You are on page 1of 209

I.D.O.

English,
Your ideal intelligent direction on-line,
Presents:

40 simples passos para um curso


total básico em inglês.
“40 easy steps for a total basic
English course”.

Basic 02
Webpage:

Agradecimentos:

Agradeço a Deus por alavancar minha vida e me inspirar no desenvolvimento deste livro. A meu pai
Lúcio, minha mãe Regina e ao Vicente por tanto carinho força e amor, as minhas queridas irmãs Cris e Tiza e
aos cunhados Fernando e Dim que tanto torcem por mim e que eu os amo tanto, aos meus superamados
afilhados Ca-ca, Flô, Gui-gui e Fê-fê, à Sandra Abadia, a minha fantástica família, aos meus “primos-irmãos”,
aos meus queridos padrinhos, aos meus amigos e a todos que vieram a contribuir direta ou indiretamente para
a realização desta obra, principalmente meus preciosos alunos.

p. 1
Prefácio

Ao leitor:
Este livro abrangente e descomplicado fornece de forma envolvente e leve os passos necessários a
um revolucionário entendimento do conhecimento básico da língua inglesa.
Elaborada de forma autodidata, a gramática foi desenvolvida a partir da vivência prática em
desmistificar e simplificar as dúvidas e dificuldades mais comuns dentro da sala de aula, proporcionando aos
alunos e leitores uma agradável sensação de compreender e aprender o que antes parecia difícil e
complicado.
Para abrilhantar esta obra, foi extraído do consagrado “Picture dictionary” – Oxford toda a parte visual,
garantindo vocabulário vasto e prático. Os exercícios foram extraídos em sua grande maioria do
mundialmente renomado “grammar in use”, qualidade garantida. Os textos foram cuidadosamente
selecionados para proporcionar além de conhecimento lingüístico, desenvolvimento humano e pessoal, um
convite a reflexão e, em contrapartida algumas piadas e musicas também fazem parte deste livro. Temos
também ao final de cada lição um convite a um debate acerca do vocabulário e texto em questão, hora de
praticar a fala e soltar a lingua!
Temos no “workbook” exercícios extras, também do “grammar in use” e um guia de “compositions”
destinados ao desenvolvimento da escrita, completando assim, as ferramentas necessárias para a
aprendizagem e assimilação de um inglês claro e profundo.

Como utilizar o seu livro ?


Este livro está dividido em 20 lições. Cada lição está subdividida em vocabulário (visual ou tabela),
gramática, exercícios, texto (podendo estes serem textos, piadas ou músicas) e finalmente a parte de
conversação adicional, sempre nesta ordem (com exceção das lições 15,17,19 e 20). Após a lição 20 você
encontra uma folha cartolina que separa o seu “workbook” ou livro de exercícios, em ordem crescente por
lição. Ao final destes exercícios você encontra um guia de redações bem como folhas pautadas para a
realização dos mesmos. Para facilitar este entendimento, na margem superior de qualquer folha do livro há a
respectiva indicação de onde você se encontra no livro.

Está feito o convite para uma jornada séria e ao mesmo tempo simples na constatação que de o
Inglês pode e deve ser abordado visando primordialmente qualidade e fácil assimilação. A todos que aqui
adentrarem, sejam muito bem vindos!

Lúcio Alberto Cordeiro Borges, o autor.

p. 2
Índice

Lesson 1 Quantity Expressions 6


Lesson 2 Some, Any, No 13
Lesson 3 How 20
Lesson 4 Subject and Object Questions 24
Lesson 5 Gerund and/or Infinitive 28
Lesson 6 Comparative and Superlative Sentences 34
Lesson 7 How to Agree 41
Lesson 8 Simple X Perfect Tenses and Present Perfect 46
Lesson 9 Past Perfect and “Just” + perfect tenses 53
Lesson 10 Present and Past Perfect Continuous 59
Lesson 11 Future Perfect 65
Lesson 12 Conditional Sentences 69
Lesson 13 “Wish” 76
Lesson 14 Passive Sentences 81
Lesson 15 Two - Word Verbs 87
Lesson 16 Reported speech 93
Lesson 17 Some Problematic Pairs 101
Lesson 18 Questions Tag 114
Lesson 19 False Cognates 120
Lesson 20 Peculiarities 144
Anexo Perfect tenses + modal verbs 149
Review All perfect tenses 151
Workbook 154
Compositions 185
List of the regular verbs 204
List of Irregular Verbs 207
Referências Bibliográficas 210

p. 3
Lesson 1

Vocabulary: Some Fruits

1. grapes 9. grapefruit 17. strawberries 25. dates *


2. pineaples 10. oranges 18. raspberries (framboesa/amora) 26. prunes
3. bananas 11. lemons 19. blueberries (mirtilo) 27. raisins**
4. apples 12. limes 20. papayas 28. not ripe
5. peaches 13. tangerines 21. mangoes 29. ripe
6. pears 14. avocadoes 22. coconuts 30. rotten
7. apricots (damascos) 15. cantaloupes 23. nuts * tâmaras
8. plums 16. cherries 24. watermelons ** ameixa seca

p. 4
Lesson 1

Vocabulary: Some vegetables

1. lettuce 9. celery (aipo) 17. scallions (cebolinha) 25. string beans*


2. cabbage (repolho) 10. parsley (salsinha) 18. eggplants (berinjela) 26. mushrooms
3. carrots 11. spinach 19. peas 27. corn
4. zucchini (abobrinha) 12. cucumbers (pepinos) 20. artichokes (alcachofra) 28. onions
5. radishes (rabanetes) 13. squash (abobora) 21. potatoes 29. garlic
6. beets (beterraba) 14. turnips (nabos) 22. yams (cará / batata doce) * Vágem
7. sweet peppers (pimentão) 15. broccoli 23. tomatoes
8. chili peppers 16. cauliflower (couve-flor) 24. asparagus

p. 5
Lesson 1

Grammar: Quantity expressions

No Inglês, temos que distinguir e separar os SUBSTANTIVOS contáveis dos SUBSTANTIVOS


incontáveis, e tratá-los de forma diferenciada. No português, podemos usar, sem distinção:
Tenho muitos pacientes . (pacientes – substantivo contável - concreto)
Tenho muita paciência. (paciência – substantivo incontável - abstrato)
Sou muito paciente. (paciente – adjetivo).
Como podemos ver, usamos o mesmo “muito” tanto para os substantivos (contável e incontável),
quanto para o adjetivo. No Inglês, este “muito” tem que ser diferenciado:
Tenho muitos pacientes – I have many patients.
Tenho muita paciência – I have much patience.
Sou muito paciente – I’m very pacient.
As “Quantity expressions” ou expressões de quantidade, que veremos a seguir, devem ser usadas
considerando as diferenças acima mencionadas.

Em relação aos Adjetivos temos a escala de intensidade:


. Very / pretty – Muito – I´m very / pretty happy! – Estou muito feliz!
. So – Tão – I’m so happy! – Estou tão feliz!
. Too – Demais – I’m too happy! – Estou feliz demais!

Em relação aos Substantivos, temos:


1 – Contáveis – Geralmente podem ser pluralizados (cadeiras, salas, minutos, canções, livros, dólares)
2 – Incontáveis – Geralmente não podem ser pluralizados (dinheiro, musica, saúde, tempo), ou substantivos
que precisam de uma unidade de medida (queijo, pizza, bolo, açucar necessitam de uma unidade de medida
padrão ; pedaço, kilo, fatia, gramas, etc)

Obedecem a tabela:
Muito(a)(s) Pouco(a)(s)
Countable NOUNS (substantivos Many Few
contáveis)
Uncountable NOUNS (substantivos Much Little
incontáveis)

Ex: Ela tem muito dinheiro - She’s got much money


Ela tem muitos dólares - She´s got many dollars.
Eu não tenho muitos problemas - I haven’t got many problems.
Nós estudamos um pouco de matemática - We studied maths a little bit.
Nós estudamos poucas matérias de matemática - We studied a few maths subjects.

. Few / little - É usado para expressar que algo está pouco ou insuficiente, sentido negativo.
. A few / A little - É usado para expressar que alguma coisa, apesar de pouco, está melhor que o esperado,
sentido positivo.
Ex: Tenho poucos amigos, sou introspectivo – I’ve got a few friend, I’m introspective.
Tenho poucos amigos, estou sofrendo! – I’ve got few friends, I’m suffering!
Ela tem pouco tempo livre, está feliz – She’s got a little free time, she’s happy.
Ela odeia ter pouco tempo livre – She hates having little free time.

Podemos associar “very / pretty / so / too” com as ”quantity expressions” da tabela acima para enfatizar a
intensidade.

p. 6
Lesson 1

Ex: I like her very much / pretty much (Gosto muito muito dela)
Avoid drinking too much coffee (Evite tomar café em demasia)
She’s got so many dresses! (Ela tem tantos, tantos vestidos!)
He drank too much* whisky yesterday. (Ele bebeu whisky em excesso ontem)
He drank too many glasses of whiskey yesterday. (Ele bebeu copos demasiadamente ontem)
* Too much / too many tem uma conotação negativa (significa demasia / demasiado, em excesso), isto porque
estamos referindo a “too” = demais + “much” / “many” = muito. Então, esta intensidade “excedeu”, “passou da
conta”.
Much e many são usadas, de preferência, em frases negativas e interrogativas. Em frases afirmativas,
usa-se, geralmente, a lot of / lots of / plenty of, (muito, muita), tanto para substantivos contáveis como para
os incontáveis. Pode também ser usado em frases interrogativas.

