You are on page 1of 22

Green Technology Summit , Universiti Tenaga Nasional

GTS 2014


FROM TRASH TO TREASURE :
ORGANIC NEUTRALIZER, OIL AND ODOR
REMOVAL

INVENTORS :
SEPINTAR YOUNG INVENTORS

AHMAD KHAIDIR BIN AZHAR
ANNOR BASYIR BAIHAQI BIN ANUZI
WAN MOHAMAD FAWWAZ BIN WAN MOHD FADZLULLAH
MUHAMMAD AFIQ ZUHAIR BIN AZINI
SHAJARATUDDUUR BIN HUSSIN

FROM TRASH TO TREASURE : ORGANIC NEUTRALIZER, OIL AND ODOR REMOVAL ǀ 1

AHMAD KHAIDIR BIN AZHAR
ANNOR BASYIR BAIHAQI BIN ANUZI
WAN MOHAMAD FAWWAZ BIN WAN MOHD FADZLULLAH
MUHAMMAD AFIQ ZUHAIR BIN AZINI
SHAJARATUDDUUR BINTI HUSSIN

TRASH TO TREASURE:
ORGANIC NEUTRALIZER, OIL AND ODOR REMOVAL

ABSTRACT

Kitchen wastewater discharged into the drains cause odor pollution and water
pollution on the environment. This is because kitchen wastewater discharged has a very foul
smell and oily. Furthermore, the kitchen wastewater has a very low pH value rate of pH 4
which is acidic. Thus, the problem leads to a study that investigates the potential of the
durian peel as a kitchen wastewater neutralizer, deodorizer and oil ejector. Durian peels
were cut in sizes of 5cm
3
and were turned into charcoals by pyrolysis process at 500°C using
a Bunsen burner for 45 minutes. After that, the charcoals were immersed in sodium chloride
(NaCl) at a concentration of 25 % for 12 hours. Next, the durian peels were dried in an oven
at 120°C for 3 hours. The charcoals were weighed to 4g and were immersed in the kitchen
wastewater that has been filtered to remove suspended solids, in dosages of 200 ml and left
for 5 hours with it. The result shows that the kitchen wastewater did not emit foul smell
anymore, not oily, and the rate of the pH became neutral pH of 7. This is because the durian
peels adsorb the oil and dirt that are acidic and smelly. Thus, it is proven that the durian
peels have a great potential to treat kitchen wastewater by neutralize the water, adsorb foul
odors and remove the oil.



FROM TRASH TO TREASURE : ORGANIC NEUTRALIZER, OIL AND ODOR REMOVAL ǀ 2

AHMAD KHAIDIR BIN AZHAR
ANNOR BASYIR BAIHAQI BIN ANUZI
WAN MOHAMAD FAWWAZ BIN WAN MOHD FADZLULLAH
MUHAMMAD AFIQ ZUHAIR BIN AZINI
SHAJARATUDDUUR BINTI HUSSIN


SAMPAH KEPADA HARTA:
PENEUTRAL ORGANIK DAN PENYAHBAU SERTA MINYAK

ABSTRAK

Air sisa dapur yang dilepaskan ke dalam longkang mendatangkan masalah
pencemaran bau serta pencemaran air terhadap alam sekitar. Hal ini kerana air sisa dapur
yang dilepaskan mempunyai bau yang amat busuk dan berminyak. Tambahan pula, air sisa
dapur tersebut mempunyai kadar nilai pH yang amat rendah iaitu pH 4 yang bersifat asid.
Justeru, permasalahan tersebut membawa kepada sebuah kajian yang dijalankan bagi
mengkaji potensi kulit durian sebagai peneutral air sisa dapur, penyahbau dan penyingkir
minyak. Kulit durian dipotong dalam kadar saiz 5cm
3
dan dijadikan arang melalui proses
pirolisis pada suhu 500°C menggunakan penunu Bunsen selama 45 minit. Selepas itu, arang
tesebut direndamkan di dalam Natrium Klorida (NaCl) pada kepekatan 25 % selama 12 jam.
Setelah itu, arang kulit durian tersebut dikeringkan di dalam ketuhar pada suhu 120°C
selama 3 jam. Arang tersebut ditimbang sebanyak 4g dan direndamkan di dalam air sisa
dapur yang telah ditapis bagi mengeluarkan pepejal terampai, pada sukatan 200 ml dan
dibiarkan selama 12 jam bersamanya. Hasilnya air sisa dapur tersebut tidak lagi
mengeluarkan bau busuk, tidak berminyak dan kadar nilai pH menjadi neutral iaitu pH 7. Hal
ini kerana arang kulit durian tersebut telah menjerap minyak dan kotoran yang bersifat asid
serta mengeluarkan bau busuk. Oleh itu, terbuktilah bahawa kulit durian amat berpotensi
untuk merawat air sisa dapur dengan meneutralkan air tersebut, menjerap bau dan
menyingkir minyak.




