 - 3 7 - 9 4 - 6 0.02 - 0.03 60 - 80 12 - 18 2 - 2.5 0.2 - 0.3 100-200 400-700
Finishers 25 days - market 10000-12500 3000-5000 0.069 50-100
(5)(6)
3 - 4 2 - 3 6 - 8 4 - 6 0.02 - 0.03 50 - 80 10 - 15 2 - 2.5 0.2 - 0.3 100-200 400-600
Broiler breeders
Starters & growers 0 - 18 wks 10000-12000 3000-4000 0.069 80-100
(4)
3 - 5 2 - 3 6 - 8 3 - 5 0.02 - 0.03 30 - 60 13 - 15 1.5 - 2 0.2 - 0.4 100-150 350-700
Layers 19 wks - end 12000-15000 3000-5000 0.069
10)
100-150
(5)
5 - 7 3 - 3.5 12 - 16
4 - 6
0.03 - 0.04 50 - 60 15 - 25 2 - 4 0.25 - 0.4 100-150 350-700
(& male breeders)
Hen & ducklayers
Starters (pullets) 0 -10 wks 12000-13000 3000-4000 0.069 50-100
(4)
3 - 3.5 2 - 2.5 6 - 7 4.5 - 5.5 0.025 - 0.03 50 - 60 15 - 17 1 - 1.5 0.15 - 0.2 100-150 200-400
Rearing (pullets) 10 wks - 2% lay 10000-12000 2000-3000 0.069 30-35 3 - 3.5 2 - 2.5 5 - 6 3 - 5 0.02 - 0.025 30 - 60 12 - 15 1 - 1.5 0.1 - 0.15 100-150 200-400
Layers Laying phase 8000-12000 3000-4000 0.069 20-30
(5)
2.5 - 3 2.5 - 3 5 - 7 3.5 - 5 0.015 - 0.025 30 - 50 8 - 12 1 - 1.5 0.1 - 0.15 100-200 300-500
Layer breeders
Growers & layers 0 wks - end 10000-15000 3000-4500 0.069
(10)
50-100
(5)
2 - 5 2.5 - 3.5 10 - 12 5 - 6 0.02 - 0.04 45 - 60 15 - 20 2 - 3 0.25 - 0.4 150-200 300-500
(& male breeders)
Ducks and geese 12000-15000 3000-5000 0.069 40-80 3 - 5 2 - 3 7 - 9 5 - 7 0.02 - 0.04 60 - 80 10 - 15 1 - 2 0.1 - 0.15 100-200 300-500
Partridges. quails 12000-13500 3000-4000 0.069 50-80 2 - 4 2 - 4 5 - 7 4 - 6 0.03 - 0.05 50 - 80 15 - 25 1.5 - 2 0.15 - 0.25 100-200 400-600
and pheasants
Ostriches and emus 12000-16000 3000-4000 0.069 40-60 2 - 4 3 - 5 10 - 20 6 - 8 0.05 - 0.1 80 - 100 12 - 20 2 - 4 0.2 - 0.35 200-250 600-800
(1)
Added per kg air-dry feed.
(2)
Local legal limits of Vitamin D
3
activity need to be observed.
(3)
When dietary fat is higher than 3% then add 5 mg/kg feed for each 1% dietary fat.
(4)
Higher level for optimum immune function.
(5)
Under heat stress conditions increase
level up to 200 mg/kg.
(6)
For optimum meat quality increase level up to 200 mg/kg.
(7)
Use upper level as reference for animal protein free diets and when cobalt is supplemented at very low levels or removed.
(8)
Recommended under heat stress condition and to
enhance reproductive performance in breeders.
(9)
Use ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
(ascorbyl-monophosphate) for reducing losses during processing.
(10)
Improve hatchability by using MAXICHICK
®
. the combination of Hy•D
®
(25-OH-D
3
) with 60 ppm of CAROPHYLL
®
Red
(Canthaxanthin). The use of MAXICHICK
®
is covered by a DSM Nutritional Products international patent application WO 2010 057811 nationalized in US and Europe amongst others. MAXICHICK
®
is a trademark registered in Europe and the US amongst others.
Category/Phase Duration Vit. A Vit. D
3
(2)
25OHD
3
Vit. E
(3)
Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
(7)
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin Vit. C
(8)(9)
Choline
(Hy•D)
(2)

(Menadione) thenic acid

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Turkeys
Starters 0 - 6 wks 12000-15000 4000-5000 0.092 100-250
(4)
4 - 5 4.5 - 5 15 - 20 6 - 7 0.04 - 0.05 100 - 150 30 - 35 4 - 6 0.25 - 0.4 100-200 1000-1200
Growers 7 - 12 wks 10000-12000 3000-5000 0.092 60-80 3 - 4 3 - 5 10 - 15 5 - 7 0.03 - 0.04 80 - 100 20 - 25 2 - 3 0.25 - 0.3 100-200 500-1000
Finishers 1 13 - 18 wks 8000-10000 3000-4000 0.092 30-50
(5)(6)
3 - 4 3 - 4 8 - 10 3 - 6 0.02 - 0.03 60 - 80 15 - 20 2 - 2.5 0.2 - 0.25 100-200 400-600
Finishers 2 18 wks - market 6000-9000 2000-3000 0.092 30-50
(5)(6)
3 - 4 2 - 3 8 - 10 3 - 6 0.015 - 0.025 50 - 60 15 - 20 2 - 2.5 0.2 - 0.25 100-200 400-600
Turkey breeders
Starters 0 - 6 wks 12000-14000 4000-5000 0.092 100-250
(4)
4 - 5 4.5 - 5 15 - 20 6 - 7 0.04 - 0.05 100 - 150 30 - 35 4 - 6 0.4 - 0.6 100-200 1000-1200
Growers 7-29 wks 8000-10000 4000-5000 0.092 60-80 2 - 4 2 - 3 10 - 15 6 - 7 0.03 - 0.04 60 - 80 25 - 30 2 - 3 0.4 - 0.6 100-200 1000-1200
Layers Laying phase 12000-14000 4000-5000 0.092
(10)
100-150
(5)
4 - 5 4 - 5 15 - 20 6 - 7 0.04 - 0.05 80 - 120 30 - 35 4 - 6 0.4 - 0.6 100-200 500-1000
(& male breeders)
(1)
Added per kg air-dry feed.
(2)
Local legal limits of Vitamin D
3
activity need to be observed.
(3)
When dietary fat is higher than 3% then add
5 mg/kg feed for each 1% dietary fat.
(4)
Higher level for optimum immune function.
(5)
Under heat stress conditions increase level up to 200 mg/kg.
(6)
For optimum meat quality increase level up to 200 mg/kg.
(7)
Use upper level as reference for animal protein free diets and when cobalt is
supplemented at very low levels or removed.
(8)
Recommended under heat stress condition and to enhance reproductive performance in
breeders.
(9)
Use ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
(ascorbyl-monophosphate) for reducing losses during processing.
(10)
Improve hatchability by using
MAXICHICK
®
, the combination of Hy•D
®
(25-OH-D
3
) with 60 ppm of CAROPHYLL
®
Red (Canthaxanthin). The use of MAXICHICK
®
is covered
by a DSM Nutritional Products international patent application WO 2010 057811 nationalized in US and Europe amongst others. MAXICHICK
®
is a trademark registered in Europe and the US amongst others.
Category/Phase Duration Vit. A Vit. D
3
(2)
25OHD
3
Vit. E
(3)
Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
(7)
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin Vit. C
(8)(9)
Choline ß-Carotene
(Hy•D)
(2)

(Menadione) thenic acid

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Fattening pigs
Pre-starters < 5 kg 10000-20000 1800-2000 0.05 100-150
(4)
8 - 10 3.5 - 5.5 10 - 15 6 - 8 0.05-0.07 60 - 80 30 - 50 1.5 - 3 0.2 - 0.4 100-200 500-800
Starters 5 - 30 kg 10000-15000 1800-2000 0.05 100-150 5 - 6 3 - 5 10 - 15 6 - 8 0.04-0.06 35 - 55 25 - 45 1.5 - 2.5 0.2 - 0.4 100-200 250-400
Growers 30 - 70 kg 7000-10000 1500-2000 0.05 60-100 2 - 4 2 - 3 7 - 10 2.5 - 4.5 0.03-0.05 20 - 40 25 - 45 1 - 1.5 0.15 - 0.3 150-300
Finishers 70 kg to market 5000-8000 1000-1500 0.05 60-100
(5)
2 - 4 1 - 2 6 - 10 2 - 3.5 0.03-0.05 20 - 40 25 - 45 0.5 - 1 0.1 - 0.2 100-200
Breeders
Replacement gilts 10000-12500 1800-2000 0.05 80-100 1.5 - 3 1 - 2 6 - 10 3.5 - 5.5 0.03-0.05 20 - 30 15 - 30 3.5 - 5.5 0.3 - 0.5 200-300 250-500
Sows 10000-15000 1500-2000 0.05 100-150
(6)
4.5 - 5 2 - 2.5 6 - 10 3.5 - 5.5 0.03-0.05 25 - 45 30 - 35 3.5 - 5.5 0.5 - 0.8 200-300 500-800 300
(10)
Boars 10000-15000 1500-2000 0.05 100-150 4.5 - 5 1 - 2 6 - 10 3.5 - 5.5 0.03-0.05 25 - 45 20 - 30 3.5 - 5.5 0.5 - 0.8 200-500 500-800
(1)
Added per kg air-dry feed.
(2)
Local legal limits of Vitamin D
3
activity need to be observed.
(3)
When dietary fat is
higher than 3% then add 5 mg/kg feed for each 1% dietary fat.
(4)
For optimum immune health: additional 100 mg/kg
feed.
(5)
For optimum meat quality: additional 150 mg/kg feed.
(6)
For optimum piglet health: during late pregnancy and
lactation total 250 mg/kg feed.
(7)
Use upper level when cobalt is supplemented at very low levels or removed.
(8)
Recommended in stress condition and to enhance reproductive performance in breeders.
(9)
Use ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
(ascorbyl-monophosphate) for reducing losses during processing.
(10)
For improved sow fertility: to be fed per animal
per day immediately after weaning until confirmed conception.
Category/Phase Vit. A Vit. D
3
Vit. E

Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin Vit. C Choline ß-Carotene
(Menadione) thenic acid

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Calves, milk replacer
0-3 months 20000-32000 1400-1800 100-150 1 - 1.5 2.5 - 5 2.5 - 4.5 2.5 - 4.5 0.04 - 0.08 9 - 18 7 - 9 0.2 - 0.3 0.05 - 0.1 250-500 500-750 100
(11)
Heifers
Rearing 20000-40000 2500-4000 500 10 - 20
(9)
300-500
(12)
6-4 wks 20000-40000 2500-4000 1000-3000 10 - 20
(9)
500-1000
(13)
before calving
Beef cattle
Growing 50000-70000 6000-9000 200-300 60 - 250
(7)
10 - 20
(9)

Fattening & finishing 50000-70000 5000-7000 500-2000
(4)
60 - 250
(7)
10 - 20
(9)


Beef cows 50000-120000 5000-10000 300-500 20
(9)
300-500
(12)
Dairy cows
Far-off & close-up
(2)
75000-100000 25000-35000 1000-3000
(5)
20
(10)
500-1000
(14)
Transition
(3)
75000-100000 25000-35000 1000-3000
(5)
5000-10000
(8)
20
(10)
500-800
(15)
Lactation 100000-150000 30000-50000 500-1000
(6)
5000-10000
(8)
20
(10)
300-500
(16)
Breeding bulls 50000-120000 5000-10000 300-500 20
(9)

Sheep & goats 5000-10000 600 200-400 100 5
(11)


(1)
Added per animal per day.
(2)
Far-off: from 8-3 weeks before calving; Close-up: from 3 weeks before calving to calving.
(3)
Transition: from 4-3 weeks before calving to 3-4 weeks after calving.
(4)
Upper level for improved color
shelf life.100-120 days pre-marketing.
(5)
Upper level from 21 days pre-partum through 28 days post-partum.
(6)
Upper level for optimum udder health.
(7)
Upper level for cattle on high concentrate rations.
(8)
From 2 weeks
before parturition until peak lactation.
(9)
For optimum hoof health and optimum meat marbling.
(10)
For optimum hoof health and milk yield.
(11)
For 2 weeks after colostral period.
(12)
6-8 weeks before first insemination/mating
when intake of green forage is low.
(13)
Lower level 8 weeks before first calving; upper level 4 weeks before first calving when intake of green forage is low.
(14)
Lower level during entire dry period (far-off and close-up);
upper level 3-4 weeks before calving (close-up only).
(15)
500-800 mg from 3-4 weeks before calving and 300-500 mg 4-6 week after calving.
(16)
Dry and fresh: beginning dry period until pregnancy is confirmed.
Category/Phase Vit. A Vit. D
3
Vit. E

Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin Vit. C
(3)
Choline Astaxanthin
(Menadione) thenic acid (Carophyll Pink)

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Salmon/trout
(2)
3000-6000 2000-2500 200-400
(4)
8 - 12 10 - 20 20 - 30 15 - 25 0.03 - 0.05 150-200 40 - 60 6 - 10 0.8 - 1 150-250
(6)
500-1000 50 - 100
(7)
Warm-water fish
(2)
8000-11000 1500-2000 100-300 5 - 10 10 - 20 15 - 20 15 - 25 0.02 - 0.05 80-120 40 - 50 4 - 7 0.5 - 1 150-250 600-1000
Carp/tilapia/cat-fish
Eels
(2)
8000-12000 1500-2000 150-300 3 - 6 15 - 25 20 - 30 10 - 15 0.1 - 0.2 80-120 50 - 60 4 - 6 0.3 - 0.5 150-300 800-1200
Seabream/seabass
(2)
8000-12000 1700-2200 150-300 8 - 12 20 - 30 20 - 30 20 - 25 0.1 - 0.2 100-140 50 - 100 4 - 6 0.8 - 1 150-250 600-1000
Shrimp
(3)
12000-15000 2000-3500 150-300 40 - 60 50 - 100 40 - 80 50 - 120 0.02 - 0.05 100-250 100 - 180 10 - 20 1 - 2 250-500 400-600 15 - 50
(1)
Added per kg air-dry feed
(2)
Amount to be increased by 30% for fry and broodstock
(3)
At low stock density (< 10pl/m
2
) the lower levels are recommended
(4)
Additional 200 mg may be required to optimise flesh quality dependent on dietary fat levels
(5)
Use ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
(ascorbyl-monophosphate) for reducing losses during processing
(6)
During winter feeding for wound healing and immune function: total 1000 mg/kg feed
(7)
For flesh pigmentation
(1)
Added per animal per day, based on average weight of 250 kg.
(2)
Added per animal per day,
based on average weight of 550 kg.
(3)
Added per kg air-dry feed.
(4)
Dietary fat higher than 3%:
additional 5 mg/kg feed for each 1% dietary fat.
(5)
When feeding raw fish: additional 50 mg/kg feed.
(6)
For fur production rabbits: 0.6 mg/kg feed.
(7)
Recommended in stress condition and to enhance
reproductive performance in breeders.
(8)
Use ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
(ascorbyl-monophosphate) for
reducing losses during processing.
(9)
From 4 weeks before until 10 weeks after parturition.
Category/Phase Vit. A Vit. D
3
Vit. E
(2)
Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
(4)
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
(5)
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin
(6)
Vit. C
(7)
Choline ß-Carotene
(8)
(Menadione) thenic acid

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Dogs 15000-22000 780-1300 100-250 1 - 2 4 - 8 13 - 22 6 - 11 0.03-0.05 50-170 30 - 60 0.6 - 2 0.25-0.8 100-200 1300-2700 30 - 50
Cats 15000-40000
(1)
780-1300 150-300 1 - 2
(3)
5 - 10 22 - 27 11 - 14 0.03-0.1 50-170 30 - 60 0.6 - 2 0.25-0.8 100-200 1300-2700 30 - 50
(1)
Vitamin A: preformed vitamin A is vital in diets for cats.
(2)
Vitamin E: supplemental levels should at least be
5 mg/kg of dry food for each 1% of PUFA in the diet. Higher levels above are recommended to support the
total antioxidant capacity of the dog and cat.
(3)
Vitamin K: supplementation is particularly important in
canned catfoods that contains >25% fish when fed for long periods.
(4)
Vitamin B
1
: levels of up to 18 mg/kg
dry food for dogs and 35 mg/kg for cats are reported to help improve meal acceptance and stimulate
appetite.
(5)
Vitamin B
12
: increased supplemental levels up to 0.8 mg/kg dry food help in the support of liver
function. Supplementation might need to be increased in vegetarian diets as plants are a poor source of this
vitamin.
(6)
Biotin: Higher levels, up to 2 mg/day, are recommended in high fat diets and also as an aid in the
improvement of coat and skin condition for cats and dogs and to help hepatic glucose excretion and thus
fasting blood glucose levels in dogs with diabetes.
(7)
Use ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
(ascorbyl-monophosphate)
for reducing losses during processing and supporting the total antioxidant capacity of the animal.
(8)
ß-Carotene: recommended for supporting the total antioxidant capacity of the dog or cat and as an
immune system modulator and for supporting reproductive physiology.
Recommendations are expressed per kg air-dry food. The values are based on the diets containing 4000 kcal ME/kg dry matter.
Diets that deviate in energy content >12.5% or have feeding recommendations that restrict energy intake should have the
supplemental vitamin levels adjusted accordingly.
With over 75 years’ experience, DSM is the world’s leading supplier of fat-soluble and water-
soluble vitamins, carotenoids, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, enzymes, eubiotics
and nutraceuticals to the feed, food, pharmaceutical and personal care industries.
Category/Phase Vit. A Vit. D
3
Vit. E

Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin Vit. C
(7) (8)
Choline ß-Carotene
(Menadione) thenic acid

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Foals. 1st year
(1)
25000-30000 4500-5500 250-500 8 - 12 20 - 25 20 - 30 15 - 20 0.15-0.3 25 - 50 20 - 30 15 - 20 2 - 3 500-750 300-400
Leisure horses
(2)
35000-45000 3500-4500 500-1000 6 - 12 40 - 55 30 - 40 25 - 35 0.35-0.65 55 - 85 45 - 65 25 - 35 15 - 20 600-900
Race horses
(2)
65000-85000 6500-8500 1000-2000 11 - 22 70 - 110 70 - 85 40 - 55 0.55-0.85 110 - 200 50 - 80 45 - 65 15 - 20 1000-2000 1000-1400
Mares & stallions
(2)
65000-85000 6500-8500 1000-2000 11 - 22 70 - 110 70 - 85 40 - 55 0.55-0.85 110 - 200 50 - 80 45 - 65 15 - 20 1000-2000 1000-1400 400-800
(9)
Rabbits
(3)
8000-12000 800-1200 40-60 1 - 2 1 - 2 3 - 6 2 - 3 0.01-0.02 40 - 60 10 - 15 0.2 - 0.5 0.1 - 0.2
(6)
150-250 600-800 10-20
Mink & foxes
(3)
10000-15000 1500-2000 100-200
(4)
1 - 2 20 - 50
(5)
10 - 20 10 - 20 0.03-0.06 20 - 40 8 - 20 0.6 - 1 0.3 - 0.6 100-200
POULTRY
(1)
RUMINANTS
(1)
TURKEY
(1)
SWINE
(1)
FISH & SHRIMP
(1)
HORSES & OTHERS
COMPANION ANIMALS
ABOUT DSM
Nutritional ingredient production
Reliability through backward integration
DSM operates nine bulk manufacturing and formulation sites
across Europe, the United States and China. These sites produce
the majority of nutritional ingredients sold as straight products or
in premixes and concentrates.
Quality is at the heart of all our operations, and we work to a
global quality standard, backed by our unique backward
integration concept which gives unrivalled control over our supply
chain. DSM has a dedicated logistics network based on three main
distribution centres in Venlo (NL), Belvidere (USA) and Singapore.
Premixes and blending
Product services where customers need them
DSM has a comprehensive global network of premix plants with
over 40 plants dedicated to the production of feed premixes
and another six plants for human food premixes.
This network helps ensure high levels of customer service and
delivery, backed by the highest levels of traceability, quality and
food safety. Being close to our markets allows us to respond
quickly to changing market demands.
Category/Phase Duration Vit. A Vit. D
3
(2)
25OHD
3
Vit. E
(3)
Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
(7)
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin Vit. C
(8)(9)
Choline
(Hy•D)
(2)

(Menadione) thenic acid

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Broilers

Starters 1 - 10 days 11000-15000 3000-5000 0.069 150-300
(4)
3 - 4 3 - 4 8 - 10 4 - 6 0.02 - 0.04 60 - 80 15 - 20 2 - 2.5 0.2 - 0.4 100-200 400-700
Growers 11 - 24 days 10000-12500 3000-5000 0.069 50-100
(5)
3 - 4 2 - 3 7 - 9 4 - 6 0.02 - 0.03 60 - 80 12 - 18 2 - 2.5 0.2 - 0.3 100-200 400-700
Finishers 25 days - market 10000-12500 3000-5000 0.069 50-100
(5)(6)
3 - 4 2 - 3 6 - 8 4 - 6 0.02 - 0.03 50 - 80 10 - 15 2 - 2.5 0.2 - 0.3 100-200 400-600
Broiler breeders
Starters & growers 0 - 18 wks 10000-12000 3000-4000 0.069 80-100
(4)
3 - 5 2 - 3 6 - 8 3 - 5 0.02 - 0.03 30 - 60 13 - 15 1.5 - 2 0.2 - 0.4 100-150 350-700
Layers 19 wks - end 12000-15000 3000-5000 0.069
10)
100-150
(5)
5 - 7 3 - 3.5 12 - 16
4 - 6
0.03 - 0.04 50 - 60 15 - 25 2 - 4 0.25 - 0.4 100-150 350-700
(& male breeders)
Hen & ducklayers
Starters (pullets) 0 -10 wks 12000-13000 3000-4000 0.069 50-100
(4)
3 - 3.5 2 - 2.5 6 - 7 4.5 - 5.5 0.025 - 0.03 50 - 60 15 - 17 1 - 1.5 0.15 - 0.2 100-150 200-400
Rearing (pullets) 10 wks - 2% lay 10000-12000 2000-3000 0.069 30-35 3 - 3.5 2 - 2.5 5 - 6 3 - 5 0.02 - 0.025 30 - 60 12 - 15 1 - 1.5 0.1 - 0.15 100-150 200-400
Layers Laying phase 8000-12000 3000-4000 0.069 20-30
(5)
2.5 - 3 2.5 - 3 5 - 7 3.5 - 5 0.015 - 0.025 30 - 50 8 - 12 1 - 1.5 0.1 - 0.15 100-200 300-500
Layer breeders
Growers & layers 0 wks - end 10000-15000 3000-4500 0.069
(10)
50-100
(5)
2 - 5 2.5 - 3.5 10 - 12 5 - 6 0.02 - 0.04 45 - 60 15 - 20 2 - 3 0.25 - 0.4 150-200 300-500
(& male breeders)
Ducks and geese 12000-15000 3000-5000 0.069 40-80 3 - 5 2 - 3 7 - 9 5 - 7 0.02 - 0.04 60 - 80 10 - 15 1 - 2 0.1 - 0.15 100-200 300-500
Partridges. quails 12000-13500 3000-4000 0.069 50-80 2 - 4 2 - 4 5 - 7 4 - 6 0.03 - 0.05 50 - 80 15 - 25 1.5 - 2 0.15 - 0.25 100-200 400-600
and pheasants
Ostriches and emus 12000-16000 3000-4000 0.069 40-60 2 - 4 3 - 5 10 - 20 6 - 8 0.05 - 0.1 80 - 100 12 - 20 2 - 4 0.2 - 0.35 200-250 600-800
(1)
Added per kg air-dry feed.
(2)
Local legal limits of Vitamin D
3
activity need to be observed.
(3)
When dietary fat is higher than 3% then add 5 mg/kg feed for each 1% dietary fat.
(4)
Higher level for optimum immune function.
(5)
Under heat stress conditions increase
level up to 200 mg/kg.
(6)
For optimum meat quality increase level up to 200 mg/kg.
(7)
Use upper level as reference for animal protein free diets and when cobalt is supplemented at very low levels or removed.
(8)
Recommended under heat stress condition and to
enhance reproductive performance in breeders.
(9)
Use ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
(ascorbyl-monophosphate) for reducing losses during processing.
(10)
Improve hatchability by using MAXICHICK
®
. the combination of Hy•D
®
(25-OH-D
3
) with 60 ppm of CAROPHYLL
®
Red
(Canthaxanthin). The use of MAXICHICK
®
is covered by a DSM Nutritional Products international patent application WO 2010 057811 nationalized in US and Europe amongst others. MAXICHICK
®
is a trademark registered in Europe and the US amongst others.
Category/Phase Duration Vit. A Vit. D
3
(2)
25OHD
3
Vit. E
(3)
Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
(7)
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin Vit. C
(8)(9)
Choline
(Hy•D)
(2)