Ex: She’s got a lot of money.


She’s got a lot of dollars.
Has he got lots of friends?

Importante: Temos também: “Several” = vários, várias, diversos, diversas; e “enough” = bastante ou
suficiente. Sendo que “several” é usado para substantivos contáveis, e enough para substantivos incontáveis.
Ex: I have several friends, but I don’t have time enough to enjoy them! (Tenho muitos amigos, mas não tenho
tempo para curti-los)
Temos: Amigos – sub. contável, e tempo – sub. incontável; portanto, “several” e “enough”, respectivamente.

1.1 - Put in much or many.


1 Did you buy much .food? 5 Did students fail the examination?
2 There aren’t hotels in this town. 6 Paula hasn’t got money.
3 We haven’t got petrol. 7 I wasn’t very hungry. I didn’t eat .
4 Were there people on the train? 8 I haven’t seen George for years

1.2 - Put in How much or How many.

9 people are coming to the party?


10 milk do you want in your coffee?
11 bread did you buy?
12 players are there in a football team?

13 - Complete the sentences. Use much or many with one of these words:

books countries luggage people time times

1 I don’t read very much. I haven’t got many books. .


2 Quick! We must hurry. We haven’t got .
3 Do you travel a lot? Have you been to ?
4 Tina hasn’t lived here very long, so she doesn’t know .
5 ‘Have you got ?’ ‘No, only this bag.’
6 I know Paris very well. I’ve been there .

p. 7
Lesson 1

1.4 - Answer the questions with: a little or a few.

1 ‘Have you got any money?’ ‘Yes, a little. .’.


2 ‘Have you got any envelopes?’ ‘Yes, .’
3 ‘Do you want sugar in your coffee?’ ‘Yes, ., please.’
4 ‘Did you take any photographs when you were on holiday?’ ‘Yes, .’
5 ‘Does your friend speak English?’ ‘Yes, .’
6 ‘Are there any factories in this town?’ ‘Yes, .’

1.5 – Complete the sentences using a lot of / lots of / plenty of / several / enough.

a) _ Do you have ____________ time to make ___________ friends for you candidate to be deputy?
_ Yes, I have ____________ . I already have ____________ promissing future votes!
b) ____________ movies nowadays are violent and can show to children ___________ chocking moments.
c) _ Ok, That’s ___________ ! I don’t want to see it anymore!
d) Patricia is an extraordinary nurse. ______________ her pacients compliment her ____________ times a day.

1.6 - Put in a little or a few + one of these words:

air chairs days friends letters milk Russian times

1 Last night I wrote a few letters to my family and friends.


2 Can I have in my coffee, please?
3 ‘When did Julia go away ?’ ‘ ago.’
4 ‘Do you speak any foreign languages?’ ‘I can speak .’
5 ‘Are you going out alone?’ ‘No, I’m going with .’
6 ‘Have you ever been to Rome?’ ‘Yes, .’
7 There wasn’t much furniture in the room – just a table and .
8 I’m going out for a walk. I need fresh .

1.7 - Look at the pictures and complete the sentences. Use too + one of these words:

big crowded fast heavy loud low

1 The radio is too loud. . 4 She’s driving .


2 The box is . 5 The ball is .
3 The net is . 6 The restaurant is .

p. 8
Lesson 1

1.8 - Put in too / too much / too many / enough.


1 You’re always at home. You don’t go out enough ..
2 I don’t like the weather here. There’s too much rain. .
3 I can’t wait for them. I haven’t got time.
4 There was nowhere to sit on the beach. There were people.
5 You’re always tired. I think you work hard.
6 ‘Did you have .to eat?’ ‘Yes, thank you.'’
7 You drink coffee. It’s not good for you.
8 You don’t eat vegetables. You should eat more.
9 I don’t like the weather here. It’s cold.
10 Our team didn’t play well. We made mistakes.
11 ‘Would you like some milk in your tea?’ ‘Yes, but not ’.

TEXT (by Internet)


Too many paths

One of Yang Tzu's neighbours,who lost a sheep, sent all his men out to find it, and asked Yang Tzu's
servant to join in the search.
" What !" exclaimed Yang Tzu. " Do you need all those men to find one sheep ?"
" There are so many paths it may have taken," the neighbour explained. When his servant returned, Yang
Tzu asked him : " Well, did you find the sheep ?"
He answered that they had not. Then Yang Tzu asked how they had failed to find it.
" There are too many paths," replied the servant. One path leads to another, and we didn't know which
to take, so we had to come back.
At that Yang Tzu looked very thoughtful. He was silent for a long time, and did not smile all day.
His pupils were surprised.
" A sheep is a trifle," they said, " and this wasn't even yours. Why should you stop talking and smiling ?"
Yang Tzu did not answer, and his pupils were puzzled.
One of them, Meng-sun Yang, went out to describe what had happened to Hsin-tu Tzu.
" When there are too many paths," said Hsin-tu Tzu, " a man cannot find his sheep. When a student has
too many interests, he fritters away his time. The source of all knowledge is one, but the branches of learning
are many. Only by returning to the primal truth can a man avoid losing his way. You are Yang Tzu's pupil and
study from him, yet you seem to have failed completely to understand him."

fritters away If someone fritters away time or money, they waste it on unimportant or
unnecessary thing.

Additional Conversation!
Let’s try now talk a lot, my dear I.D.O. students! Now that we’re on basic two, we have all
the conditions to practice our conversation skills, so, once a while, we’ll take a little time of
our class to talk, ok!? Now on, We’re starting our first chat (always related with the lesson
vocabulary or/and the text).
1. Which fruits do you put in a fruit salad?
2. Which vegetable do you eat raw? Cooked? (three each)
3. Which vegetable need and don’t need to be in the refrigerator? (three each)
4. Which are your favorite fruit and vegetable?
5. Express your conclusion or understanding about the text.

p. 9
Lesson 2

Vocabulary: Grocery shopping

1. bottle return 3. shopping cart 6. baked goods 9. dairy section


2. meat and poultry 4. canned goods 7. shopping basket 10. pet food
5. aisle / corridor 8. manager 11. produce

12. frozen foods 15. beverages 18. cash register 21. bagger
13. backing products 16. snack foods 19. checker 22. paper bag
14. paper products 17. checkstand 20. line 23. plastic bag

p. 10
Lesson 2

Vocabulary: How delicious!!!

24. soup 28. rice 32. cake 36. butter


25. tuna 29. bread 33. yogurt 37. sour cream
26. beans 30. rolls 34. eggs 38. cheese
27. spaghetti 31. cookies 35. milk 39. margarine

40. potato chips 44. ice cream 48. sugar 52. soda
41. candy bar 45. flour 49. oil 53. bottled water
42. gum 46. spices 50. apple juice 54. plastic wrap
43. frozen vegetables 47. cake mix 51. instant coffee 55. aluminium foil

p. 11
Lesson 2

Vocabulary: Packing Up

1. bottle 2. jar 3. can 4. carton 5. container 6. box

7. bag 8. package 9. six-pack 10. loaf 11. roll 12. tube

13. a bottle of soda 17. a container of cottage cheese 21. a six-pack of soda
14. a jar of jam 18. a box of cereal 22. a loaf of bread
15. a can of soup 19. a bag of flour 23. a roll of paper towels
16. a carton of eggs 20. a package of cookies 24. a tube of toothpaste
p. 12
Lesson 2

Grammar: Some / Any / No:

Estudaremos agora três importantes expressões de quantidade no inglês. O que temos que saber
agora é que em relação a frases na interrogativa, temos dois “tipos” de perguntas: 1°: As “normais”, e 2°: As
“especiais” que são perguntas que indicam ofertas, pedidos ou convites (“offering, request or invitation”).
Ex1: _Você tem 10 reais? (pergunta “normal”);
Ex2: _Você tem 10 reais para me dar? (pergunta “especial” = pedido)

Usa-se “Some” ( = algum, alguns, alguma, algumas) em frases afirmativas, ou em caso de


oferecimento, pedido ou convite = “offering, request or invitation” ( Nestes casos, frases
interrogativas).

Ex: I have some doubts about this subject; (Tenho algumas dúvidas sobre este assunto)
Can you give me some explanations? (você pode me dar algumas explicações)
Would you like some coffee? (você gostaria de tomar um / algum cafezinho?)
There are some books on the table. (Há alguns livros sobre a mesa)

Usa-se “Any” ( = algum, alguns, alguma, algumas, nenhum, nenhuma) em frases negativas e
interrogativas.

Ex: I don’t have any doubt about this subject; (Não tenho dúvida alguma / nunhuma sobre este assunto)
Can I give you some explanations? (Posso te dar algumas explicações)
There aren’t any books on the table. (Não há livro algum sobre a mesa / nenhum)
I have some CDs at home, do you have any? (Tenho alguns CDs em casa, você tem algum?)
I have some CDs at home, do you have some to lend me? (Tenho alguns CDs em casa, você tem algum para
me emprestar?)
I don’t have any CDs at home, do you have any? (Não tenho CDs algum/nenhum em casa, você tem
algum?)
I don’t have any CDs at home, can I borrow some? (Não tenho CDs algum/nenhum em casa, posso pegar
algum emprestado?)
Do you have some old clothes to give me? (Você tem alguma roupa velha para me dar?)
Do you have any old clothes? (Você tem alguma roupa velha?)