FROM TRASH TO TREASURE : ORGANIC NEUTRALIZER, OIL AND ODOR REMOVAL ǀ 3


1.0 INTRODUCTION
Durian or Durio is a type of fruit that grows well in Malaysia. Regarded by many
people in southeast Asia as the "king of fruits", the durian is distinctive for its large size,
strong odour, and formidable thorn-covered husk. It is a cheap energy source which is
commonly prepared as local dishes. The centre of ecological diversity for durians is the island
of Borneo, where the fruit of the edible species of Durio. The focus of this experiment is on
the Durio Zibethinus species. In Peninsular Malaysia, the season for durians is typically from
June to August. According to Wikipedia, Malaysia is expected to produce 265 000 tonnes of
durian per year making it one of the biggest producer of durians. However, these figures did
not only indicate the vast availability of durians but also the amount of waste durian peel
generated. The peels that have been dumped and left unorganized may cause unpleasent
smell and disturbing view to the surrounding. Durian peel contained of cellulose which has
enable it to be applied for this purpose. Neutralization reactions where durian peel reacted
with NaCl solution.
















FROM TRASH TO TREASURE : ORGANIC NEUTRALIZER, OIL AND ODOR REMOVAL ǀ 4



2.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS

2.1 Preparation of material
Waste durian peel that are used in this experiment were taken from night
market in Rawang, Selangor. The durian peel were washed with raw water to remove
dirt and been cut into sized of 5 cm
3
. The durian peels were dried for a day. Then, the
durian peels were transformed into charcoal via the process of pyrolysis at the
temperature of 500°C using a Bunsen burner for 45 minutes. Then, the charcoals
were soaked in 25% NaCl solution for 24 hours and been dried in an oven for 3 hours
at 120°C.

2.2 Experimental and Analysis method
There were four experiments carried out to invstigate the effectiveness of
durian peel in kitchen wastewater; optimum pH, potential as odor remover and oil
ejector.
2.2.1 Stirring By Magnetic Stirrer
Purpose: To find optimum pH of wastewater that can be achieved after treatment
using Modified Charcoal at the different duration.
To determine the optimum pH that can be achieved by Modified Charcoal with higher
rate of neutralization. Basis 4g formulations of modified charcoal are added into a
beaker containinng 200 ml of kitchen wastewater with the pH of 4.
Optimum formulation of modified charcoal that can achieve optimum pH were carry
out by conducting a magnetic stirrer with a beaker of kitchen wastewater at
different duration. The magnetic stirrer ran simultaneously with constant speed
which is 90 rpm. The pH was recorded at the interval of every 60 minutes. During
this process, observation is recorded. This process is stopped after obtaining pH 7.
2.2.2 Analysing using measuring cylinder through absorption
Purpose : To find the optimum amount of oil absorption by Modified Charcoal
This method is used to find the optimum oil absorption by Modified Charcoal. A
controlled experiment is carried out involving 3 measuring cylinders with the same
volume of oil of 20 ml per measuring cylinder. Different amount of modified charcoal
are added to the measuring cylinders of 1g, 2g and 3g respectively. The measuring
cylinders are left for 6 hours.The rate of adsorption of oil is recorded after 12 hours.

FROM TRASH TO TREASURE : ORGANIC NEUTRALIZER, OIL AND ODOR REMOVAL ǀ 5



3.0 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN RESULTS: FOR MODIFIED CHARCOAL

Table 3.1 : Results tabulation using modified charcoal at different speed for pH and odor
(a) Basis : 4.0 g (b) Speed : 90 RPM (c) Duration : 12 hours

NO DESCRIPTION 4 hours 8 hours 12 hours
1 Ph ( Optimum pH of 7
)
Before
treatment
4.2 4.2 4.2
After
treatment
5.3 6.7 7.0
2 Odor Before
Treatment
Foul Foul Foul
After
Treatment
Smelly Less smelly Odorless