(Menadione) thenic acid

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Turkeys
Starters 0 - 6 wks 12000-15000 4000-5000 0.092 100-250
(4)
4 - 5 4.5 - 5 15 - 20 6 - 7 0.04 - 0.05 100 - 150 30 - 35 4 - 6 0.25 - 0.4 100-200 1000-1200
Growers 7 - 12 wks 10000-12000 3000-5000 0.092 60-80 3 - 4 3 - 5 10 - 15 5 - 7 0.03 - 0.04 80 - 100 20 - 25 2 - 3 0.25 - 0.3 100-200 500-1000
Finishers 1 13 - 18 wks 8000-10000 3000-4000 0.092 30-50
(5)(6)
3 - 4 3 - 4 8 - 10 3 - 6 0.02 - 0.03 60 - 80 15 - 20 2 - 2.5 0.2 - 0.25 100-200 400-600
Finishers 2 18 wks - market 6000-9000 2000-3000 0.092 30-50
(5)(6)
3 - 4 2 - 3 8 - 10 3 - 6 0.015 - 0.025 50 - 60 15 - 20 2 - 2.5 0.2 - 0.25 100-200 400-600
Turkey breeders
Starters 0 - 6 wks 12000-14000 4000-5000 0.092 100-250
(4)
4 - 5 4.5 - 5 15 - 20 6 - 7 0.04 - 0.05 100 - 150 30 - 35 4 - 6 0.4 - 0.6 100-200 1000-1200
Growers 7-29 wks 8000-10000 4000-5000 0.092 60-80 2 - 4 2 - 3 10 - 15 6 - 7 0.03 - 0.04 60 - 80 25 - 30 2 - 3 0.4 - 0.6 100-200 1000-1200
Layers Laying phase 12000-14000 4000-5000 0.092
(10)
100-150
(5)
4 - 5 4 - 5 15 - 20 6 - 7 0.04 - 0.05 80 - 120 30 - 35 4 - 6 0.4 - 0.6 100-200 500-1000
(& male breeders)
(1)
Added per kg air-dry feed.
(2)
Local legal limits of Vitamin D
3
activity need to be observed.
(3)
When dietary fat is higher than 3% then add
5 mg/kg feed for each 1% dietary fat.
(4)
Higher level for optimum immune function.
(5)
Under heat stress conditions increase level up to 200 mg/kg.
(6)
For optimum meat quality increase level up to 200 mg/kg.
(7)
Use upper level as reference for animal protein free diets and when cobalt is
supplemented at very low levels or removed.
(8)
Recommended under heat stress condition and to enhance reproductive performance in
breeders.
(9)
Use ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
(ascorbyl-monophosphate) for reducing losses during processing.
(10)
Improve hatchability by using
MAXICHICK
®
, the combination of Hy•D
®
(25-OH-D
3
) with 60 ppm of CAROPHYLL
®
Red (Canthaxanthin). The use of MAXICHICK
®
is covered
by a DSM Nutritional Products international patent application WO 2010 057811 nationalized in US and Europe amongst others. MAXICHICK
®
is a trademark registered in Europe and the US amongst others.
Category/Phase Duration Vit. A Vit. D
3
(2)
25OHD
3
Vit. E
(3)
Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
(7)
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin Vit. C
(8)(9)
Choline ß-Carotene
(Hy•D)
(2)

(Menadione) thenic acid

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Fattening pigs
Pre-starters < 5 kg 10000-20000 1800-2000 0.05 100-150
(4)
8 - 10 3.5 - 5.5 10 - 15 6 - 8 0.05-0.07 60 - 80 30 - 50 1.5 - 3 0.2 - 0.4 100-200 500-800
Starters 5 - 30 kg 10000-15000 1800-2000 0.05 100-150 5 - 6 3 - 5 10 - 15 6 - 8 0.04-0.06 35 - 55 25 - 45 1.5 - 2.5 0.2 - 0.4 100-200 250-400
Growers 30 - 70 kg 7000-10000 1500-2000 0.05 60-100 2 - 4 2 - 3 7 - 10 2.5 - 4.5 0.03-0.05 20 - 40 25 - 45 1 - 1.5 0.15 - 0.3 150-300
Finishers 70 kg to market 5000-8000 1000-1500 0.05 60-100
(5)
2 - 4 1 - 2 6 - 10 2 - 3.5 0.03-0.05 20 - 40 25 - 45 0.5 - 1 0.1 - 0.2 100-200
Breeders
Replacement gilts 10000-12500 1800-2000 0.05 80-100 1.5 - 3 1 - 2 6 - 10 3.5 - 5.5 0.03-0.05 20 - 30 15 - 30 3.5 - 5.5 0.3 - 0.5 200-300 250-500
Sows 10000-15000 1500-2000 0.05 100-150
(6)
4.5 - 5 2 - 2.5 6 - 10 3.5 - 5.5 0.03-0.05 25 - 45 30 - 35 3.5 - 5.5 0.5 - 0.8 200-300 500-800 300
(10)
Boars 10000-15000 1500-2000 0.05 100-150 4.5 - 5 1 - 2 6 - 10 3.5 - 5.5 0.03-0.05 25 - 45 20 - 30 3.5 - 5.5 0.5 - 0.8 200-500 500-800
(1)
Added per kg air-dry feed.
(2)
Local legal limits of Vitamin D
3
activity need to be observed.
(3)
When dietary fat is
higher than 3% then add 5 mg/kg feed for each 1% dietary fat.
(4)
For optimum immune health: additional 100 mg/kg
feed.
(5)
For optimum meat quality: additional 150 mg/kg feed.
(6)
For optimum piglet health: during late pregnancy and
lactation total 250 mg/kg feed.
(7)
Use upper level when cobalt is supplemented at very low levels or removed.
(8)
Recommended in stress condition and to enhance reproductive performance in breeders.
(9)
Use ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
(ascorbyl-monophosphate) for reducing losses during processing.
(10)
For improved sow fertility: to be fed per animal
per day immediately after weaning until confirmed conception.
Category/Phase Vit. A Vit. D
3
Vit. E

Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin Vit. C Choline ß-Carotene
(Menadione) thenic acid

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Calves, milk replacer
0-3 months 20000-32000 1400-1800 100-150 1 - 1.5 2.5 - 5 2.5 - 4.5 2.5 - 4.5 0.04 - 0.08 9 - 18 7 - 9 0.2 - 0.3 0.05 - 0.1 250-500 500-750 100
(11)
Heifers
Rearing 20000-40000 2500-4000 500 10 - 20
(9)
300-500
(12)
6-4 wks 20000-40000 2500-4000 1000-3000 10 - 20
(9)
500-1000
(13)
before calving
Beef cattle
Growing 50000-70000 6000-9000 200-300 60 - 250
(7)
10 - 20
(9)

Fattening & finishing 50000-70000 5000-7000 500-2000
(4)
60 - 250
(7)
10 - 20
(9)


Beef cows 50000-120000 5000-10000 300-500 20
(9)
300-500
(12)
Dairy cows
Far-off & close-up
(2)
75000-100000 25000-35000 1000-3000
(5)
20
(10)
500-1000
(14)
Transition
(3)
75000-100000 25000-35000 1000-3000
(5)
5000-10000
(8)
20
(10)
500-800
(15)
Lactation 100000-150000 30000-50000 500-1000
(6)
5000-10000
(8)
20
(10)
300-500
(16)
Breeding bulls 50000-120000 5000-10000 300-500 20
(9)

Sheep & goats 5000-10000 600 200-400 100 5
(11)


(1)
Added per animal per day.
(2)
Far-off: from 8-3 weeks before calving; Close-up: from 3 weeks before calving to calving.
(3)
Transition: from 4-3 weeks before calving to 3-4 weeks after calving.
(4)
Upper level for improved color
shelf life.100-120 days pre-marketing.
(5)
Upper level from 21 days pre-partum through 28 days post-partum.
(6)
Upper level for optimum udder health.
(7)
Upper level for cattle on high concentrate rations.
(8)
From 2 weeks
before parturition until peak lactation.
(9)
For optimum hoof health and optimum meat marbling.
(10)
For optimum hoof health and milk yield.
(11)
For 2 weeks after colostral period.
(12)
6-8 weeks before first insemination/mating
when intake of green forage is low.
(13)
Lower level 8 weeks before first calving; upper level 4 weeks before first calving when intake of green forage is low.
(14)
Lower level during entire dry period (far-off and close-up);
upper level 3-4 weeks before calving (close-up only).
(15)
500-800 mg from 3-4 weeks before calving and 300-500 mg 4-6 week after calving.
(16)
Dry and fresh: beginning dry period until pregnancy is confirmed.
Category/Phase Vit. A Vit. D
3
Vit. E

Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin Vit. C
(3)
Choline Astaxanthin
(Menadione) thenic acid (Carophyll Pink)

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Salmon/trout
(2)
3000-6000 2000-2500 200-400
(4)
8 - 12 10 - 20 20 - 30 15 - 25 0.03 - 0.05 150-200 40 - 60 6 - 10 0.8 - 1 150-250
(6)
500-1000 50 - 100
(7)
Warm-water fish
(2)
8000-11000 1500-2000 100-300 5 - 10 10 - 20 15 - 20 15 - 25 0.02 - 0.05 80-120 40 - 50 4 - 7 0.5 - 1 150-250 600-1000
Carp/tilapia/cat-fish
Eels
(2)
8000-12000 1500-2000 150-300 3 - 6 15 - 25 20 - 30 10 - 15 0.1 - 0.2 80-120 50 - 60 4 - 6 0.3 - 0.5 150-300 800-1200
Seabream/seabass
(2)
8000-12000 1700-2200 150-300 8 - 12 20 - 30 20 - 30 20 - 25 0.1 - 0.2 100-140 50 - 100 4 - 6 0.8 - 1 150-250 600-1000
Shrimp
(3)
12000-15000 2000-3500 150-300 40 - 60 50 - 100 40 - 80 50 - 120 0.02 - 0.05 100-250 100 - 180 10 - 20 1 - 2 250-500 400-600 15 - 50
(1)
Added per kg air-dry feed
(2)
Amount to be increased by 30% for fry and broodstock
(3)
At low stock density (< 10pl/m
2
) the lower levels are recommended
(4)
Additional 200 mg may be required to optimise flesh quality dependent on dietary fat levels
(5)
Use ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
(ascorbyl-monophosphate) for reducing losses during processing
(6)
During winter feeding for wound healing and immune function: total 1000 mg/kg feed
(7)
For flesh pigmentation
(1)
Added per animal per day, based on average weight of 250 kg.
(2)
Added per animal per day,
based on average weight of 550 kg.
(3)
Added per kg air-dry feed.
(4)
Dietary fat higher than 3%:
additional 5 mg/kg feed for each 1% dietary fat.
(5)
When feeding raw fish: additional 50 mg/kg feed.
(6)
For fur production rabbits: 0.6 mg/kg feed.
(7)
Recommended in stress condition and to enhance
reproductive performance in breeders.
(8)
Use ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
(ascorbyl-monophosphate) for
reducing losses during processing.
(9)
From 4 weeks before until 10 weeks after parturition.
Category/Phase Vit. A Vit. D
3
Vit. E
(2)
Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
(4)
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
(5)
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin
(6)
Vit. C
(7)
Choline ß-Carotene
(8)
(Menadione) thenic acid

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Dogs 15000-22000 780-1300 100-250 1 - 2 4 - 8 13 - 22 6 - 11 0.03-0.05 50-170 30 - 60 0.6 - 2 0.25-0.8 100-200 1300-2700 30 - 50
Cats 15000-40000
(1)
780-1300 150-300 1 - 2
(3)
5 - 10 22 - 27 11 - 14 0.03-0.1 50-170 30 - 60 0.6 - 2 0.25-0.8 100-200 1300-2700 30 - 50
(1)
Vitamin A: preformed vitamin A is vital in diets for cats.
(2)
Vitamin E: supplemental levels should at least be
5 mg/kg of dry food for each 1% of PUFA in the diet. Higher levels above are recommended to support the
total antioxidant capacity of the dog and cat.
(3)
Vitamin K: supplementation is particularly important in
canned catfoods that contains >25% fish when fed for long periods.
(4)
Vitamin B
1
: levels of up to 18 mg/kg
dry food for dogs and 35 mg/kg for cats are reported to help improve meal acceptance and stimulate
appetite.
(5)
Vitamin B
12
: increased supplemental levels up to 0.8 mg/kg dry food help in the support of liver
function. Supplementation might need to be increased in vegetarian diets as plants are a poor source of this
vitamin.
(6)
Biotin: Higher levels, up to 2 mg/day, are recommended in high fat diets and also as an aid in the
improvement of coat and skin condition for cats and dogs and to help hepatic glucose excretion and thus
fasting blood glucose levels in dogs with diabetes.
(7)
Use ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
(ascorbyl-monophosphate)
for reducing losses during processing and supporting the total antioxidant capacity of the animal.
(8)
ß-Carotene: recommended for supporting the total antioxidant capacity of the dog or cat and as an
immune system modulator and for supporting reproductive physiology.
Recommendations are expressed per kg air-dry food. The values are based on the diets containing 4000 kcal ME/kg dry matter.
Diets that deviate in energy content >12.5% or have feeding recommendations that restrict energy intake should have the
supplemental vitamin levels adjusted accordingly.
With over 75 years’ experience, DSM is the world’s leading supplier of fat-soluble and water-
soluble vitamins, carotenoids, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, enzymes, eubiotics
and nutraceuticals to the feed, food, pharmaceutical and personal care industries.
Category/Phase Vit. A Vit. D
3
Vit. E

Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin Vit. C
(7) (8)
Choline ß-Carotene
(Menadione) thenic acid

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Foals. 1st year
(1)
25000-30000 4500-5500 250-500 8 - 12 20 - 25 20 - 30 15 - 20 0.15-0.3 25 - 50 20 - 30 15 - 20 2 - 3 500-750 300-400
Leisure horses
(2)
35000-45000 3500-4500 500-1000 6 - 12 40 - 55 30 - 40 25 - 35 0.35-0.65 55 - 85 45 - 65 25 - 35 15 - 20 600-900
Race horses
(2)
65000-85000 6500-8500 1000-2000 11 - 22 70 - 110 70 - 85 40 - 55 0.55-0.85 110 - 200 50 - 80 45 - 65 15 - 20 1000-2000 1000-1400
Mares & stallions
(2)
65000-85000 6500-8500 1000-2000 11 - 22 70 - 110 70 - 85 40 - 55 0.55-0.85 110 - 200 50 - 80 45 - 65 15 - 20 1000-2000 1000-1400 400-800
(9)
Rabbits
(3)
8000-12000 800-1200 40-60 1 - 2 1 - 2 3 - 6 2 - 3 0.01-0.02 40 - 60 10 - 15 0.2 - 0.5 0.1 - 0.2
(6)
150-250 600-800 10-20
Mink & foxes
(3)
10000-15000 1500-2000 100-200
(4)
1 - 2 20 - 50
(5)
10 - 20 10 - 20 0.03-0.06 20 - 40 8 - 20 0.6 - 1 0.3 - 0.6 100-200
POULTRY
(1)
RUMINANTS
(1)
TURKEY
(1)
SWINE
(1)
FISH & SHRIMP
(1)
HORSES & OTHERS
COMPANION ANIMALS
ABOUT DSM
Nutritional ingredient production
Reliability through backward integration
DSM operates nine bulk manufacturing and formulation sites
across Europe, the United States and China. These sites produce
the majority of nutritional ingredients sold as straight products or
in premixes and concentrates.
Quality is at the heart of all our operations, and we work to a
global quality standard, backed by our unique backward
integration concept which gives unrivalled control over our supply
chain. DSM has a dedicated logistics network based on three main
distribution centres in Venlo (NL), Belvidere (USA) and Singapore.
Premixes and blending
Product services where customers need them
DSM has a comprehensive global network of premix plants with
over 40 plants dedicated to the production of feed premixes
and another six plants for human food premixes.
This network helps ensure high levels of customer service and
delivery, backed by the highest levels of traceability, quality and
food safety. Being close to our markets allows us to respond
quickly to changing market demands.
Category/Phase Duration Vit. A Vit. D
3
(2)
25OHD
3
Vit. E
(3)
Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
(7)
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin Vit. C
(8)(9)
Choline
(Hy•D)
(2)

(Menadione) thenic acid

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Broilers

Starters 1 - 10 days 11000-15000 3000-5000 0.069 150-300
(4)
3 - 4 3 - 4 8 - 10 4 - 6 0.02 - 0.04 60 - 80 15 - 20 2 - 2.5 0.2 - 0.4 100-200 400-700
Growers 11 - 24 days 10000-12500 3000-5000 0.069 50-100
(5)
3 - 4 2 - 3 7 - 9 4 - 6 0.02 - 0.03 60 - 80 12 - 18 2 - 2.5 0.2 - 0.3 100-200 400-700
Finishers 25 days - market 10000-12500 3000-5000 0.069 50-100
(5)(6)
3 - 4 2 - 3 6 - 8 4 - 6 0.02 - 0.03 50 - 80 10 - 15 2 - 2.5 0.2 - 0.3 100-200 400-600
Broiler breeders
Starters & growers 0 - 18 wks 10000-12000 3000-4000 0.069 80-100
(4)
3 - 5 2 - 3 6 - 8 3 - 5 0.02 - 0.03 30 - 60 13 - 15 1.5 - 2 0.2 - 0.4 100-150 350-700
Layers 19 wks - end 12000-15000 3000-5000 0.069
10)
100-150
(5)
5 - 7 3 - 3.5 12 - 16
4 - 6
0.03 - 0.04 50 - 60 15 - 25 2 - 4 0.25 - 0.4 100-150 350-700
(& male breeders)
Hen & ducklayers
Starters (pullets) 0 -10 wks 12000-13000 3000-4000 0.069 50-100
(4)
3 - 3.5 2 - 2.5 6 - 7 4.5 - 5.5 0.025 - 0.03 50 - 60 15 - 17 1 - 1.5 0.15 - 0.2 100-150 200-400
Rearing (pullets) 10 wks - 2% lay 10000-12000 2000-3000 0.069 30-35 3 - 3.5 2 - 2.5 5 - 6 3 - 5 0.02 - 0.025 30 - 60 12 - 15 1 - 1.5 0.1 - 0.15 100-150 200-400
Layers Laying phase 8000-12000 3000-4000 0.069 20-30
(5)
2.5 - 3 2.5 - 3 5 - 7 3.5 - 5 0.015 - 0.025 30 - 50 8 - 12 1 - 1.5 0.1 - 0.15 100-200 300-500
Layer breeders
Growers & layers 0 wks - end 10000-15000 3000-4500 0.069
(10)
50-100
(5)
2 - 5 2.5 - 3.5 10 - 12 5 - 6 0.02 - 0.04 45 - 60 15 - 20 2 - 3 0.25 - 0.4 150-200 300-500
(& male breeders)
Ducks and geese 12000-15000 3000-5000 0.069 40-80 3 - 5 2 - 3 7 - 9 5 - 7 0.02 - 0.04 60 - 80 10 - 15 1 - 2 0.1 - 0.15 100-200 300-500
Partridges. quails 12000-13500 3000-4000 0.069 50-80 2 - 4 2 - 4 5 - 7 4 - 6 0.03 - 0.05 50 - 80 15 - 25 1.5 - 2 0.15 - 0.25 100-200 400-600
and pheasants
Ostriches and emus 12000-16000 3000-4000 0.069 40-60 2 - 4 3 - 5 10 - 20 6 - 8 0.05 - 0.1 80 - 100 12 - 20 2 - 4 0.2 - 0.35 200-250 600-800
(1)
Added per kg air-dry feed.
(2)
Local legal limits of Vitamin D
3
activity need to be observed.
(3)
When dietary fat is higher than 3% then add 5 mg/kg feed for each 1% dietary fat.
(4)
Higher level for optimum immune function.
(5)
Under heat stress conditions increase
level up to 200 mg/kg.
(6)
For optimum meat quality increase level up to 200 mg/kg.
(7)
Use upper level as reference for animal protein free diets and when cobalt is supplemented at very low levels or removed.
(8)
Recommended under heat stress condition and to
enhance reproductive performance in breeders.
(9)
Use ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
(ascorbyl-monophosphate) for reducing losses during processing.
(10)
Improve hatchability by using MAXICHICK
®
. the combination of Hy•D
®
(25-OH-D
3
) with 60 ppm of CAROPHYLL
®
Red
(Canthaxanthin). The use of MAXICHICK
®
is covered by a DSM Nutritional Products international patent application WO 2010 057811 nationalized in US and Europe amongst others. MAXICHICK
®
is a trademark registered in Europe and the US amongst others.
Category/Phase Duration Vit. A Vit. D
3
(2)
25OHD
3
Vit. E
(3)
Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
(7)
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin Vit. C
(8)(9)
Choline
(Hy•D)
(2)