Percebam que nestes dois últimos exemplos por exemplo, usamos o some e o any, respectivamente,
isto porque na penúltima frase caracterizou-se um pedido (pergunta “especial”), e na última, uma pergunta
qualquer.

Usa-se “Any” (qualquer, quaisquer) em frases afirmativas, ou quando tiver na frase a palavra If,
ou alguma palavra de sentido negativo como: Seldom, never, rarely, without.

Ex: Take any book you need. (Peque qualquer livro que você precise)
Take some books you need. (Pegue alguns livros que você precise)
Don’t take any book. (Não pegue nenhum livro)
She doesn’t like any pet. (Ela não gosta de nenhum animal de estimação)
She likes any pet. (Ela gosta de qualquer animal de estimação)
She likes some pets. (Ela gosta de alguns animais de estimação)
She’s never had any difficulty. (Ela nunca teve dificuldade nenhuma/alguma)
She rarely buys any gift. (Ela raramente compra qualquer presente)
If you have any question, ask me. (Se você tiver qualquer dúvida, me pergunte)

p. 13
Lesson 2

Usa-se o “No” (nenhum, nenhuma) apenas em frases Afirmativas.

Nas três colunas abaixo, temos respectivamente frases na afirmativa, negativa e interrogativa.
Percebam que as frases na afirmativa (1° coluna) têm o “no”, portanto, garantem às mesmas, sentido
negativo, (sentido!)
Ex:.
I have no problem. (Não tenho problema) I don’t have any problem (nenhum/algum) Do you have any problem?
. She has no money. (Ela não tem $) She doesn’t have any money (nenhum/algum) Does she have any money?
. They’ve got no fear. (Eles/elas não têm medo) They haven’t got any fear (nenhum/algum) Have they got any fear?
. There is no water. (Não há água) There isn’t any water (nenhum/algum) Is there any water?
. There were no dogs. (Não havia cães) There weren’t any dogs (nenhum/algum) Were there any dogs?

Podemos também construir:


Some Body
Any + One
No Where
Every Thing

Formamos assim 16 palavras, que também são utilizadas de acordo com as regras que acabamos de
estudar. A terminação “body / one” é referente à pessoa(s); “where” a lugar, e, “thing” relativo a “coisas”.
Supondo que todas as 16 palavras estejam na AFIRMATIVA, temos as traduções:

Somebody Alguém
Someone Alguém
Somewhere Algum lugar
Something Alguma coisa
Anybody Qualquer um / qualquer pessoa
Anyone Qualquer um / qualquer pessoa
Anywhere Qualquer lugar
Anything Qualquer coisa
Nobody Ninguém / nenhuma pessoa
No one Ninguém nenhuma pessoa
Nowhere Nenhum lugar
Nothing Nada
Everybody Todo mundo / todas as pessoas
Everyone Todo mundo/ todas as pessoas
Everywhere Todos os lugares
Everything Tudo

Importante: Como no português, estas palavras estão na terceira pessoa do singular. Dizemos: Alguém
está batendo na porta, e não, alguém estão batendo na porta.
Todo mundo está feliz, e não, todo mundo estão feliz.
Ninguém é incapaz de... e não, ninguém são incapazes de...

Portanto, temos que tratar estas 16 palavras como terceira pessoa do singular:

Ex: Everybody______________ is / has / was / loves / hates / needs...


All the people___________ are / have / were / love / need…
Everyone_______________ is / has / was / brings / buys…
People _________________are / have / were / bring / buy…
Nobody ________________is / has / was / feels…

p. 14
Lesson 2

2.1 - Put in no or any.

1 There’s no . sugar in your coffee.


2 My brother is married but he hasn’t got children.
3 Sue doesn’t speak foreign languages.
4 I’m afraid there’s coffee. Would you like some tea?
5 ‘Look at those birds!’ ‘Birds? Where? I can’t see birds.’
6 ‘Do you know where Jane is?’ ‘No, I’ve got idea.’

2.2 - Put in somebody (or someone) / something / somewhere.

1 She said something. . What did she say?


2 I’ve lost . What have you lost?
3 They went . Where did they go?
4 I’m going to phone . Who are you going to phone?

2.3 - What are these things? Some are countable and some are uncountable. Write a/an if necessary.
The names of these things are:

bucket envelope milk salt spoon toothpaste


egg jug money sand toothbrush wallet

2.4 - What did you buy? Use the pictures to make sentences (I bought…)

1 I bought some perfume, a hat and some shoes. .


2 Would you like .
3 .
4 .

p. 15
Lesson 2

2.5 - Put in some or any.

1 I bought some cheese but I didn’t buy any bread.


2 I’m going to the post office. I need stamps.
3 There aren’t shops in this part of town.
4 George and Alice haven’t got children.
5 Have you got brothers or sisters?
6 There are beautiful flowers in the garden.
7 Do you know good hotels in London?
8 ‘Would you like tea?’ ‘Yes, please.’
9 When we were on holiday, we visited very interesting places.
10 Don’t buy rice. We don’t need …………………….
11 I went out to buy milk but they didn’t have in the shop.
12 I’m thirsty. Can I have water, please?

2.6 - Write these sentences again with no.

1 We haven’t got any money. We’ve got no money. .


2 There aren’t any shops near here. There are .
3 Carol hasn’t got any free time. .
4 There isn’t a light in this room. .

2.7 - Write these sentences again with any.

5 We’ve got no money. We haven’t got any money. .


6 There’s no tea in the pot. .
7 There are no buses today. .
8 Tom has got no brothers or sisters. .

2.8 - Write these sentences again with nobody/no-one or nothing.

1 There isn’t anything in the bag. There’s nothing in the bag. .


2 There isn’t anybody in the office There's .
3 I haven’t got anything to do. I .
4 There isn’t anything on TV .
5 There wasn’t anyone at home. .
6 We didn’t find anything. .

2.9 - Write these sentences again with anybody/anyone or anything.

1 There’s nothing in the bag. There isn’t anything in the bag. .


2 There was nobody on the bus. There wasn’t .
3 I’ve got nothing to read. ..
4 I’ve got no-one to help me. .
5 She heard nothing. .
6 We’ve got nothing for dinner. .

p. 16
Lesson 2

2.10 - Put in nobody (or no-one) / nothing / nowhere.

Now answer the same questions with full sentences. Use not + anybody/anything/anywhere.

1b I didn’t say anything. . 3b .


2b I' m not . 4b .

TEXT (by Internet)


A Recipe for Immortality

A stranger informed the Prince of Yen that he could make him immortal, and the Prince bade one of
his subjects learn this art : but before the man could do so the stranger died. Then the prince, in great anger,
executed his subject.
He failed to see that the stranger was cheating him, but taken in by his lies had an innocent citizen killed. This
shows what a fool he was ! For a man values nothing more than his own life, yet this fellow could not even
keep himself alive, so what could he do for the prince ?

immortal
Someone or something that is immortal will live or last for ever and never die or be destroyed.

taken in If you are taken in by someone or something, you are deceived by them , so that you get a false
impression of them.

To bade = to offer

Additional conversation!

. Imagine you are in a supermarket with a friend. It’s Saturday and the place is just
crawded! Suddenly you turn into a different aisle and you cannot find your friend anymore.
Fortunately both of you have got a cell phone. So, your target is: Call him/her and arrange
a way to get together into a supermarket place. You must give him/her detailed directions
about the supermarket and make him/her understand where you will be. Good luck!
. Changing the subject! Talking about the text, how can you define today the
necessity or the trend or the overattention about aperiance, youth, physical shape, etc.
How can you deal with the possibility to get old ? How about the fact of trusting someone
wrong or taking early conclusions about someone’s personality?

p. 17
Lesson 3

Vocabulary: Symptoms / diseases and injuries

1. headache 6. sore throat A. cough


2. toothache 7. nasal congestion B. sneeze
3. earache 8. fever / temperature C. feel dizzy
4. stomachache 9. chills (calafrio) D. feel nauseous
5. backache 10. rash (urticária/erupção na pele) E. throw up / vomit

11. insect bite 14. sunburn 17. bloody nose


12. bruise (hematoma) 15. blister (bolha) 18. sprained ankle *
13. cut 16. swollen finger * (torcido/distendido)

p. 18
Lesson 3

Vocabulary: Other illness / sicknesses

Common illnesses and childhood diseases


1. cold (resfriado) 4. strep throat (garganta irritada) 7. mumps (caxumba)

2. flu (gripe influenza) 5. measles (sarampo) 8. allergies

3. ear infection 6. chicken pox (catapora)

Medical conditions and serious diseases


9. diabetes 11. asthma 14. heart disease
10. HIV (human immuno deficiency 12. brain cancer 15. high blood pressure
virus) 13. TB (tuberculosis) 16. intestinal parasites

p. 19
Lesson 3

Grammar: The interrogative pronoun “HOW”

O pronome interrogativo “hhow” possui quatro principais aplicações distintas:


. 1°- Usado em frases exclamativas, significando uma interjeição “ que ”, usado principalmente para expressar
surpresa, expanto ou admiração;
. 2°- Usado antes de um verbo auxiliar ou de um auxiliar, significando “ como ? ” ;
. 3°- Usado antes das palavras específicas abaixo citadas, significando também traduções específicas
. 4°- Usado antes de qualquer adjetivo (exceto os do item 3), significando uma pergunta investigativa, do
grau, ou do nível de “intensidade” deste adjetivo em questão.
Veja o esquema abaixo com alguns exemplos:

1 – How + .........+ !