Table 3.2 : Results tabulation using modified charcoal at different amount for oil ejector
(a) Basis : 1g, 2g, 3g (b) Amount of oil : 20 ml (c) Duration : 12 hours
NO DESCRIPTION 1g 2g 3g
1 Oil Before
Treatment
20 ml 20 ml 20 ml
After
Treatment
18 ml 16 ml 14 ml
Percentage

10 % 20 % 30 %











FROM TRASH TO TREASURE : ORGANIC NEUTRALIZER, OIL AND ODOR REMOVAL ǀ 6



4.0 DISCUSSION

4.1 Optimum pH of kitchen wastewater after treatment.
These results shows that by using 4.0 g of modified charcoal in 200 ml of kitchen wastewater, the pH
of the treated water increases from acidic, pH 4.2 to neutral, pH 7.0. This treated wastewater
maintained their final pH, and was recorded after filtration from the precipitate.
Table 4.1.1 : Rate of neutralization
Hours (hr)

1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0

pH Value


4.7

4.9

5.1

5.3

5.8

5.8

6.3

6.7

6.9

7.0

7.0

7.0


Diagram 4.1.1 : Graph of pH measurement against time
4.2
4.7
4.9
5.1
5.3
5.8 5.8
6.3
6.7
6.9
7 7 7
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
p
H

V
a
l
u
e

Time (hours)
Rate of Neutralization
FROM TRASH TO TREASURE : ORGANIC NEUTRALIZER, OIL AND ODOR REMOVAL ǀ 7



4.2 Rate of oil absorption
These results shows that by using 1g,2g, and 3g of modified charcoal in 20 ml of used cooking oil. The
amount of oil decrease from 20 ml to 18 ml,16 ml, and 14 ml respectively.
Table 4.2.1 : Rate of oil absorption
Sample

Before After + 1g After + 2g After + 3g
Amount of oil

20 ml 18 ml 16 ml 14 ml
Percentage of Absorption

10 % 20 % 30 %


Diagram 4.2.1 : Graph of rate of oil absorption



FROM TRASH TO TREASURE : ORGANIC NEUTRALIZER, OIL AND ODOR REMOVAL ǀ 8



4.3 Observation of odor removal in kitchen wastewater
The initial kitchen wastewater released a very foul odor. The modified charcoal of 4g is immersed
into 200 ml of kitchen wastewater in 12 hours at 90 rpm. The observation of odor is taken by interval
of 4 hours.
Table 4.3.1 : Observation of odor removal
DESCRIPTION 4 hours 8 hours 12 hours
Odor Before
Treatment
Foul Foul Foul
After
Treatment
Smelly Less smelly Odorless




















FROM TRASH TO TREASURE : ORGANIC NEUTRALIZER, OIL AND ODOR REMOVAL ǀ 9



5.0 CONCLUSION
In most practical application, kitchen wastewater which is acidic, oil and bad odor can cause
disaster to the earth. Kitchen wastewater which are low in pH value (acidic) can cause the soil
become acidic. Hence, the plant cannot grow healthy. In the other word, the oil from kitchen
wastewater cause the water such as in river is polluted. The oil will covered the surface of water and
make the aquatic habitat is threatened. Futhermore, the very bad foul odor in kitchen wastewater
attract fly and cockcroaches that can cause disease to the human. Besides, it will impose a negative
view to the enviroment. Therefore, Modified Charcoal from Malaysian durian peel is the best
solution to neutralize the kitchen wastewater, absorb the oil and remove the bad odor in kitchen
wastewater to make the world healthier and a better place to live.


Table 5.0 : Comparison between modified charcoal from durian peels and activated charcoal

NO Aspect Modified
Charcoal
Activated
Carbon
Biochar
1. Sources From waste
(free)
From mineral
(buy)
Chemical reaction
(high cost)
2. Usage

Not yet Widely Sometimes
3. Sludge
formation
Less More More
4. State during
supply
Solid Solid powder Solid powder
5. Cost of making

Low cost High cost High cost
6. Storage Flexible Prevent from
windy places
Prevent from
windy places
7. Toxic effect on
human
Non-toxic Dangerous
(skin irritaion)
Non-toxic
8. Solubility Insoluble Insoluble Soluble

9. Flammablity Non-Flammable Flammale Non-Flammable

FROM TRASH TO TREASURE : ORGANIC NEUTRALIZER, OIL AND ODOR REMOVAL ǀ 10

6.0 RECOMMENDATION

6.1 People who live near durian orchards or market places that sell durians can
also collect unwanted durian peels and sell them to a supplier. This can improve the
view of the surrounding. By collecting the peels, people can find it as an income by
selling it to a supplier. Other than that, different types of peels can be collected such
as jackfruit peels and Musang King peels.