(Menadione) thenic acid

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Turkeys
Starters 0 - 6 wks 12000-15000 4000-5000 0.092 100-250
(4)
4 - 5 4.5 - 5 15 - 20 6 - 7 0.04 - 0.05 100 - 150 30 - 35 4 - 6 0.25 - 0.4 100-200 1000-1200
Growers 7 - 12 wks 10000-12000 3000-5000 0.092 60-80 3 - 4 3 - 5 10 - 15 5 - 7 0.03 - 0.04 80 - 100 20 - 25 2 - 3 0.25 - 0.3 100-200 500-1000
Finishers 1 13 - 18 wks 8000-10000 3000-4000 0.092 30-50
(5)(6)
3 - 4 3 - 4 8 - 10 3 - 6 0.02 - 0.03 60 - 80 15 - 20 2 - 2.5 0.2 - 0.25 100-200 400-600
Finishers 2 18 wks - market 6000-9000 2000-3000 0.092 30-50
(5)(6)
3 - 4 2 - 3 8 - 10 3 - 6 0.015 - 0.025 50 - 60 15 - 20 2 - 2.5 0.2 - 0.25 100-200 400-600
Turkey breeders
Starters 0 - 6 wks 12000-14000 4000-5000 0.092 100-250
(4)
4 - 5 4.5 - 5 15 - 20 6 - 7 0.04 - 0.05 100 - 150 30 - 35 4 - 6 0.4 - 0.6 100-200 1000-1200
Growers 7-29 wks 8000-10000 4000-5000 0.092 60-80 2 - 4 2 - 3 10 - 15 6 - 7 0.03 - 0.04 60 - 80 25 - 30 2 - 3 0.4 - 0.6 100-200 1000-1200
Layers Laying phase 12000-14000 4000-5000 0.092
(10)
100-150
(5)
4 - 5 4 - 5 15 - 20 6 - 7 0.04 - 0.05 80 - 120 30 - 35 4 - 6 0.4 - 0.6 100-200 500-1000
(& male breeders)
(1)
Added per kg air-dry feed.
(2)
Local legal limits of Vitamin D
3
activity need to be observed.
(3)
When dietary fat is higher than 3% then add
5 mg/kg feed for each 1% dietary fat.
(4)
Higher level for optimum immune function.
(5)
Under heat stress conditions increase level up to 200 mg/kg.
(6)
For optimum meat quality increase level up to 200 mg/kg.
(7)
Use upper level as reference for animal protein free diets and when cobalt is
supplemented at very low levels or removed.
(8)
Recommended under heat stress condition and to enhance reproductive performance in
breeders.
(9)
Use ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
(ascorbyl-monophosphate) for reducing losses during processing.
(10)
Improve hatchability by using
MAXICHICK
®
, the combination of Hy•D
®
(25-OH-D
3
) with 60 ppm of CAROPHYLL
®
Red (Canthaxanthin). The use of MAXICHICK
®
is covered
by a DSM Nutritional Products international patent application WO 2010 057811 nationalized in US and Europe amongst others. MAXICHICK
®
is a trademark registered in Europe and the US amongst others.
Category/Phase Duration Vit. A Vit. D
3
(2)
25OHD
3
Vit. E
(3)
Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
(7)
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin Vit. C
(8)(9)
Choline ß-Carotene
(Hy•D)
(2)

(Menadione) thenic acid

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Fattening pigs
Pre-starters < 5 kg 10000-20000 1800-2000 0.05 100-150
(4)
8 - 10 3.5 - 5.5 10 - 15 6 - 8 0.05-0.07 60 - 80 30 - 50 1.5 - 3 0.2 - 0.4 100-200 500-800
Starters 5 - 30 kg 10000-15000 1800-2000 0.05 100-150 5 - 6 3 - 5 10 - 15 6 - 8 0.04-0.06 35 - 55 25 - 45 1.5 - 2.5 0.2 - 0.4 100-200 250-400
Growers 30 - 70 kg 7000-10000 1500-2000 0.05 60-100 2 - 4 2 - 3 7 - 10 2.5 - 4.5 0.03-0.05 20 - 40 25 - 45 1 - 1.5 0.15 - 0.3 150-300
Finishers 70 kg to market 5000-8000 1000-1500 0.05 60-100
(5)
2 - 4 1 - 2 6 - 10 2 - 3.5 0.03-0.05 20 - 40 25 - 45 0.5 - 1 0.1 - 0.2 100-200
Breeders
Replacement gilts 10000-12500 1800-2000 0.05 80-100 1.5 - 3 1 - 2 6 - 10 3.5 - 5.5 0.03-0.05 20 - 30 15 - 30 3.5 - 5.5 0.3 - 0.5 200-300 250-500
Sows 10000-15000 1500-2000 0.05 100-150
(6)
4.5 - 5 2 - 2.5 6 - 10 3.5 - 5.5 0.03-0.05 25 - 45 30 - 35 3.5 - 5.5 0.5 - 0.8 200-300 500-800 300
(10)
Boars 10000-15000 1500-2000 0.05 100-150 4.5 - 5 1 - 2 6 - 10 3.5 - 5.5 0.03-0.05 25 - 45 20 - 30 3.5 - 5.5 0.5 - 0.8 200-500 500-800
(1)
Added per kg air-dry feed.
(2)
Local legal limits of Vitamin D
3
activity need to be observed.
(3)
When dietary fat is
higher than 3% then add 5 mg/kg feed for each 1% dietary fat.
(4)
For optimum immune health: additional 100 mg/kg
feed.
(5)
For optimum meat quality: additional 150 mg/kg feed.
(6)
For optimum piglet health: during late pregnancy and
lactation total 250 mg/kg feed.
(7)
Use upper level when cobalt is supplemented at very low levels or removed.
(8)
Recommended in stress condition and to enhance reproductive performance in breeders.
(9)
Use ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
(ascorbyl-monophosphate) for reducing losses during processing.
(10)
For improved sow fertility: to be fed per animal
per day immediately after weaning until confirmed conception.
Category/Phase Vit. A Vit. D
3
Vit. E

Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin Vit. C Choline ß-Carotene
(Menadione) thenic acid

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Calves, milk replacer
0-3 months 20000-32000 1400-1800 100-150 1 - 1.5 2.5 - 5 2.5 - 4.5 2.5 - 4.5 0.04 - 0.08 9 - 18 7 - 9 0.2 - 0.3 0.05 - 0.1 250-500 500-750 100
(11)
Heifers
Rearing 20000-40000 2500-4000 500 10 - 20
(9)
300-500
(12)
6-4 wks 20000-40000 2500-4000 1000-3000 10 - 20
(9)
500-1000
(13)
before calving
Beef cattle
Growing 50000-70000 6000-9000 200-300 60 - 250
(7)
10 - 20
(9)

Fattening & finishing 50000-70000 5000-7000 500-2000
(4)
60 - 250
(7)
10 - 20
(9)


Beef cows 50000-120000 5000-10000 300-500 20
(9)
300-500
(12)
Dairy cows
Far-off & close-up
(2)
75000-100000 25000-35000 1000-3000
(5)
20
(10)
500-1000
(14)
Transition
(3)
75000-100000 25000-35000 1000-3000
(5)
5000-10000
(8)
20
(10)
500-800
(15)
Lactation 100000-150000 30000-50000 500-1000
(6)
5000-10000
(8)
20
(10)
300-500
(16)
Breeding bulls 50000-120000 5000-10000 300-500 20
(9)

Sheep & goats 5000-10000 600 200-400 100 5
(11)


(1)
Added per animal per day.
(2)
Far-off: from 8-3 weeks before calving; Close-up: from 3 weeks before calving to calving.
(3)
Transition: from 4-3 weeks before calving to 3-4 weeks after calving.
(4)
Upper level for improved color
shelf life.100-120 days pre-marketing.
(5)
Upper level from 21 days pre-partum through 28 days post-partum.
(6)
Upper level for optimum udder health.
(7)
Upper level for cattle on high concentrate rations.
(8)
From 2 weeks
before parturition until peak lactation.
(9)
For optimum hoof health and optimum meat marbling.
(10)
For optimum hoof health and milk yield.
(11)
For 2 weeks after colostral period.
(12)
6-8 weeks before first insemination/mating
when intake of green forage is low.
(13)
Lower level 8 weeks before first calving; upper level 4 weeks before first calving when intake of green forage is low.
(14)
Lower level during entire dry period (far-off and close-up);
upper level 3-4 weeks before calving (close-up only).
(15)
500-800 mg from 3-4 weeks before calving and 300-500 mg 4-6 week after calving.
(16)
Dry and fresh: beginning dry period until pregnancy is confirmed.
Category/Phase Vit. A Vit. D
3
Vit. E

Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin Vit. C
(3)
Choline Astaxanthin
(Menadione) thenic acid (Carophyll Pink)

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Salmon/trout
(2)
3000-6000 2000-2500 200-400
(4)
8 - 12 10 - 20 20 - 30 15 - 25 0.03 - 0.05 150-200 40 - 60 6 - 10 0.8 - 1 150-250
(6)
500-1000 50 - 100
(7)
Warm-water fish
(2)
8000-11000 1500-2000 100-300 5 - 10 10 - 20 15 - 20 15 - 25 0.02 - 0.05 80-120 40 - 50 4 - 7 0.5 - 1 150-250 600-1000
Carp/tilapia/cat-fish
Eels
(2)
8000-12000 1500-2000 150-300 3 - 6 15 - 25 20 - 30 10 - 15 0.1 - 0.2 80-120 50 - 60 4 - 6 0.3 - 0.5 150-300 800-1200
Seabream/seabass
(2)
8000-12000 1700-2200 150-300 8 - 12 20 - 30 20 - 30 20 - 25 0.1 - 0.2 100-140 50 - 100 4 - 6 0.8 - 1 150-250 600-1000
Shrimp
(3)
12000-15000 2000-3500 150-300 40 - 60 50 - 100 40 - 80 50 - 120 0.02 - 0.05 100-250 100 - 180 10 - 20 1 - 2 250-500 400-600 15 - 50
(1)
Added per kg air-dry feed
(2)
Amount to be increased by 30% for fry and broodstock
(3)
At low stock density (< 10pl/m
2
) the lower levels are recommended
(4)
Additional 200 mg may be required to optimise flesh quality dependent on dietary fat levels
(5)
Use ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
(ascorbyl-monophosphate) for reducing losses during processing
(6)
During winter feeding for wound healing and immune function: total 1000 mg/kg feed
(7)
For flesh pigmentation
(1)
Added per animal per day, based on average weight of 250 kg.
(2)
Added per animal per day,
based on average weight of 550 kg.
(3)
Added per kg air-dry feed.
(4)
Dietary fat higher than 3%:
additional 5 mg/kg feed for each 1% dietary fat.
(5)
When feeding raw fish: additional 50 mg/kg feed.
(6)
For fur production rabbits: 0.6 mg/kg feed.
(7)
Recommended in stress condition and to enhance
reproductive performance in breeders.
(8)
Use ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
(ascorbyl-monophosphate) for
reducing losses during processing.
(9)
From 4 weeks before until 10 weeks after parturition.
Category/Phase Vit. A Vit. D
3
Vit. E
(2)
Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
(4)
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
(5)
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin
(6)
Vit. C
(7)
Choline ß-Carotene
(8)
(Menadione) thenic acid

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Dogs 15000-22000 780-1300 100-250 1 - 2 4 - 8 13 - 22 6 - 11 0.03-0.05 50-170 30 - 60 0.6 - 2 0.25-0.8 100-200 1300-2700 30 - 50
Cats 15000-40000
(1)
780-1300 150-300 1 - 2
(3)
5 - 10 22 - 27 11 - 14 0.03-0.1 50-170 30 - 60 0.6 - 2 0.25-0.8 100-200 1300-2700 30 - 50
(1)
Vitamin A: preformed vitamin A is vital in diets for cats.
(2)
Vitamin E: supplemental levels should at least be
5 mg/kg of dry food for each 1% of PUFA in the diet. Higher levels above are recommended to support the
total antioxidant capacity of the dog and cat.
(3)
Vitamin K: supplementation is particularly important in
canned catfoods that contains >25% fish when fed for long periods.
(4)
Vitamin B
1
: levels of up to 18 mg/kg
dry food for dogs and 35 mg/kg for cats are reported to help improve meal acceptance and stimulate
appetite.
(5)
Vitamin B
12
: increased supplemental levels up to 0.8 mg/kg dry food help in the support of liver
function. Supplementation might need to be increased in vegetarian diets as plants are a poor source of this
vitamin.
(6)
Biotin: Higher levels, up to 2 mg/day, are recommended in high fat diets and also as an aid in the
improvement of coat and skin condition for cats and dogs and to help hepatic glucose excretion and thus
fasting blood glucose levels in dogs with diabetes.
(7)
Use ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
(ascorbyl-monophosphate)
for reducing losses during processing and supporting the total antioxidant capacity of the animal.
(8)
ß-Carotene: recommended for supporting the total antioxidant capacity of the dog or cat and as an
immune system modulator and for supporting reproductive physiology.
Recommendations are expressed per kg air-dry food. The values are based on the diets containing 4000 kcal ME/kg dry matter.
Diets that deviate in energy content >12.5% or have feeding recommendations that restrict energy intake should have the
supplemental vitamin levels adjusted accordingly.
With over 75 years’ experience, DSM is the world’s leading supplier of fat-soluble and water-
soluble vitamins, carotenoids, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, enzymes, eubiotics
and nutraceuticals to the feed, food, pharmaceutical and personal care industries.
Category/Phase Vit. A Vit. D
3
Vit. E

Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin Vit. C
(7) (8)
Choline ß-Carotene
(Menadione) thenic acid

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Foals. 1st year
(1)
25000-30000 4500-5500 250-500 8 - 12 20 - 25 20 - 30 15 - 20 0.15-0.3 25 - 50 20 - 30 15 - 20 2 - 3 500-750 300-400
Leisure horses
(2)
35000-45000 3500-4500 500-1000 6 - 12 40 - 55 30 - 40 25 - 35 0.35-0.65 55 - 85 45 - 65 25 - 35 15 - 20 600-900
Race horses
(2)
65000-85000 6500-8500 1000-2000 11 - 22 70 - 110 70 - 85 40 - 55 0.55-0.85 110 - 200 50 - 80 45 - 65 15 - 20 1000-2000 1000-1400
Mares & stallions
(2)
65000-85000 6500-8500 1000-2000 11 - 22 70 - 110 70 - 85 40 - 55 0.55-0.85 110 - 200 50 - 80 45 - 65 15 - 20 1000-2000 1000-1400 400-800
(9)
Rabbits
(3)
8000-12000 800-1200 40-60 1 - 2 1 - 2 3 - 6 2 - 3 0.01-0.02 40 - 60 10 - 15 0.2 - 0.5 0.1 - 0.2
(6)
150-250 600-800 10-20
Mink & foxes
(3)
10000-15000 1500-2000 100-200
(4)
1 - 2 20 - 50
(5)
10 - 20 10 - 20 0.03-0.06 20 - 40 8 - 20 0.6 - 1 0.3 - 0.6 100-200
POULTRY
(1)
RUMINANTS
(1)
TURKEY
(1)
SWINE
(1)
FISH & SHRIMP
(1)
HORSES & OTHERS
COMPANION ANIMALS
ABOUT DSM
Nutritional ingredient production
Reliability through backward integration
DSM operates nine bulk manufacturing and formulation sites
across Europe, the United States and China. These sites produce
the majority of nutritional ingredients sold as straight products or
in premixes and concentrates.
Quality is at the heart of all our operations, and we work to a
global quality standard, backed by our unique backward
integration concept which gives unrivalled control over our supply
chain. DSM has a dedicated logistics network based on three main
distribution centres in Venlo (NL), Belvidere (USA) and Singapore.
Premixes and blending
Product services where customers need them
DSM has a comprehensive global network of premix plants with
over 40 plants dedicated to the production of feed premixes
and another six plants for human food premixes.
This network helps ensure high levels of customer service and
delivery, backed by the highest levels of traceability, quality and
food safety. Being close to our markets allows us to respond
quickly to changing market demands.
Category/Phase Duration Vit. A Vit. D
3
(2)
25OHD
3
Vit. E
(3)
Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
(7)
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin Vit. C
(8)(9)
Choline
(Hy•D)
(2)

(Menadione) thenic acid

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Broilers

Starters 1 - 10 days 11000-15000 3000-5000 0.069 150-300
(4)
3 - 4 3 - 4 8 - 10 4 - 6 0.02 - 0.04 60 - 80 15 - 20 2 - 2.5 0.2 - 0.4 100-200 400-700
Growers 11 - 24 days 10000-12500 3000-5000 0.069 50-100
(5)
3 - 4 2 - 3 7 - 9 4 - 6 0.02 - 0.03 60 - 80 12 - 18 2 - 2.5 0.2 - 0.3 100-200 400-700
Finishers 25 days - market 10000-12500 3000-5000 0.069 50-100
(5)(6)
3 - 4 2 - 3 6 - 8 4 - 6 0.02 - 0.03 50 - 80 10 - 15 2 - 2.5 0.2 - 0.3 100-200 400-600
Broiler breeders
Starters & growers 0 - 18 wks 10000-12000 3000-4000 0.069 80-100
(4)
3 - 5 2 - 3 6 - 8 3 - 5 0.02 - 0.03 30 - 60 13 - 15 1.5 - 2 0.2 - 0.4 100-150 350-700
Layers 19 wks - end 12000-15000 3000-5000 0.069
10)
100-150
(5)
5 - 7 3 - 3.5 12 - 16
4 - 6
0.03 - 0.04 50 - 60 15 - 25 2 - 4 0.25 - 0.4 100-150 350-700
(& male breeders)
Hen & ducklayers
Starters (pullets) 0 -10 wks 12000-13000 3000-4000 0.069 50-100
(4)
3 - 3.5 2 - 2.5 6 - 7 4.5 - 5.5 0.025 - 0.03 50 - 60 15 - 17 1 - 1.5 0.15 - 0.2 100-150 200-400
Rearing (pullets) 10 wks - 2% lay 10000-12000 2000-3000 0.069 30-35 3 - 3.5 2 - 2.5 5 - 6 3 - 5 0.02 - 0.025 30 - 60 12 - 15 1 - 1.5 0.1 - 0.15 100-150 200-400
Layers Laying phase 8000-12000 3000-4000 0.069 20-30
(5)
2.5 - 3 2.5 - 3 5 - 7 3.5 - 5 0.015 - 0.025 30 - 50 8 - 12 1 - 1.5 0.1 - 0.15 100-200 300-500
Layer breeders
Growers & layers 0 wks - end 10000-15000 3000-4500 0.069
(10)
50-100
(5)
2 - 5 2.5 - 3.5 10 - 12 5 - 6 0.02 - 0.04 45 - 60 15 - 20 2 - 3 0.25 - 0.4 150-200 300-500
(& male breeders)
Ducks and geese 12000-15000 3000-5000 0.069 40-80 3 - 5 2 - 3 7 - 9 5 - 7 0.02 - 0.04 60 - 80 10 - 15 1 - 2 0.1 - 0.15 100-200 300-500
Partridges. quails 12000-13500 3000-4000 0.069 50-80 2 - 4 2 - 4 5 - 7 4 - 6 0.03 - 0.05 50 - 80 15 - 25 1.5 - 2 0.15 - 0.25 100-200 400-600
and pheasants
Ostriches and emus 12000-16000 3000-4000 0.069 40-60 2 - 4 3 - 5 10 - 20 6 - 8 0.05 - 0.1 80 - 100 12 - 20 2 - 4 0.2 - 0.35 200-250 600-800
(1)
Added per kg air-dry feed.
(2)
Local legal limits of Vitamin D
3
activity need to be observed.
(3)
When dietary fat is higher than 3% then add 5 mg/kg feed for each 1% dietary fat.
(4)
Higher level for optimum immune function.
(5)
Under heat stress conditions increase
level up to 200 mg/kg.
(6)
For optimum meat quality increase level up to 200 mg/kg.
(7)
Use upper level as reference for animal protein free diets and when cobalt is supplemented at very low levels or removed.
(8)
Recommended under heat stress condition and to
enhance reproductive performance in breeders.
(9)
Use ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
(ascorbyl-monophosphate) for reducing losses during processing.
(10)
Improve hatchability by using MAXICHICK
®
. the combination of Hy•D
®
(25-OH-D
3
) with 60 ppm of CAROPHYLL
®
Red
(Canthaxanthin). The use of MAXICHICK
®
is covered by a DSM Nutritional Products international patent application WO 2010 057811 nationalized in US and Europe amongst others. MAXICHICK
®
is a trademark registered in Europe and the US amongst others.
Category/Phase Duration Vit. A Vit. D
3
(2)
25OHD
3
Vit. E
(3)
Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
(7)
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin Vit. C
(8)(9)
Choline
(Hy•D)
(2)

(Menadione) thenic acid

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Turkeys
Starters 0 - 6 wks 12000-15000 4000-5000 0.092 100-250
(4)
4 - 5 4.5 - 5 15 - 20 6 - 7 0.04 - 0.05 100 - 150 30 - 35 4 - 6 0.25 - 0.4 100-200 1000-1200
Growers 7 - 12 wks 10000-12000 3000-5000 0.092 60-80 3 - 4 3 - 5 10 - 15 5 - 7 0.03 - 0.04 80 - 100 20 - 25 2 - 3 0.25 - 0.3 100-200 500-1000
Finishers 1 13 - 18 wks 8000-10000 3000-4000 0.092 30-50
(5)(6)
3 - 4 3 - 4 8 - 10 3 - 6 0.02 - 0.03 60 - 80 15 - 20 2 - 2.5 0.2 - 0.25 100-200 400-600
Finishers 2 18 wks - market 6000-9000 2000-3000 0.092 30-50
(5)(6)
3 - 4 2 - 3 8 - 10 3 - 6 0.015 - 0.025 50 - 60 15 - 20 2 - 2.5 0.2 - 0.25 100-200 400-600
Turkey breeders
Starters 0 - 6 wks 12000-14000 4000-5000 0.092 100-250
(4)
4 - 5 4.5 - 5 15 - 20 6 - 7 0.04 - 0.05 100 - 150 30 - 35 4 - 6 0.4 - 0.6 100-200 1000-1200
Growers 7-29 wks 8000-10000 4000-5000 0.092 60-80 2 - 4 2 - 3 10 - 15 6 - 7 0.03 - 0.04 60 - 80 25 - 30 2 - 3 0.4 - 0.6 100-200 1000-1200
Layers Laying phase 12000-14000 4000-5000 0.092
(10)
100-150
(5)
4 - 5 4 - 5 15 - 20 6 - 7 0.04 - 0.05 80 - 120 30 - 35 4 - 6 0.4 - 0.6 100-200 500-1000
(& male breeders)
(1)
Added per kg air-dry feed.
(2)
Local legal limits of Vitamin D
3
activity need to be observed.
(3)
When dietary fat is higher than 3% then add
5 mg/kg feed for each 1% dietary fat.
(4)
Higher level for optimum immune function.
(5)
Under heat stress conditions increase level up to 200 mg/kg.
(6)
For optimum meat quality increase level up to 200 mg/kg.
(7)
Use upper level as reference for animal protein free diets and when cobalt is
supplemented at very low levels or removed.
(8)
Recommended under heat stress condition and to enhance reproductive performance in
breeders.
(9)
Use ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
(ascorbyl-monophosphate) for reducing losses during processing.
(10)
Improve hatchability by using
MAXICHICK
®
, the combination of Hy•D
®
(25-OH-D
3
) with 60 ppm of CAROPHYLL
®
Red (Canthaxanthin). The use of MAXICHICK
®
is covered
by a DSM Nutritional Products international patent application WO 2010 057811 nationalized in US and Europe amongst others. MAXICHICK
®
is a trademark registered in Europe and the US amongst others.
Category/Phase Duration Vit. A Vit. D
3
(2)
25OHD
3
Vit. E
(3)
Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
(7)
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin Vit. C
(8)(9)
Choline ß-Carotene
(Hy•D)
(2)

