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from different walk of life and who are different from one another in their psychological make-up. Human resource consist of the total knowledge, skills, creative abilities, talents and aptitudes of an organization’s satisfied workforce, as well as the values and attitudes and beliefs of the individuals involved in it. The performance of human being and their behaviors when engaged on a particular job is influenced by intangible psychological and social factors, such as family breeding, education, personal likes and dislikes, emotions, job conditions, the welfare facilities and privileges available to them while at work, recognition of their work., the wages or salaries they receive and above all employee satisfactions. The quantity and quality of human resources are modified by such environmental factors as education, training and development with the help of acquired knowledge and talents, a human being is capable of producing new ideas, developing and improving capital goods and modifying the available physical and financial resource in order to achieve greater productivity, satisfaction and the goals set by an organization. Capital national resources forgin aid and international aid and play important than an efficient pool of well educated, well trained and highly developed personal through whose creative efforts the goals of an organization may be achieved. In this fact lies the importance of human resource.
The deals with the employees effectively, therefore, are quite a difficult and at the same time a challenging and different job from that of handling inanimate resource. Human being have to be handled with great care by the personal manager, who should be expect in the art of what is usually called “Human Relation or Human Engineering”.
Employees have a variety of expectation to fulfill. For the satisfaction of these expectations, their role as workers and as member of group should recognize, people feel satisfaction in work not only by getting money for it, but also prestige, status, independence, security, reward respect. These must be given when due. Employee participation is essential for higher production and greater human satisfaction. The satisfaction desired by an employee may be Economic, social and psychological.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM This study is under taken to analyze the “organizational climate in BSCL, SALEM”. It helps in analyzing the present organizational climate followed in the company and how far does the employees are satisfied with the present process and do they require any changes in the present process followed which could help them in modifying and developing present situation.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
Primary objective • The objective of the study is to identify the organizational climate prevailing in BSCL and the way in which that affects the employees in the organization. • To analyze the relationship between the employer and employees in the organization.
To identify the areas to be improved in the organization.
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The investigator has made the study to measure the prevailing organizational climate in BSCL. It helps the management to concentrate the area which wants to improve for the betterment of organization.
1.5HYPOTHESIS OF STUDY There is no significant relationship between the different age group, salary and experience with organizational climate.
1.6LIMITATION OF THE STUDY 1. Study conducted in BSCL Salem, It not applicable in any other companies. 2. Bias of the respondents is another problem, as they did not reveal their real feelings. 3. Survey is restricted to sample size 75.
1.6 CHAPTERIZATION OF THE STUDY The first chapter deals with the ‘introduction’ that includes, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, scope of the study, hypothesis of the study, limitation of the study and chapterization of the study.
The second deals with the ‘concept and review’ that includes concepts, company profile and employee profile.
The third chapter deals with the methodology which include research design, survey details, sampling techniques, data collection details, data collection methods, sample size and tools of the study.
The fourth chapter deals with the ‘data analysis’, which include analysis of data.
In the last chapter ‘results and findings are presented based on the findings of the study’, suggestions are given and the conclusion is also included.
CHAPTER2 CONCEPT AND REVIEW 2.1 CONCEPTS OF THE STUDY
Meaning of HRM – Different terms are used to denote resource management. They are labor management, labor administration, labor management relations, employee – employer relation, industrial relation, personal administration, personal management, human capital management, human resource management and the like. Though these terms can be differentiated widely the basic nature of distinction lies in the scope or coverage evolutionary stage. In simple sense human resource management means employing people, developing their resource, utilizing, maintaining and compensating their service in tune with the job and organizational requirements. 2.1.1 Human Resource Management “A process consisting of four functions acquisition, development, motivation and maintenance of human resources”
DEVID.A.DECENZO&STEPHEN.P.ROBINS ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE Organizational climate is an indicator of whether those beliefs and expectations are being fulfilled. Basically organizational climate reflects a person’s perception of the organization to which he belongs. It is a set of characteristics and factors that are perceived by the employees about their organizations which serve as a major force in influencing their behavior. These factors may include job description, organizational style, challenges and innovations, organizational values and culture and so on.
Richard M. Hodgetts has classified organizational climate into to major categories. He has analogy with an iceberg where there is a part of the iceberg that can be seen from the surface and another part of the under water and is not visible. The visible part that can be observed or measured include the structure of hierarchy, goals and objectives of the organization, performance standards and evaluations, technologies state of the operation and so on. The second category contains factors that are not visible and quantifiable and include such values, morale, personal and social interaction with peers, subordinates and supervisors and a sense of satisfaction with the job. Both of these categories are shown below in the form of iceberg.
Financial resource Goals of the organization Skills and abilities of personal Technological state Performance standards Efficiency measurement Attitudes Feelings Values Norms Interaction Satisfaction
While some of the factors are easily measured by quantitative methods, others have to be assessed subjective simply by asking employees relevant questions as to how they fell about certain factors relating to organizational climate.
2.2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Mr. Lokesh in July 2006 has done a project titled “A study on organizational climate in TVS, Chennai” for the partial fulfillment of the MBA program, afflicted to periyar university. Though the study titled, a study of organizational climate in TVS the researcher concluded that there is good satisfaction level of staff members towards their job and also want to concentrate on certain factors for maintaining the good working involvement with high level of satisfaction.
2.3 INDUSTRY PROFILE: Refractory is a term given to a class of materials which are produced from non-metallic minerals and possess capability to withstand heat and pressure. These are products that confer properties like high temperature insulation, resistance to corrosive and erosive action of hot gases, liquids and solids at high temperature in various kilns and furnaces. The production of refractories started in India in the form of fire clay bricks in 1874. Today, a wide variety of refractory products are manufactured tailor made to suit the requirements of the application in various sectors which include iron and steel, cement, glass, non-ferrous metal, petrochemical, fertilizer, thermal power plants etc.