6.2 People managing restaurants or hawkers who sell durians can minimize the
durian peel leftovers that release bad odors and cannot be decomposed easily in an
incinerator. They could also manage a side income by selling them to any durian peel
collectors

6.3 For further studies, the modified charcoal have a potential to be used in
agriculture as a soil neutralizer.

6.4 For further research, the modified charcoal have a potential to be used in
industry wastewater as a heavy metal adsorbent.











FROM TRASH TO TREASURE : ORGANIC NEUTRALIZER, OIL AND ODOR REMOVAL ǀ 11

7.0 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

In the name of Allah the Almighty,the most Merciful, we would like to give infinite
gratitude to Him for without His blessings and guidance this research would have
been impossible.As the saying goes, we mere humans can only plan but Allah is the
one who decides.
We would like to thank our teacher Madam Shajaratuddur binti Hussin who
has always been giving us full support in this research. Without her guidance, this
project would have not been completed. She has given us valuable knnowledges and
inputs regarding this project. She is just sheer quality
Let’s not forget our fellow teachers and friends who have helped us
tremendously during the course of this project albeit directly or indirectly for without
their moral support we couldn’t have got this far. Last but not least, we would like to
thank the staff and students of Putra Malaysia University for enabling us to visit their
offices and guide us throughout this project.

FROM TRASH TO TREASURE : ORGANIC NEUTRALIZER, OIL AND ODOR REMOVAL ǀ 12

8.0 REFERENCES
Durian
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Durian
Acessed on 10 March 2014

Durian peels great to mop up marine oil spills
http://www.aimst.edu.my/faculties/applied_sciences/media/3.The_MalayMailOnline_May_
4_2011.pdf
Accessed on 14 March 2014

Activated Carbon – Activated Charcoal Odor absorber
http://www.innofresh.com/activated-carbon/
Accessed on 14 March 2014

Making Activated Carbon from Food Waste (The CCC Method)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dM1MMJJ3c08
Accessed on 20 March 2014

Durian Peel as Biosorbent for Removal of Cadmium ions from Aqueous Solution
http://www.eric.chula.ac.th/jer-en/download/v32y2553/v32n1y2553/ar2v32n1y2553.pdf
Accessed on 23 March 2014

Actvated Charcoal Price
https://www.sciencelab.com/page/S/PVAR/SLC1189
Accessed on 2 April 2014

Acceptable Conditions for Discharge of Industrial Effluent or Mixed Effluent
http://sekitarsynergy.blogspot.com/2012/03/effluent-standard-discharge-limits-for.html
Accessed on 4 April 2014

Litre to cubic centimetre converter
http://www.metric-conversions.org/volume/liters-to-cubic-centimeters.htm
Accessed on 18 April 2014




FROM TRASH TO TREASURE : ORGANIC NEUTRALIZER, OIL AND ODOR REMOVAL ǀ 13



















ATTACHMENT
FROM TRASH TO TREASURE : ORGANIC NEUTRALIZER, OIL AND ODOR REMOVAL ǀ 14

MSDS - ACTIVATED CARBON
May 21 2013 12.00 PM

Section 1 : Chemical Product and Company Identification

Product Name : Charcoal, Activated, Powder
Catalog Codes : SLC3982, SLC1189
CAS# : 7440-44-0
RTECS : FL7243500
TSCA : TSCA 8(b) inventory: Charcoal, Activated
CI# : Not available.
Synonym :
Chemical Name : Charcoal, Activated
Chemical Formula : C
Contact Information : Sciencelab.com, Inc. 14025 Smith Rd. Houston, Texas 77396
US Sales: 1-800-901-7247 International Sales: 1-281-441-4400
Order Online: ScienceLab.com
CHEMTREC (24HR Emergency Telephone), call: 1-800-424-9300
International CHEMTREC, call: 1-703-527-3887
For non-emergency assistance, call: 1-281-441-4400

Section 2 : Composition and Information on Ingredients

Composition:
Name : Charcoal, Activated
CAS # : 7440-44-0
% by Weight : 100

Toxicological Data on : Charcoal, Activated
Ingredients
LD50 : Not available.
LC50 : Not available

Section 3 : Hazards Identification

Potential Acute : Slightly hazardous in case of skin contact (irritant), of eye contact (irritant),
Health Effects of ingestion, of inhalation.