(Menadione) thenic acid

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Fattening pigs
Pre-starters < 5 kg 10000-20000 1800-2000 0.05 100-150
(4)
8 - 10 3.5 - 5.5 10 - 15 6 - 8 0.05-0.07 60 - 80 30 - 50 1.5 - 3 0.2 - 0.4 100-200 500-800
Starters 5 - 30 kg 10000-15000 1800-2000 0.05 100-150 5 - 6 3 - 5 10 - 15 6 - 8 0.04-0.06 35 - 55 25 - 45 1.5 - 2.5 0.2 - 0.4 100-200 250-400
Growers 30 - 70 kg 7000-10000 1500-2000 0.05 60-100 2 - 4 2 - 3 7 - 10 2.5 - 4.5 0.03-0.05 20 - 40 25 - 45 1 - 1.5 0.15 - 0.3 150-300
Finishers 70 kg to market 5000-8000 1000-1500 0.05 60-100
(5)
2 - 4 1 - 2 6 - 10 2 - 3.5 0.03-0.05 20 - 40 25 - 45 0.5 - 1 0.1 - 0.2 100-200
Breeders
Replacement gilts 10000-12500 1800-2000 0.05 80-100 1.5 - 3 1 - 2 6 - 10 3.5 - 5.5 0.03-0.05 20 - 30 15 - 30 3.5 - 5.5 0.3 - 0.5 200-300 250-500
Sows 10000-15000 1500-2000 0.05 100-150
(6)
4.5 - 5 2 - 2.5 6 - 10 3.5 - 5.5 0.03-0.05 25 - 45 30 - 35 3.5 - 5.5 0.5 - 0.8 200-300 500-800 300
(10)
Boars 10000-15000 1500-2000 0.05 100-150 4.5 - 5 1 - 2 6 - 10 3.5 - 5.5 0.03-0.05 25 - 45 20 - 30 3.5 - 5.5 0.5 - 0.8 200-500 500-800
(1)
Added per kg air-dry feed.
(2)
Local legal limits of Vitamin D
3
activity need to be observed.
(3)
When dietary fat is
higher than 3% then add 5 mg/kg feed for each 1% dietary fat.
(4)
For optimum immune health: additional 100 mg/kg
feed.
(5)
For optimum meat quality: additional 150 mg/kg feed.
(6)
For optimum piglet health: during late pregnancy and
lactation total 250 mg/kg feed.
(7)
Use upper level when cobalt is supplemented at very low levels or removed.
(8)
Recommended in stress condition and to enhance reproductive performance in breeders.
(9)
Use ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
(ascorbyl-monophosphate) for reducing losses during processing.
(10)
For improved sow fertility: to be fed per animal
per day immediately after weaning until confirmed conception.
Category/Phase Vit. A Vit. D
3
Vit. E

Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin Vit. C Choline ß-Carotene
(Menadione) thenic acid

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Calves, milk replacer
0-3 months 20000-32000 1400-1800 100-150 1 - 1.5 2.5 - 5 2.5 - 4.5 2.5 - 4.5 0.04 - 0.08 9 - 18 7 - 9 0.2 - 0.3 0.05 - 0.1 250-500 500-750 100
(11)
Heifers
Rearing 20000-40000 2500-4000 500 10 - 20
(9)
300-500
(12)
6-4 wks 20000-40000 2500-4000 1000-3000 10 - 20
(9)
500-1000
(13)
before calving
Beef cattle
Growing 50000-70000 6000-9000 200-300 60 - 250
(7)
10 - 20
(9)

Fattening & finishing 50000-70000 5000-7000 500-2000
(4)
60 - 250
(7)
10 - 20
(9)


Beef cows 50000-120000 5000-10000 300-500 20
(9)
300-500
(12)
Dairy cows
Far-off & close-up
(2)
75000-100000 25000-35000 1000-3000
(5)
20
(10)
500-1000
(14)
Transition
(3)
75000-100000 25000-35000 1000-3000
(5)
5000-10000
(8)
20
(10)
500-800
(15)
Lactation 100000-150000 30000-50000 500-1000
(6)
5000-10000
(8)
20
(10)
300-500
(16)
Breeding bulls 50000-120000 5000-10000 300-500 20
(9)

Sheep & goats 5000-10000 600 200-400 100 5
(11)


(1)
Added per animal per day.
(2)
Far-off: from 8-3 weeks before calving; Close-up: from 3 weeks before calving to calving.
(3)
Transition: from 4-3 weeks before calving to 3-4 weeks after calving.
(4)
Upper level for improved color
shelf life.100-120 days pre-marketing.
(5)
Upper level from 21 days pre-partum through 28 days post-partum.
(6)
Upper level for optimum udder health.
(7)
Upper level for cattle on high concentrate rations.
(8)
From 2 weeks
before parturition until peak lactation.
(9)
For optimum hoof health and optimum meat marbling.
(10)
For optimum hoof health and milk yield.
(11)
For 2 weeks after colostral period.
(12)
6-8 weeks before first insemination/mating
when intake of green forage is low.
(13)
Lower level 8 weeks before first calving; upper level 4 weeks before first calving when intake of green forage is low.
(14)
Lower level during entire dry period (far-off and close-up);
upper level 3-4 weeks before calving (close-up only).
(15)
500-800 mg from 3-4 weeks before calving and 300-500 mg 4-6 week after calving.
(16)
Dry and fresh: beginning dry period until pregnancy is confirmed.
Category/Phase Vit. A Vit. D
3
Vit. E

Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin Vit. C
(3)
Choline Astaxanthin
(Menadione) thenic acid (Carophyll Pink)

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Salmon/trout
(2)
3000-6000 2000-2500 200-400
(4)
8 - 12 10 - 20 20 - 30 15 - 25 0.03 - 0.05 150-200 40 - 60 6 - 10 0.8 - 1 150-250
(6)
500-1000 50 - 100
(7)
Warm-water fish
(2)
8000-11000 1500-2000 100-300 5 - 10 10 - 20 15 - 20 15 - 25 0.02 - 0.05 80-120 40 - 50 4 - 7 0.5 - 1 150-250 600-1000
Carp/tilapia/cat-fish
Eels
(2)
8000-12000 1500-2000 150-300 3 - 6 15 - 25 20 - 30 10 - 15 0.1 - 0.2 80-120 50 - 60 4 - 6 0.3 - 0.5 150-300 800-1200
Seabream/seabass
(2)
8000-12000 1700-2200 150-300 8 - 12 20 - 30 20 - 30 20 - 25 0.1 - 0.2 100-140 50 - 100 4 - 6 0.8 - 1 150-250 600-1000
Shrimp
(3)
12000-15000 2000-3500 150-300 40 - 60 50 - 100 40 - 80 50 - 120 0.02 - 0.05 100-250 100 - 180 10 - 20 1 - 2 250-500 400-600 15 - 50
(1)
Added per kg air-dry feed
(2)
Amount to be increased by 30% for fry and broodstock
(3)
At low stock density (< 10pl/m
2
) the lower levels are recommended
(4)
Additional 200 mg may be required to optimise flesh quality dependent on dietary fat levels
(5)
Use ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
(ascorbyl-monophosphate) for reducing losses during processing
(6)
During winter feeding for wound healing and immune function: total 1000 mg/kg feed
(7)
For flesh pigmentation
(1)
Added per animal per day, based on average weight of 250 kg.
(2)
Added per animal per day,
based on average weight of 550 kg.
(3)
Added per kg air-dry feed.
(4)
Dietary fat higher than 3%:
additional 5 mg/kg feed for each 1% dietary fat.
(5)
When feeding raw fish: additional 50 mg/kg feed.
(6)
For fur production rabbits: 0.6 mg/kg feed.
(7)
Recommended in stress condition and to enhance
reproductive performance in breeders.
(8)
Use ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
(ascorbyl-monophosphate) for
reducing losses during processing.
(9)
From 4 weeks before until 10 weeks after parturition.
Category/Phase Vit. A Vit. D
3
Vit. E
(2)
Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
(4)
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
(5)
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin
(6)
Vit. C
(7)
Choline ß-Carotene
(8)
(Menadione) thenic acid

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Dogs 15000-22000 780-1300 100-250 1 - 2 4 - 8 13 - 22 6 - 11 0.03-0.05 50-170 30 - 60 0.6 - 2 0.25-0.8 100-200 1300-2700 30 - 50
Cats 15000-40000
(1)
780-1300 150-300 1 - 2
(3)
5 - 10 22 - 27 11 - 14 0.03-0.1 50-170 30 - 60 0.6 - 2 0.25-0.8 100-200 1300-2700 30 - 50
(1)
Vitamin A: preformed vitamin A is vital in diets for cats.
(2)
Vitamin E: supplemental levels should at least be
5 mg/kg of dry food for each 1% of PUFA in the diet. Higher levels above are recommended to support the
total antioxidant capacity of the dog and cat.
(3)
Vitamin K: supplementation is particularly important in
canned catfoods that contains >25% fish when fed for long periods.
(4)
Vitamin B
1
: levels of up to 18 mg/kg
dry food for dogs and 35 mg/kg for cats are reported to help improve meal acceptance and stimulate
appetite.
(5)
Vitamin B
12
: increased supplemental levels up to 0.8 mg/kg dry food help in the support of liver
function. Supplementation might need to be increased in vegetarian diets as plants are a poor source of this
vitamin.
(6)
Biotin: Higher levels, up to 2 mg/day, are recommended in high fat diets and also as an aid in the
improvement of coat and skin condition for cats and dogs and to help hepatic glucose excretion and thus
fasting blood glucose levels in dogs with diabetes.
(7)
Use ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
(ascorbyl-monophosphate)
for reducing losses during processing and supporting the total antioxidant capacity of the animal.
(8)
ß-Carotene: recommended for supporting the total antioxidant capacity of the dog or cat and as an
immune system modulator and for supporting reproductive physiology.
Recommendations are expressed per kg air-dry food. The values are based on the diets containing 4000 kcal ME/kg dry matter.
Diets that deviate in energy content >12.5% or have feeding recommendations that restrict energy intake should have the
supplemental vitamin levels adjusted accordingly.
With over 75 years’ experience, DSM is the world’s leading supplier of fat-soluble and water-
soluble vitamins, carotenoids, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, enzymes, eubiotics
and nutraceuticals to the feed, food, pharmaceutical and personal care industries.
Category/Phase Vit. A Vit. D
3
Vit. E

Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin Vit. C
(7) (8)
Choline ß-Carotene
(Menadione) thenic acid

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Foals. 1st year
(1)
25000-30000 4500-5500 250-500 8 - 12 20 - 25 20 - 30 15 - 20 0.15-0.3 25 - 50 20 - 30 15 - 20 2 - 3 500-750 300-400
Leisure horses
(2)
35000-45000 3500-4500 500-1000 6 - 12 40 - 55 30 - 40 25 - 35 0.35-0.65 55 - 85 45 - 65 25 - 35 15 - 20 600-900
Race horses
(2)
65000-85000 6500-8500 1000-2000 11 - 22 70 - 110 70 - 85 40 - 55 0.55-0.85 110 - 200 50 - 80 45 - 65 15 - 20 1000-2000 1000-1400
Mares & stallions
(2)
65000-85000 6500-8500 1000-2000 11 - 22 70 - 110 70 - 85 40 - 55 0.55-0.85 110 - 200 50 - 80 45 - 65 15 - 20 1000-2000 1000-1400 400-800
(9)
Rabbits
(3)
8000-12000 800-1200 40-60 1 - 2 1 - 2 3 - 6 2 - 3 0.01-0.02 40 - 60 10 - 15 0.2 - 0.5 0.1 - 0.2
(6)
150-250 600-800 10-20
Mink & foxes
(3)
10000-15000 1500-2000 100-200
(4)
1 - 2 20 - 50
(5)
10 - 20 10 - 20 0.03-0.06 20 - 40 8 - 20 0.6 - 1 0.3 - 0.6 100-200
POULTRY
(1)
RUMINANTS
(1)
TURKEY
(1)
SWINE
(1)
FISH & SHRIMP
(1)
HORSES & OTHERS
COMPANION ANIMALS
ABOUT DSM
Nutritional ingredient production
Reliability through backward integration
DSM operates nine bulk manufacturing and formulation sites
across Europe, the United States and China. These sites produce
the majority of nutritional ingredients sold as straight products or
in premixes and concentrates.
Quality is at the heart of all our operations, and we work to a
global quality standard, backed by our unique backward
integration concept which gives unrivalled control over our supply
chain. DSM has a dedicated logistics network based on three main
distribution centres in Venlo (NL), Belvidere (USA) and Singapore.
Premixes and blending
Product services where customers need them
DSM has a comprehensive global network of premix plants with
over 40 plants dedicated to the production of feed premixes
and another six plants for human food premixes.
This network helps ensure high levels of customer service and
delivery, backed by the highest levels of traceability, quality and
food safety. Being close to our markets allows us to respond
quickly to changing market demands.
Category/Phase Duration Vit. A Vit. D
3
(2)
25OHD
3
Vit. E
(3)
Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
(7)
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin Vit. C
(8)(9)
Choline
(Hy•D)
(2)

(Menadione) thenic acid

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Broilers

Starters 1 - 10 days 11000-15000 3000-5000 0.069 150-300
(4)
3 - 4 3 - 4 8 - 10 4 - 6 0.02 - 0.04 60 - 80 15 - 20 2 - 2.5 0.2 - 0.4 100-200 400-700
Growers 11 - 24 days 10000-12500 3000-5000 0.069 50-100
(5)
3 - 4 2 - 3 7 - 9 4 - 6 0.02 - 0.03 60 - 80 12 - 18 2 - 2.5 0.2 - 0.3 100-200 400-700
Finishers 25 days - market 10000-12500 3000-5000 0.069 50-100
(5)(6)
3 - 4 2 - 3 6 - 8 4 - 6 0.02 - 0.03 50 - 80 10 - 15 2 - 2.5 0.2 - 0.3 100-200 400-600
Broiler breeders
Starters & growers 0 - 18 wks 10000-12000 3000-4000 0.069 80-100
(4)
3 - 5 2 - 3 6 - 8 3 - 5 0.02 - 0.03 30 - 60 13 - 15 1.5 - 2 0.2 - 0.4 100-150 350-700
Layers 19 wks - end 12000-15000 3000-5000 0.069
10)
100-150
(5)
5 - 7 3 - 3.5 12 - 16
4 - 6
0.03 - 0.04 50 - 60 15 - 25 2 - 4 0.25 - 0.4 100-150 350-700
(& male breeders)
Hen & ducklayers
Starters (pullets) 0 -10 wks 12000-13000 3000-4000 0.069 50-100
(4)
3 - 3.5 2 - 2.5 6 - 7 4.5 - 5.5 0.025 - 0.03 50 - 60 15 - 17 1 - 1.5 0.15 - 0.2 100-150 200-400
Rearing (pullets) 10 wks - 2% lay 10000-12000 2000-3000 0.069 30-35 3 - 3.5 2 - 2.5 5 - 6 3 - 5 0.02 - 0.025 30 - 60 12 - 15 1 - 1.5 0.1 - 0.15 100-150 200-400
Layers Laying phase 8000-12000 3000-4000 0.069 20-30
(5)
2.5 - 3 2.5 - 3 5 - 7 3.5 - 5 0.015 - 0.025 30 - 50 8 - 12 1 - 1.5 0.1 - 0.15 100-200 300-500
Layer breeders
Growers & layers 0 wks - end 10000-15000 3000-4500 0.069
(10)
50-100
(5)
2 - 5 2.5 - 3.5 10 - 12 5 - 6 0.02 - 0.04 45 - 60 15 - 20 2 - 3 0.25 - 0.4 150-200 300-500
(& male breeders)
Ducks and geese 12000-15000 3000-5000 0.069 40-80 3 - 5 2 - 3 7 - 9 5 - 7 0.02 - 0.04 60 - 80 10 - 15 1 - 2 0.1 - 0.15 100-200 300-500
Partridges. quails 12000-13500 3000-4000 0.069 50-80 2 - 4 2 - 4 5 - 7 4 - 6 0.03 - 0.05 50 - 80 15 - 25 1.5 - 2 0.15 - 0.25 100-200 400-600
and pheasants
Ostriches and emus 12000-16000 3000-4000 0.069 40-60 2 - 4 3 - 5 10 - 20 6 - 8 0.05 - 0.1 80 - 100 12 - 20 2 - 4 0.2 - 0.35 200-250 600-800
(1)
Added per kg air-dry feed.
(2)
Local legal limits of Vitamin D
3
activity need to be observed.
(3)
When dietary fat is higher than 3% then add 5 mg/kg feed for each 1% dietary fat.
(4)
Higher level for optimum immune function.
(5)
Under heat stress conditions increase
level up to 200 mg/kg.
(6)
For optimum meat quality increase level up to 200 mg/kg.
(7)
Use upper level as reference for animal protein free diets and when cobalt is supplemented at very low levels or removed.
(8)
Recommended under heat stress condition and to
enhance reproductive performance in breeders.
(9)
Use ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
(ascorbyl-monophosphate) for reducing losses during processing.
(10)
Improve hatchability by using MAXICHICK
®
. the combination of Hy•D
®
(25-OH-D
3
) with 60 ppm of CAROPHYLL
®
Red
(Canthaxanthin). The use of MAXICHICK
®
is covered by a DSM Nutritional Products international patent application WO 2010 057811 nationalized in US and Europe amongst others. MAXICHICK
®
is a trademark registered in Europe and the US amongst others.
Category/Phase Duration Vit. A Vit. D
3
(2)
25OHD
3
Vit. E
(3)
Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
(7)
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin Vit. C
(8)(9)
Choline
(Hy•D)
(2)

(Menadione) thenic acid

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Turkeys
Starters 0 - 6 wks 12000-15000 4000-5000 0.092 100-250
(4)
4 - 5 4.5 - 5 15 - 20 6 - 7 0.04 - 0.05 100 - 150 30 - 35 4 - 6 0.25 - 0.4 100-200 1000-1200
Growers 7 - 12 wks 10000-12000 3000-5000 0.092 60-80 3 - 4 3 - 5 10 - 15 5 - 7 0.03 - 0.04 80 - 100 20 - 25 2 - 3 0.25 - 0.3 100-200 500-1000
Finishers 1 13 - 18 wks 8000-10000 3000-4000 0.092 30-50
(5)(6)
3 - 4 3 - 4 8 - 10 3 - 6 0.02 - 0.03 60 - 80 15 - 20 2 - 2.5 0.2 - 0.25 100-200 400-600
Finishers 2 18 wks - market 6000-9000 2000-3000 0.092 30-50
(5)(6)
3 - 4 2 - 3 8 - 10 3 - 6 0.015 - 0.025 50 - 60 15 - 20 2 - 2.5 0.2 - 0.25 100-200 400-600
Turkey breeders
Starters 0 - 6 wks 12000-14000 4000-5000 0.092 100-250
(4)
4 - 5 4.5 - 5 15 - 20 6 - 7 0.04 - 0.05 100 - 150 30 - 35 4 - 6 0.4 - 0.6 100-200 1000-1200
Growers 7-29 wks 8000-10000 4000-5000 0.092 60-80 2 - 4 2 - 3 10 - 15 6 - 7 0.03 - 0.04 60 - 80 25 - 30 2 - 3 0.4 - 0.6 100-200 1000-1200
Layers Laying phase 12000-14000 4000-5000 0.092
(10)
100-150
(5)
4 - 5 4 - 5 15 - 20 6 - 7 0.04 - 0.05 80 - 120 30 - 35 4 - 6 0.4 - 0.6 100-200 500-1000
(& male breeders)
(1)
Added per kg air-dry feed.
(2)
Local legal limits of Vitamin D
3
activity need to be observed.
(3)
When dietary fat is higher than 3% then add
5 mg/kg feed for each 1% dietary fat.
(4)
Higher level for optimum immune function.
(5)
Under heat stress conditions increase level up to 200 mg/kg.
(6)
For optimum meat quality increase level up to 200 mg/kg.
(7)
Use upper level as reference for animal protein free diets and when cobalt is
supplemented at very low levels or removed.
(8)
Recommended under heat stress condition and to enhance reproductive performance in
breeders.
(9)
Use ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
(ascorbyl-monophosphate) for reducing losses during processing.
(10)
Improve hatchability by using
MAXICHICK
®
, the combination of Hy•D
®
(25-OH-D
3
) with 60 ppm of CAROPHYLL
®
Red (Canthaxanthin). The use of MAXICHICK
®
is covered
by a DSM Nutritional Products international patent application WO 2010 057811 nationalized in US and Europe amongst others. MAXICHICK
®
is a trademark registered in Europe and the US amongst others.
Category/Phase Duration Vit. A Vit. D
3
(2)
25OHD
3
Vit. E
(3)
Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
(7)
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin Vit. C
(8)(9)
Choline ß-Carotene
(Hy•D)
(2)

(Menadione) thenic acid

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Fattening pigs
Pre-starters < 5 kg 10000-20000 1800-2000 0.05 100-150
(4)
8 - 10 3.5 - 5.5 10 - 15 6 - 8 0.05-0.07 60 - 80 30 - 50 1.5 - 3 0.2 - 0.4 100-200 500-800
Starters 5 - 30 kg 10000-15000 1800-2000 0.05 100-150 5 - 6 3 - 5 10 - 15 6 - 8 0.04-0.06 35 - 55 25 - 45 1.5 - 2.5 0.2 - 0.4 100-200 250-400
Growers 30 - 70 kg 7000-10000 1500-2000 0.05 60-100 2 - 4 2 - 3 7 - 10 2.5 - 4.5 0.03-0.05 20 - 40 25 - 45 1 - 1.5 0.15 - 0.3 150-300
Finishers 70 kg to market 5000-8000 1000-1500 0.05 60-100
(5)
2 - 4 1 - 2 6 - 10 2 - 3.5 0.03-0.05 20 - 40 25 - 45 0.5 - 1 0.1 - 0.2 100-200
Breeders
Replacement gilts 10000-12500 1800-2000 0.05 80-100 1.5 - 3 1 - 2 6 - 10 3.5 - 5.5 0.03-0.05 20 - 30 15 - 30 3.5 - 5.5 0.3 - 0.5 200-300 250-500
Sows 10000-15000 1500-2000 0.05 100-150
(6)
4.5 - 5 2 - 2.5 6 - 10 3.5 - 5.5 0.03-0.05 25 - 45 30 - 35 3.5 - 5.5 0.5 - 0.8 200-300 500-800 300
(10)
Boars 10000-15000 1500-2000 0.05 100-150 4.5 - 5 1 - 2 6 - 10 3.5 - 5.5 0.03-0.05 25 - 45 20 - 30 3.5 - 5.5 0.5 - 0.8 200-500 500-800
(1)
Added per kg air-dry feed.
(2)
Local legal limits of Vitamin D
3
activity need to be observed.
(3)
When dietary fat is
higher than 3% then add 5 mg/kg feed for each 1% dietary fat.
(4)
For optimum immune health: additional 100 mg/kg
feed.
(5)
For optimum meat quality: additional 150 mg/kg feed.
(6)
For optimum piglet health: during late pregnancy and
lactation total 250 mg/kg feed.
(7)
Use upper level when cobalt is supplemented at very low levels or removed.
(8)
Recommended in stress condition and to enhance reproductive performance in breeders.
(9)
Use ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
(ascorbyl-monophosphate) for reducing losses during processing.
(10)
For improved sow fertility: to be fed per animal
per day immediately after weaning until confirmed conception.
Category/Phase Vit. A Vit. D
3
Vit. E

Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin Vit. C Choline ß-Carotene
(Menadione) thenic acid

