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Ve damper

Viscous Fluid Dampers (VFDs) have long been utilized for vibration control in various applications
throughout the world. One of the first uses of VFDs as part of earthquake resistant structural systems was in
San Bernardino, California over ten years ago (Hussain,et al, 1993). VFDs can be very effective in reducing
lateral displacements and dissipating energy from earthquake and wind loading.

Use of visco-elastic dampers are here proposed instead of other dampers types, due to their smaller sizes,
which make them more applicable specially for retrofitting of existing buildings, and their stiffness, which
have very important role on regulating of the flexibility rate of the flexible frame and stability control of the
system. Two RCC structures with 3 and 20 stories are selected and nonlinear dynamic analysis under time-
histories acceleration records of the ground strong motions have been carried out for the structures, SAP 2000
is used for modeling and nonlinear analysis of the structures.

In this investigation to reduce mathematical calculation one of the middle frame of each 3D structure has been
modeled. In that regard two RCC structures with 3 and 20 stories are selected and visco-elastic dampers are
attached.

Case study

The engineering case used for this paper is an existing 20-storey RC frame building. The frame was
originally designed based on seismic precautionary intensity 7, which corresponds to the basic ground
acceleration of 0.1 g (g is the gravitational acceleration) with the response spectra characteristic period Tg=
1.2728 s. Tg is the design characteristic period of ground motion. These means that the new seismic measures
should be taken to enhance seismic performances of the local school buildings to meet the intensity 9
requirement set


by the Chinese code. It is two grades higher than the original precautionary intensity 7 for which
the buildings were designed. In this case study, with Tg = 0.4 s, design parameters and seismic
performance requirements to meet the new seismic precautionary target are listed in Table 1.
According to the field investigation results, although a few nonstructural components, corner
beam column joints, and staircases have suffered serious damages, as plotted in Fig. 7, most
structural components only have slight damages. A finite elemental analysis model for the primary frame was
established to further investigate structural seismic responses and structural properties as well as the analytical
results are listed in Table 2 and Table 3, respectively. It is found that that the existing structure is insufficient
to resist the designed precautionary earthquake with the intensity 8. Especially for the ground floor, the storey
drifts under frequently-occurred earthquake are greater than the limit value of 1/550 set in Chinese code.
Therefore, it is necessary to retrofit this damaged frame for its consequent service.




External guide
Dr. P. Kamatchi
Senior Scientist
Risk And Reliability Group
CSIR-SERC






Time history

The nonlinear dynamic procedure (dynamic time-history analysis) provides amore accurate estimate
of the dynamic response of the structure. The time-history procedure is used if it is important to represent
inelastic response characteristics or to incorporate time-dependent effects when computing the structures
dynamic response.


















Building Drift
Drift is generally defined as the lateral displacement of one floor relative to the floor below. Drift
control is necessary to limit damage to interior partitions, elevator and stair enclosures, glass, and cladding
systems. Stress or strength limitations in ductile materials do not always provide adequate drift control,
especially for tall buildings with relatively flexible moment-resisting frames or narrow shear walls. Total
building drift is the absolute displacement of any point relative to the base. Adjoining buildings or adjoining
sections of the same building may not have identical modes of response, and therefore may have a tendency
to pound against one another. Building separations or joints must be provided to permit adjoining buildings
to respond independently to earthquake ground motion.

Ductility
Ductility is the capacity of building materials, systems, or structures to absorb energy by deforming
into the inelastic range. The capability of a structure to absorb energy, with acceptable deformations and
without failure, is a very desirable characteristic in any earthquake-resistant design. Concrete, a brittle
material, must be properly reinforced with steel to provide the ductility necessary to resist seismic forces. In
concrete columns, for example, the combined effects of flexure (due to frame action) and compression (due to
the action of the overturning moment of the structure as a whole) produce a common mode of failure;
buckling of the vertical steel and spalling of the concrete cover near the floor levels. Columns must, therefore,
be detailed with proper spiral reinforcing or hoops to have greater reserve strength and ductility. Ductility is
measured by the hysteretic behavior of critical components such as a column-beam assembly of a moment
frame. It is obtained by cyclic testing of moment rotation(or force-deflection) behavior of the assembly.










Input time history analysis



Fig 2.1: A typical acceleration time history simulated Zone 3 WOD.