The fortunes of the refractory industry are linked to the growth of iron and steel sector which consumes a mammoth 75% of the refractories produced. The specific refractory consumption is about 27 kg/t in steel industry, 1.7 kg/t in cement and 55 kg/t in glass industry. These sectors are giving high thrust on productivity, quality, cost, energy conservation and cleaner environment which necessitates new generation of refractories with specific requirements. 2.4 HISTROY OF BSCL The History of Burn Standard Co Limited dates back to 1781, when Burn & Co. was established on the West side of River Hooghly in Calcutta. Thereafter, the company diversified its activities in several areas covering Heavy Steel Fabrication, Large Turnkey Projects, Oil Processing Platforms, Steel and Manganese Castings, Refractories and other related products. The Company now possesses over 10 (ten) manufacturing units spread over the four states of West Bengal, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu in India. The strength of over two centuries engineering expertise of erstwhile Burn Standard & Company Ltd, and the Indian Standard Wagon Co Ltd, were merged in 1976 to form Burn Standard Company Limited, a Govt. of India undertaking. Burn Standard (BSCL) today is a leader in the Indian Heavy Engineering Industry with versatile production facilities and extensive engineering capabilities with 3 (three) Engineering manufacturing units at Howrah, Burnpur and Jellingham, and 8 (eight)Refractory manufacturing unit all over India.The Howrah & Burnpur units are engaged in the manufacture of Railway Rolling Stocks and Components.
PRODUCTION SCENARIO: The installation capacity for refractory production in india is 1.65million tones and today runs at 62.37% of the total capacity. The production was a mere 47.25% of the installed capacity in 2002 – 2003. Refractory production in the country has been showing a growth of 16% per annum from 2002 – 2003 till now. This is attributed to the stupendous growth in steel production for the past few years. Among the refractories, high alumina bricks/shapes constitute 35.13%, fire clay bricks/shapes about 25.33%, basic bricks/shapes 19.02%, others comprising of monolithic about 15.43%, special products 2.71% and silica bricks/shapes about 2.38% of the total refractory production during 2004 – 2005 in india. A look at the individual refractory wise capacity utilization indicate that the production of high alumina is running at 88.25%, special products at 81.60%, monolithic about 62.61%, basic at about 58.31%, fire clay at 46.60% and silica at 42.65% of the installed capacities. The above figures reveal the growing popularity of high alumina, special, monolithic and basic refractory which is attributed to the technological changes in the steel industry.
HISTORY OF SALEM BSCL: An Englishman Henry Turner discovered MAGNESITE at Salem, in India, in the year 1890, marking the India. Open cast mining of Magnesite began and the first woodfired kiln for calcining magnesite was put into operation and the calcined Magnesite was exported to the U.K. beginning of the Basic Refractory Industry in
The company registered further growth after Govt. of India took over the plant in 1976 and put through a programme of Modernisation and Expansion in order to meet the growing demand of high quality Basic Refractory of the modern Indian steel plants, non-ferrous, cement and glass industries, registering phenomenal growth.
The present facilities of the company include captive mines of high quality deposits of Low Silica Magnesite using modern earth moving equipment. 150 TPD Rotary Kilns for dead burning Magnesite, high capacity Hydraulic Brick Presses and 1750 deg. C high temperature, High Tech Tunnel Kiln with complete range of support facilities. The activities are guided by a vibrant R&D set-up to keep pace with the rapid changes taking place worldwide in the field of Refractory.
2.5 Product profile Burn Standard Company is a subsidiary of Bharath Bhari Udyog Nigam Limited under the control of central government. Bharath Bhari Udyog Nigam Limited is a group of companies in which the following are constitutes.
Burn standard company limited Braithwaite and company limited Jessop and company limited Bharathwgon and engineering company limited. The
bharathwait burn and Jessop construction limited Bharath brakes and values limited Key roll burn limited. Burn standard company manufactures refractory products which are widely used in steel industries, cement industries, etc. Refractory products are manufactory from magnesite which is commonly available in and around Salem. The company for the past three years has been in the red and had a turn around in the previous sales and production performance. Burn standard company limited is a gem of brilliance in the crown of refractory industry. It is sprawled over a picturesque of 3500 acres about 6km from Salem. The reasons for its location can be attributed to be proximity of magnesite deposits which is the raw material required magnesite was discovered at salem by an English man, Henry Turner in the year 1890 marketing the beginning of the basic refractory industry in India subsequently the company become a unit of the famous martin burn house who established and to manufacture basic refractory bricks to cater to the nascent steel industries in India assay material for export.
The company requited further growth after government of India took over the plant in 1976 and put through a program of modernization and expansion in order to meet the growing demand of high quality basic refractory of the modern steel plant of the steel authority of India as well as those of the private sector processor, cement and glass industry, registering phenomenal growth.
THE MAIN OBJECTIVES OF TE COMPANY ARE: 1. 2. 3. 4. Marketing only high quality products. Follow latest system and methods to maintain consistent quality. Keep unfailing delivery schedule. Provided complete range of support service.
REGISTERED OFFICE: Registered office of the company is situated at 228, Raja Santhosh Road, Alipore,Kolkatta – 700 027.
Regional office of the company is situated at 104 – Akash Deep 26 – A,New Delhi – 110001. SHARE CAPITAL OF THE COMPANY The company’s authorized capital is Rs. 5000 lakhs divided into equity share capital of Rs. 1000 each were as the issued and subscribed of Rs. 4242 lakhs only OBJECTIVE OF THE FIRM
• • •
Market only high quality products. Follow latest systems and methods to maintain constant quality. Keep unfailing delivery schedules..
MISSION STATEMENT OF THE COMPANY • • • To maintain strict quality control standards. Eco friendly mining. Continuous up gradation of technology of mining, quality control measures and mineral processing. • Providing gainful employment of people in rural factory.
REFRACTORY INDUSTRY ANALYSIS BIO DATA OR REFRACTORY INDUSTRY • • • 100years old. 80 units in organized sector. 100-150units in small and unorganized sector.