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Calves, milk replacer
0-3 months 20000-32000 1400-1800 100-150 1 - 1.5 2.5 - 5 2.5 - 4.5 2.5 - 4.5 0.04 - 0.08 9 - 18 7 - 9 0.2 - 0.3 0.05 - 0.1 250-500 500-750 100
(11)
Heifers
Rearing 20000-40000 2500-4000 500 10 - 20
(9)
300-500
(12)
6-4 wks 20000-40000 2500-4000 1000-3000 10 - 20
(9)
500-1000
(13)
before calving
Beef cattle
Growing 50000-70000 6000-9000 200-300 60 - 250
(7)
10 - 20
(9)

Fattening & finishing 50000-70000 5000-7000 500-2000
(4)
60 - 250
(7)
10 - 20
(9)


Beef cows 50000-120000 5000-10000 300-500 20
(9)
300-500
(12)
Dairy cows
Far-off & close-up
(2)
75000-100000 25000-35000 1000-3000
(5)
20
(10)
500-1000
(14)
Transition
(3)
75000-100000 25000-35000 1000-3000
(5)
5000-10000
(8)
20
(10)
500-800
(15)
Lactation 100000-150000 30000-50000 500-1000
(6)
5000-10000
(8)
20
(10)
300-500
(16)
Breeding bulls 50000-120000 5000-10000 300-500 20
(9)

Sheep & goats 5000-10000 600 200-400 100 5
(11)


(1)
Added per animal per day.
(2)
Far-off: from 8-3 weeks before calving; Close-up: from 3 weeks before calving to calving.
(3)
Transition: from 4-3 weeks before calving to 3-4 weeks after calving.
(4)
Upper level for improved color
shelf life.100-120 days pre-marketing.
(5)
Upper level from 21 days pre-partum through 28 days post-partum.
(6)
Upper level for optimum udder health.
(7)
Upper level for cattle on high concentrate rations.
(8)
From 2 weeks
before parturition until peak lactation.
(9)
For optimum hoof health and optimum meat marbling.
(10)
For optimum hoof health and milk yield.
(11)
For 2 weeks after colostral period.
(12)
6-8 weeks before first insemination/mating
when intake of green forage is low.
(13)
Lower level 8 weeks before first calving; upper level 4 weeks before first calving when intake of green forage is low.
(14)
Lower level during entire dry period (far-off and close-up);
upper level 3-4 weeks before calving (close-up only).
(15)
500-800 mg from 3-4 weeks before calving and 300-500 mg 4-6 week after calving.
(16)
Dry and fresh: beginning dry period until pregnancy is confirmed.
Category/Phase Vit. A Vit. D
3
Vit. E

Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin Vit. C
(3)
Choline Astaxanthin
(Menadione) thenic acid (Carophyll Pink)

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Salmon/trout
(2)
3000-6000 2000-2500 200-400
(4)
8 - 12 10 - 20 20 - 30 15 - 25 0.03 - 0.05 150-200 40 - 60 6 - 10 0.8 - 1 150-250
(6)
500-1000 50 - 100
(7)
Warm-water fish
(2)
8000-11000 1500-2000 100-300 5 - 10 10 - 20 15 - 20 15 - 25 0.02 - 0.05 80-120 40 - 50 4 - 7 0.5 - 1 150-250 600-1000
Carp/tilapia/cat-fish
Eels
(2)
8000-12000 1500-2000 150-300 3 - 6 15 - 25 20 - 30 10 - 15 0.1 - 0.2 80-120 50 - 60 4 - 6 0.3 - 0.5 150-300 800-1200
Seabream/seabass
(2)
8000-12000 1700-2200 150-300 8 - 12 20 - 30 20 - 30 20 - 25 0.1 - 0.2 100-140 50 - 100 4 - 6 0.8 - 1 150-250 600-1000
Shrimp
(3)
12000-15000 2000-3500 150-300 40 - 60 50 - 100 40 - 80 50 - 120 0.02 - 0.05 100-250 100 - 180 10 - 20 1 - 2 250-500 400-600 15 - 50
(1)
Added per kg air-dry feed
(2)
Amount to be increased by 30% for fry and broodstock
(3)
At low stock density (< 10pl/m
2
) the lower levels are recommended
(4)
Additional 200 mg may be required to optimise flesh quality dependent on dietary fat levels
(5)
Use ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
(ascorbyl-monophosphate) for reducing losses during processing
(6)
During winter feeding for wound healing and immune function: total 1000 mg/kg feed
(7)
For flesh pigmentation
(1)
Added per animal per day, based on average weight of 250 kg.
(2)
Added per animal per day,
based on average weight of 550 kg.
(3)
Added per kg air-dry feed.
(4)
Dietary fat higher than 3%:
additional 5 mg/kg feed for each 1% dietary fat.
(5)
When feeding raw fish: additional 50 mg/kg feed.
(6)
For fur production rabbits: 0.6 mg/kg feed.
(7)
Recommended in stress condition and to enhance
reproductive performance in breeders.
(8)
Use ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
(ascorbyl-monophosphate) for
reducing losses during processing.
(9)
From 4 weeks before until 10 weeks after parturition.
Category/Phase Vit. A Vit. D
3
Vit. E
(2)
Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
(4)
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
(5)
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin
(6)
Vit. C
(7)
Choline ß-Carotene
(8)
(Menadione) thenic acid

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Dogs 15000-22000 780-1300 100-250 1 - 2 4 - 8 13 - 22 6 - 11 0.03-0.05 50-170 30 - 60 0.6 - 2 0.25-0.8 100-200 1300-2700 30 - 50
Cats 15000-40000
(1)
780-1300 150-300 1 - 2
(3)
5 - 10 22 - 27 11 - 14 0.03-0.1 50-170 30 - 60 0.6 - 2 0.25-0.8 100-200 1300-2700 30 - 50
(1)
Vitamin A: preformed vitamin A is vital in diets for cats.
(2)
Vitamin E: supplemental levels should at least be
5 mg/kg of dry food for each 1% of PUFA in the diet. Higher levels above are recommended to support the
total antioxidant capacity of the dog and cat.
(3)
Vitamin K: supplementation is particularly important in
canned catfoods that contains >25% fish when fed for long periods.
(4)
Vitamin B
1
: levels of up to 18 mg/kg
dry food for dogs and 35 mg/kg for cats are reported to help improve meal acceptance and stimulate
appetite.
(5)
Vitamin B
12
: increased supplemental levels up to 0.8 mg/kg dry food help in the support of liver
function. Supplementation might need to be increased in vegetarian diets as plants are a poor source of this
vitamin.
(6)
Biotin: Higher levels, up to 2 mg/day, are recommended in high fat diets and also as an aid in the
improvement of coat and skin condition for cats and dogs and to help hepatic glucose excretion and thus
fasting blood glucose levels in dogs with diabetes.
(7)
Use ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
(ascorbyl-monophosphate)
for reducing losses during processing and supporting the total antioxidant capacity of the animal.
(8)
ß-Carotene: recommended for supporting the total antioxidant capacity of the dog or cat and as an
immune system modulator and for supporting reproductive physiology.
Recommendations are expressed per kg air-dry food. The values are based on the diets containing 4000 kcal ME/kg dry matter.
Diets that deviate in energy content >12.5% or have feeding recommendations that restrict energy intake should have the
supplemental vitamin levels adjusted accordingly.
With over 75 years’ experience, DSM is the world’s leading supplier of fat-soluble and water-
soluble vitamins, carotenoids, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, enzymes, eubiotics
and nutraceuticals to the feed, food, pharmaceutical and personal care industries.
Category/Phase Vit. A Vit. D
3
Vit. E

Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin Vit. C
(7) (8)
Choline ß-Carotene
(Menadione) thenic acid

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Foals. 1st year
(1)
25000-30000 4500-5500 250-500 8 - 12 20 - 25 20 - 30 15 - 20 0.15-0.3 25 - 50 20 - 30 15 - 20 2 - 3 500-750 300-400
Leisure horses
(2)
35000-45000 3500-4500 500-1000 6 - 12 40 - 55 30 - 40 25 - 35 0.35-0.65 55 - 85 45 - 65 25 - 35 15 - 20 600-900
Race horses
(2)
65000-85000 6500-8500 1000-2000 11 - 22 70 - 110 70 - 85 40 - 55 0.55-0.85 110 - 200 50 - 80 45 - 65 15 - 20 1000-2000 1000-1400
Mares & stallions
(2)
65000-85000 6500-8500 1000-2000 11 - 22 70 - 110 70 - 85 40 - 55 0.55-0.85 110 - 200 50 - 80 45 - 65 15 - 20 1000-2000 1000-1400 400-800
(9)
Rabbits
(3)
8000-12000 800-1200 40-60 1 - 2 1 - 2 3 - 6 2 - 3 0.01-0.02 40 - 60 10 - 15 0.2 - 0.5 0.1 - 0.2
(6)
150-250 600-800 10-20
Mink & foxes
(3)
10000-15000 1500-2000 100-200
(4)
1 - 2 20 - 50
(5)
10 - 20 10 - 20 0.03-0.06 20 - 40 8 - 20 0.6 - 1 0.3 - 0.6 100-200
POULTRY
(1)
RUMINANTS
(1)
TURKEY
(1)
SWINE
(1)
FISH & SHRIMP
(1)
HORSES & OTHERS
COMPANION ANIMALS
ABOUT DSM
Nutritional ingredient production
Reliability through backward integration
DSM operates nine bulk manufacturing and formulation sites
across Europe, the United States and China. These sites produce
the majority of nutritional ingredients sold as straight products or
in premixes and concentrates.
Quality is at the heart of all our operations, and we work to a
global quality standard, backed by our unique backward
integration concept which gives unrivalled control over our supply
chain. DSM has a dedicated logistics network based on three main
distribution centres in Venlo (NL), Belvidere (USA) and Singapore.
Premixes and blending
Product services where customers need them
DSM has a comprehensive global network of premix plants with
over 40 plants dedicated to the production of feed premixes
and another six plants for human food premixes.
This network helps ensure high levels of customer service and
delivery, backed by the highest levels of traceability, quality and
food safety. Being close to our markets allows us to respond
quickly to changing market demands.
Category/Phase Duration Vit. A Vit. D
3
(2)
25OHD
3
Vit. E
(3)
Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
(7)
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin Vit. C
(8)(9)
Choline
(Hy•D)
(2)

(Menadione) thenic acid

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Broilers

Starters 1 - 10 days 11000-15000 3000-5000 0.069 150-300
(4)
3 - 4 3 - 4 8 - 10 4 - 6 0.02 - 0.04 60 - 80 15 - 20 2 - 2.5 0.2 - 0.4 100-200 400-700
Growers 11 - 24 days 10000-12500 3000-5000 0.069 50-100
(5)
3 - 4 2 - 3 7 - 9 4 - 6 0.02 - 0.03 60 - 80 12 - 18 2 - 2.5 0.2 - 0.3 100-200 400-700
Finishers 25 days - market 10000-12500 3000-5000 0.069 50-100
(5)(6)
3 - 4 2 - 3 6 - 8 4 - 6 0.02 - 0.03 50 - 80 10 - 15 2 - 2.5 0.2 - 0.3 100-200 400-600
Broiler breeders
Starters & growers 0 - 18 wks 10000-12000 3000-4000 0.069 80-100
(4)
3 - 5 2 - 3 6 - 8 3 - 5 0.02 - 0.03 30 - 60 13 - 15 1.5 - 2 0.2 - 0.4 100-150 350-700
Layers 19 wks - end 12000-15000 3000-5000 0.069
10)
100-150
(5)
5 - 7 3 - 3.5 12 - 16
4 - 6
0.03 - 0.04 50 - 60 15 - 25 2 - 4 0.25 - 0.4 100-150 350-700
(& male breeders)
Hen & ducklayers
Starters (pullets) 0 -10 wks 12000-13000 3000-4000 0.069 50-100
(4)
3 - 3.5 2 - 2.5 6 - 7 4.5 - 5.5 0.025 - 0.03 50 - 60 15 - 17 1 - 1.5 0.15 - 0.2 100-150 200-400
Rearing (pullets) 10 wks - 2% lay 10000-12000 2000-3000 0.069 30-35 3 - 3.5 2 - 2.5 5 - 6 3 - 5 0.02 - 0.025 30 - 60 12 - 15 1 - 1.5 0.1 - 0.15 100-150 200-400
Layers Laying phase 8000-12000 3000-4000 0.069 20-30
(5)
2.5 - 3 2.5 - 3 5 - 7 3.5 - 5 0.015 - 0.025 30 - 50 8 - 12 1 - 1.5 0.1 - 0.15 100-200 300-500
Layer breeders
Growers & layers 0 wks - end 10000-15000 3000-4500 0.069
(10)
50-100
(5)
2 - 5 2.5 - 3.5 10 - 12 5 - 6 0.02 - 0.04 45 - 60 15 - 20 2 - 3 0.25 - 0.4 150-200 300-500
(& male breeders)
Ducks and geese 12000-15000 3000-5000 0.069 40-80 3 - 5 2 - 3 7 - 9 5 - 7 0.02 - 0.04 60 - 80 10 - 15 1 - 2 0.1 - 0.15 100-200 300-500
Partridges. quails 12000-13500 3000-4000 0.069 50-80 2 - 4 2 - 4 5 - 7 4 - 6 0.03 - 0.05 50 - 80 15 - 25 1.5 - 2 0.15 - 0.25 100-200 400-600
and pheasants
Ostriches and emus 12000-16000 3000-4000 0.069 40-60 2 - 4 3 - 5 10 - 20 6 - 8 0.05 - 0.1 80 - 100 12 - 20 2 - 4 0.2 - 0.35 200-250 600-800
(1)
Added per kg air-dry feed.
(2)
Local legal limits of Vitamin D
3
activity need to be observed.
(3)
When dietary fat is higher than 3% then add 5 mg/kg feed for each 1% dietary fat.
(4)
Higher level for optimum immune function.
(5)
Under heat stress conditions increase
level up to 200 mg/kg.
(6)
For optimum meat quality increase level up to 200 mg/kg.
(7)
Use upper level as reference for animal protein free diets and when cobalt is supplemented at very low levels or removed.
(8)
Recommended under heat stress condition and to
enhance reproductive performance in breeders.
(9)
Use ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
(ascorbyl-monophosphate) for reducing losses during processing.
(10)
Improve hatchability by using MAXICHICK
®
. the combination of Hy•D
®
(25-OH-D
3
) with 60 ppm of CAROPHYLL
®
Red
(Canthaxanthin). The use of MAXICHICK
®
is covered by a DSM Nutritional Products international patent application WO 2010 057811 nationalized in US and Europe amongst others. MAXICHICK
®
is a trademark registered in Europe and the US amongst others.
Category/Phase Duration Vit. A Vit. D
3
(2)
25OHD
3
Vit. E
(3)
Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
(7)
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin Vit. C
(8)(9)
Choline
(Hy•D)
(2)

(Menadione) thenic acid

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Turkeys
Starters 0 - 6 wks 12000-15000 4000-5000 0.092 100-250
(4)
4 - 5 4.5 - 5 15 - 20 6 - 7 0.04 - 0.05 100 - 150 30 - 35 4 - 6 0.25 - 0.4 100-200 1000-1200
Growers 7 - 12 wks 10000-12000 3000-5000 0.092 60-80 3 - 4 3 - 5 10 - 15 5 - 7 0.03 - 0.04 80 - 100 20 - 25 2 - 3 0.25 - 0.3 100-200 500-1000
Finishers 1 13 - 18 wks 8000-10000 3000-4000 0.092 30-50
(5)(6)
3 - 4 3 - 4 8 - 10 3 - 6 0.02 - 0.03 60 - 80 15 - 20 2 - 2.5 0.2 - 0.25 100-200 400-600
Finishers 2 18 wks - market 6000-9000 2000-3000 0.092 30-50
(5)(6)
3 - 4 2 - 3 8 - 10 3 - 6 0.015 - 0.025 50 - 60 15 - 20 2 - 2.5 0.2 - 0.25 100-200 400-600
Turkey breeders
Starters 0 - 6 wks 12000-14000 4000-5000 0.092 100-250
(4)
4 - 5 4.5 - 5 15 - 20 6 - 7 0.04 - 0.05 100 - 150 30 - 35 4 - 6 0.4 - 0.6 100-200 1000-1200
Growers 7-29 wks 8000-10000 4000-5000 0.092 60-80 2 - 4 2 - 3 10 - 15 6 - 7 0.03 - 0.04 60 - 80 25 - 30 2 - 3 0.4 - 0.6 100-200 1000-1200
Layers Laying phase 12000-14000 4000-5000 0.092
(10)
100-150
(5)
4 - 5 4 - 5 15 - 20 6 - 7 0.04 - 0.05 80 - 120 30 - 35 4 - 6 0.4 - 0.6 100-200 500-1000
(& male breeders)
(1)
Added per kg air-dry feed.
(2)
Local legal limits of Vitamin D
3
activity need to be observed.
(3)
When dietary fat is higher than 3% then add
5 mg/kg feed for each 1% dietary fat.
(4)
Higher level for optimum immune function.
(5)
Under heat stress conditions increase level up to 200 mg/kg.
(6)
For optimum meat quality increase level up to 200 mg/kg.
(7)
Use upper level as reference for animal protein free diets and when cobalt is
supplemented at very low levels or removed.
(8)
Recommended under heat stress condition and to enhance reproductive performance in
breeders.
(9)
Use ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
(ascorbyl-monophosphate) for reducing losses during processing.
(10)
Improve hatchability by using
MAXICHICK
®
, the combination of Hy•D
®
(25-OH-D
3
) with 60 ppm of CAROPHYLL
®
Red (Canthaxanthin). The use of MAXICHICK
®
is covered
by a DSM Nutritional Products international patent application WO 2010 057811 nationalized in US and Europe amongst others. MAXICHICK
®
is a trademark registered in Europe and the US amongst others.
Category/Phase Duration Vit. A Vit. D
3
(2)
25OHD
3
Vit. E
(3)
Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
(7)
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin Vit. C
(8)(9)
Choline ß-Carotene
(Hy•D)
(2)

(Menadione) thenic acid

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Fattening pigs
Pre-starters < 5 kg 10000-20000 1800-2000 0.05 100-150
(4)
8 - 10 3.5 - 5.5 10 - 15 6 - 8 0.05-0.07 60 - 80 30 - 50 1.5 - 3 0.2 - 0.4 100-200 500-800
Starters 5 - 30 kg 10000-15000 1800-2000 0.05 100-150 5 - 6 3 - 5 10 - 15 6 - 8 0.04-0.06 35 - 55 25 - 45 1.5 - 2.5 0.2 - 0.4 100-200 250-400
Growers 30 - 70 kg 7000-10000 1500-2000 0.05 60-100 2 - 4 2 - 3 7 - 10 2.5 - 4.5 0.03-0.05 20 - 40 25 - 45 1 - 1.5 0.15 - 0.3 150-300
Finishers 70 kg to market 5000-8000 1000-1500 0.05 60-100
(5)
2 - 4 1 - 2 6 - 10 2 - 3.5 0.03-0.05 20 - 40 25 - 45 0.5 - 1 0.1 - 0.2 100-200
Breeders
Replacement gilts 10000-12500 1800-2000 0.05 80-100 1.5 - 3 1 - 2 6 - 10 3.5 - 5.5 0.03-0.05 20 - 30 15 - 30 3.5 - 5.5 0.3 - 0.5 200-300 250-500
Sows 10000-15000 1500-2000 0.05 100-150
(6)
4.5 - 5 2 - 2.5 6 - 10 3.5 - 5.5 0.03-0.05 25 - 45 30 - 35 3.5 - 5.5 0.5 - 0.8 200-300 500-800 300
(10)
Boars 10000-15000 1500-2000 0.05 100-150 4.5 - 5 1 - 2 6 - 10 3.5 - 5.5 0.03-0.05 25 - 45 20 - 30 3.5 - 5.5 0.5 - 0.8 200-500 500-800
(1)
Added per kg air-dry feed.
(2)
Local legal limits of Vitamin D
3
activity need to be observed.
(3)
When dietary fat is
higher than 3% then add 5 mg/kg feed for each 1% dietary fat.
(4)
For optimum immune health: additional 100 mg/kg
feed.
(5)
For optimum meat quality: additional 150 mg/kg feed.
(6)
For optimum piglet health: during late pregnancy and
lactation total 250 mg/kg feed.
(7)
Use upper level when cobalt is supplemented at very low levels or removed.
(8)
Recommended in stress condition and to enhance reproductive performance in breeders.
(9)
Use ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
(ascorbyl-monophosphate) for reducing losses during processing.
(10)
For improved sow fertility: to be fed per animal
per day immediately after weaning until confirmed conception.
Category/Phase Vit. A Vit. D
3
Vit. E

Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin Vit. C Choline ß-Carotene
(Menadione) thenic acid

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Calves, milk replacer
0-3 months 20000-32000 1400-1800 100-150 1 - 1.5 2.5 - 5 2.5 - 4.5 2.5 - 4.5 0.04 - 0.08 9 - 18 7 - 9 0.2 - 0.3 0.05 - 0.1 250-500 500-750 100
(11)
Heifers
Rearing 20000-40000 2500-4000 500 10 - 20
(9)
300-500
(12)
6-4 wks 20000-40000 2500-4000 1000-3000 10 - 20
(9)
500-1000
(13)
before calving
Beef cattle
Growing 50000-70000 6000-9000 200-300 60 - 250
(7)
10 - 20
(9)

Fattening & finishing 50000-70000 5000-7000 500-2000
(4)
60 - 250
(7)
10 - 20
(9)


Beef cows 50000-120000 5000-10000 300-500 20
(9)
300-500
(12)
Dairy cows
Far-off & close-up
(2)
75000-100000 25000-35000 1000-3000
(5)
20
(10)
500-1000
(14)
Transition
(3)
75000-100000 25000-35000 1000-3000
(5)
5000-10000
(8)
20
(10)
500-800
(15)
Lactation 100000-150000 30000-50000 500-1000
(6)
5000-10000
(8)
20
(10)
300-500
(16)
Breeding bulls 50000-120000 5000-10000 300-500 20
(9)

Sheep & goats 5000-10000 600 200-400 100 5
(11)


(1)
Added per animal per day.
(2)
Far-off: from 8-3 weeks before calving; Close-up: from 3 weeks before calving to calving.
(3)
Transition: from 4-3 weeks before calving to 3-4 weeks after calving.
(4)
Upper level for improved color
shelf life.100-120 days pre-marketing.
(5)
Upper level from 21 days pre-partum through 28 days post-partum.
(6)
Upper level for optimum udder health.
(7)
Upper level for cattle on high concentrate rations.
(8)
From 2 weeks
before parturition until peak lactation.
(9)
For optimum hoof health and optimum meat marbling.
(10)
For optimum hoof health and milk yield.
(11)
For 2 weeks after colostral period.
(12)
6-8 weeks before first insemination/mating
when intake of green forage is low.
(13)
Lower level 8 weeks before first calving; upper level 4 weeks before first calving when intake of green forage is low.
(14)
Lower level during entire dry period (far-off and close-up);
upper level 3-4 weeks before calving (close-up only).
(15)
500-800 mg from 3-4 weeks before calving and 300-500 mg 4-6 week after calving.
(16)
Dry and fresh: beginning dry period until pregnancy is confirmed.
Category/Phase Vit. A Vit. D
3
Vit. E

Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin Vit. C
(3)
Choline Astaxanthin
(Menadione) thenic acid (Carophyll Pink)