Potential Chronic Health Effects :
DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY : Not available. The substance is toxic to mucous membranes.
The substance may be toxic to lungs. Repeated or prolonged
exposure to the substance can produce target organs
damage.








FROM TRASH TO TREASURE : ORGANIC NEUTRALIZER, OIL AND ODOR REMOVAL ǀ 15

Section 4 : First Aid Measures

Eye Contact : Check for and remove any contact lenses. In case of contact, immediately
flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. Get medical attention
if irritation occurs.

Skin Contact : Wash with soap and water. Cover the irritated skin with an emollient. Get
medical attention if irritation develops.

Inhalation : If inhaled, remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If
breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical attention.

Serious Inhalation : Evacuate the victim to a safe area as soon as possible. Loosen tight clothing
such as a collar, tie, belt or waistband. Seek medical attention.

Ingestion : Do NOT induce vomiting unless directed to do so by medical personnel.
Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. If large quantities of
this material are swallowed, call a physician immediately. Loosen tight
clothing such as a collar, tie, belt or waistband.

Section 5 : Fire and Explosion Data

Flammability of the Product : Flammable.
Auto-Ignition Temperature : 452°C (845.6°F)
Fire Hazards in Presence : Highly flammable in presence of open flames and sparks, of heat. of
Various Substances Non-flammable in presence of shocks.

Fire Fighting Media and Instructions:
Flammable solid.
SMALL FIRE : Use DRY chemical powder.
LARGE FIRE : Use water spray or fog. Cool containing vessels with water jet in
order to prevent pressure build-up, autoignition or explosion.

Section 6 : Accidental Release Measures

Small Spill : Use appropriate tools to put the spilled solid in a convenient waste disposal
container.

Large Spill : Spontaneously combustible solid. Stop leak if without risk. Absorb with an inert
material and put the spilled material in an appropriate waste disposal. Obtain advice
on use of water as spilled material may react with it. Do not touch spilled material.
Prevent entry into sewers, basements or confined areas; dike if needed. Eliminate all
ignition sources. Cover with wet earth, sand or other non-combustible material. Call
for assistance on disposal. Be careful that the product is not present at a
concentration level above TLV. Check TLV on the MSDS and with local authorities.

Section 7 : Handling and Storage

Precautions : Keep away from heat. Keep away from sources of ignition. Ground all equipment
containing material. Do not breathe dust. Keep away from incompatibles such as
oxidizing agents, metals, acids.

FROM TRASH TO TREASURE : ORGANIC NEUTRALIZER, OIL AND ODOR REMOVAL ǀ 16

Storage : Store in a segregated and approved area. Keep in a cool and ventilated area away
from combustible materials. Keep container in a cool, well-ventilated area. Keep
container tightly closed and sealed until ready for use. Avoid all possible sources of
ignition (spark or flame).

Section 8 : Exposure Controls/Personal Protection

Engineering Controls : Use process enclosures, local exhaust ventilation, or other engineering
controls to keep airborne levels below recommended exposure limits. If user
operations generate dust, fume or mist, use ventilation to keep exposure to
airborne contaminants below the exposure limit.

Personal Protection : Safety glasses. Lab coat. Dust respirator. Be sure to use an
approved/certified respirator or equivalent. Gloves.

Personal Protection in : Splash goggles. Full suit. Dust respirator. Boots. Gloves. A self contained
Case of a Large Spill breathing apparatus should be used to avoid inhalation of the product.
Suggested protective clothing might not be sufficient; consult a specialist
BEFORE handling this product.

Exposure Limits : TWA: 3.5 (mg/m3) from ACGIH (TLV) [United States] TWA: 4 (mg/m3)
[United Kingdom (UK)] Respirable. TWA: 10 (mg/m3) [United Kingdom (UK)]
Total. TWA: 2 (mg/m3) [Canada] Respirable.Consult local authorities for
acceptable exposure limits.