Fig 2.2: A typical acceleration time history simulated for Zone4 WOD

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Fig 2.3: A typical acceleration time history simulated for Zone 4 WD

Fig 1.1: A typical acceleration time history simulated for Zone 3 WOD along longitudinal direction


Fig 1.2: A typical acceleration time history simulated for Zone 4 WOD along longitudinal direction
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Fig 1.3: A typical acceleration time history simulated for Zone 4 WD longitudinal direction

Fig 1.4: A typical acceleration time history simulated for Zone 3 WOD transverse direction


Fig 1.5: A typical acceleration time history simulated for Zone 4 WOD transverse direction
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Fig 1.6: A typical acceleration time history simulated for Zone 4 WD transverse direction

Equivalent Strain Energy Method of Analysis
The modal strain energy method has been studied extensively and successfully applied to predict the
equivalent damping ratios of the structures with added VE dampers. The damping ratios of the visco-
elastically damped structure can be expressed as
=

)
Where
= effective damping ratio for i
th
vibration mode

= stiffness matrix of the structure without added VE dampers

= stiffness matrix of the visco-elastically damped structures

= the i
th
vibration mode shape of the viscoelastically damped structure

= the effective loss factor of the viscoelastic dampers








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List of symbols
Ta Natural time period
Sa Spectral acceleration
g Acceleration due to gravity
Ah Horizontal seismic coefficient
Z Zone factor
R Response reduction factor
I Importance Factor
W Total weight of the building
VB Base Shear
VED Visco-elastic damper
WD With damper
WOD Without damper














References
1. K.Vijayendra Earthquake resistant design of structures (Subject Code: 06CV834), Department of
Civil engineering, BIT, Banglore.
2. IS 1893 (Part 1)- 2002, Criteria For Earthquake Resistant Design Of Structures - Part 1General
Provisions And Buildings, 5th Revision, 2002, BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS, New Delhi,
INDIA.
3. Jong-Wha Bai (2003) Seismic retrofit of Reinforced Concrete building structures , Texas A&M
University







The retrofitting is one of the best options to make an existing inadequate building safe against future probable
earthquake or other environmental forces.



Visco-elastic Dampers are provided in the frames of the RCC building and the connections of dampers with
the beams and columns of the structure were to be made using ISMB 200 box section.



Seismic response of the building by Time History Analysis was obtained with seismic input motion pertaining
to 5% damping of spectra.















Literature

D. Lopez Garcia and T. T. Soong explored a simple approach for the design of optimal damper
configurations. This practical method is designated simplified sequential search algorithm (SSSA). The SSSA
is applied to several regular building models with different natural periods, numbers of storeys, levels of
added damping, and different ground motions. Only one type of passive energy dissipation device is
considered linear viscous dampers. It is concluded that, in the case of regular buildings, the SSSA will
generally lead to efficient damper configurations, particularly for low-to-medium-rise buildings and for a
number of dampers equal to or greater than 1.52 times the number of storeys. The resulting damper
configurations are found to be sensitive to ground motion characteristics, especially for low levels of
supplemental damping. Four recorded seismic ground motions are used to perform the numerical simulations.
It must be noted that two of the selected ground motions were recorded on rock and that the remaining ground
motions were recorded on soft soil. Further, for each kind of soil type, one ground motion was recorded at a
relatively short distance from the fault, while the other was recorded at a relatively large distance from the
fault. Results show that damper configurations obtained for different ground motions are not equal to each
other, but very similar. While the SSSA does not provide a unique damper configuration, it nevertheless
indicates a consistent pattern. In real-case applications, differences among damper configurations
corresponding to different ground motions are minor enough to be resolved by engineering judgment.

Erfan Alavi1 and Mojtaba Alidoost, used mass isolation system (MIS), with visco-elastic dampers for
retrofitting of existing buildings. MIS consists of two separate frames, a flexible moment resisting frame,
which bears main part of structure mass and a relatively rigid braced frame, which carries the remained little
mass of the structure and these two frames are connected to each other with visco-elastic dampers. Use of
visco-elastic dampers in MIS is here proposed instead of other dampers types, due to their smaller sizes,
which make them more applicable specially for retrofitting of existing buildings, and their stiffness, which
have very important role on regulating of the flexibility rate of the flexible frame and stability control of the
system. Three steel structures with 4, 8, 12 stories are selected and nonlinear dynamic analysis under 7 time-
histories acceleration records of the ground strong motions have been carried out for the structures, Drain-
2DX software is used for modeling and nonlinear analysis of the structures. From economy point of view,
numbers and vertical arrangement of visco-elastic dampers between the two frames of the structures are
optimized considering story drift limitations, structures responses and using various mechanical
characteristics, stiffness and damping of the dampers. Input energy of earthquakes are obtained and compared
with the dissipated energies in the systems. The results show that MIS effectively causes reduction of input
energies of earthquakes and visco-elastic dampers dissipate nearly 50% of the input energy and most of
structural elements remain at the elastic ranges, which can be inferred that the performance levels of the
structures have been significantly improved by using this system.