END USERS PROFILE OF REFRACTORY PRODUCT • • • • Iron & Steel plant Cement industry Glass industry Copper industry : : : 4% : 11% 5% 75%
PRODUCT PROFILE LIST OF PRODUCTS PROVIDED IN BURN STANDARD COMPANY LIMITED 1. Magnesite bricks 2. Magnesite chrome bricks 3. Chrome magnesite bricks 4. Chemically bonded bricks 5. Direct bonded bricks 6. Magnesia carbon bricks 7. Refractories for electric arc furnace 8. Refractories for electric arc furnace – EBT (UHP) 9. Refractories for LF/VD & VAD ladle 10. Refractories for AOD, OTBC & VODC 11. Refractories for VOD 12. Refractories for BOF Refractories for hot metal mixer 13. Refractories for open hearth furnace 14. Refractories for glass industries
15. Refractories for cement industries 16. Refractories for copper industries 17. Caustic magnesia products 18. Monolithic ( Basic more arts, patching masses, spraying & gunning compounds)
The above said products are in different specifications. But anyway their core material is the “MAGNESE”. It is obtained from the magnese mine
located near the plant in Salem. The major product of the BSCL is DBM (Dead Burnt Magnese). It is of high quality such that it can understand the temperature of 1750 Deg.C.
CATEGORY OF REFRACTORIES & APPLICATION: 1. FIRE CLAY BRICKS/SHAPES: These are basically aluminosilicate refractories possessing alumina not exceeding 42%. Fire clay refractoriness’ earlier used to find use in lining of blast furnaces for hearth and bosh portion due to the dense structure, reheat shrinkage, resistance to slag and load characteristics of these bricks. However, today, the dense low heat duty fire clay refractoriness’ find use in top part of the blast furnace where abrasion resistance is required and upper in wall portion where slight slagging action & abrasion resistance are necessary, intermediate duty fire clay bricks are applied. Though these are the most economical variety of refractoriness’ but suffer from poor slag resistance & low 17
refractoriness characteristics. In many steel plants, these find extensive use in lining of soaking pits & reheating furnaces, bottom pouring refractories for steel casting, safety lining of the steel ladles and kilns in cement industry due to their good insulating, spalling resistance, dense structure preventing erosion characteristics.
ALUMINA BRICKS/SHAPES: The change in the quality of the raw materials, increased productivity
and higher temperature and increased campaign life in iron/steel making arena resulted in drastic reduction in consumption of fire clay products and evolution of high alumina refractories. 60 – 72% alumina mullite bricks are used in hearth and bottom of the blast furnaces. The stoves and hot blast system where the hot blast temperature gradually increased from 800˚C to 1250˚C, 72% alumina bricks with improved insulation are used. In steel plants involving in production of carbon steels, 72% alumina bricks are still used for working lining of ladles due to high refractoriness and moderate slag resistance properties. Well blocks and sleeves used in steel ladles for fixed at gas purging cones which are subjected to localized turbulence created by flow of gases through porous requires refractory materials that sustains good number of thermal cycles and increased campaign life. Here, 96% alumina bearing materials are used for high temperature abrasion resistance, low porosity, high mechanical strength and result in uneven erosion on top surface of the block. Even, slide gate refractories of 96% alumina are in use in steel ladles. The
increasing trend for production of cleaner steels led to use of 70% alumina refractories for bottom pouring.
SILICA BRICKS/SHAPE: Silica refractories possess the ability to withstand substantial load
[50lb/sq.in] to within a few degrees of its cone fusion point of 1710˚C to 1730˚C, high resistance to attack by steel furnace fluxes comprising iron oxide, lime etc, freedom form shrinkage at temperature up to melting point and high thermal shock resistance in temperature ranging from 600˚C or below 300˚C. these refractory products find extensive use in arch roofs of the furnaces, door jambs of furnaces and in coke ovens due to their excellent resistance to spalling.
BASIC BRICKS/SHAPES: The need to produce steels of high quality resulted in greater stresses
on refractory as a result of aggressive slag, prolonged turbulence by rinsing/lancing, high temperature etc. led to adoption of basic refractories to
resist slag attack while being chemically stable. Broadly, these refractories are classified as the dolomite variety and magnesite variety. Dolomite is the most common basic refractory for both metallurgical and economic reasons. These are further classified as the sintered and unburnt materials. The high silicon in hot metal led to use of dolor bricks for working lining of BOF. In steel ladles, dolomite bricks are used but the holding time of steel in the ladle should be less and should be hot in circulation. In contact with air, the free lime of the dolomite refractory reacts leading to crumbling of the refractory
which is the major disadvantage. Ceramic bonded sintered dolomites possess high mechanical strength and possess good resistance to thermal shock while enrichment with magnesia lessens sensitivity to slag attack. The high carbon dolomite products and chemically bonded products emerged in the market as an alternative to resin bonded ones and are expected to be lower in cost with absence of fumes during heating. Among the magnesite refractories, magnesia carbon and magnesia chrome bricks are highly popular. Magnesia-C bricks find us in hot spot area of EAF and BOF vessel lining as the refractoriness is high, highly resistance to slag and thermal shock. In LF/VAD steel ladles, magnesia-carbon variety refractories with high oxidation resistance and high hot modulus of rupture are applied in strike pad & slag zone areas. These refractories help in improved lining life under severe operating conditions like high tapping temperature, longer holding times and highly basic slags. For
VOD/AOD, dense magnesia chrome co-clinker grains with low apparent porosity and high hot strength applied for full wear lining in side wall and bottom for slags of lower basicity [as is the case for stainless steel] and provide properties such as excellent penetration of low basicity slags, high hot modulus of rupture excellent thermal spalling resistance and good abrasion resistance.
