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Pak Studies Lec-35,36


 Pakistani Society in transition

 Heterogeneous Society
 Religious Society


5. Pakistani society as Elitist society:

 Economic status:
1) People get honor and respect du their economic status irrespective of the source of the
money they have and people also want social status through money, ethical distinction i.e.
families and races. This is one the basic illness of Pakistani society.
2) People use every mean to collect money to become rich and get social status. This thought
give rise to moral problems like Corruption, and all other social problems. People have no
distinction between HILAL and HARAAM. But there is great importance of HILAL in
Islamic society.
3) It is Social Status conscious society. It is so much in grandee in our psyche that it is harming
us. If we people don’t have social status they lie to get that. Even in the big cities like
Islamabad, Lahore people use to judge the social status by only knowing the address of the
people. People are in a race to change their social status i.e. from lower to upper middle
class and so on…

 Background:
I. When Muslim invaded India they were in minority. Since Muslims were ruler, they have a
psyche that we are rulers. That was the point where all the problems started.
II. When the British came, they abolished all the old titles and aristocracy. They created a new
class of elite. Since there is agro based economy, so they created a new elite class known as
Jagirdars or Zamindars. These were the people who served the British in making their rule
in India. British give these people huge pieces of land. This was the new aristocracy created
by the British. There was no Jagirdari system in Muslim era. Pieces of land were given to
the people due to his services, but then that person has to manage the area, keep law in
order, collection of revenue, and also to provide the soldiers in the war.
III. Before British, as soon as the person was removed from the office the land was taken back
from him. So the piece of land was not inheritable. It was the British who introduced the
system of inherited Jagirdari system.
IV. Another class created by British was Government officials. These were collectively called
Bureaucracy. They don’t have economic power but have given administrative powers. They
are not highly paid but have been bestowed with great administrative powers. This lead an
alliance between Jagirdars and Bureaucracy. The Zamindars have to have good
relationships with these Govt officials. It was legitimate in British period and was not
considered as Bribe.
V. Jagirdari system is the source of all the problems faced by Pakistani society today. The
aristocracy created by British consists of Jagirdars and bureaucracy; both collectively
served the British in their objectives.
VI. After the creation of Pakistan we tried to get rid of this system but could not succeeded. No
practical change has taken place in both the Bureaucratic and Jagirdari system. Many
changes took place in Pakistani society in the mean time. There was a very small middle
class at the time of creation of pkaistan. The majority of Muslim was poor.
VII. With the emergence of new horizons, a new elite class emerged in Pakistan known as
Professional. Muslim children with talent and hard work started taking professional
education. There was only in Punjab University in 1947. A professional group comprising
engineers, doctors, lawyers etc emerged and became the third elite.
VIII. During 1950’s, the phase of industrialization started in Pakistan. A new class emerged
known as industrialists.
IX. In 1980’s, retired Govt officials known as civil society also emerged.
X. There is no harm in changing of social status but in Pakistan as there is no difference b/w
right or wrong and HILAL or HARAAM. This is a problem.

6. Authoritarian Society:

1) Pakistani is an authoritarian society. All the people use or misuse their authority. It is
because of the psyche of Muslims as they were rulers in sub continent and then there were
consecutive Martial Laws in Pakistan. Each and every member of society use authority.
2) Suppression kills the power of innovation of people. Open chances should be there for
individuals and it is not possible in authoritative society. People to be given a chance to
decide their matters with due consultation rather being dictated by the people in authority.