Com esta interjeição, o “how” significa significa “QUE !”


Ex: “How Nice is your father!” (que legal é o seu pai! / que pai legal é o seu!)
“How expensive that dress!” (que caro aquele vestido! / que vestido caro aquele!)
“How happy I am today!” (o quanto eu estou feliz hoje! / que felicidade eu estou hoje!)
“ How cold!” (que frio!) “How beautiful!” (que bonito!)

2 – How + . auxiliary verb + ……. + ?


. auxiliary

O “How” seguido de um dos dois “grandes grupos” acima siginfica “COMO ?”


Ex: “How are you today?” (como você está hoje? / como vocês estão hoje?)
“How can I get there?” (como eu posso chegar lá? / como eu chego lá? / como é que eu faço para chegar lá?)
“How do you go to work?” (como você vai para o trabalho? / de que forma você vai trabalhar?)

3 – How + . big + . auxiliary verb + Subject + …….. + ? qual o tamanho?


. far . auxiliary qual a distância?
. long quanto tempo leva/gasta?
. often qual a freqüência?
. old qual a idade?
. tall qual a altura? (p/ pessoas - “people”)
. high qual a altura? (p/ coisas - “things”)
. heavy qual o peso?
. deep qual a profundidade?
. many quanto? (p/ substantivos contáveis)
. much quanto? (p/ substantivos incontáveis)
. much quanto custa? ( p/ dinheiro $$$)
. many times quantas vezes?

4 - How + ANY adjective + ……… + ?

O “How” seguido de um adjetivo qualquer, refere-se ao nível (level), intensidade (intensity), ou grau (degree) de
algo ou alguma coisa. Ex:
. “ How smart is Susan? ” Qual o grau de “esperteza” da Susan (“de burrinha a gênio”)
. “ How handsome is Paul? ” Qual o grau de beleza de Paul (“de monstro a maravilhoso”)
. “ How interesting is the new teacher? ” O quanto o novo professor é interessante? (“de normal a interesantíssimo”)
. “ How rich is she? ” Qual o nível de riqueza dela? (“de miserável a milionária”).

p. 20
Lesson 3

3.1. Traduza as frases seguintes usando “how”. “Translate the following sentences using how”.
a) Como elas estão vestidas hoje? ........................................................................................................................................................................
b) Que revista interessante! .....................................................................................................................................................................................
c) Como ele está?.........................................................................................................................................................................................................
d) Quantas vezes você vai ao clube por mês? .................................................................................................................................................
e) Qual a freqüência que você vai ao clube? ....................................................................................................................................................
f) Que calor está hoje!................................................................................................................................................................................................
g) Como eu faço para assar um bolo? ................................................................................................................................................................
h) Quanto dinheiro você tem?................................................................................................................................................................................
i) Quantos dólares você tem? .................................................................................................................................................................................
j) Quanto custa este pijama? ...................................................................................................................................................................................
k) Quanto ele mede? ..................................................................................................................................................................................................
l) Qual a altura daquela arvore?.............................................................................................................................................................................
m) Quanto tempo este filme demora a acabar? .............................................................................................................................................
n) Qual a distância entre as cidades do Rio e SP?..........................................................................................................................................
o) Qual a idade deles?................................................................................................................................................................................................
p) O quanto ele está interessado em comprar um carro novo?...............................................................................................................
q) Quantas pessoas têm na sala? ..........................................................................................................................................................................
r) Como (que nós) fazemos para agradar a todos? .......................................................................................................................................
t) Qual o grau de pobreza da África?...................................................................................................................................................................
u) Como ela estuda? ...................................................................................................................................................................................................
v) Como ela estuda! ....................................................................................................................................................................................................
w) Quantas vezes ela estuda por semana?........................................................................................................................................................
x) Qual a freqüência que ela estuda?...................................................................................................................................................................
y) Ela estuda com quantos professores? ............................................................................................................................................................
z) Qual a qualidade do estudo dela? ...................................................................................................................................................................

3.2 - “Complete the gaps watching the list on the page 20, list number 3”.
“An interview about the people coffee habits. First person on street answering. All this ex. is about this same person”…
a) _ Excuse me, __________ do you normally drink coffee? _ Almost never. I don’t like it at all, but my wife does a lot!
b) _ _____________ does she drink coffee? Is it with sugar? _ Three times a day. Yes, it’s always with sugar.
c) _ And you, _____________ sugar do you put in your coffee? _ When I drink, just a little.
d) _ _____________ spoons of sugar do you put in your coffee? _ Two.
e) _ _____________ is the package of coffee do you buy, in an avarage? _ It’s five dollars each.
f) _ _____________ do you spend to drink a big mug of coffee? _ If it’s really hot, about ten minutes.
g) _ _____________ is from your home to the nearest cafe? _ It’s around five blocks, just.
h) _ _____________ is this cafe? _ Oh, it’s really huge! It fits more than 200 custumers, and it’s got 3 floors.
i) _ Is it that building over there? _ yes, you’re right. / _ ___________ is it?! _ Nine, ten meters high, I guess!
j) _ Yes, very high! And you, ___________ are you? _ Me?! I’m one seventy four meter tall.
h) _ O.K…Last question. It’s a personal question. __________ are you? _ I’m 33. / _ Thanks your attention!

3.3 - Complete the questions with How + adjective or adverb (high/long etc.).

p. 21
Lesson 3

TEXT(by Internet)

An Angel Called Anna

She was born with medical problems. She was born with two holes in her heart -- yet her heart is the
greatest of all. She can love with a deeper and more encompassing love than anyone I know. Her spirit is
strong. As loving as she is -- she can be just as stubborn. She was born 'failure-to-thrive' three and a half
months in intensive care, almost dying once. Her heart is whole now. Look at her run.!! Almost dying -- now
she can fly!
She loves to sing and dance. She sings and dances with women such as Julie and Barbara in old movies
that, to her, are new . She loves long flowing dresses and when she comes to you in her long flowing dress -
you say, "Hello Miss Dolly." Her face glows. She also loves a certain nanny who flies through the air.
She loves her older brothers, but will stand her ground. When she is angry with her brothers you will
hear her cry out "Go to Daddy!" But when they are sick, she nurses them like a mother. No gentler hand could
be found.
She loves babies, yet she can never be a mother. Her body will never give her that miracle. When she is
old enough to understand -- how can I tell her that she is sterile! Aren't daddies supposed to be able to fix
everything?
Some do not like Anna, even though she is loving and would never betray you once she pledges to you.
She, without being instructed, knows Jesus. When watching a movie about Jesus' life, I asked her who Jesus
was and she replied "Heavenly Father". When they took Jesus to the cross, her tears flowed and her body
shuddered in agony. How could any adult not like Anna? Well, some call her retarded, and for them, that
means she is automatically discounted - - of less or of no worth. Others say "Oh, that's too bad!" when they
see her - - they unwittingly pity her. But they are wrong!! --- Anna is Downs Syndrome, and she is 9 years old
today - - - and I think my daughter is an angel.

Vocabulary:

. encompassing = incondicional
. nanny = seres imaginários (doendes, fadas, gnomos, etc)
. to pledge = prometer, garantir.
. betray = maltratar
. to shudder = estremecer
. worth = solução
. unwittingly = despropositalmente.

Additional conversation!

Talking about the Symptoms and Injuries, answer:


1. For Which problems would you go to a doctor? Use medication? Do nothing?
2. What do you do for a sunburn? For a headache?
3. Which diseases are infectious?
4. Let’s have an important and short talking about how to prevent HIV
5. About Anna (text) Have you ever been around someone like her? If yes, tell us how was
(or is) and if no, try to figure out how it would be, I mean, the feeling for you.
 

p. 22
Lesson 4

Vocabulary: Education / Schooling types

1. public school 2. private school 3. parochial school

4. preschool 5. elementary school 6. middle school / 7. high school


junior high school

8. adult school 9. vocational school / trade school 10. college / university

p. 23
Lesson 4

Grammar: Subject and object questions

Como no português, temos também duas formas de se fazer uma pergunta no inglês:
. Perguntas sem o objeto – Object questions.
. Perguntas sem sujeito – Subject questions.

Object questions:
Na verdade, este grupo de perguntas é o grupo que sempre já estávamos acostumados a fazer. Agora
, estamos simplesmente, aprendendo seu “nome oficial”. Vamos apenas relembrar:
Considerando os “dois grandes grupos do inglês”
. 1 – Auxiliary Verbs (Verb to be - am, is, are, was, were, will be / Modal verbs - can, could, would,
may,…/ Has,have,had got / There is,are,was,were,will be)
. 2 – Auxiliaries (do/does, did, will).
Todas as vezes que fizermos uma pergunta sem o objeto (ou predicado), devemos seguir a seguinte
ordem: (os “interrogative pronouns” – which, what, where, when,...podem ou não aparecer na pergunta de
acordo com a necessidade):
(Interrogative pronouns) + 1/2 + subject + ..... + ?

Ex1: John and Mary work in the morning at the club – Where Do John and Mary work?
Ex2: John and Mary worked in the morning at the club yest. – When did John and Mary work yest.?
Ex3: They are studying hard lately – How are they studying?
Ex4: She can study three languages at once - How many languages can she study at once?
Ex5: She loves shopping – What does she love?