MONOLITHICS: These refractories are well known to produce joint less structure which is stable from dimensional aspect at high temperature and are resistant to thermal shock and abrasion. It comprises of castables, plastic mass, ramming mix, mortars, sling or mix and coating material. Magnesia based gunnitting mix is used for patching of eroded areas in EAF. Mortars of magnesite and high alumina are applied for patching of steel ladles. High alumina mortars are used for fixing ladle nozzle with well block, joint portion of plate and nozzle, fixing well blocks to steel ladle etc. aluminasilicate [60% A1203] trough and tap whole mixes are used in blast furnaces. Even in coke ovens, there is extensive use of silica based mortars for hot patching and gunnitting. Magnetie ramming mass is applied above the safety lining in EAF and for lining in basic induction furnaces involving in production of
special/alloy steels. In acidic induction furnaces used for melting cast iron/carbon steels, silica ramming mass is applied as the lining material. Another important application is in the form of ceramic coating of oxygen/rinsing lances for prolonged lancing/rinsing to meet the metallurgical requirements. Among the monolithic, castables especially of low cement variety have dominated presence in various application. This variety of castables possess about 5% - 7.5% calcium aluminate cement requiring only around 5% casting water and are less prone to explosion, no loss of col crushing strength at any temperature, low moisture content enabling faster drying/pre-heating, high degree of volume stability at high
temperature providing and excellent abrasion resistance. 90% alumina castable in use for hoods of VAD/AOD/VOD units, delta region of EAF, permanent lining of tundish, walking beam furnace hearth, precast burner block of walking beam furnaces etc. 60% - 70% alumina castables are applied for covers of soaking pits, stand pipes, charging hole blocks and cover of coke ovens. SPECIAL PRODUCTS: In continuous casting, garnex boards of silica/magnesite for cold tundishes are used to facilitate sequencing of heats. Various flow control devices such as baffles / dams / weirs made of magnesite are used in tundishes for improved quality of the steel. For crack and corrosion resistance, submerged entry nozzles used between tundish outlet and mould are made of alumina-carbon / magnesia-zirconia refractory. Shrouds and monoblock
stoppers made of alumina-carbon / alumina-zirconia are used in tundishes of various bloom/slab/billet casting machines. 95% zirconia metering nozzles are used for flow of steel into mould of bilet continuous casting machines for excellent erosion resistance. Also, for eliminating non-metallic inclusions thus improving the steel quality, ceramic filters in tundishes have evolved recently. Prefabricated single block launders of high alumina with SiC, Cr203 are used in EAFS to minimize lip jam formation, improved hot load characteristics with resistance to slag and thermal shock. Ceramic fibers due to their insulating nature are used in reheating furnaces, blast system/stoves of blast furnace etc.
FUTURE OUTLOOK: Refractoriness cost about 8% - 10% of the total cost of steel production. There is greater possibility in reducing the specific consumption of refractoriness by 9kg/T in steel industry, 0.4kg/T in cement industry in the coming 3 to 4 years. However, the refractory production is expected to increase by 16% per annum in the coming few years due to the major expansion and green field projects coming up in the steel segment. Refractory still have many areas in various sectors to enter in and it would be the monolithic & special products that would dominate the production in future. PRESENT FACILITIES: The present facilities at the command of the company include captive mines of high quality deposit of the low silica magnesite using modern earth moving equipment, 150TPD rotary kilns for the dead bringing magnesite high capacity hydraulic brick presses and 1750˚C high temperature, high tech
tunnel kiln with complete range of support facilities. The activities are guided by a vibrant R&D set-up to keep pace with the change taking place world in the field of refractory.
PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT AND ITS MANAGEMENT: “Production management is concerned with those processes which convert the input into output. The inputs are various resources like raw material, men, machines etc and the output are goods and services.” Production section is under the control of production manager and maintenance manager. BRICK – MAKING PROCESS: Brick is the premium of burn standard company. Raw materials are used are • • • Magnesite Chromite Graphite
ADDITIVES: The additives comprise of detriment solution, molasses, Epson salt, Magnesium sulphate solution etc which service as binders during the brook making process. MAGNESITE: CRUDE: The crude is extracted from the mines by blasting which compressors the crude obtained in this process are MgCo3 (Magnesium Carbonate).
STORAGE: The crude from the mines dumped in the stacking yard where it is graded manually recording to the silica (impurity) content present in it as.
LIGHT CARBON: This serves as I class crude with a very low percentage of silica content in it. SMALL CHIPS: These are the chips of small size obtained during the blasting of the crude in the mines. 25
PROCESS: The selected grade of magnesite is sized by primary crushing, screening, and washing before being feed into the high temperature rotary kilns (100TPD and 50TPD).
THE PROCESS OF PRODUCTION IN BSCL MINING
MARKETING DEPARTMENT AND ITS FUNCTIONS: Marketing is an integral part of all our lives. A large percentage of our working hour is taken up by efforts to market something. It is essential to the survival of most organization, it is highly visible it is rewarding to its successful practitioners and frustrating to the less fortune and sometimes. It is controversial in broad sense marketing consist of activities designed to generate and facilitate exchange intended to satisfy human needs or wants the people who comprise a market play a numbers of roles first, there is the decision market, the individual organizational unit that thus the authority to commit to the exchange. Then there are consumers, those who actually use or consume the product another role is the consumers, the party who transaction.
Finally there are influencers who affect the decision of others because of there expertise position activity do plan, price, promote and distribute want – satisfying product to target market to achieve organization object according to the marketing concept, a firm is best able to performance objectives by adopting. Hence marketing is practiced today in all modern nations, regardless of their, political philosophy. In recent years numerous service firms and non-profit organization have found market to be necessary and worth while. The chatting is to do it well and required an understanding of what marketing is and how to perform. It the role of marketing in the organization will also have changes traditionally, marketers have to play role of middleman, changed with understanding customer to various functional areas in the organization, who then acted upon these needs.
MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT: 1. On receipt of enquiry from the customers it is scrutinized for
completeness necessary classification is sought from the customer if required. 2. An enquiry number is allotted and noted down in the enquiry register by
the sales staff. 3. The enquiry papers are sent to HOD (R&D) who in turn wills consult
with production, purchase and workshop personnel to provide batch for costing and delivery time for the product. 4. The pricing will be arrived based on the data provided.
The UH (SW) will approve the proposal wherever required and the
quotation will be sent to customer enquiry. 6. Based on the quotation and order from the customer, the marketing
activities executed. 7. 8. The order can be executed in two ways. First one is the customer has to pay the amount for the product in
advance. 9. Second one is the performance of the product.
PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT: Personnel management is concerned with the people dimension in management. The people assigned to deal with issues were often individual who are past their prime. The personnel department is to develop the relationship between employer and employee. All the information will be passed from the top level management to bottom level management.