Section 9 : Physical and Chemical Properties

Physical state and appearance : Solid. (Solid powder.)
Odor : Odorless.
Taste : Not available.
Molecular Weight : 12.01 g/mole
Color : Black
pH (1% soln/water) : Not applicable.
Boiling Point : Not available.
Melting Point : 3500°C (6332°F)
Critical Temperature : 6810°C (12290°F)
Specific Gravity : 3.51 (Water = 1)
Vapor Pressure : Not applicable.
Solubility : Insoluble in cold water, hot water.

Section 10 : Stability and Reactivity Data

Stability : The product is stable.
Conditions of Instability : Heat, ignition sources (flames, sparks), air,incompatible materials
Incompatibility with : Reactive with oxidizing agents, metals, acids.
various substances
Corrosivity : Non-corrosive in presence of glass.
Special Remarks on Reactivity : Incompatible with air, unsaturated oils, 2-Nitrobenzaldehyde, strong
oxidizers such as fluorine, chlorine trifluoride, and potassium
peroxide.
Polymerization : Will not occur.

FROM TRASH TO TREASURE : ORGANIC NEUTRALIZER, OIL AND ODOR REMOVAL ǀ 17

Section 11 : Toxicological Information

Routes of Entry : Inhalation. Ingestion.
Toxicity to Animals :
LD50: Not available.
LC50: Not available.

Chronic Effects on Humans:
Causes damage to the following organs : mucous membranes.
May cause damage to the following organs : lungs.

Other Toxic Effects on Humans : Slightly hazardous in case of skin contact (irritant), of ingestion, of
inhalation.

Special Remarks on Toxicity to Animals : Not available.
Special Remarks on Chronic Effects on Humans : May cause adverse reproductive effects.

Special Remarks on other Toxic Effects on Humans:
Acute Potential Health Effects:
Skin : May cause skin irritation.
Eyes : May cause eye irritation.
Inhalation : May cause respiratory tract irritation.
Ingestion : May cause aspiration pneumonitis, vomiting, decreased
gastrointestinal transit time, gastrointestinal obstruction,
constipation, a charcoal-containing empyema, intestinal perforation,
charcoal deposits in the esophageal and gastric mucosa, rectal ulcer.
Chronic Potential Health Effects:
Skin : Chronic skin exposure can result in clogging of hair follicles,
rendering them black.
Inhalation : Chronic inhalation can cause carbon particles to accumulate in the
lungs. It may cause a pneumoconiosis called "Black Lung Disease" or
"Coal Workers Pneumoconiosis". This is seen in coal workers, but no
evidence has been found for the equivalent with occupational
exposure to activated carbon (charcoal)









FROM TRASH TO TREASURE : ORGANIC NEUTRALIZER, OIL AND ODOR REMOVAL ǀ 18




1. SAMPLE PREPARATION



Durian peels were washed until no durian
flesh is left.
Durian peels were cut into pieces of 5cmᶟ.
The durian peels that were cut into pieces
are dried for 24 hours.
FROM TRASH TO TREASURE : ORGANIC NEUTRALIZER, OIL AND ODOR REMOVAL ǀ 19






The dried durian peels are burned in a can
wrapped with aluminium foil with a small
hole for 45 minutes to turn it into charcoal.
The charcoals are washed to remove stains
and ashes on the charcoal.
The washed charcoals are dipped in 25% of
NaCl solution for 24 hours to transform
them into modified charcoal.
The modified charcoals are dried in an
oven at the temperature of 120°C for 3
hours.
FROM TRASH TO TREASURE : ORGANIC NEUTRALIZER, OIL AND ODOR REMOVAL ǀ 20







EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN – Basis 4g in 200ml formulation to find the optimum pH (7)
3. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN – To find the optimum of rate of absorption in oil
The initial pH of kitchen wastewater is
measured, which is 4.2. The kitchen
wastewater is measured 200 ml and
transferred into a beaker.
4g of modified charcoal are added into the
kitchen wastewater and been stirred at 90
rpm by using magnetic stirrer
pH measurement at 1 hour interval are
taken until the 12th hour
The result is converted into a line graph.
FROM TRASH TO TREASURE : ORGANIC NEUTRALIZER, OIL AND ODOR REMOVAL ǀ 21






3 mesuring cylinder is filled with 20 ml of
used cooking oil respectively.
1g, 2g, and 3g of MC are immersed into
the 20 ml of used cooking oil
After 12 hours, MC is taken out and the
used cooking oil are measured
The result shows that 1g of MC absorb 2
ml of used cooking oil