Percebam primeiramente que nos exemplos de 1 a 5, os sujeitos estão nos retângulos, e eles
aparecem na pergunta, portanto temos perguntas sem o objeto (object questions). Porém, temos nestes
exemplos, cada frase com mais de um objeto. Por isso que temos em negrito, o objeto em destaque que
quero enfatizar perguntando sobre ele usando o pronome interrogativo respectivo (where, when, how, etc...).
Portanto, posso perguntar de acordo com a informação do objeto que quero por em evidência. Temos as
traduções:
Ex1: John e Mary trabalham de manhã no clube – Onde eles trabalham?
Ex2: John e Mary trabalharam de manhã no clube ontem – Quando o John e a Mary trabalharam ontem?
Ex3: Eles estão estudando “pesado” ultimamente – Como eles estão estudando?
Ex4: Ela “dá conta” de estudar três línguas de uma só vez – Quantas línguas Ela “dá conta” de estudar de uma
só vez?
Ex5: Ela ama fazer compras – O que ela ama fazer?

Subject questions:
Quando o sujeito não é mencionado na pergunta, temos o “subject question”. Importantíssimo a saber
é que nestes casos, o SINGULAR é obrigatório. É incorreto por exemplo perguntarmos:
. Quem irão ao clube com você? Correto: Quem irá ao clube com você?
. Quem estão batendo na porta? Correto: Quem está batendo na porta?
. O que estão errado? Correto: O que está errado?
No Inglês esta relação (singular em perguntas sem sujeito) também é válida. Outro fato importante é
que não usamos o auxiliar do/does/did/will, e nem invertemos 1/2 para antes do sujeito, na hora de se fazer
uma pergunta como fazemos no “object question”. Ex:
. Sue loves Tom – Who loves Tom?(Sue = Sujeito; Tom = objeto; Portanto na pergunta “Quem ama o Tom? O
sujeito não aparece, caracterizando assim uma “subject question”. Percebam que não usamos auxiliar ou
invertemos “1/2” )

p. 24
Lesson 4

. They love Tom - Who loves Tom? (lembra, singular!) (Eles/elas amam o Tom – Quem ama o Tom? )
. In the past, Sue loved Tom – Who loved Tom in the past. (No passado, a Sue amou o Tom – Quem amou o
Tom no passado?)
. They have got two houses – . Who has got two houses? (singular!) (Eles/elas têm duas casas – Quem tem
duas casas?)
Vamos agora, em um quadro comparativo, dar outros exemplos. Percebam as diferenças:
Subject question Object question
Susan likes Bob (A Susan gosta do Bob) Who likes Bob? Who does Susan like?
Susan liked Bob (A Susan gostou do Bob) Who liked Bob? Who did Susan like?
Susan can like Bob (A Susan pode gostar do Who can like Bob? Who can Susan like?
Bob)
They like Bob (Eles/elas gostam do Bob) Who likes Bob? Who do they like?
They are going to travel (Eles/elas viajarão) Who is going to travel? What are they going to do?
You like beer (Você gosta/Vocês gostam de Who likes beer? What do you like?
cerveja)

Estudaremos agora, três “interrogative pronouns”, que são usados na maioria das vezes em orações
sem sujeito (lembra que “whom” relaciona-se com o objeto), motivo pelo não os estudamos anteriormente:
1.“to whom” = Para quem
2.“with whom” = Com quem
3.“from whom” = De quem
Ex: _Mom, I’m leaving! Bye-bye! (Mãe, estou indo embora, tchau!)
_Wait! With whom? (Espera! Com quem você está indo?) – percebam neste exemplo que “temos que
descobrir” que é o sujeito!
a _ Who did you got this money from? (De quem você conseguiu este dinheiro?) -
b _ “I got some money!” (ganhei um dinheirinho!) ; _ “From whom?” (de quem?)
No exemplo “a” – “from who” percebam que temos o sujeito “você”; Já no exemplo “b” – “from whom”
não temos sujeito, sendo a resposta da pergunta o próprio sujeito oculto na pergunta.

4.1 - Make questions with who or what. In these questions, who/what is the subject.

4.2 - Choose from the boxes and write sentences: A ...is a person who…. Use a dictionary if necessary.
a thief a dentist doesn't tell the truth is ill in hospital
a butcher a fool looks after your teeth steal things
a musician a genius is very intelligent is very stupid
a patient a liar plays a musical instrument sells meat
1 A thief is a person who steals things. .
2 A butcher is a person .
3 A musician .
4 .
5 .
6 .
7 .
8 .

p. 25
Lesson 4

4.3 - Ask Liz questions. (Look at her answers before you write the questions.)

TEXT (by Internet) Michelangelo


A man paints with his brains and not with his hands.
Lord, grant that I may always desire more than I can accomplish.

Motivation (by the author – Me!!!)

Let’s focus our attention about an important subject: Motivation. It can sound boring, but the real
understanding of this concept can help a personal support and may change our lives.
Motivation may be the most important tool to keep the maintaining of energy we need to guide and follow
the life’s target. Sometimes we know that we should do something, we know where we want to get, and we even
know the way, but, unfortunately we just can not move! Why!? Culturally, socially, or whatever reason, we have
some difficulties to admit our weakness and to do what is necessary to accomplish our day by day chores. We
(mainly the Brazilians) postpone a lot, we pretend that everything is all right, and sometimes we give up our
personal capacity thinking that is harder to face the challenge.
Imagine that, instead we let the darkness catch us, we fight against the motives of our “laziness”, making us
able to react, reacting of all the things that bother or let us down. Motivation gives us strength to overcome the
problems in a very positive way. Our interests guide our decisions of what to do, the “whys” of doing something.
Motivation is a sort of “fuel” to conquest the bless of releasing what we want and what is important to be done.
Each one of us is a total universe, with different realities, different skills and difficulties, so the motivation
obviously is different considering these differences. Let’s analyze motivation in a very deep way, and try to find our
own motivation. What kind of behavior, activity or therapy gives me motivation, power, energy?
Motivation is not only a matter of choices. The intensity we allow ourselves to be and to feel motivated is
also changeable. Maybe the secret of the motivation is how much of this motivation power we believe is being
converted to “life fuel” and an inspiring positive energy that can do miracles! There’s not an answer or a solution,
just a reflection.
We can trace our direction and think about what really motivate us. As much as we do motivational stuffs
better. There are no recipe procedures or measuring about motivation. Let’s find out our much. The nature of our
vivid motivation is relative and need to be found. This is the most important reflection: What is the nature of the
things may motivate me and how much I am drinking of this gorgeous life liquid and better, what this liquid is stand
for.

Additional conversation!
Let’s link now education with motivation! The vocabulary and the text topic of this
lesson! It’s a nice opportunity to analyse if :
. Our society is prepared to change due to an educational revolution, specially Brazil.
. How to motivate yourself to feed your soul and how to motivate the “whole” around
us.
. How “Michelangelo” can be associated with the two topics discussed 

p. 26
Lesson 5

Vocabulary: Let´s go camping!

1. camping 4. rafting 7. backpacking

2. boating 5. fishing 8. mountain biking

3. canoeing 6. hiking 9. horseback riding

10. tent 15. backpack 20. multi-use knife


11. campfire 16. camping stove 21. matches
12. sleeping bag 17. fishing net 22. lantern
13. foam pad 18. fishing pole 23. insect repellent
14. life vest 19. rope 24. canteen

p. 27
Lesson 5

Grammar: Gerund and/or infinitive

Neste capítulo, vamos estudar, quando devemos usar um verbo no gerúndio, quando devemos usá-lo
no infinitivo, ou quando podemos optar pelas duas opções. Estamos falando de uma situação particular, e
qual situação seria esta? Dois verbos seguidos! Devemos ter em mente que toda esta abordagem deste
capítulo refere-se a esta situação; quando temos dois verbos seguidos, e mais, estamos principalmente
abordando o segundo verbo; Portanto o segundo verbo (destes dois verbos seguidos) ou verbos seguidos de
preposições é que estão em foque!
Bom, agora que já sabemos do que se trata este capítulo, vale aqui uma dica:
Importante: Quando o primeiro verbo estiver em algum tempo verbal que não for o presente, o segundo
verbo deve estar no infinitivo (o “ing” não chega a estar errado). Não esqueça que o “to” pode ter também a
função de indicar “deslocamento”, e as vezes tambem o “ing” é traduzido ao “pé-da-letra”. Agora vamos
estudar caso a caso:

O Gerúndio / “The Gerund”:


Além de ser usado para formar os tempos contínuos (she’s watching tv now – ela está assistindo tv
agora), o gerúndio pode funcionar como substantivo (Ex: swimming is a total exercise – Natação é um
exercício total).
Usa-se o gerúndio:
. 1 – Após preposições (Principalmente depois das preposições “at” e “of” / mainly after the prepositions : AT
and OF):
Ex: She’s tired of getting fat (Ela está cansada de engordar)
He’s good at playing sports (Ele é bom na prática de esportes)
. 2 – Após os verbos: “come” (vir) e “go” (ir)
Ex: Let’s go dancing!? (Vamos dançar?)
I love to go shopping. (Eu amo fazer compras)
Please, come running! (Por favor, venha correndo!)
. 3 –Após os verbos: Admit (admitir), avoid (evitar), appreciate (apreciar), consider (considerar), continue
(continuar), delay (atrasar), detest (detestar), deny (negar / contradizer), enjoy (“curtir” / aproveitar), escape
(escapar/fugir), finish (terminar / acabar), imagine (imaginar), keep (manter / guardar) , mind (importar / dar
importância a), miss (perder / sentir falta de), practice (praticar), suggest (sugerir), stop * (parar), try * (tentar /
experimentar), resist (resistir) e understand (entender / compreender).
Ex: She keeps lying to me! (Ela continua mentindo para mim)
I don’t admit loosing my time! (Eu não admito perder meu tempo)
Please, stop crying! (Por favor, pare de chorar!) *Podem também estarem no infinitivo, mas melhor -
gerúndio (ver 3° caso)