EXECUTIVE EMPLOYER: The work is office based and includes duties and responsibilities such as typing, filing, liaison, indenting, procurement, payment, stock keeping, printing, coordination with Government/Statutory authorities, routine services to department. And such other jobs exclusive to each dept and other clerical/ stenographic jobs. TECHNICAL PERSONNEL: Their work is in the shop floor of the company and includes operating machinery and equipment, repairs, services, upkeep and maintenance, quality testing, customer service jobs etc. 29
RECRUITMENT: Recruitment can be done in two ways through Internal External
PRESENT WORK FORCE: • • Permanent - 400 Contract - 200
PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL METHOD: • Executive performance management system 1. Task & target fulfillment 2. Rating assessment • Non executive performance management system 1. Group appraisal system OTHER FACILITY: • • • • Welfare Scholarship Canteen Employee service
CHAPTER 3 RESERCH METHODOLOGY Research is logical and systematic gathering and analysis of information, pertaining an issue or problem for the purpose of arriving at a certain conclusion.
3.1 RESERCH DESIGN The research design is descriptive research study, since the researcher tries to analyze the views about the organizational climate of BURN STANDARD COMPANY LIMITED, SALEM.
3.2 SURVEY DETAILS
The data collection for this study, were primary in nature. The data collected from skilled employees of various departments in BSCL.
3.3 SAMPLING DETAILS 3.3.1 Sample design The researcher has used probability sampling or simple random sampling. It is nothing but all the departments have equal chance of being selected. The method adopted here for sampling is lottery methods.
3.3.2 Sample size Only 75 employees have been taken out of 400 employees of the study.
3.4 DATA COLLECTION DETAILS
The structured undisguised questionnaires were prepared and the same was distributed to the employees who are working in BSCL, Salem.
3.4.1 Questionnaires The structured technique for data collection consists of series of questions, written or verbal, to which a respondents replies.
3.4.2 Structured undisquised questionnaires The questionnaire pattern is structured and all respondents will be treated the same irrespective of their categories.
3.4.3 Data collection methods
The methods used for the collection of data are primarily method and secondary method. Information is obtained from primary data through the survey. Survey is systematic gathering of data from respondents through questionnaire. In this research data is collected by personal interview.
Primary data Primary data collection is used here. Data has been collected through distribution of questionnaire and knowing the resbonponse of the employees.
Secondary data Data has also collected from the company’s records and the official web site www.bscl.in 32
3.5 TOOLS OF THE STUDY The data collected were tabulated in the frequency table. The data was then analyzed by applying weighted average and chi-square analysis. 3.5.1 Formula for chi square test
Degree of freedom = (R – 1) (C – 1) Where as, O = Observed frequency E= Expected frequency R=Number of rows C=Number of columns.
CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTREPREETATION
A number of questions are prepared and the question is given to the workers to respond. These responses are generally measured on a rank scale of 1 to 5 where 1 means generally a strong agreement with the essence of the question and 5 means a strong disagreement.
These responses can then be tabulated and conclusions can be drawn about how the employees feel about the process of promotion. Other organizational variables in this particular profile developed are supervision, motivation, and innovation, and communication. The statements A, B, C, D are ranked as 1 to 5 .
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTREPREETATION 4.1 ANALYSIS OF THE DATA TABLE 4.1.1: ORIENTATION
Source-Primary data INFERENCE: Rank R1 Statements A B C D E 37*5 12*5 10*5 9*5 7*5 R2 14*4 32*4 8*4 8*4 13*4 R3 7*3 26*3 25*3 8*3 9*3 R4 8*2 4*2 15*2 23*2 25*2 R5 9*1 1*1 17*1 27*1 21*1 TOTAL 287 274 204 174 215 RANK 1 2 4 5 3
From the above table it is clear that the choice of A given by respondents are 1 rank, choice of B given as 2nd rank, choice of E given as 3rd rank, choice of C given as 4th rank and choice of D given by respondents as 5th rank.
35 0 30 0 25 0 20 0 15 0 10 0 5 0 0
274 204 174 215
TABLE 4.1.2: INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP
Rank R1 Statements A B C D E R2 R3 R4 R5 TOTAL RANK
14*5 2*5 35*5 9*5 14*5
12*4 18*4 6*4 26*4 18*4
3*3 14*3 14*3 24*3 19*3
18*2 31*2 4*2 10*2 12*2
28*1 10*1 16*1 6*1 12*1
191 196 265 247 235
5 4 1 2 3
Source-Primary data INFERENCE: From the above table it is clear that the choices of C given by respondents at 1 rank, choice of D given as 2nd rank, choice of E given as 3rd rank, choice of B given as 4th rank and choice of A given as respondents as 5th rank.
300 250 200 150 100 50 0 A B 191 196
TABLE NO 4.1.3: SUPERVISION 36
Rank R1 Statements A B C D E R2 R3 R4 R5 TOTAL RANK
19*5 11*5 10*5 14*5 22*5
14*4 19*4 5*4 20*4 17*4
7*3 3*3 37*3 20*3 8*3
13*2 26*2 8*2 17*2 11*2
22*1 17*1 15*1 4*1 17*1
220 209 212 248 241
3 5 4 1 2
Source-Primary data INFERENCE: From the above table it is clear that the choices of D given by respondents at 1st rank, choice of E given as 2nd rank, choice of A given as 3rd rank, choice of C given as 4th rank and choice of B given as respondents as 5 th rank.
260 250 240 230 220 209 210 200 190 180 A B C D E 220 212 248 241
TABLE 4.1.4: HANDLING PROBLEMS IN THE ORGANIZATION Rank R1 Statements A B C D E R2 R3 R4 R5 TOTAL RANK
8*5 5*5 3*5 8*5 14*5
22*4 11*4 9*4 12*4 7*4
11*3 12*3 12*3 10*3 10*3
23*2 13*2 12*2 10*2 9*2
11*1 9*1 14*1 10*1 12*1
218 254 216 226 201
3 1 4 2 5
Source-Primary data INFERENCE: From the above table it is clear that the choices of B given by respondents at 1st rank, choice of D given as 2nd rank, choice of A given as 3rd rank, choice of C given as 4th rank and choice of E given as respondents as 5 th rank.
300 254 250 200 150 100 50 0 A B C D E 218 216 226 201
TABLE NO 4.1.5: MANAGEMENT OF MISTAKE Rank R1 Statements A B C D E R2 R3 R4 R5 TOTAL RANK
22*5 16*5 8*5 17*5 24*5
6*4 19*4 18*4 28*4 3*4
18*3 31*3 7*3 18*3 2*3
4*2 9*2 28*2 16*2 18*2
25*1 0*1 14*1 3*1 28*1
221 267 206 286 202
3 2 4 1 5
Source-Primary data INFERENCE: From the above table it is clear that the choices of D given by respondents at 1 rank, choice of B given as 2nd rank, choice of A given as 3rd rank, choice of C given as 4th rank and choice of E given as respondents as 5 th rank.