D.G.Weng, C.Zhanga, X.L. Lub, S. Zengc and S.M. Zhang, proposed a simplified seismic design
procedure for retrofitting earthquake damaged frames with viscous dampers. Various dampers or energy
dissipation devices have been widely used in building structures for enhancing their performances during
earthquakes, windstorm and other severe loading scenarios. With the scheme of designing the main frame and
the supplemental viscous dampers respectively, the seismic analysis model of damped structure with viscous
dampers and braces was studied. The expected damping forces for damped frame were first obtained based on
storey shear forces; and then they were optimized to meet different storey drift requirements. A retrofit project
of a RC frame school building damaged in the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake was introduced as a case study.
This building was retrofitted by using viscous dampers designed through the simplified design procedure. It is
concluded that this simplified design procedure can be effectively used to make seismic retrofit design of
earthquake-damaged RC frames with viscous dampers. This is not only developed for the retrofit design of
earthquake-damaged frame structures with viscous dampers, but also for the damping design of new building
or existing buildings. To be specific, it can be used to improve structural dynamic behaviors of a building
structure by modifying its damping.

Munshi, Javeed A. / Kasai, Kazuhiko proposed seismic retrofit of a weak moment-resisting steel frame by
visco-elastic dampers. The visco-elastic damper behavior is accurately simulated by using a nonlinear element
which takes into account the frequency and temperature dependency of the damper's material. The
Performance of the frame with and without dampers is investigated under four different earthquake
excitations. Both elastic and inelastic member responses are investigated. The elastic response is simulated
through a modal method. A simple method based on drift control is proposed for retrofit of weak frames.
Visco-elastic dampers significantly reduce strength and deformation demand on the members and connections
and are effective for retrofitting the existing weak and vulnerable moment frames for enhanced Performance
under strong earthquakes. The amount of stiffness and damping needed can be reasonably estimated based on
drift control strategy proposed herein. A simplified linear approach is proposed as a practical analytical
method for VE-damped frame.

Chang et al., (1998) proposed a seismic design procedure for structures with added viscoelastic dampers
(VED) with an example illustrating the proposed design procedure. A summary on the experimental and
analytical study of VE dampers as energy disipaton devices in seismic structural applications is described in
this paper. Comparisons on the seismic performance between the viscoelastically damped structure and a
conventionally designed special moment resisting frame are carried out in this paper. Analytical studies show
that the modal strain energy method can be used to reliably predict the equivalent structural damping of the
structure and that the seismic response of the visco-elastically damped structure can be accurately simulated
by conventional modal analysis techniques. Based on these studies, the modal strain energy method has been
incorporated into the computer programs ETABS and DRAIN2D+ for seismic analysis and design of
structures with added VE dampers. The proposed design procedure provides an alternative safe and economic
solution for earthquake resistant structures under seismic design regulations. A sufficiently large design
damping ratio, such as 15% is used in this study. It is shown that structures with added VE dampers, with
such a large design damping ratio, may remain elastic or experience only minor yielding under most current
design earthquakes.

Kyung-Won Min et al., (2004) have presented a design process for visco-elastic dampers and experimental
test results of a 5-storey single bay steel structure with added visco-elastic dampers. The mechanical
properties of visco-elastic dampers and the dynamic characteristics of the model structure were obtained from
experiments using harmonic excitation, and the results were used in the design process. The additional
damping ratios required to reduce the maximum response of the structure to a desired level were obtained
first. Then the size of dampers to realize the required damping ratio was determined using the modal strain
energy method by observing the change in modal damping ratio due to the change in damper stiffness. The
designed visco-elastic dampers were installed in the first and the second stories of the model structure. The
results from experiments using harmonic and band limited random noise indicated that after the dampers were
installed the dynamic response of the full-scale model structure reduced as desired in the design process.

Earthquake resistant design and retrofit of structures using energy absorption devices have received
desirable attention in recent years. Among the available devices, visco-elastic dampers have shown to be
capable of providing structures with considerable added damping to dissipate the seismic input energy.
Viscoelastic dampers are very effective in reducing vibrations of structures at all environmental temperatures
under mild and earthquake ground motions. The ductility demand of structures with added VE dampers can
therefore be significantly reduced and damping ratios of the viscoellastically damped structures can be
accurately estimated by the
The purpose of the present study is to retrofit the existing building to meet the additional base shear
of zone 4 by adding vescoelastic dampers. Zone 3 is considered as a moderate earthquake prone area and
Zone 4 considered as a severe earthquake prone area. Results from this study also suggested that if the
overall damping ratio of the chosen RC framed building can be increased to 15% the same building
can meet the elastic base shear demand of zone 4. Two examples of the building with three and
twenty storey with different columns can be seen in this study.

z4
z3


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