O Infinitivo / “The Infinitive”:


É a forma original do verbo, e pode aparecer com ou sem a partícula “To”:

. 1 – Sem o “To”:
. Após os verbos modais* she can play piano. (Ela da conta de tocar piano)
. Após os verbos make e let (fazer/produzir e permitir) let me go! Make me feel good. (Me deixe ir!
Me faça sentir bem.)
* except: used to, has/have to, ought to , will be able to

. 2 – Com o “To”:
. Após os verbos: Tell (dizer), invite (convidar), teach (ensinar), remind (lembrar), wish/desire/want
(querer/desejar), need (precisar).

p. 28
Lesson 5

Ex: She wants to leave here. (Ela quer sair daqui)


I wish to win the lottery. (Quero ganhar na loteria)
The teacher teaches you to study. (O professor te ensina a estudar)
. Após as palavras: Too (demais / também), enough (bastante/suficiente), the first (o 1°), the second (o
2°), the third (o 3°),..., the last (o último), the only (o único). Ex: We are too young to die. (Somos jovens demais
para morrer)
Ex: Yesterday, I was the first one to arrive to the party. (Ontem, fui o 1° a chegar na festa).
. Após adjetivos:
Ex: This exercise is easy to do. (Este ex. é fácil de fazer). It’s difficult to regret if you’re nice. (É difícil de se
arrepender se você é legal)
. 3 – O verbo “to help” (ajudar), aceita o infinitivo com ou sem “To”:
Ex: I always help her to do the homework.(Eu sempre a ajudo a fazer sua tarefa escolar de casa)
I always help her do the housework. (Eu sempre a ajudo a fazer sua tarefa doméstica)

O gerúndio ou o Infinitivo / “The Gerund or the Infinitive”:

. 1 – Gerúndio ou infinitivo sem “To”: Feel (sentir), hear (escutar / ouvir dizer), notice (noticiar / delatar),
observe (observar), see (ver), watch (ver / assistir).
Ex: He watched the dogs run. (Ele assistiu os cães correrem)
He watched the dogs running. (Ele assistiu os cães correndo)

. 2 – Gerúndio ou infinitivo com “to”: Advice (aconcelhar), allow (permitir), attempt (tentar), begin (iniciar /
começar), continue (continuar), dislike (desgostar), forget (esquecer), hate (odiar), intend (pretender), like
(gostar), love (amar), neglect (negligênciar), prefer (preferir), remember (lembrar / relembrar / recordar),
permit (permitir), start (começar / iniciar), stop (parar) and try (tentar / experimentar).
Ex: I hate getting up late. (odeio acordar tarde-atrasado). I hate to get up early. (Odeio acordar cedo)
The player attempts doing his play. The player attempts to do his play. (O jogador tenta fazer sua jogada)
The player attempted to do his play 2 minutes ago *. (O jogador tentou fazer sua jogada a 2 minutos
atrás)

* Lembramos da “dica” no início deste capítulo. Veja este último exemplo; Temos o verbo no passado,
portanto o outro verbo - que o segue - deve estar no infinitivo! Atenção: Analisar o 1° verbo e “julgar”
o 2°!

Observem outro detalhe:


Importante / Important:
They stopped to talk – Eles/elas pararam para conversar.
They stopped talking – Eles/elas pararam de conversar.

Temos o ultimo detalhe que é o uso de conjunções e preposicões, e depois um verbo (ao invés de dois
verbos). Portanto temos o uso:
Infinitivo:
. Após as conjunções but e except (mas e com exceção). Ex: I will do nothing but cry. (Eu não farei nada a
não ser chorar)
Gerúndio:
. Após a preposicão Without (sem). Ex: Bob left without saying goodbye. (Bob foi embora sem dizer adeus)

p. 29
Lesson 5

5.1 - Write three things that you`re good at and three things that you`re afraid of.
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

5.2 - Write three things that you intend to do.


_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

5.3 - Write two things that you like and two that you dislike.
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

5.4 – Put the verb in the correct form using ; ..to or/and -ing

a) Always when Sandra is sad, she starts ____________________ (cry).


b) Yesterday Sandra was very sad and she started __________________ (cry).
c) They appreciate ___________________ (dance) and they also enjoy ___________________ (sing), but actually they
are not that good at ________________ (sing). Their tone of voice is awful!
d) If a burglar resist _________________ (be) arrest, he/she can _______________ (be) hit by the police.
e) _I’m trying __________________ (read) this newspaper. Please stop _________________ (talk) so loud!
f) _Did she enjoy ________________ (visit) Europe? _Yes, I think she enjoyed _____________ (know) everything.
g) _ Where’s Paul? I must ___________ (talk) to him, I really need ____________ (ask) him something urgent.
h) Regina is very extremely afraid of ____________ (touch) a cochrouch. It’s a trauma. So I suggested her
__________(go) to a psychologist ______________ (check) it out! _____________ (check) it out could help her
______________ (overcome) this problem, and maybe, forget _____________ (go) mad every time when she see this
bug!

5.6 - Put the verb in the right form, to ... or -ing.

1 I enjoy dancing (dance). 9 Where's Bill? He promised (be) here on


2 What do you want to do (do) tonight? time.
3 Goodbye! I hope (see) you 10 I’m not in a hurry. I don't mind
again soon. (wait).
4 I learnt (swim) when I was 11 What have you decided (do)?
five years old. 12 George was very angry and refused
5 Have you finished (clean) the (speak) to me.
kitchen? 13 Where’s Ann? I need (ask)
6 I’m tired. I want (go) to bed. her something.
7 Do you enjoy (visit) other 14 I was very upset and started (cry).
countries? 15 I’m trying (work). Please stop
8 The weather was nice, so I suggested ... (talk).
(go) for a walk by the river.

p. 30
Lesson 5

TEXT (by Internet)

The Wolf in Sheep's Clothing

A Wolf found great difficulty in getting at the sheep owing to the vigilance of the shepherd and his
dogs. But one day it found the skin of a sheep that had been flayed and thrown aside, so it put it on over its
own pelt and strolled down among the sheep.
The Lamb that belonged to the sheep whose skin the Wolf was wearing began to follow the Wolf in
the Sheep's clothing. So, leading the Lamb a little apart, he soon made a meal off her - and for some time he
succeeded in deceiving the sheep, and enjoying hearty meals.
Appearances are deceptive.

Vocabulary:

. owing to = due to / (to owe = dever)


. pelt = hair / skin
. strolled = mixed

Additional conversation!

. Try to figure out you’re going to an amazing camping trip with an ideal partner! You
should now item everything you need to carry with you to make this trip even better!
Remember the weather conditions.
. Now, let’s reflect about the text. Try to trace a parallel between the sheep and someone
you know (can be from a tv, from books, by listening, etc, it doesn’t need to be someone
you know personally). How to avoid this kind of people or behavior?
. Discuss about the last text sentence.

p. 31
Lesson 6

Vocabulary: Personal mood

1. hot

2. thirsty

3. sleepy

4. cold

5. hungry

6. full

7. comfortable

8. uncomfortable

9. disgusted

10. calm

11. nervous

12. in pain

13. worried

14. sick

15. well

16. relieved

17. hurt

18. lonely

19. in love

p. 32
Lesson 6

Vocabulary: Personal mood

20. sad

21. homesick

22. proud

23. excited

24. scared

25. embarrassed

26. bored

27. confused

28. frustrated

29. angry

30. upset

31. surprised

32. happy

33. tired

p. 33
Lesson 6

Grammar: Comparative and superlative sentenses

Quando fazemos uma comparação e quando fazemos uma frase superlativa? A resposta é simples.
Quando temos uma proporção ou quantidade equivalente, estamos comparando algo ou
alguém. Ex:
. Eu sou mais alto do que ela (eu e ela – proporções equivalentes, iguais);
. O time de futebol brasileiro é melhor que o canadense (time Brasil c/ time Canadá);
. Ele é tão educado quanto ela (ele e ela);
. Sou menos rico que ele (eu e ele, etc...).
Ao contrário, quando temos diferentes quantidades ou proporções = superlativo – Ex:
. Eu sou o mais alto da sala (eu e todos da sala – proporcções desiguais eu = 1, e todos da sala = mais do que
1);
. O time de futebol brasileiro é o melhor do mundo (Brasil c/ todos os times do mundo);
. Ele é o mais educado de sua rua (ele e todos de sua rua, etc..).

Temos quatro tipos de comparativo:


. Comparativo de Superioridade: Ex: Sou mais alto que ela.
. Comparativo de Inferioridade: Ex: Sou menos alto que ela.
. Comparativo de Igualdade: Ex: Sou tão alto quanto ela.
. Comparativo de Inegualdade: Ex: Não sou tão alto quanto ela.

E apenas um tipo de superlativo:


. Superlativo: Ex: Sou o mais alto da turma.

Vamos agora aprender como comparar ou como fazer uma frase no superlativo. Para isto, temos que
focalizar toda nossa atenção no ADJETIVO. Ele é grande merecedor de nossa atenção.
Em inglês, a quantidade de sílabas de uma palavra é determinada pelo som, pela fonética, e esta
quantidade de silabas do ADJETIVO é determinante para aplicarmos a regra do comparativo e do superlativo.
Analisando a tabela abaixo, percebe-se que ADJETIVOS no comparativo de superioridade e no superlativo
com 1 sílaba, mudam de forma.