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Salmon/trout
(2)
3000-6000 2000-2500 200-400
(4)
8 - 12 10 - 20 20 - 30 15 - 25 0.03 - 0.05 150-200 40 - 60 6 - 10 0.8 - 1 150-250
(6)
500-1000 50 - 100
(7)
Warm-water fish
(2)
8000-11000 1500-2000 100-300 5 - 10 10 - 20 15 - 20 15 - 25 0.02 - 0.05 80-120 40 - 50 4 - 7 0.5 - 1 150-250 600-1000
Carp/tilapia/cat-fish
Eels
(2)
8000-12000 1500-2000 150-300 3 - 6 15 - 25 20 - 30 10 - 15 0.1 - 0.2 80-120 50 - 60 4 - 6 0.3 - 0.5 150-300 800-1200
Seabream/seabass
(2)
8000-12000 1700-2200 150-300 8 - 12 20 - 30 20 - 30 20 - 25 0.1 - 0.2 100-140 50 - 100 4 - 6 0.8 - 1 150-250 600-1000
Shrimp
(3)
12000-15000 2000-3500 150-300 40 - 60 50 - 100 40 - 80 50 - 120 0.02 - 0.05 100-250 100 - 180 10 - 20 1 - 2 250-500 400-600 15 - 50
(1)
Added per kg air-dry feed
(2)
Amount to be increased by 30% for fry and broodstock
(3)
At low stock density (< 10pl/m
2
) the lower levels are recommended
(4)
Additional 200 mg may be required to optimise flesh quality dependent on dietary fat levels
(5)
Use ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
(ascorbyl-monophosphate) for reducing losses during processing
(6)
During winter feeding for wound healing and immune function: total 1000 mg/kg feed
(7)
For flesh pigmentation
(1)
Added per animal per day, based on average weight of 250 kg.
(2)
Added per animal per day,
based on average weight of 550 kg.
(3)
Added per kg air-dry feed.
(4)
Dietary fat higher than 3%:
additional 5 mg/kg feed for each 1% dietary fat.
(5)
When feeding raw fish: additional 50 mg/kg feed.
(6)
For fur production rabbits: 0.6 mg/kg feed.
(7)
Recommended in stress condition and to enhance
reproductive performance in breeders.
(8)
Use ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
(ascorbyl-monophosphate) for
reducing losses during processing.
(9)
From 4 weeks before until 10 weeks after parturition.
Category/Phase Vit. A Vit. D
3
Vit. E
(2)
Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
(4)
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
(5)
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin
(6)
Vit. C
(7)
Choline ß-Carotene
(8)
(Menadione) thenic acid

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Dogs 15000-22000 780-1300 100-250 1 - 2 4 - 8 13 - 22 6 - 11 0.03-0.05 50-170 30 - 60 0.6 - 2 0.25-0.8 100-200 1300-2700 30 - 50
Cats 15000-40000
(1)
780-1300 150-300 1 - 2
(3)
5 - 10 22 - 27 11 - 14 0.03-0.1 50-170 30 - 60 0.6 - 2 0.25-0.8 100-200 1300-2700 30 - 50
(1)
Vitamin A: preformed vitamin A is vital in diets for cats.
(2)
Vitamin E: supplemental levels should at least be
5 mg/kg of dry food for each 1% of PUFA in the diet. Higher levels above are recommended to support the
total antioxidant capacity of the dog and cat.
(3)
Vitamin K: supplementation is particularly important in
canned catfoods that contains >25% fish when fed for long periods.
(4)
Vitamin B
1
: levels of up to 18 mg/kg
dry food for dogs and 35 mg/kg for cats are reported to help improve meal acceptance and stimulate
appetite.
(5)
Vitamin B
12
: increased supplemental levels up to 0.8 mg/kg dry food help in the support of liver
function. Supplementation might need to be increased in vegetarian diets as plants are a poor source of this
vitamin.
(6)
Biotin: Higher levels, up to 2 mg/day, are recommended in high fat diets and also as an aid in the
improvement of coat and skin condition for cats and dogs and to help hepatic glucose excretion and thus
fasting blood glucose levels in dogs with diabetes.
(7)
Use ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
(ascorbyl-monophosphate)
for reducing losses during processing and supporting the total antioxidant capacity of the animal.
(8)
ß-Carotene: recommended for supporting the total antioxidant capacity of the dog or cat and as an
immune system modulator and for supporting reproductive physiology.
Recommendations are expressed per kg air-dry food. The values are based on the diets containing 4000 kcal ME/kg dry matter.
Diets that deviate in energy content >12.5% or have feeding recommendations that restrict energy intake should have the
supplemental vitamin levels adjusted accordingly.
With over 75 years’ experience, DSM is the world’s leading supplier of fat-soluble and water-
soluble vitamins, carotenoids, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, enzymes, eubiotics
and nutraceuticals to the feed, food, pharmaceutical and personal care industries.
Category/Phase Vit. A Vit. D
3
Vit. E

Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin Vit. C
(7) (8)
Choline ß-Carotene
(Menadione) thenic acid

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Foals. 1st year
(1)
25000-30000 4500-5500 250-500 8 - 12 20 - 25 20 - 30 15 - 20 0.15-0.3 25 - 50 20 - 30 15 - 20 2 - 3 500-750 300-400
Leisure horses
(2)
35000-45000 3500-4500 500-1000 6 - 12 40 - 55 30 - 40 25 - 35 0.35-0.65 55 - 85 45 - 65 25 - 35 15 - 20 600-900
Race horses
(2)
65000-85000 6500-8500 1000-2000 11 - 22 70 - 110 70 - 85 40 - 55 0.55-0.85 110 - 200 50 - 80 45 - 65 15 - 20 1000-2000 1000-1400
Mares & stallions
(2)
65000-85000 6500-8500 1000-2000 11 - 22 70 - 110 70 - 85 40 - 55 0.55-0.85 110 - 200 50 - 80 45 - 65 15 - 20 1000-2000 1000-1400 400-800
(9)
Rabbits
(3)
8000-12000 800-1200 40-60 1 - 2 1 - 2 3 - 6 2 - 3 0.01-0.02 40 - 60 10 - 15 0.2 - 0.5 0.1 - 0.2
(6)
150-250 600-800 10-20
Mink & foxes
(3)
10000-15000 1500-2000 100-200
(4)
1 - 2 20 - 50
(5)
10 - 20 10 - 20 0.03-0.06 20 - 40 8 - 20 0.6 - 1 0.3 - 0.6 100-200
POULTRY
(1)
RUMINANTS
(1)
TURKEY
(1)
SWINE
(1)
FISH & SHRIMP
(1)
HORSES & OTHERS
COMPANION ANIMALS
ABOUT DSM
Nutritional ingredient production
Reliability through backward integration
DSM operates nine bulk manufacturing and formulation sites
across Europe, the United States and China. These sites produce
the majority of nutritional ingredients sold as straight products or
in premixes and concentrates.
Quality is at the heart of all our operations, and we work to a
global quality standard, backed by our unique backward
integration concept which gives unrivalled control over our supply
chain. DSM has a dedicated logistics network based on three main
distribution centres in Venlo (NL), Belvidere (USA) and Singapore.
Premixes and blending
Product services where customers need them
DSM has a comprehensive global network of premix plants with
over 40 plants dedicated to the production of feed premixes
and another six plants for human food premixes.
This network helps ensure high levels of customer service and
delivery, backed by the highest levels of traceability, quality and
food safety. Being close to our markets allows us to respond
quickly to changing market demands.
Category/Phase Duration Vit. A Vit. D
3
(2)
25OHD
3
Vit. E
(3)
Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
(7)
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin Vit. C
(8)(9)
Choline
(Hy•D)
(2)

(Menadione) thenic acid

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Broilers

Starters 1 - 10 days 11000-15000 3000-5000 0.069 150-300
(4)
3 - 4 3 - 4 8 - 10 4 - 6 0.02 - 0.04 60 - 80 15 - 20 2 - 2.5 0.2 - 0.4 100-200 400-700
Growers 11 - 24 days 10000-12500 3000-5000 0.069 50-100
(5)
3 - 4 2 - 3 7 - 9 4 - 6 0.02 - 0.03 60 - 80 12 - 18 2 - 2.5 0.2 - 0.3 100-200 400-700
Finishers 25 days - market 10000-12500 3000-5000 0.069 50-100
(5)(6)
3 - 4 2 - 3 6 - 8 4 - 6 0.02 - 0.03 50 - 80 10 - 15 2 - 2.5 0.2 - 0.3 100-200 400-600
Broiler breeders
Starters & growers 0 - 18 wks 10000-12000 3000-4000 0.069 80-100
(4)
3 - 5 2 - 3 6 - 8 3 - 5 0.02 - 0.03 30 - 60 13 - 15 1.5 - 2 0.2 - 0.4 100-150 350-700
Layers 19 wks - end 12000-15000 3000-5000 0.069
10)
100-150
(5)
5 - 7 3 - 3.5 12 - 16
4 - 6
0.03 - 0.04 50 - 60 15 - 25 2 - 4 0.25 - 0.4 100-150 350-700
(& male breeders)
Hen & ducklayers
Starters (pullets) 0 -10 wks 12000-13000 3000-4000 0.069 50-100
(4)
3 - 3.5 2 - 2.5 6 - 7 4.5 - 5.5 0.025 - 0.03 50 - 60 15 - 17 1 - 1.5 0.15 - 0.2 100-150 200-400
Rearing (pullets) 10 wks - 2% lay 10000-12000 2000-3000 0.069 30-35 3 - 3.5 2 - 2.5 5 - 6 3 - 5 0.02 - 0.025 30 - 60 12 - 15 1 - 1.5 0.1 - 0.15 100-150 200-400
Layers Laying phase 8000-12000 3000-4000 0.069 20-30
(5)
2.5 - 3 2.5 - 3 5 - 7 3.5 - 5 0.015 - 0.025 30 - 50 8 - 12 1 - 1.5 0.1 - 0.15 100-200 300-500
Layer breeders
Growers & layers 0 wks - end 10000-15000 3000-4500 0.069
(10)
50-100
(5)
2 - 5 2.5 - 3.5 10 - 12 5 - 6 0.02 - 0.04 45 - 60 15 - 20 2 - 3 0.25 - 0.4 150-200 300-500
(& male breeders)
Ducks and geese 12000-15000 3000-5000 0.069 40-80 3 - 5 2 - 3 7 - 9 5 - 7 0.02 - 0.04 60 - 80 10 - 15 1 - 2 0.1 - 0.15 100-200 300-500
Partridges. quails 12000-13500 3000-4000 0.069 50-80 2 - 4 2 - 4 5 - 7 4 - 6 0.03 - 0.05 50 - 80 15 - 25 1.5 - 2 0.15 - 0.25 100-200 400-600
and pheasants
Ostriches and emus 12000-16000 3000-4000 0.069 40-60 2 - 4 3 - 5 10 - 20 6 - 8 0.05 - 0.1 80 - 100 12 - 20 2 - 4 0.2 - 0.35 200-250 600-800
(1)
Added per kg air-dry feed.
(2)
Local legal limits of Vitamin D
3
activity need to be observed.
(3)
When dietary fat is higher than 3% then add 5 mg/kg feed for each 1% dietary fat.
(4)
Higher level for optimum immune function.
(5)
Under heat stress conditions increase
level up to 200 mg/kg.
(6)
For optimum meat quality increase level up to 200 mg/kg.
(7)
Use upper level as reference for animal protein free diets and when cobalt is supplemented at very low levels or removed.
(8)
Recommended under heat stress condition and to
enhance reproductive performance in breeders.
(9)
Use ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
(ascorbyl-monophosphate) for reducing losses during processing.
(10)
Improve hatchability by using MAXICHICK
®
. the combination of Hy•D
®
(25-OH-D
3
) with 60 ppm of CAROPHYLL
®
Red
(Canthaxanthin). The use of MAXICHICK
®
is covered by a DSM Nutritional Products international patent application WO 2010 057811 nationalized in US and Europe amongst others. MAXICHICK
®
is a trademark registered in Europe and the US amongst others.
Category/Phase Duration Vit. A Vit. D
3
(2)
25OHD
3
Vit. E
(3)
Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
(7)
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin Vit. C
(8)(9)
Choline
(Hy•D)
(2)

(Menadione) thenic acid

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Turkeys
Starters 0 - 6 wks 12000-15000 4000-5000 0.092 100-250
(4)
4 - 5 4.5 - 5 15 - 20 6 - 7 0.04 - 0.05 100 - 150 30 - 35 4 - 6 0.25 - 0.4 100-200 1000-1200
Growers 7 - 12 wks 10000-12000 3000-5000 0.092 60-80 3 - 4 3 - 5 10 - 15 5 - 7 0.03 - 0.04 80 - 100 20 - 25 2 - 3 0.25 - 0.3 100-200 500-1000
Finishers 1 13 - 18 wks 8000-10000 3000-4000 0.092 30-50
(5)(6)
3 - 4 3 - 4 8 - 10 3 - 6 0.02 - 0.03 60 - 80 15 - 20 2 - 2.5 0.2 - 0.25 100-200 400-600
Finishers 2 18 wks - market 6000-9000 2000-3000 0.092 30-50
(5)(6)
3 - 4 2 - 3 8 - 10 3 - 6 0.015 - 0.025 50 - 60 15 - 20 2 - 2.5 0.2 - 0.25 100-200 400-600
Turkey breeders
Starters 0 - 6 wks 12000-14000 4000-5000 0.092 100-250
(4)
4 - 5 4.5 - 5 15 - 20 6 - 7 0.04 - 0.05 100 - 150 30 - 35 4 - 6 0.4 - 0.6 100-200 1000-1200
Growers 7-29 wks 8000-10000 4000-5000 0.092 60-80 2 - 4 2 - 3 10 - 15 6 - 7 0.03 - 0.04 60 - 80 25 - 30 2 - 3 0.4 - 0.6 100-200 1000-1200
Layers Laying phase 12000-14000 4000-5000 0.092
(10)
100-150
(5)
4 - 5 4 - 5 15 - 20 6 - 7 0.04 - 0.05 80 - 120 30 - 35 4 - 6 0.4 - 0.6 100-200 500-1000
(& male breeders)
(1)
Added per kg air-dry feed.
(2)
Local legal limits of Vitamin D
3
activity need to be observed.
(3)
When dietary fat is higher than 3% then add
5 mg/kg feed for each 1% dietary fat.
(4)
Higher level for optimum immune function.
(5)
Under heat stress conditions increase level up to 200 mg/kg.
(6)
For optimum meat quality increase level up to 200 mg/kg.
(7)
Use upper level as reference for animal protein free diets and when cobalt is
supplemented at very low levels or removed.
(8)
Recommended under heat stress condition and to enhance reproductive performance in
breeders.
(9)
Use ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
(ascorbyl-monophosphate) for reducing losses during processing.
(10)
Improve hatchability by using
MAXICHICK
®
, the combination of Hy•D
®
(25-OH-D
3
) with 60 ppm of CAROPHYLL
®
Red (Canthaxanthin). The use of MAXICHICK
®
is covered
by a DSM Nutritional Products international patent application WO 2010 057811 nationalized in US and Europe amongst others. MAXICHICK
®
is a trademark registered in Europe and the US amongst others.
Category/Phase Duration Vit. A Vit. D
3
(2)
25OHD
3
Vit. E
(3)
Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
(7)
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin Vit. C
(8)(9)
Choline ß-Carotene
(Hy•D)
(2)

(Menadione) thenic acid

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Fattening pigs
Pre-starters < 5 kg 10000-20000 1800-2000 0.05 100-150
(4)
8 - 10 3.5 - 5.5 10 - 15 6 - 8 0.05-0.07 60 - 80 30 - 50 1.5 - 3 0.2 - 0.4 100-200 500-800
Starters 5 - 30 kg 10000-15000 1800-2000 0.05 100-150 5 - 6 3 - 5 10 - 15 6 - 8 0.04-0.06 35 - 55 25 - 45 1.5 - 2.5 0.2 - 0.4 100-200 250-400
Growers 30 - 70 kg 7000-10000 1500-2000 0.05 60-100 2 - 4 2 - 3 7 - 10 2.5 - 4.5 0.03-0.05 20 - 40 25 - 45 1 - 1.5 0.15 - 0.3 150-300
Finishers 70 kg to market 5000-8000 1000-1500 0.05 60-100
(5)
2 - 4 1 - 2 6 - 10 2 - 3.5 0.03-0.05 20 - 40 25 - 45 0.5 - 1 0.1 - 0.2 100-200
Breeders
Replacement gilts 10000-12500 1800-2000 0.05 80-100 1.5 - 3 1 - 2 6 - 10 3.5 - 5.5 0.03-0.05 20 - 30 15 - 30 3.5 - 5.5 0.3 - 0.5 200-300 250-500
Sows 10000-15000 1500-2000 0.05 100-150
(6)
4.5 - 5 2 - 2.5 6 - 10 3.5 - 5.5 0.03-0.05 25 - 45 30 - 35 3.5 - 5.5 0.5 - 0.8 200-300 500-800 300
(10)
Boars 10000-15000 1500-2000 0.05 100-150 4.5 - 5 1 - 2 6 - 10 3.5 - 5.5 0.03-0.05 25 - 45 20 - 30 3.5 - 5.5 0.5 - 0.8 200-500 500-800
(1)
Added per kg air-dry feed.
(2)
Local legal limits of Vitamin D
3
activity need to be observed.
(3)
When dietary fat is
higher than 3% then add 5 mg/kg feed for each 1% dietary fat.
(4)
For optimum immune health: additional 100 mg/kg
feed.
(5)
For optimum meat quality: additional 150 mg/kg feed.
(6)
For optimum piglet health: during late pregnancy and
lactation total 250 mg/kg feed.
(7)
Use upper level when cobalt is supplemented at very low levels or removed.
(8)
Recommended in stress condition and to enhance reproductive performance in breeders.
(9)
Use ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
(ascorbyl-monophosphate) for reducing losses during processing.
(10)
For improved sow fertility: to be fed per animal
per day immediately after weaning until confirmed conception.
Category/Phase Vit. A Vit. D
3
Vit. E

Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin Vit. C Choline ß-Carotene
(Menadione) thenic acid

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Calves, milk replacer
0-3 months 20000-32000 1400-1800 100-150 1 - 1.5 2.5 - 5 2.5 - 4.5 2.5 - 4.5 0.04 - 0.08 9 - 18 7 - 9 0.2 - 0.3 0.05 - 0.1 250-500 500-750 100
(11)
Heifers
Rearing 20000-40000 2500-4000 500 10 - 20
(9)
300-500
(12)
6-4 wks 20000-40000 2500-4000 1000-3000 10 - 20
(9)
500-1000
(13)
before calving
Beef cattle
Growing 50000-70000 6000-9000 200-300 60 - 250
(7)
10 - 20
(9)

Fattening & finishing 50000-70000 5000-7000 500-2000
(4)
60 - 250
(7)
10 - 20
(9)


Beef cows 50000-120000 5000-10000 300-500 20
(9)
300-500
(12)
Dairy cows
Far-off & close-up
(2)
75000-100000 25000-35000 1000-3000
(5)
20
(10)
500-1000
(14)
Transition
(3)
75000-100000 25000-35000 1000-3000
(5)
5000-10000
(8)
20
(10)
500-800
(15)
Lactation 100000-150000 30000-50000 500-1000
(6)
5000-10000
(8)
20
(10)
300-500
(16)
Breeding bulls 50000-120000 5000-10000 300-500 20
(9)

Sheep & goats 5000-10000 600 200-400 100 5
(11)


(1)
Added per animal per day.
(2)
Far-off: from 8-3 weeks before calving; Close-up: from 3 weeks before calving to calving.
(3)
Transition: from 4-3 weeks before calving to 3-4 weeks after calving.
(4)
Upper level for improved color
shelf life.100-120 days pre-marketing.
(5)
Upper level from 21 days pre-partum through 28 days post-partum.
(6)
Upper level for optimum udder health.
(7)
Upper level for cattle on high concentrate rations.
(8)
From 2 weeks
before parturition until peak lactation.
(9)
For optimum hoof health and optimum meat marbling.
(10)
For optimum hoof health and milk yield.
(11)
For 2 weeks after colostral period.
(12)
6-8 weeks before first insemination/mating
when intake of green forage is low.
(13)
Lower level 8 weeks before first calving; upper level 4 weeks before first calving when intake of green forage is low.
(14)
Lower level during entire dry period (far-off and close-up);
upper level 3-4 weeks before calving (close-up only).
(15)
500-800 mg from 3-4 weeks before calving and 300-500 mg 4-6 week after calving.
(16)
Dry and fresh: beginning dry period until pregnancy is confirmed.
Category/Phase Vit. A Vit. D
3
Vit. E

Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin Vit. C
(3)
Choline Astaxanthin
(Menadione) thenic acid (Carophyll Pink)

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Salmon/trout
(2)
3000-6000 2000-2500 200-400
(4)
8 - 12 10 - 20 20 - 30 15 - 25 0.03 - 0.05 150-200 40 - 60 6 - 10 0.8 - 1 150-250
(6)
500-1000 50 - 100
(7)
Warm-water fish
(2)
8000-11000 1500-2000 100-300 5 - 10 10 - 20 15 - 20 15 - 25 0.02 - 0.05 80-120 40 - 50 4 - 7 0.5 - 1 150-250 600-1000
Carp/tilapia/cat-fish
Eels
(2)
8000-12000 1500-2000 150-300 3 - 6 15 - 25 20 - 30 10 - 15 0.1 - 0.2 80-120 50 - 60 4 - 6 0.3 - 0.5 150-300 800-1200
Seabream/seabass
(2)
8000-12000 1700-2200 150-300 8 - 12 20 - 30 20 - 30 20 - 25 0.1 - 0.2 100-140 50 - 100 4 - 6 0.8 - 1 150-250 600-1000
Shrimp
(3)
12000-15000 2000-3500 150-300 40 - 60 50 - 100 40 - 80 50 - 120 0.02 - 0.05 100-250 100 - 180 10 - 20 1 - 2 250-500 400-600 15 - 50
(1)
Added per kg air-dry feed
(2)
Amount to be increased by 30% for fry and broodstock
(3)
At low stock density (< 10pl/m
2
) the lower levels are recommended
(4)
Additional 200 mg may be required to optimise flesh quality dependent on dietary fat levels
(5)
Use ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
(ascorbyl-monophosphate) for reducing losses during processing
(6)
During winter feeding for wound healing and immune function: total 1000 mg/kg feed
(7)
For flesh pigmentation
(1)
Added per animal per day, based on average weight of 250 kg.
(2)
Added per animal per day,
based on average weight of 550 kg.
(3)
Added per kg air-dry feed.
(4)
Dietary fat higher than 3%:
additional 5 mg/kg feed for each 1% dietary fat.
(5)
When feeding raw fish: additional 50 mg/kg feed.
(6)
For fur production rabbits: 0.6 mg/kg feed.
(7)
Recommended in stress condition and to enhance
reproductive performance in breeders.
(8)
Use ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
(ascorbyl-monophosphate) for
reducing losses during processing.
(9)
From 4 weeks before until 10 weeks after parturition.
Category/Phase Vit. A Vit. D
3
Vit. E
(2)
Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
(4)
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
(5)
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin
(6)
Vit. C
(7)
Choline ß-Carotene
(8)
(Menadione) thenic acid