400 267 300 200 100 0 A B C 221 206
TABLE 4.1.6: CONFLICT MANAGEMENT Rank R1 Statements A B C D E 19*5 14*5 11*5 15*5 16*5 R2 6*4 15*4 15*4 19*4 18*4 R3 6*3 14*3 13*3 24*3 18*3 R4 17*2 9*2 22*2 9*2 21*2 R5 27*1 23*1 14*1 8*1 2*1 TOTAL 198 213 212 249 250 RANK 5 3 4 2 1
Source-Primary data INFERENCE: From the above table it is clear that the choices of E given by respondents at 1st rank, choice of D given as 2nd rank, choice of B given as 3rd rank, choice of C given as 4th rank and choice of A given as respondents as 5th rank.
B, 213 D, 249 C, 212
TABLE NO 4.1.7: COMMUNICATION Rank R1 Statements A B C D E R2 R3 R4 R5 TOTAL RANK
24*5 14*5 15*5 8*5 14*5
15*4 14*4 26*4 12*4 8*4
6*3 27*3 10*3 26*3 6*3
10*2 12*2 16*2 18*2 19*2
20*1 8*1 8*1 11*1 28*1
238 239 249 213 186
3 2 1 4 5
Source-Primary data INFERENCE: From the above table it is clear that the choices of C given by respondents at 1 rank, choice of B given as 2nd rank, choice of A given as 3rd rank, choice of D given as 4th rank and choice of E given as respondents as 5 th rank.
300 200 100 0
TABLE NO 4.1.8: DECISION MAKING Rank R1 Statements A B C D E R2 R3 R4 R5 TOTAL RANK
11*5 37*5 4*5 6*5 17*5
16*4 6*4 15*4 19*4 19*4
5*3 18*3 11*3 14*3 27*3
19*2 11*2 11*2 24*2 10*2
24*1 3*1 34*1 12*1 2*1
196 288 199 208 264
5 1 4 3 2
Source-Primary data INFERENCE: From the above table it is clear that the choices of B given by respondents at 1 rank, choice of E given as 2nd rank, choice of D given as 3rd rank, choice of C given as 4th rank and choice of A given as respondents as 5 th rank.
400 300 200 100 0 A 196
288 199 208
TABLE NO 4.1.9: TRUST Rank R1 R2 Statements A B C D E
14*5 10*5 20*5 14*5 19*5
6*4 19*4 14*4 26*4 22*4
6*3 20*3 17*3 12*3 20*3
14*2 25*2 12*2 11*2 8*2
35*1 10*1 12*1 12*1 6*1
175 210 243 244 265
5 4 3 2 1
Source-Primary data INFERENCE: From the above table it is clear that the choices of E given by respondents at 1st rank, choice of D given as 2nd rank, choice of C given as 3rd rank, choice of B given as 4th rank and choice of A given as respondents as 5th rank.
300 250 210 200 150 100 50 0 A B C D 175 243 244
TABLE NO 4.1.10: MANAGEMENT OF REWARDS Rank R1 Statements A B C D E R2 R3 R4 R5 TOTAL RANK
31*5 17*5 11*5 8*5 8*5
18*4 36*4 4*4 11*4 6*4
9*3 5*3 24*3 24*3 15*3
8*2 13*2 10*2 19*2 20*2
9*1 4*1 26*1 12*1 26*1
279 274 189 216 175
1 2 4 3 5
Source-Primary data INFERENCE: From the above table it is clear that the choices of A given by respondents at 1 rank, choice of B given as 2nd rank, choice of D given as 3rd rank, choice of C given as 4th rank and choice of E given as respondents as 5th rank.
250 216 200 189 175
0 A B C D E
TABLE NO 4.1.11: RISK TAKING Rank R1 Statements A B C D E R2 R3 R4 R5 TOTAL RANK
13*5 6*5 15*5 11*5 31*5
3*4 8*4 16*4 36*4 14*4
15*3 3*3 22*3 18*3 16*3
20*2 34*2 8*2 5*2 7*2
24*1 24*1 14*1 5*1 7*1
186 163 235 268 280
4 5 3 2 1
Source-Primary data INFERENCE: From the above table it is clear that the choices of E given by respondents at 1 rank, choice of D given as 2nd rank, choice of C given as 3rd rank, choice of A given as 4th rank and choice of B given as respondents as 5th rank.
300 250 200 150 100 50 0 A B C 186 163 235
TABLE NO 4.1.12: INNOVATION AND CHANGE Rank R1 Statements A B C D E R2 R3 R4 R5 TOTAL RANK
20*5 31*5 10*5 0*5 14*5
10*4 6*4 20*4 24*4 15*4
11*3 8*3 22*3 24*3 10*3
18*2 10*2 13*2 14*2 20*2
16*1 20*1 10*1 13*1 16*1
225 243 232 209 216
3 1 2 5 4
Source-Primary data INFERENCE: From the above table it is clear that the choices of E given by respondents at 1st rank, choice of D given as 2nd rank, choice of C given as 3rd rank, choice of A given as 4th rank and choice of B given as respondents as 5th rank.