1 syllable adjective 2 or more syllable adjectives


(adjectives will change)
change) (adjectives won’t change)
change)

...________+ER than…
Comparative of (adjective) … more ________ than…
superiority (adjective)
Ex: I’m older than him
(Sou mais velho do que ele) Ex: He’s more polite than her.
(Ele é mais educado do que ela)

…the most _________...


Superlative …the ________+EST… (adjective)
(adjective)
Ex: He´s the most polite of his street.
Ex: I’m the oldest of my classroom. (Ele é o mais educado de sua rua)
(Sou o mais velho da sala)

p. 34
Lesson 6

Temos que considerar algumas modificações para os “one syllable adjectives”:

1 – Adjetivos que terminam em consoante + “Y” ( = “ier” / “iest” without “y”):


early – earlier than – the earliest (cedo – mais cedo que – o mais cedo)
easy – easier than – the easiest (fácil – mais fácil que – o mais fácil)

2 – Adjetivos que terminam em C.V.C (consonant / vowel / consonant = we double the last
corresponding letter):
hot – hotter than – the hottest (quente – mais quente que – o mais quente)
fat – fatter than – the fattest (rápido – mais rápido que – o mais rápido)

3 – Three irregular adjectives (five, actually but the two last ones are not very used!):
. good – better than – the best (bom – melhor que – o melhor)
. bad – worse than – the worst (mau – poir que – o pior)
. far – farther than / further than – the farthest / the furthest (longe – mais longe que – o mais longe)
(ou distante)
. much / many – more – most (muito – mais que – o mais)
. little – less – least (pouco – menos que – o mínimo)
Qualquer adjetivo nos demais tipos de comparativo não sofre nenhuma alteração,
independentemente do número de sílabas:

1 syllable adjective 2 or more syllable ajdective

Comparative ...less _________ than... ...less _________ than...


of inferiority (adjective) (adjective)

Ex: I’m less old than my cousin. Ex: He’s less polite than her.
Comparative ... as __________ as... ... as __________ as...
of equality (adjective) (adjective)

Ex: I’m as old as my cousin. Ex: He’s as polite as her.


Comparative ... not as ___________ as... ... not as ___________ as...
of
of inequality (adjective) (adjective)

Ex: I’m not as old as my cousin. Ex: He’s not as polite as her.

Importante:

1 - Como já enfatizamos bastante, estas regras acima são aplicadas apenas a adjetivos. Vamos
considerar o seguinte exemplo:
. Quero ter mais saúde. (saúde – substantivo : health); I want to have more health.
. Quero ser mais saudável. (saudável – adjetivo: healthy); I wanna be healthier.
2 - Nem sempre precisamos usar toda a estrutura do comparativo e/ou do superlativo:
. Minha irmã mais velha(comparative) tem o carro mais novo da Ford (superlative): My older sister has got the
newest Ford car.
3 - At most = “no máximo”; contrário: At least = no mínimo. I can wait at most 10 min. (Posso
esperar no máximo 10’)
Most of… = a maioria … Most of Brazilians are poor. (A maioria dos brasileiros são pobres)

p. 35
Lesson 6

6.1 – Use the comparatives or superlatives according the contexts

a) Sally is ________________ Betty. They were born in the same year, same day! (old)
b) Sally is ________________ Tom. She was born two years first than him. (old)
c) Sally is ________________ John. She was born two years after him. (old)
d) Sally is not _______________ someone was born first, obviously!!! (old)
e) Sally is ________________ of her group! (old)
f) There is no one ________________ Sara at her class. She is ______________ . (smart)
g) Let’s see if you know the cities: Montreal is _____________ Vancouver (cold), and Edmonton __________ Montreal, so
____________ is ____________ (cold), and ______________ is _____________ (hot). About biggness, London is ______________
Tokio (big), and São Paulo is ______________ New York (small). New York is ________________ (big) city in the world, and
some people consider it ______________ (good) as well, fo the ones who prefer life in a small village or in a country,
NY is _________________ (bad) in the world!
h) If Sally plays volleyball better than Betty, Betty doesn’t play volleyball _______________ Sally (good).
i) Going to Japan from NY is __________________ (far) going from Australia.

6.2- Look at the pictures and write the comparative (older / more interesting etc.).

6.3 - Write the comparative of superiority.

1 old older . 6 good .


2 strong . 7 large .
3 happy . 8 serious .
4 modern . 9 pretty .
5 important . 10 crowded .

p. 36
Lesson 6

6.4 - Write sentences about Liz and Ben. Use than.

1 Liz is older than Ben. . 7 Liz is a .


2 Ben is a better swimmer than Liz. . 8 Ben .
3 Liz is . 9 Ben .
4 Liz starts Ben. 10 Liz .
5 Ben . 11 Liz .
6 Ben has got . 12 Ben .

6.5 - Write sentences with as ...as


1 Athens is older than Rome. Rome isn’t as old as Athens. .
2 My room is bigger than yours. Your room isn’t .
3 You got up earlier than me. I didn’t .
4 We played better than them. They .
5 I’ve been here longer than you. You .
6 She’s more nervous than him. .

6.6 - Write sentences with comparatives (older etc.) and superlatives (the oldest etc.).

p. 37
Lesson 6

JOKE (by Internet)

A new teacher is trying to make use of her Psychology courses. She starts her class by saying, everyone
who thinks you're stupid, stand up." After a few seconds, little Tommy stood up. The teacher said, "Do you
think you're stupid, Tommy?" "No, teacher," he says, "but I hate to see you standing there all by yourself."

Additional conversation!

. Try to define these adjectives (use very…): furious, terrified, horrified, overjoyed,
exhausted, starving, humiliated.
. Talk about your feelings using the verb “to feel” and “when”. Do at least six sentences.
Ex: I feel worried when I think about the wars and the world poverty.
I feel hungry when I stay very long without any food.
. Try to tell (translating I guess) an interesting joke you know!
 

p. 38
Lesson 7

Vocabulary: How bad! Disasters!

1. lost child 4. explosion 7. fire


2. car accident 5. earthquake 8. firefighter
3. airplane crash 6. mudslide 9. fire truck

p. 39
Lesson 7

Vocabulary: Natural disasters

10. drought 13. tornado 16. flood


11. blizzard 14. volcanic eruption 17. search and rescue team
12. hurricane 15. tidal wave

p. 40
Lesson 7

Grammar: How to agree

No inglês, temos um modo específico para concordarmos com frases na afirmativa e um outro modo
específico para concordarmos com frases na negativa. Não podemos “misturar” os dois modos. Não estamos
falando em concordância verbal ou nominal, e sim, apenas o simples fato de dizermos por exemplo: “sim, eu
também” ou “não, eu também não”. Vamos considerar “os dois grandes grupos do inglês” como “legenda”:

. 1 - Auxiliary verbs - verb to be (am/is/are, was/were,will), modal verbs - can/ could/ would/ may/
should/ … has-have-had got, there is,are,was,were,will be
. 2 - Auxiliaries - do / does / did / will

Affirmative sentences:
. subject + 1/2 + too
. …. + object pronoun + too
. so + 1/2 + personal pronoun

Ex: Eu concordarei com tudo que ela afirmar:


She is Brazilian, (Ela é brasileira) I am too (Eu também sou) me too (Eu também) so am I (Bem como eu sou)
She was sad, (Ela estava triste) I was too (Eu também estava) me too (Eu também) so was I (Bem como eu era)
She can drive, (Ela pode dirigir) I can too (Eu também posso) me too (Eu também) so can I (Bem como posso)
She should study, (Ela deveria estudar) I should too (Eu também deveria) me too (Eu também) so should I (Bem como devo)
She drives well, (Ela dirige bem) I do too (Eu também dirijo) me too (Eu também) so do I (Bem como faço)
She drove well yest, (Ela dirijiu bem ontem) I did too (Eu também diriji) me too (Eu também) so did I (Bem como fiz)
She will travel, (Ela viajará) I will too (Eu também viajarei) me too (Eu também) so will I (Bem como eu vou)
She has got a pen, (Ela tem uma caneta) I have got too (Eu também tenho me too (Eu também) so have (got) I (Bem como
eu tenho)
She has a pen, (Ela tem uma caneta I do too (Eu também tenho) me too (Eu também) so do I (Bem como eu tenho)

Ele concordará com tudo que eles falarem:


They were busy (Eles/elas estavam atrasados) He was too(Ele também estava) him too(Ele também) so was he(Bem como ele
estava)

They can swim, (Eles/elas podem corer) He can too (Ele também pode) him too (Ele também) so can he (Bem como ele pode)
They run fast, (Eles/elas correm rápido) He does too(Ele também corre) him too (Ele também) so does he (Bem como ele faz)
They ran fast yest., (Eles/elas correram rápido ontem) He did too (Ele também correu) him too (Ele também) so did he (Bem como ele
fez)
Para respostas completas, usamos o “ Also” ( = também) depois do sujeito, e do (1/2)
Ex: She is from Londan and I am also from London. (Ela é de Londres e eu também sou de Londres)
She can study, I can also study. (Ela pode estudar, e eu também posso estudar)
She loves chocolate, and I also love chocolate. (Ela ama chocolate e eu também amo chocolate)