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Dogs 15000-22000 780-1300 100-250 1 - 2 4 - 8 13 - 22 6 - 11 0.03-0.05 50-170 30 - 60 0.6 - 2 0.25-0.8 100-200 1300-2700 30 - 50
Cats 15000-40000
(1)
780-1300 150-300 1 - 2
(3)
5 - 10 22 - 27 11 - 14 0.03-0.1 50-170 30 - 60 0.6 - 2 0.25-0.8 100-200 1300-2700 30 - 50
(1)
Vitamin A: preformed vitamin A is vital in diets for cats.
(2)
Vitamin E: supplemental levels should at least be
5 mg/kg of dry food for each 1% of PUFA in the diet. Higher levels above are recommended to support the
total antioxidant capacity of the dog and cat.
(3)
Vitamin K: supplementation is particularly important in
canned catfoods that contains >25% fish when fed for long periods.
(4)
Vitamin B
1
: levels of up to 18 mg/kg
dry food for dogs and 35 mg/kg for cats are reported to help improve meal acceptance and stimulate
appetite.
(5)
Vitamin B
12
: increased supplemental levels up to 0.8 mg/kg dry food help in the support of liver
function. Supplementation might need to be increased in vegetarian diets as plants are a poor source of this
vitamin.
(6)
Biotin: Higher levels, up to 2 mg/day, are recommended in high fat diets and also as an aid in the
improvement of coat and skin condition for cats and dogs and to help hepatic glucose excretion and thus
fasting blood glucose levels in dogs with diabetes.
(7)
Use ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
(ascorbyl-monophosphate)
for reducing losses during processing and supporting the total antioxidant capacity of the animal.
(8)
ß-Carotene: recommended for supporting the total antioxidant capacity of the dog or cat and as an
immune system modulator and for supporting reproductive physiology.
Recommendations are expressed per kg air-dry food. The values are based on the diets containing 4000 kcal ME/kg dry matter.
Diets that deviate in energy content >12.5% or have feeding recommendations that restrict energy intake should have the
supplemental vitamin levels adjusted accordingly.
With over 75 years’ experience, DSM is the world’s leading supplier of fat-soluble and water-
soluble vitamins, carotenoids, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, enzymes, eubiotics
and nutraceuticals to the feed, food, pharmaceutical and personal care industries.
Category/Phase Vit. A Vit. D
3
Vit. E

Vit. K
3
Vit. B
1
Vit. B
2
Vit. B
6
Vit. B
12
Niacin D-Panto Folic acid Biotin Vit. C
(7) (8)
Choline ß-Carotene
(Menadione) thenic acid

I.U. I.U. mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
Foals. 1st year
(1)
25000-30000 4500-5500 250-500 8 - 12 20 - 25 20 - 30 15 - 20 0.15-0.3 25 - 50 20 - 30 15 - 20 2 - 3 500-750 300-400
Leisure horses
(2)
35000-45000 3500-4500 500-1000 6 - 12 40 - 55 30 - 40 25 - 35 0.35-0.65 55 - 85 45 - 65 25 - 35 15 - 20 600-900
Race horses
(2)
65000-85000 6500-8500 1000-2000 11 - 22 70 - 110 70 - 85 40 - 55 0.55-0.85 110 - 200 50 - 80 45 - 65 15 - 20 1000-2000 1000-1400
Mares & stallions
(2)
65000-85000 6500-8500 1000-2000 11 - 22 70 - 110 70 - 85 40 - 55 0.55-0.85 110 - 200 50 - 80 45 - 65 15 - 20 1000-2000 1000-1400 400-800
(9)
Rabbits
(3)
8000-12000 800-1200 40-60 1 - 2 1 - 2 3 - 6 2 - 3 0.01-0.02 40 - 60 10 - 15 0.2 - 0.5 0.1 - 0.2
(6)
150-250 600-800 10-20
Mink & foxes
(3)
10000-15000 1500-2000 100-200
(4)
1 - 2 20 - 50
(5)
10 - 20 10 - 20 0.03-0.06 20 - 40 8 - 20 0.6 - 1 0.3 - 0.6 100-200
Although DSM has used diligent care to ensure that the information provided herein is accurate and up to date, DSM makes no representation or warranty of the accuracy, reliability, or completeness of the information. The information provided
herein is for informational purposes and is intended for business to business use only. This publication does not constitute or provide scientific or medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment and is distributed without warranty of any kind, either expressly
or implied. In no event shall DSM be liable for any damages arising from the reader's reliance upon, or use of, these materials. The reader shall be solely responsible for any interpretation or use of the material contained herein. The content of this
document is subject to change without further notice. Please contact your local DSM representative for more details. All trademarks listed in this brochure are either registered trademarks or trademarks of DSM in The Netherlands and/or other countries.
© DSM Nutritional Products Ltd 2011
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Freeport, USA
Lalden, Switzerland
Xinghuo, China
Sisseln, Switzerland
Bulk manufacturing and formulation sites
Premix plants
Grenzach, Germany
Belvidere, USA
Dalry, UK
Village-Neuf, France
D S M V i t a m i n S u p p l e m e n t a t i o n
G u i d e l i n e s 2 0 1 1
H E A L T H • N U T R I T I O N • M A T E R I A L S
f o r d o m e s t i c a n i m a l s
Guidelines for Optimum Vitamin Nutrition
DSM vitamin supplementation guidelines are designed to provide
Optimum Vitamin Nutrition under typical industry practices.
Optimum Vitamin Nutrition provides all
vitamins in the diet at levels that permit
optimum health and productivity of
domestic animals. The supplementation
levels required to attain Optimum Vitamin
Nutrition generally exceed the levels
needed to prevent clinical deficiency signs.
Optimum intake compensates for the
many factors which can influence the
animals requirements and the feed
levels thus, ensuring that vitamin
fortification does not limit performance.
These guidelines are ranges and based on
extensive university and industry
research, published requirements and
practical experience. They accommodate
most factors that influence the vitamin
requirements of animals, how ever extreme
feed processing conditions may necessitate
overages of sensitive vitamins.
The listed vitamin levels are only guidelines
and, in all cases, national feed legislation
must be followed.
All figures are expressed in terms of
vitamin activity. In general, amounts
given are per kg air-dry feed, except for
ruminants and horses.
Optimum Vitamin Nutrition concept
Average animal response
Conversion factors
Standard DSM vitamins for animal nutrition
Factors influencing vitamin needs of animals
under commercial production conditions:
•Direct factors - Stressors on animal:
Disease
Confinement
Restricted feeding
Antagonists
Air quality
Temperature
•Indirect factors - Variations of levels in feedstuffs:
Bioavailability
Stability
Quality of feedstuffs
Legends
'Total vitamin intake from all sources in diet'
describes the total quantity of vitamins from all
dietary sources, i.e. natural content of the
feedstuffs plus supplementation.
'Average animal response' refers to any
average productivity or health response of
animals to vitamin intake, i.e. growth rate, feed
efficiency, reproductive performance, welfare,
health or immunity.
'Deficient' or 'marginal' vitamin intake means
a level of supplementation below the
requirements published by NRC, ARC and other
officially published vitamin recommendations.
Such vitamin supply puts animals at risk of
developing clinical deficiencies and disorders
resulting from inadequate vitamin intake.
'Sub-optimum' intake relates to supplementation
levels, which typically meet or slightly exceed
the NRC, ARC and other officially published
vitamin recommendations. These levels should
prevent sub-clinical deficiency signs under
good conditions, but are by no means adequate
to permit optimum health and productivity.
However, with stress and diseases, sub-clinical
deficiency might occur.
'Optimum' intake offsets negative factors
influencing animal health and performance,
thus allowing to take advantage of the
performance potential of modern animal breeds.
'Special applications' levels of vitamin
supplementation are safe and focused in
improving certain attributes e.g. meat quality
and immunity.
Amount of vitamin activity Equivalent amount of vitamin salt and isomer
1 IU Vitamin A 0.344 µg Vitamin A acetate
1 IU Vitamin D
3
0.025 µg Vitamin D
3
1 g Vitamin E 1.0 g DL- -Tocopheryl acetate
1 g Vitamin K
3
(Menadione) 2.0 g Menadione sodium bisulfite = MSB
2.3 g Menadione nicotin-amide bisulfite = MNB (K3 Stab)
1 g Vitamin B
1
(Thiamine) 1.088 g Thiamine mononitrate
1.12 g Thiamine hydrochloride
1 g Vitamin B
6
(Pyridoxine) 1.215 g Pyridoxine hydrochloride
1 g D-Pantothenic acid 1.087 g Calcium D-pantothenate
2.174 g Calcium DL-pantothenate
1 g Biotin 1.0 g D-Biotin
1 g Vitamin C 1.0 g L-Ascorbic acid
1 g Choline 1.15 g Choline chloride
Active substance Product name Description Use*
Vitamin A ROVIMIX
®
A 1000 Powder of stabilized vitamin A in an encapsulated D
beadlet with crosslinked matrix
ROVIMIX
®
A 500 WS Spray-dried powder of stabilized vitamin A dispersed in a matrix D,W
Vitamins A/D
3
ROVIMIX
®
AD
3
1000/200 Powder of stabilized vitamin A and D3 in an encapsulated D
beadlet with crosslinked matrix
Vitamin D
3
ROVIMIX
®
D
3
500 Spray-dried powder of stabilized vitamin D3 dispersed in a matrix D,W
25-
OH-D
3
(Calcifediol) ROVIMIX
®
Hy•D
®
1.25
% Spray-dried powder of stabilized calcifediol dispersed in a matrix D,W
Vitamin E ROVIMIX
®
E-50 Adsorbate Free-flowing powder of stabilized vitamin E adsorbed D
on silicic acid
ROVIMIX
®
E50SD Spray-dried powder of stabilized vitamin E dispersed D,W
in a matrix
Vitamin K
3
Menadione Sodium Bisulfite FG Fine crystalline powder D,W
K3 Stab FG Fine crystalline powder of menadione nicotinamide bisulfite D
Vitamin B
1
ROVIMIX
®
B
1
Fine granular powder of thiamine mononitrate D
Thiamine Hydrochloride Fine crystalline powder of thiamine hydrochloride W
Vitamin B
2
ROVIMIX
®
B
2
80-SD Spray-dried powder of vitamin B
2
dispersed in a matrix D
Riboflavin
5’
- Phosphate Sodium Fine crystalline powder W
Vitamin B
6
ROVIMIX
®
B
6
Fine granular powder of pyridoxine hydrochloride D,W
Vitamin B
12
VitaminB
12
1% FG Crystallinepowder dilution D
VitaminB
12
Crystalline Fine crystalline powder W
Niacin ROVIMIX
®
Niacin Fine granular powder of nicotinic acid D
Nicotinamide Fine crystalline powder W
Pantothenates ROVIMIX
®
Calpan Spray-dried powder of calcium D-pantothenate D,W
dispersed in a matrix
Folic acid ROVIMIX
®
Folic80SD Spray-dried powder of folic acid in a matrix D
Folic acid Fine crystalline powder W
Biotin ROVIMIX
®
Biotin Spray-dried powder of D-biotin dispersed in a matrix D,W
Vitamin C ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
35
Spray-dried powder of stabilized (phosphorylated) vitamin C D
ROVIMIX
®
C-EC Powder of ethylcellulose-coated vitamin C D
Ascorbic acid Fine crystalline powder of L-ascorbic acid W
ß-Carotene ROVIMIX
®
ß-Carotene 10% Powder of stabilized ß-carotene dispersed in an D
encapsulated beadlet

ROVIMIX
®
ß-Carotene 10% P Powder of stabilized ß-carotene dispersed in an D
encapsulated cross-linked beadlet

Nutritional ingredient production
Reliable through backward integration
Regional Headquarters
DSM Nutritional Products Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
¥: +65 66 326 500
u: marketing.dnpap@dsm.com
DSM (China) Limited
¥: +86 2161 41 8188
u: china.vitamins@dsm.com
DSM Nutritional Products Europe Ltd
¥: +41 61 815 7777
u: marketing.dnpe@dsm.com
DSM Produtos Nutricionais Brasil Ltda
¥: +55 11 3760 6300
u: america-latina.dnp@dsm.com
DSM Nutritional Products, LLC.
¥: +1 800 451 8325
u: webshop.dnpna@dsm.com
www.dsmnutritionalproducts.com
Naperville, USA
Vitamin D
Vitamin B
6
Vitamin E
* D: For premixes, supplements and complete dry feeds.
W: For water dispersible applications.
For more information about further products
and product forms please ask your local
DSM representative.
Deficient
Sub-optimum
Optimum
Special
applications
Total vitamin intake from all sources in diet
Although DSM has used diligent care to ensure that the information provided herein is accurate and up to date, DSM makes no representation or warranty of the accuracy, reliability, or completeness of the information. The information provided
herein is for informational purposes and is intended for business to business use only. This publication does not constitute or provide scientific or medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment and is distributed without warranty of any kind, either expressly
or implied. In no event shall DSM be liable for any damages arising from the reader's reliance upon, or use of, these materials. The reader shall be solely responsible for any interpretation or use of the material contained herein. The content of this
document is subject to change without further notice. Please contact your local DSM representative for more details. All trademarks listed in this brochure are either registered trademarks or trademarks of DSM in The Netherlands and/or other countries.
© DSM Nutritional Products Ltd 2011
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Freeport, USA
Lalden, Switzerland
Xinghuo, China
Sisseln, Switzerland
Bulk manufacturing and formulation sites
Premix plants
Grenzach, Germany
Belvidere, USA
Dalry, UK
Village-Neuf, France
D S M V i t a m i n S u p p l e m e n t a t i o n
G u i d e l i n e s 2 0 1 1
H E A L T H • N U T R I T I O N • M A T E R I A L S
f o r d o m e s t i c a n i m a l s
Guidelines for Optimum Vitamin Nutrition
DSM vitamin supplementation guidelines are designed to provide
Optimum Vitamin Nutrition under typical industry practices.
Optimum Vitamin Nutrition provides all
vitamins in the diet at levels that permit
optimum health and productivity of
domestic animals. The supplementation
levels required to attain Optimum Vitamin
Nutrition generally exceed the levels
needed to prevent clinical deficiency signs.
Optimum intake compensates for the
many factors which can influence the
animals requirements and the feed
levels thus, ensuring that vitamin
fortification does not limit performance.
These guidelines are ranges and based on
extensive university and industry
research, published requirements and
practical experience. They accommodate
most factors that influence the vitamin
requirements of animals, how ever extreme
feed processing conditions may necessitate
overages of sensitive vitamins.
The listed vitamin levels are only guidelines
and, in all cases, national feed legislation
must be followed.
All figures are expressed in terms of
vitamin activity. In general, amounts
given are per kg air-dry feed, except for
ruminants and horses.
Optimum Vitamin Nutrition concept
Average animal response
Conversion factors
Standard DSM vitamins for animal nutrition
Factors influencing vitamin needs of animals
under commercial production conditions:
•Direct factors - Stressors on animal:
Disease
Confinement
Restricted feeding
Antagonists
Air quality
Temperature
•Indirect factors - Variations of levels in feedstuffs:
Bioavailability
Stability
Quality of feedstuffs
Legends
'Total vitamin intake from all sources in diet'
describes the total quantity of vitamins from all
dietary sources, i.e. natural content of the
feedstuffs plus supplementation.
'Average animal response' refers to any
average productivity or health response of
animals to vitamin intake, i.e. growth rate, feed
efficiency, reproductive performance, welfare,
health or immunity.
'Deficient' or 'marginal' vitamin intake means
a level of supplementation below the
requirements published by NRC, ARC and other
officially published vitamin recommendations.
Such vitamin supply puts animals at risk of
developing clinical deficiencies and disorders
resulting from inadequate vitamin intake.
'Sub-optimum' intake relates to supplementation
levels, which typically meet or slightly exceed
the NRC, ARC and other officially published
vitamin recommendations. These levels should
prevent sub-clinical deficiency signs under
good conditions, but are by no means adequate
to permit optimum health and productivity.
However, with stress and diseases, sub-clinical
deficiency might occur.
'Optimum' intake offsets negative factors
influencing animal health and performance,
thus allowing to take advantage of the
performance potential of modern animal breeds.
'Special applications' levels of vitamin
supplementation are safe and focused in
improving certain attributes e.g. meat quality
and immunity.
Amount of vitamin activity Equivalent amount of vitamin salt and isomer
1 IU Vitamin A 0.344 µg Vitamin A acetate
1 IU Vitamin D
3
0.025 µg Vitamin D
3
1 g Vitamin E 1.0 g DL- -Tocopheryl acetate
1 g Vitamin K
3
(Menadione) 2.0 g Menadione sodium bisulfite = MSB
2.3 g Menadione nicotin-amide bisulfite = MNB (K3 Stab)
1 g Vitamin B
1
(Thiamine) 1.088 g Thiamine mononitrate
1.12 g Thiamine hydrochloride
1 g Vitamin B
6
(Pyridoxine) 1.215 g Pyridoxine hydrochloride
1 g D-Pantothenic acid 1.087 g Calcium D-pantothenate
2.174 g Calcium DL-pantothenate
1 g Biotin 1.0 g D-Biotin
1 g Vitamin C 1.0 g L-Ascorbic acid
1 g Choline 1.15 g Choline chloride
Active substance Product name Description Use*
Vitamin A ROVIMIX
®
A 1000 Powder of stabilized vitamin A in an encapsulated D
beadlet with crosslinked matrix
ROVIMIX
®
A 500 WS Spray-dried powder of stabilized vitamin A dispersed in a matrix D,W
Vitamins A/D
3
ROVIMIX
®
AD
3
1000/200 Powder of stabilized vitamin A and D3 in an encapsulated D
beadlet with crosslinked matrix
Vitamin D
3
ROVIMIX
®
D
3
500 Spray-dried powder of stabilized vitamin D3 dispersed in a matrix D,W
25-
OH-D
3
(Calcifediol) ROVIMIX
®
Hy•D
®
1.25
% Spray-dried powder of stabilized calcifediol dispersed in a matrix D,W
Vitamin E ROVIMIX
®
E-50 Adsorbate Free-flowing powder of stabilized vitamin E adsorbed D
on silicic acid
ROVIMIX
®
E50SD Spray-dried powder of stabilized vitamin E dispersed D,W
in a matrix
Vitamin K
3
Menadione Sodium Bisulfite FG Fine crystalline powder D,W
K3 Stab FG Fine crystalline powder of menadione nicotinamide bisulfite D
Vitamin B
1
ROVIMIX
®
B
1
Fine granular powder of thiamine mononitrate D
Thiamine Hydrochloride Fine crystalline powder of thiamine hydrochloride W
Vitamin B
2
ROVIMIX
®
B
2
80-SD Spray-dried powder of vitamin B
2
dispersed in a matrix D
Riboflavin
5’
- Phosphate Sodium Fine crystalline powder W
Vitamin B
6
ROVIMIX
®
B
6
Fine granular powder of pyridoxine hydrochloride D,W
Vitamin B
12
VitaminB
12
1% FG Crystallinepowder dilution D
VitaminB
12
Crystalline Fine crystalline powder W
Niacin ROVIMIX
®
Niacin Fine granular powder of nicotinic acid D
Nicotinamide Fine crystalline powder W
Pantothenates ROVIMIX
®
Calpan Spray-dried powder of calcium D-pantothenate D,W
dispersed in a matrix
Folic acid ROVIMIX
®
Folic80SD Spray-dried powder of folic acid in a matrix D
Folic acid Fine crystalline powder W
Biotin ROVIMIX
®
Biotin Spray-dried powder of D-biotin dispersed in a matrix D,W
Vitamin C ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
35
Spray-dried powder of stabilized (phosphorylated) vitamin C D
ROVIMIX
®
C-EC Powder of ethylcellulose-coated vitamin C D
Ascorbic acid Fine crystalline powder of L-ascorbic acid W
ß-Carotene ROVIMIX
®
ß-Carotene 10% Powder of stabilized ß-carotene dispersed in an D
encapsulated beadlet

ROVIMIX
®
ß-Carotene 10% P Powder of stabilized ß-carotene dispersed in an D
encapsulated cross-linked beadlet