250 240 230 220 210 200 190 A B C D E
4.2 HYPOTHIESIS TESTING TABLE 4.2.1 Chi-square test RESPONDENTS RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGE AND ORIENTATION Null Hypothesis Ho: There is no significant difference between the age and orientation. Alternative Hypothesis H1: There is significant difference between the age and orientation. Orientation Age 20-30 30-40 Above 50 Total Choice A 17 13 7 37 Choice B 6 5 6 17 Choice C 3 1 3 7 Choice D 1 2 1 4 Choice E 1 4 5 10 Total 28 25 22 75
Degree of freedom (df) = (rows-1) × (column-1) Df = (3-1) ×(5-1)=8 Level of significance = 5% Tabulated value = 15.507 To find calculated value of chi-square Chi-square test :
Where O = Observed frequency E = Expected frequency Expected frequency = Row total ×column total Grand total
O 17 6 3 1 1 13 5 1 2 4 7 6 3 1 5 TOTAL
E 13.813 6.346 2.613 1.49 3.73 12.33 5.666 2.33 1.333 3.333 10.85 4.986 2.053 1.17 2.93
(O-E)²⁄ E 0.73 0.018 0.057 0.161 1.998 0.036 0.078 0.0761 0.33 0.13 1.36 0.2062 0.436 0.025 1.462 7.80
Chi-square = 7.80 Calculated value < tabulated value Therefore we accept null hypothesis There is no significance difference between age and orientation
TABLE 4.2.2 Chi-square test 48
RESPONDENTS RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SALARY AND ORIENTATION Null Hypothesis Ho: There is no significant difference between the salary and orientation. Alternative Hypothesis H1: There is significant difference between the salary and orientation. Orientation Salary below5000 5000-8000 Above8000 Total Choice A 12 10 7 29 Choice B 9 7 2 18 Choice C 3 2 4 9 Choice D 1 2 3 6 Choice E 7 5 1 13 Total 32 26 17 75
Degree of freedom (df) = (rows-1) × (column-1) Df = (3-1) ×(5-1)=8 Level of significance = 5% Tabulated value = 15.507 To find calculated value of chi-square Chi-square test :
O = Observed frequency E = Expected frequency
Expected frequency = Row total ×column total Grand total
O 12 9 3 1 7 10 7 2 2 5 7 2 4 3 1 Total
E 12.373 7.68 3.84 2.56 5.546 10.053 6.24 3.12 2.08 4.506 6.573 4.08 2.04 1.36 2.946
(O-E)²⁄ E 0.011 0.140 0.183 0.950 0.381 0.0002 0.092 0.402 0.003 0.054 0.027 1.060 1.883 1.977 1.285 8.44
Chi-square = 8.44 Calculated value < tabulated value Therefore we accept null hypothesis There is no significance difference between salary and orientation
TABLE 4.2.3 Chi-square test
Null Hypothesis Ho: There is no significant difference between the experience and orientation. Alternative Hypothesis H1: There is significant difference between the experience and orientation. Orientation Experience 5-10years 10-15years 15- 20years Above 20years Total Choice A 7 13 4 3 27 Choice B 3 6 7 1 17 Choice C 5 3 1 2 11 Choice D 1 2 2 1 6 Choice E 5 4 3 2 14 Total
21 28 17 9 75
Degree of freedom (df) = (rows-1) × (column-1) Df = (3-1) ×(5-1)=12 Level of significance = 5% Tabulated value = 21.03 To find calculated value of chi-square Chi-square test :
O = Observed frequency E = Expected frequency
Expected frequency = Row total ×column total Grand total
O 7 3 5 1 5 13 6 3 2 4 4 7 1 2 3 3 1 2 1 2
E 7.56 4.76 3.08 1.68 3.92 10.08 6.346 4.106 2.24 5.226 6.12 3.853 2.493 1.36 3.173 3.24 2.04 1.32 0.72 1.68 TOTAL
(O-E)²⁄ E 0.041 0.650 1.196 0.275 0.297 0.845 0.018 0.297 0.025 0.234 0.734 2.570 0.897 0.301 0.009 0.017 0.530 O.350 0.108 0.060 9.451
Chi-square = 9.451 Calculated value < tabulated value Therefore we accept null hypothesis There is no significance difference between experience and orientation
CHAPTER 5 52
RESULT AND DISCUSSION 5.1 Finding of the study • Based on orientation, the choice of A (People here mainly concerned with following established rules and procedures) given by respondents as 1st rank and choice of D (the dominant concern here is to maintain friendly relations with others) given as 5th rank. • Based on interpersonal relationship, the choice of C (business like relationship prevails here, people are warm, but get go there primarily to ensure excellence in performance) given by respondents as 1 st rank and choice of A (the atmosphere here is very friendly and people spend enough time in informal and social relation) give respondents as 5th ranks. • Based on supervision, the choices of D (in influencing their subordinates supervisors here try to use their expertise and competence rather than their formal authority) given by respondents as 1st rank and choice of B (supervisors here strongly prefer their subordinates to ask them for instructions and suggestions) given by respondents as 5th rank. • Based on the topic, handling problems in organization, the choice of B (when problems are faced here, experts are consulted and they lay an important role in solving these problems) given by respondents as 1 st rank and choice of E (problems here usually solved by supervisors, subordinates are not involved) given by respondents as 5th rank. • Based on conflict management, table it is clear that the choice of E (experts are consulted and their advice used in resolving conflicts here) given by respondents as 1st rank and choices of A (here, conflicts are usually avoided or smoothened over to maintain a friendly atmosphere) given by respondents as 5th rank.
Based on communication, the choice of C (relevant information is made available to all who need it and can use it for the purpose of achieving high performance here) given by respondents as 1st rank and the choice of E
(communication is often selective here, people usually give or hold back crucial info as a form of control) given by respondents as 5th rank. • Based on decision making, the choices of B (decisions are made at the top and communicated downward, are people here generally prefer this) given by respondents as 1st rank and choice of concerned) given by respondents as 5th rank. • Based on the trust, the choices of E (those who can achieve results are highly trusted here) given by respondents as 1st rank and the choice of A (only a few people here trusted by management and they are quite influential) given by respondents as 5th rank. • Based on the topic management rewards, the choice of A (here the main thing that reward is excellence in performance and the accomplishment of tasks) given by respondents as 1st rank and the choices of E (the ability to get along well with others is highly rated and rewarded here) given by respondents as 5th rank. • Topic on risk taking, the choices of E (responding to risky situation, supervisors here take calculated risks and strive above all to be more efficient or productive) given by respondents as 1st rank and the choice of B (in risky situation, supervisors here strongly emphasize discipline and obedience to orders) given by respondents as 5th rank. • Based on the topic innovation and change, the choice of B (here, innovation of change is primarily ordered by top management) given by the respondents as 1st rank and the choice of D (those who initiate innovation or change here demonstrate a great concern for any possible effects on others and try to minimize these effects) given by respondents as 5th rank. A (while making decisions, people here makes special attempts to maintain coordinal relations with all
Company may reward the employees based on their performance. • When working on solutions to problems, experts should keep in
mind the needs of organizational members as well as society at large. • Supervisors have to give personals to the problems of or a
subordinate, whether they arise out of his job environment hearing, proper counseling and suggesting alternative proposals. •
personal nature, by giving them sympathetic consideration, patient
Create a congenial work atmosphere and pleasing surroundings,
and arrange for better job facilities by having better tools and appliance. These will improve working capacity, develop enthusiasm, and a sense of loyalty towards the Organization.