Nutritional ingredient production
Reliable through backward integration
Regional Headquarters
DSM Nutritional Products Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
¥: +65 66 326 500
u: marketing.dnpap@dsm.com
DSM (China) Limited
¥: +86 2161 41 8188
u: china.vitamins@dsm.com
DSM Nutritional Products Europe Ltd
¥: +41 61 815 7777
u: marketing.dnpe@dsm.com
DSM Produtos Nutricionais Brasil Ltda
¥: +55 11 3760 6300
u: america-latina.dnp@dsm.com
DSM Nutritional Products, LLC.
¥: +1 800 451 8325
u: webshop.dnpna@dsm.com
www.dsmnutritionalproducts.com
Naperville, USA
Vitamin D
Vitamin B
6
Vitamin E
* D: For premixes, supplements and complete dry feeds.
W: For water dispersible applications.
For more information about further products
and product forms please ask your local
DSM representative.
Deficient
Sub-optimum
Optimum
Special
applications
Total vitamin intake from all sources in diet
Although DSM has used diligent care to ensure that the information provided herein is accurate and up to date, DSM makes no representation or warranty of the accuracy, reliability, or completeness of the information. The information provided
herein is for informational purposes and is intended for business to business use only. This publication does not constitute or provide scientific or medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment and is distributed without warranty of any kind, either expressly
or implied. In no event shall DSM be liable for any damages arising from the reader's reliance upon, or use of, these materials. The reader shall be solely responsible for any interpretation or use of the material contained herein. The content of this
document is subject to change without further notice. Please contact your local DSM representative for more details. All trademarks listed in this brochure are either registered trademarks or trademarks of DSM in The Netherlands and/or other countries.
© DSM Nutritional Products Ltd 2011
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Freeport, USA
Lalden, Switzerland
Xinghuo, China
Sisseln, Switzerland
Bulk manufacturing and formulation sites
Premix plants
Grenzach, Germany
Belvidere, USA
Dalry, UK
Village-Neuf, France
D S M V i t a m i n S u p p l e m e n t a t i o n
G u i d e l i n e s 2 0 1 1
H E A L T H • N U T R I T I O N • M A T E R I A L S
f o r d o m e s t i c a n i m a l s
Guidelines for Optimum Vitamin Nutrition
DSM vitamin supplementation guidelines are designed to provide
Optimum Vitamin Nutrition under typical industry practices.
Optimum Vitamin Nutrition provides all
vitamins in the diet at levels that permit
optimum health and productivity of
domestic animals. The supplementation
levels required to attain Optimum Vitamin
Nutrition generally exceed the levels
needed to prevent clinical deficiency signs.
Optimum intake compensates for the
many factors which can influence the
animals requirements and the feed
levels thus, ensuring that vitamin
fortification does not limit performance.
These guidelines are ranges and based on
extensive university and industry
research, published requirements and
practical experience. They accommodate
most factors that influence the vitamin
requirements of animals, how ever extreme
feed processing conditions may necessitate
overages of sensitive vitamins.
The listed vitamin levels are only guidelines
and, in all cases, national feed legislation
must be followed.
All figures are expressed in terms of
vitamin activity. In general, amounts
given are per kg air-dry feed, except for
ruminants and horses.
Optimum Vitamin Nutrition concept
Average animal response
Conversion factors
Standard DSM vitamins for animal nutrition
Factors influencing vitamin needs of animals
under commercial production conditions:
•Direct factors - Stressors on animal:
Disease
Confinement
Restricted feeding
Antagonists
Air quality
Temperature
•Indirect factors - Variations of levels in feedstuffs:
Bioavailability
Stability
Quality of feedstuffs
Legends
'Total vitamin intake from all sources in diet'
describes the total quantity of vitamins from all
dietary sources, i.e. natural content of the
feedstuffs plus supplementation.
'Average animal response' refers to any
average productivity or health response of
animals to vitamin intake, i.e. growth rate, feed
efficiency, reproductive performance, welfare,
health or immunity.
'Deficient' or 'marginal' vitamin intake means
a level of supplementation below the
requirements published by NRC, ARC and other
officially published vitamin recommendations.
Such vitamin supply puts animals at risk of
developing clinical deficiencies and disorders
resulting from inadequate vitamin intake.
'Sub-optimum' intake relates to supplementation
levels, which typically meet or slightly exceed
the NRC, ARC and other officially published
vitamin recommendations. These levels should
prevent sub-clinical deficiency signs under
good conditions, but are by no means adequate
to permit optimum health and productivity.
However, with stress and diseases, sub-clinical
deficiency might occur.
'Optimum' intake offsets negative factors
influencing animal health and performance,
thus allowing to take advantage of the
performance potential of modern animal breeds.
'Special applications' levels of vitamin
supplementation are safe and focused in
improving certain attributes e.g. meat quality
and immunity.
Amount of vitamin activity Equivalent amount of vitamin salt and isomer
1 IU Vitamin A 0.344 µg Vitamin A acetate
1 IU Vitamin D
3
0.025 µg Vitamin D
3
1 g Vitamin E 1.0 g DL- -Tocopheryl acetate
1 g Vitamin K
3
(Menadione) 2.0 g Menadione sodium bisulfite = MSB
2.3 g Menadione nicotin-amide bisulfite = MNB (K3 Stab)
1 g Vitamin B
1
(Thiamine) 1.088 g Thiamine mononitrate
1.12 g Thiamine hydrochloride
1 g Vitamin B
6
(Pyridoxine) 1.215 g Pyridoxine hydrochloride
1 g D-Pantothenic acid 1.087 g Calcium D-pantothenate
2.174 g Calcium DL-pantothenate
1 g Biotin 1.0 g D-Biotin
1 g Vitamin C 1.0 g L-Ascorbic acid
1 g Choline 1.15 g Choline chloride
Active substance Product name Description Use*
Vitamin A ROVIMIX
®
A 1000 Powder of stabilized vitamin A in an encapsulated D
beadlet with crosslinked matrix
ROVIMIX
®
A 500 WS Spray-dried powder of stabilized vitamin A dispersed in a matrix D,W
Vitamins A/D
3
ROVIMIX
®
AD
3
1000/200 Powder of stabilized vitamin A and D3 in an encapsulated D
beadlet with crosslinked matrix
Vitamin D
3
ROVIMIX
®
D
3
500 Spray-dried powder of stabilized vitamin D3 dispersed in a matrix D,W
25-
OH-D
3
(Calcifediol) ROVIMIX
®
Hy•D
®
1.25
% Spray-dried powder of stabilized calcifediol dispersed in a matrix D,W
Vitamin E ROVIMIX
®
E-50 Adsorbate Free-flowing powder of stabilized vitamin E adsorbed D
on silicic acid
ROVIMIX
®
E50SD Spray-dried powder of stabilized vitamin E dispersed D,W
in a matrix
Vitamin K
3
Menadione Sodium Bisulfite FG Fine crystalline powder D,W
K3 Stab FG Fine crystalline powder of menadione nicotinamide bisulfite D
Vitamin B
1
ROVIMIX
®
B
1
Fine granular powder of thiamine mononitrate D
Thiamine Hydrochloride Fine crystalline powder of thiamine hydrochloride W
Vitamin B
2
ROVIMIX
®
B
2
80-SD Spray-dried powder of vitamin B
2
dispersed in a matrix D
Riboflavin
5’
- Phosphate Sodium Fine crystalline powder W
Vitamin B
6
ROVIMIX
®
B
6
Fine granular powder of pyridoxine hydrochloride D,W
Vitamin B
12
VitaminB
12
1% FG Crystallinepowder dilution D
VitaminB
12
Crystalline Fine crystalline powder W
Niacin ROVIMIX
®
Niacin Fine granular powder of nicotinic acid D
Nicotinamide Fine crystalline powder W
Pantothenates ROVIMIX
®
Calpan Spray-dried powder of calcium D-pantothenate D,W
dispersed in a matrix
Folic acid ROVIMIX
®
Folic80SD Spray-dried powder of folic acid in a matrix D
Folic acid Fine crystalline powder W
Biotin ROVIMIX
®
Biotin Spray-dried powder of D-biotin dispersed in a matrix D,W
Vitamin C ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
35
Spray-dried powder of stabilized (phosphorylated) vitamin C D
ROVIMIX
®
C-EC Powder of ethylcellulose-coated vitamin C D
Ascorbic acid Fine crystalline powder of L-ascorbic acid W
ß-Carotene ROVIMIX
®
ß-Carotene 10% Powder of stabilized ß-carotene dispersed in an D
encapsulated beadlet

ROVIMIX
®
ß-Carotene 10% P Powder of stabilized ß-carotene dispersed in an D
encapsulated cross-linked beadlet

Nutritional ingredient production
Reliable through backward integration
Regional Headquarters
DSM Nutritional Products Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
¥: +65 66 326 500
u: marketing.dnpap@dsm.com
DSM (China) Limited
¥: +86 2161 41 8188
u: china.vitamins@dsm.com
DSM Nutritional Products Europe Ltd
¥: +41 61 815 7777
u: marketing.dnpe@dsm.com
DSM Produtos Nutricionais Brasil Ltda
¥: +55 11 3760 6300
u: america-latina.dnp@dsm.com
DSM Nutritional Products, LLC.
¥: +1 800 451 8325
u: webshop.dnpna@dsm.com
www.dsmnutritionalproducts.com
Naperville, USA
Vitamin D
Vitamin B
6
Vitamin E
* D: For premixes, supplements and complete dry feeds.
W: For water dispersible applications.
For more information about further products
and product forms please ask your local
DSM representative.
Deficient
Sub-optimum
Optimum
Special
applications
Total vitamin intake from all sources in diet
Although DSM has used diligent care to ensure that the information provided herein is accurate and up to date, DSM makes no representation or warranty of the accuracy, reliability, or completeness of the information. The information provided
herein is for informational purposes and is intended for business to business use only. This publication does not constitute or provide scientific or medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment and is distributed without warranty of any kind, either expressly
or implied. In no event shall DSM be liable for any damages arising from the reader's reliance upon, or use of, these materials. The reader shall be solely responsible for any interpretation or use of the material contained herein. The content of this
document is subject to change without further notice. Please contact your local DSM representative for more details. All trademarks listed in this brochure are either registered trademarks or trademarks of DSM in The Netherlands and/or other countries.
© DSM Nutritional Products Ltd 2011
A
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0
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w
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2
0
1
1
Freeport, USA
Lalden, Switzerland
Xinghuo, China
Sisseln, Switzerland
Bulk manufacturing and formulation sites
Premix plants
Grenzach, Germany
Belvidere, USA
Dalry, UK
Village-Neuf, France
D S M V i t a m i n S u p p l e m e n t a t i o n
G u i d e l i n e s 2 0 1 1
H E A L T H • N U T R I T I O N • M A T E R I A L S
f o r d o m e s t i c a n i m a l s
Guidelines for Optimum Vitamin Nutrition
DSM vitamin supplementation guidelines are designed to provide
Optimum Vitamin Nutrition under typical industry practices.
Optimum Vitamin Nutrition provides all
vitamins in the diet at levels that permit
optimum health and productivity of
domestic animals. The supplementation
levels required to attain Optimum Vitamin
Nutrition generally exceed the levels
needed to prevent clinical deficiency signs.
Optimum intake compensates for the
many factors which can influence the
animals requirements and the feed
levels thus, ensuring that vitamin
fortification does not limit performance.
These guidelines are ranges and based on
extensive university and industry
research, published requirements and
practical experience. They accommodate
most factors that influence the vitamin
requirements of animals, how ever extreme
feed processing conditions may necessitate
overages of sensitive vitamins.
The listed vitamin levels are only guidelines
and, in all cases, national feed legislation
must be followed.
All figures are expressed in terms of
vitamin activity. In general, amounts
given are per kg air-dry feed, except for
ruminants and horses.
Optimum Vitamin Nutrition concept
Average animal response
Conversion factors
Standard DSM vitamins for animal nutrition
Factors influencing vitamin needs of animals
under commercial production conditions:
•Direct factors - Stressors on animal:
Disease
Confinement
Restricted feeding
Antagonists
Air quality
Temperature
•Indirect factors - Variations of levels in feedstuffs:
Bioavailability
Stability
Quality of feedstuffs
Legends
'Total vitamin intake from all sources in diet'
describes the total quantity of vitamins from all
dietary sources, i.e. natural content of the
feedstuffs plus supplementation.
'Average animal response' refers to any
average productivity or health response of
animals to vitamin intake, i.e. growth rate, feed
efficiency, reproductive performance, welfare,
health or immunity.
'Deficient' or 'marginal' vitamin intake means
a level of supplementation below the
requirements published by NRC, ARC and other
officially published vitamin recommendations.
Such vitamin supply puts animals at risk of
developing clinical deficiencies and disorders
resulting from inadequate vitamin intake.
'Sub-optimum' intake relates to supplementation
levels, which typically meet or slightly exceed
the NRC, ARC and other officially published
vitamin recommendations. These levels should
prevent sub-clinical deficiency signs under
good conditions, but are by no means adequate
to permit optimum health and productivity.
However, with stress and diseases, sub-clinical
deficiency might occur.
'Optimum' intake offsets negative factors
influencing animal health and performance,
thus allowing to take advantage of the
performance potential of modern animal breeds.
'Special applications' levels of vitamin
supplementation are safe and focused in
improving certain attributes e.g. meat quality
and immunity.
Amount of vitamin activity Equivalent amount of vitamin salt and isomer
1 IU Vitamin A 0.344 µg Vitamin A acetate
1 IU Vitamin D
3
0.025 µg Vitamin D
3
1 g Vitamin E 1.0 g DL- -Tocopheryl acetate
1 g Vitamin K
3
(Menadione) 2.0 g Menadione sodium bisulfite = MSB
2.3 g Menadione nicotin-amide bisulfite = MNB (K3 Stab)
1 g Vitamin B
1
(Thiamine) 1.088 g Thiamine mononitrate
1.12 g Thiamine hydrochloride
1 g Vitamin B
6
(Pyridoxine) 1.215 g Pyridoxine hydrochloride
1 g D-Pantothenic acid 1.087 g Calcium D-pantothenate
2.174 g Calcium DL-pantothenate
1 g Biotin 1.0 g D-Biotin
1 g Vitamin C 1.0 g L-Ascorbic acid
1 g Choline 1.15 g Choline chloride
Active substance Product name Description Use*
Vitamin A ROVIMIX
®
A 1000 Powder of stabilized vitamin A in an encapsulated D
beadlet with crosslinked matrix
ROVIMIX
®
A 500 WS Spray-dried powder of stabilized vitamin A dispersed in a matrix D,W
Vitamins A/D
3
ROVIMIX
®
AD
3
1000/200 Powder of stabilized vitamin A and D3 in an encapsulated D
beadlet with crosslinked matrix
Vitamin D
3
ROVIMIX
®
D
3
500 Spray-dried powder of stabilized vitamin D3 dispersed in a matrix D,W
25-
OH-D
3
(Calcifediol) ROVIMIX
®
Hy•D
®
1.25
% Spray-dried powder of stabilized calcifediol dispersed in a matrix D,W
Vitamin E ROVIMIX
®
E-50 Adsorbate Free-flowing powder of stabilized vitamin E adsorbed D
on silicic acid
ROVIMIX
®
E50SD Spray-dried powder of stabilized vitamin E dispersed D,W
in a matrix
Vitamin K
3
Menadione Sodium Bisulfite FG Fine crystalline powder D,W
K3 Stab FG Fine crystalline powder of menadione nicotinamide bisulfite D
Vitamin B
1
ROVIMIX
®
B
1
Fine granular powder of thiamine mononitrate D
Thiamine Hydrochloride Fine crystalline powder of thiamine hydrochloride W
Vitamin B
2
ROVIMIX
®
B
2
80-SD Spray-dried powder of vitamin B
2
dispersed in a matrix D
Riboflavin
5’
- Phosphate Sodium Fine crystalline powder W
Vitamin B
6
ROVIMIX
®
B
6
Fine granular powder of pyridoxine hydrochloride D,W
Vitamin B
12
VitaminB
12
1% FG Crystallinepowder dilution D
VitaminB
12
Crystalline Fine crystalline powder W
Niacin ROVIMIX
®
Niacin Fine granular powder of nicotinic acid D
Nicotinamide Fine crystalline powder W
Pantothenates ROVIMIX
®
Calpan Spray-dried powder of calcium D-pantothenate D,W
dispersed in a matrix
Folic acid ROVIMIX
®
Folic80SD Spray-dried powder of folic acid in a matrix D
Folic acid Fine crystalline powder W
Biotin ROVIMIX
®
Biotin Spray-dried powder of D-biotin dispersed in a matrix D,W
Vitamin C ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
35
Spray-dried powder of stabilized (phosphorylated) vitamin C D
ROVIMIX
®
C-EC Powder of ethylcellulose-coated vitamin C D
Ascorbic acid Fine crystalline powder of L-ascorbic acid W
ß-Carotene ROVIMIX
®
ß-Carotene 10% Powder of stabilized ß-carotene dispersed in an D
encapsulated beadlet

ROVIMIX
®
ß-Carotene 10% P Powder of stabilized ß-carotene dispersed in an D
encapsulated cross-linked beadlet

Nutritional ingredient production
Reliable through backward integration
Regional Headquarters
DSM Nutritional Products Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
¥: +65 66 326 500
u: marketing.dnpap@dsm.com
DSM (China) Limited
¥: +86 2161 41 8188
u: china.vitamins@dsm.com
DSM Nutritional Products Europe Ltd
¥: +41 61 815 7777
u: marketing.dnpe@dsm.com
DSM Produtos Nutricionais Brasil Ltda
¥: +55 11 3760 6300
u: america-latina.dnp@dsm.com
DSM Nutritional Products, LLC.
¥: +1 800 451 8325
u: webshop.dnpna@dsm.com
www.dsmnutritionalproducts.com
Naperville, USA
Vitamin D
Vitamin B
6
Vitamin E
* D: For premixes, supplements and complete dry feeds.
W: For water dispersible applications.
For more information about further products
and product forms please ask your local
DSM representative.
Deficient
Sub-optimum
Optimum
Special
applications
Total vitamin intake from all sources in diet
Although DSM has used diligent care to ensure that the information provided herein is accurate and up to date, DSM makes no representation or warranty of the accuracy, reliability, or completeness of the information. The information provided
herein is for informational purposes and is intended for business to business use only. This publication does not constitute or provide scientific or medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment and is distributed without warranty of any kind, either expressly
or implied. In no event shall DSM be liable for any damages arising from the reader's reliance upon, or use of, these materials. The reader shall be solely responsible for any interpretation or use of the material contained herein. The content of this
document is subject to change without further notice. Please contact your local DSM representative for more details. All trademarks listed in this brochure are either registered trademarks or trademarks of DSM in The Netherlands and/or other countries.
© DSM Nutritional Products Ltd 2011
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Freeport, USA
Lalden, Switzerland
Xinghuo, China
Sisseln, Switzerland
Bulk manufacturing and formulation sites
Premix plants
Grenzach, Germany
Belvidere, USA
Dalry, UK
Village-Neuf, France
D S M V i t a m i n S u p p l e m e n t a t i o n
G u i d e l i n e s 2 0 1 1
H E A L T H • N U T R I T I O N • M A T E R I A L S
f o r d o m e s t i c a n i m a l s
Guidelines for Optimum Vitamin Nutrition
DSM vitamin supplementation guidelines are designed to provide
Optimum Vitamin Nutrition under typical industry practices.
Optimum Vitamin Nutrition provides all
vitamins in the diet at levels that permit
optimum health and productivity of
domestic animals. The supplementation
levels required to attain Optimum Vitamin
Nutrition generally exceed the levels
needed to prevent clinical deficiency signs.
Optimum intake compensates for the
many factors which can influence the
animals requirements and the feed
levels thus, ensuring that vitamin
fortification does not limit performance.
These guidelines are ranges and based on
extensive university and industry
research, published requirements and
practical experience. They accommodate
most factors that influence the vitamin
requirements of animals, how ever extreme
feed processing conditions may necessitate
overages of sensitive vitamins.
The listed vitamin levels are only guidelines
and, in all cases, national feed legislation
must be followed.
All figures are expressed in terms of
vitamin activity. In general, amounts
given are per kg air-dry feed, except for
ruminants and horses.
Optimum Vitamin Nutrition concept
Average animal response
Conversion factors
Standard DSM vitamins for animal nutrition
Factors influencing vitamin needs of animals
under commercial production conditions:
•Direct factors - Stressors on animal:
Disease
Confinement
Restricted feeding
Antagonists
Air quality
Temperature
•Indirect factors - Variations of levels in feedstuffs:
Bioavailability
Stability
Quality of feedstuffs
Legends
'Total vitamin intake from all sources in diet'
describes the total quantity of vitamins from all
dietary sources, i.e. natural content of the
feedstuffs plus supplementation.
'Average animal response' refers to any
average productivity or health response of
animals to vitamin intake, i.e. growth rate, feed
efficiency, reproductive performance, welfare,
health or immunity.
'Deficient' or 'marginal' vitamin intake means
a level of supplementation below the
requirements published by NRC, ARC and other
officially published vitamin recommendations.
Such vitamin supply puts animals at risk of
developing clinical deficiencies and disorders
resulting from inadequate vitamin intake.
'Sub-optimum' intake relates to supplementation
levels, which typically meet or slightly exceed
the NRC, ARC and other officially published
vitamin recommendations. These levels should
prevent sub-clinical deficiency signs under
good conditions, but are by no means adequate
to permit optimum health and productivity.
However, with stress and diseases, sub-clinical
deficiency might occur.
'Optimum' intake offsets negative factors
influencing animal health and performance,
thus allowing to take advantage of the
performance potential of modern animal breeds.
'Special applications' levels of vitamin
supplementation are safe and focused in
improving certain attributes e.g. meat quality
and immunity.
Amount of vitamin activity Equivalent amount of vitamin salt and isomer
1 IU Vitamin A 0.344 µg Vitamin A acetate
1 IU Vitamin D
3
0.025 µg Vitamin D
3
1 g Vitamin E 1.0 g DL- -Tocopheryl acetate
1 g Vitamin K
3
(Menadione) 2.0 g Menadione sodium bisulfite = MSB
2.3 g Menadione nicotin-amide bisulfite = MNB (K3 Stab)
1 g Vitamin B
1
(Thiamine) 1.088 g Thiamine mononitrate
1.12 g Thiamine hydrochloride
1 g Vitamin B
6
(Pyridoxine) 1.215 g Pyridoxine hydrochloride
1 g D-Pantothenic acid 1.087 g Calcium D-pantothenate
2.174 g Calcium DL-pantothenate
1 g Biotin 1.0 g D-Biotin
1 g Vitamin C 1.0 g L-Ascorbic acid
1 g Choline 1.15 g Choline chloride
Active substance Product name Description Use*
Vitamin A ROVIMIX
®
A 1000 Powder of stabilized vitamin A in an encapsulated D
beadlet with crosslinked matrix
ROVIMIX
®
A 500 WS Spray-dried powder of stabilized vitamin A dispersed in a matrix D,W
Vitamins A/D
3
ROVIMIX
®
AD
3
1000/200 Powder of stabilized vitamin A and D3 in an encapsulated D
beadlet with crosslinked matrix
Vitamin D
3
ROVIMIX
®
D
3
500 Spray-dried powder of stabilized vitamin D3 dispersed in a matrix D,W
25-
OH-D
3
(Calcifediol) ROVIMIX
®
Hy•D
®
1.25
% Spray-dried powder of stabilized calcifediol dispersed in a matrix D,W
Vitamin E ROVIMIX
®
E-50 Adsorbate Free-flowing powder of stabilized vitamin E adsorbed D
on silicic acid
ROVIMIX
®
E50SD Spray-dried powder of stabilized vitamin E dispersed D,W
in a matrix
Vitamin K
3
Menadione Sodium Bisulfite FG Fine crystalline powder D,W
K3 Stab FG Fine crystalline powder of menadione nicotinamide bisulfite D
Vitamin B
1
ROVIMIX
®
B
1
Fine granular powder of thiamine mononitrate D
Thiamine Hydrochloride Fine crystalline powder of thiamine hydrochloride W
Vitamin B
2
ROVIMIX
®
B
2
80-SD Spray-dried powder of vitamin B
2
dispersed in a matrix D
Riboflavin
5’
- Phosphate Sodium Fine crystalline powder W
Vitamin B
6
ROVIMIX
®
B
6
Fine granular powder of pyridoxine hydrochloride D,W
Vitamin B
12
VitaminB
12
1% FG Crystallinepowder dilution D
VitaminB
12
Crystalline Fine crystalline powder W
Niacin ROVIMIX
®
Niacin Fine granular powder of nicotinic acid D
Nicotinamide Fine crystalline powder W
Pantothenates ROVIMIX
®
Calpan Spray-dried powder of calcium D-pantothenate D,W
dispersed in a matrix
Folic acid ROVIMIX
®
Folic80SD Spray-dried powder of folic acid in a matrix D
Folic acid Fine crystalline powder W
Biotin ROVIMIX
®
Biotin Spray-dried powder of D-biotin dispersed in a matrix D,W
Vitamin C ROVIMIX
®
STAY-C
®
35
Spray-dried powder of stabilized (phosphorylated) vitamin C D
ROVIMIX
®
C-EC Powder of ethylcellulose-coated vitamin C D
Ascorbic acid Fine crystalline powder of L-ascorbic acid W
ß-Carotene ROVIMIX
®
ß-Carotene 10% Powder of stabilized ß-carotene dispersed in an D
encapsulated beadlet

ROVIMIX
®
ß-Carotene 10% P Powder of stabilized ß-carotene dispersed in an D
encapsulated cross-linked beadlet

Nutritional ingredient production
Reliable through backward integration
Regional Headquarters
DSM Nutritional Products Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
¥: +65 66 326 500
u: marketing.dnpap@dsm.com
DSM (China) Limited
¥: +86 2161 41 8188
u: china.vitamins@dsm.com
DSM Nutritional Products Europe Ltd
¥: +41 61 815 7777
u: marketing.dnpe@dsm.com
DSM Produtos Nutricionais Brasil Ltda
¥: +55 11 3760 6300
u: america-latina.dnp@dsm.com
DSM Nutritional Products, LLC.
¥: +1 800 451 8325
u: webshop.dnpna@dsm.com
www.dsmnutritionalproducts.com
Naperville, USA
Vitamin D
Vitamin B
6
Vitamin E
* D: For premixes, supplements and complete dry feeds.
W: For water dispersible applications.
For more information about further products
and product forms please ask your local
DSM representative.
Deficient
Sub-optimum
Optimum
Special
applications
Total vitamin intake from all sources in diet

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