5.3 CONCLUSION This research made an attempt to identify the climate condition and the way in which that affects the employees in Burn standard company limited. From the study it is observed that decision making, innovation and change, all these factors handling by the top management. There is good relationship between the employees and employer.
An overview of this research reveals little hot organizational climate prevailing in Burn standard company limited, the organization lacks on certain factors like communication and trust. If these factors are given little more care, the company can maintain a good working involvement with high level of satisfaction, devotion, organizational commitment and involvement.
APPENDICES Questionnaire a) Name of the respondent: b) Age: i) 20-30 ii) 30-40 iii) Above 50 c) Gender: d) Designation: e) Salary i) below5000 ii) 5000 – 8000 f) Experience i) 5-10yrs ii) 10-15yrs
iii) Above 8000 iii) above 15yrs
12 categories representing 12 dimensions of organizational climate within each category there are five statements. You are to rank the statements in each category from 5 to 1. 1. Orientation A) People here mainly concerned with the following established rules and procedures. B) Achieving or surpassing specific goals seems to be the main concern of people here. C) Consolidating one’s own personal position and influence seems to be main concern here. D) The dominant concern here is to maintain friendly relations with others. E) The main concern here is to develop people competence and expertise. 2. Interpersonal relationship A) The atmosphere here is very friendly and people spend enough time in informal and social relation. B) In this organization cliques protect there own interests. C) Business like relationships prevail here, people are warm, but get gather primarily to ensure excellence in performance. D) People here have strong associations mostly with their supervisors and look to them for suggestions and guidance. E) People here have a high concern for on another and tend to help one another spontaneously when such help is needed.
3. Supervision A) The purpose of supervisors is usually to check for mistakes and to catch the person making mistake. B) Supervisors here strongly prefer their subordinates to ask for instructions and suggestions. C) Supervisors here reward outstanding achievement. D) In influencing their subordinates, supervisors here try to use their expertise and competence rather then their formal autority. E) Supervisors here are more concerned with maintaining good relationship with their subordinates than with emphasizing duties and performance. 4. Handling problems in the organization A) People here take problems as challenges and try to find better solution then any one else. B) When problems are faced here, experts are consulted and they lay an important role in solving these problems. C) In dealing with problems, people here mostly consulted their friends. D) People here usually refer problems to their supervisors and look to them for solutions. E) Problems here are usually solved by supervisors, subordinates are nit involved. 5. Management of mistake A) When people here make mistakes, they are not rejected, instead their friends shown than much understanding and warmth. B) Usually people here are able to acknowledge and analyze their mistakes because they can expect to receive help and support from others. C) When the subordinates makes a mistake here, the supervisors treat it as a learning experience that can prevent failure and improve performance in the future. D) Subordinates here expect guidance from their supervisors in correcting or preventing mistakes. E) Here, people seek the help of experts to analyze and prevent mistakes.
6. Conflict management A) Here conflicts are usually avoided or smoothed over to maintain a friendly atmosphere. B) Arbitration or third party intervention is sought and used here. C) In a conflict situation here, those who are stronger forces their points of view. D) In resolving conflicts here, appeal is made to principles organizational ideals, the larger goals of the organization. E) Experts are consulted and their advice used in resolving conflicts here.
7. Communication A) Most communication here is informal and friendly, it both arises from and contributed to warm relations. B) People here ask for information from those who are experts on the subjects. C) Relevant information is made available to all who need it and can use it for the purpose of achieving high performance here. D) People here communicate information, suggestion and even criticism to other out of concern for them. E) Communication is often selective here, people usually give or hold back crucial information as a form of control. 8. Decision making A) While making decisions people here make special attempts to maintain cordial relations with all concerned. B) Decisions are made at the top and communication downward, and people here generally prefer this. C) Decisions here generally are made without involving subordinates. D) Decisions here are made and influenced by specialists and other knowledge people. E) Decisions are made here by keeping in mind the good of the employees and society.
9. Trust A) Only few people here are trusted by management, and they are quite influential. B) Here high value is placed on trust between supervisors and subordinates. C) Specialists and experts are highly trusted here. D) A general attitude of helping generalist’s mutual trust here E) Those who can achieve results are highly trusted here. 10. Management of rewards A) Here the main thing that is rewarded is excellence in performance and the accomplishment of tasks. B) Knowledge and expertise are recognized and rewarded here. C) Loyalty is rewarded more then anything else here. D) The ability to control subordinates and maintain discipline is afforded the greatest importance in rewarding. E) The ability to get along well others is highly rated and rewarded here. 11. Risk taking A) When comforted by risk situations, supervisors here seek the guidance and support of friends. B) In risky situation, supervisors here strongly emphasize discipline and obedience to orders. C) In risky situation, supervisors here have a strong tendency to rely on expert specialists for the advice. D) In responding to risky situations, supervisors here shown great concern for the people working in the organization. E) In responding to risky situation, supervisors here take calculated risks and strive above all to be more efficient or productive.
12. Innovation and change A) Innovation and change are initiated and implemented here primarily by experts and specialists. B) Here, innovation or change is primarily ordered by top management. C) Before initiating innovation or change, supervisors here generally go to their supervisors for sanction and guidance. D) Those who initiate innovation or change here demonstrate a great concern for any possible advice effects on others and try to minimize there effects. E) Innovation or change here is mainly initiated to implement through highly result oriented individual.
• • • • •
Kotari C.R,2nd edition (2003) “Research Methodology,” Guptha K.K, PP68,117,277. Pattannayak Biswajeet 3rd edition (2005) “Human Resource management”. Stephen P.Robbins and Timothy A. Judge 13th edition (2009) “Organizational Behavior”. WWW.BSCL.COM WWW.Scribd.com
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