Importante: Além do significado acima, podemos lembrar voltando as “quantity expressions”, que, “so / too”
significam também “tão e demais” respectivamente.
Ex: In a dialogue: (no diálogo)
_ I’m too* full after this lunch! (Estou cheio demais depois deste almoço!)
_ I’m too**! (Eu também) OR
_ I’m so* full after this lunch! (Estou tão cheio, depois deste almoço!)
_ So** am I ! (Bem como eu estou! / Eu também!)
* emphasize the quantity (emfatiza a quantidade)
** agreement (p/ Concordar)

p. 41
Lesson 7

Grammar: Negative Sentences

Ainda considerando “os dois grandes grupos do inglês” como “legenda” (1/2), para concordarmos com
uma frase na negativa temos:

. Neither + 1/2 + personal pronoun. or…


. personal pronoun + 1/2 + not + either.
Ex:
Nós concordaremos com tudo que ele negar:

He isn’t English, (Ele não é Inglês) neither are we = we (are not/ aren’t) either (nós também não / nem nós – somos)
He wasn’t stupid, (Ele não foi estúpido) neither were we = we (were not/ weren’t) either (nós também não / nem nós
– somos)
He can’t speak German (Ele não fala alemão) neither can we = we (can not/cannot /can’t) either (nós também não /
nem nós – conseguimos)
He couldn’t be boring, (Ele não pôde ser chato) neither could we = we (could not/ couldn’t) either ( nós também não
/ nem nós – pudemos)
He doesn’t lie, (Ele não mente) neither do we = we (do not/ don’t) either (nós também não / nem nós – mentimos)
He didn’t fly yest., (Ele não vôou ontem) neither did we = we (did not/ didn’t) either (nós também não / nem nós –
voamos)
He won’t buy a car, (Ele não comprará um carro) neither will we = we (will not/ won’t) either (nós também não /
nem nós – compraremos)
He hasn’t got a jeep, (Ele não tem um jeep) neither have (got) we = we haven’t got either (nós também não / nem
nós – temos)

Importante: Na afirmativa, Neither e either, possuem um significado completamente diferente:

. Neither : Nenhum dos dois, nenhuma das duas – Neither my brothers are from S.P. (Nenhum dos meus irmãos são de
SP)
. Neither... nor: nem...nem – Neither his brother nor his sister play piano. (Nem seu irmão, nem sua irmã tocam piano)
. Either : Qualquer um, qualquer uma - either you guys can come over my house. (Quaisquer um de vocês rapazes
podem vizitar minha casa)
. Either…or….: ou….ou…. – Either he buys or I do! (Ou ele compra ou eu comprarei / se ele não comprar eu compro)
. Either… ? : Algum/ alguma de (people) – Do either of you have a paper? (Algum de vocês tem um papel?)
. Both : Ambos, ambas – Both my sisters are from Chicago. (Ambas as minhas irmãs são de Chicago / As duas)

7.1 - Complete these sentences with do/does/did or don’t/doesn’t/didn’t.

1 I don’t like hot weather but Sue does .


2 Sue likes hot weather but I don’t .
3 My mother wears glasses but my father ..
4 You don’t know Paul very well but I ..
5 I didn’t enjoy the party but my friends ..
6 I don’t watch TV much but Peter ..
7 Kate lives in London but her parents ..
8 You had a shower this morning but I ..

p. 42
Lesson 7

7.2 - Put in too or either.

7.3 - Put in both/either/neither. Use of where necessary.

1 Last year I went to Paris and Rome. I liked both cities very much.
2 There were two pictures on the wall. I didn’t like either of them.
3 It was a good football match. teams played well.
4 It wasn’t a good football match. team played well.
5 ‘Is your friend English or American?’ ‘ .She’s Australian.’
6 We went away for two days but the weather wasn’t good. It rained on days.
7 A: I bought two newspapers. Which one do you want?
B : .It doesn’t matter which one.
8 I invited Diana and Mike to the party but them came.
9 ‘Do you go to work by car or by bus?’ ‘ .I always walk.’
10 ‘Which jacket do you prefer, this one or that one?’ ‘I don't like them.’
11 ‘Do you work or are you a student?’ ‘ .I’ve got a job and I study too.’
12 Paula and I didn’t know the time because us had a watch.
13 Ann has got two sisters and a brother. sisters are married.
14 Ann has got two sisters and a brother. I’ve met her brother but I haven’t met .
her sisters.

7.4 - Write sentences with also. Use the words in brackets ( ...).

1 Do you play football? (tennis) Yes, and I also play tennis. .


2 Do you speak Italian? (French) Yes, and I .
3 Are you tired? (hungry) Yes, and .
4 Have you been to England? (Ireland) Yes, .
5 Did you buy any clothes? (some books) .

TEXT (by Internet)

Mohandas K. Gandhi

An eye for eye only ends up making the whole world blind.

Cowards can never be moral.

Hatred can be overcome only by love.

If I had no sense of humor, I would long ago have committed suicide.

p. 43
Lesson 7

If you don't ask, you don't get.

It is easy enough to be friendly to one's friends. But to befriend the one who regards himself as your enemy is
the quintessence of true religion. The other is mere business.

It is the quality of our work which will please God and not the quantity.

Let everyone try and find that as a result of daily prayer he adds something new to his life, something with
which nothing can be compared.

Non-violence is the article of faith.

Patience means self-suffering.

Poverty is the worst form of violence.

Strength does not come from physical capacity. It comes from an indomitable will.

The best way to find yourself is to lose yourself in the service of others.

The weak can never forgive. Forgiveness is the attribute of the strong.

Those who know how to think need no teachers.

To believe in something, and not to live it, is dishonest.

We must become the change we want to see.

Whenever you are confronted with an opponent. Conquer him with love.

Whenever you have truth it must be given with love, or the message and the messenger will be rejected.

Additional conversation!

. We’re a kind of lucky to live in Brazil and just almost never experience some of the various
natural disasters, but, even here, we’re not safe against all of them. So, let’s think together:
_ Which disasters are comom here, and which never happen?
_ What can you do to prepare for emergencies?
_ Can you give directions to fire brigade about where your home is, if it starts getting on
fire? (God wants it never happens!!!) (remember basic 1 - lesson 21)
_ What information do you give to the other driver if you are in a car accident?
. Now, talking about Gandhi, answer:
_ Which thought did you like most and why?
_ Which other two thoughts did you most appreciate then and support your choice.
_ Try to tell something about Gandhi, your pure personal opinion!

p. 44
Lesson 8

Vocabulary: Means of transportations

1. bus stop 7. passenger 13. train station 19. taxi stand


2. route 8. bus driver 14. ticket 20. taxi driver
3. schedule (escala / agenda) 9. subway /railway / metro 15. platform 21. meter
4. bus 10. track 16. conductor 22. taxi license
5. fare ($ passagem) 11. token (sinal / simbolo) 17. train 23. ferry (boat)
6. transfer / ticket 12. fare card 18. taxi / cab (ratchet = catraca)

p. 45
Lesson 8

Grammar: Simples tenses x perfect tenses:

Considerando TODOS os tempos verbais no inglês temos:

Simple tenses (os tempos Perfect tenses (os tempos perfeitos)


simples)
Present Present
Past Past
Present continuous Present continuous
Past continuous Past continuous
Future (will/going to) Future
Imperative -----------------------------------------

Considerando os verbos regulares ou irregulares, temos por exemplo:


Infinitive Simple past Past participle
(1ª.coluna) (2ª.coluna) (3ª. Coluna)
To be Was / were Been
To do Did Done
To has / have Had Had
To see Saw Seen
To play Played Played
To cry Cried Cried
To stop Stopped stopped

Já estudamos os tempos simples. Quais seriam as principais diferenças entre tempo simples x tempo
perfeito?
Simple tenses Perfect tenses
Determinado no tempo Indeterminado no tempo
Verbos na 1ª ou 2ª coluna Presença obrigatória do has/have/had/will have +
-------------------------------- Verbos no passado particípio (3ª Coluna)

Os verbos no passado particípio em português são aqueles que terminam principalmente em “IDO”
ou “ADO” (feito, tido, lido, amado, comprado, gostado, andado, ...), e no inglês são os verbos da 3ª. Coluna.
Para usarmos estes verbos, também precisamos do verbo ter: Tenho andado distraído, impaciente e indeciso...,
é incorreto: eu andado distraido... Por isso é obrigatório o uso do ter “has/have/had” nos tempos perfeitos.
O exemplo acima está no presente perfeito (tenho- present; andado – participle- perfeito). Ex:
. Eu não quero ser infeliz – I don’t want to be unhappy – Verbo to be no infinitivo
. Eu não sou infeliz – I’m not unhappy – Verbo to be no presente simples – conjugado
. Eu era infeliz no ano passado – last year, I was unhappy – to be passado simples
. Eu tenho estado infeliz – I have been unhappy – to be no passado particípio.
. Ela não tem problema – She doesn’t have problem – presente simples
. Ela teve um problema ontem – She had a problem yesterday – simple past
. Ela tem tido problemas – She has had problems – present perfect
. Ela tinha tido problemas – She had had problems – past perfect.
Portanto toda vez que pensarmos em “perfect tenses” temos que lembrar do “to has/have – had – had”
e também do verbo principal no passado particípio (terceira coluna). Os verbos regulares possuem o
passado particípio semelhante ao passado simples, porém, os verbos irregulares necessitam de serem
memorizados.
Em todos os tempos perfeitos utiliza-se o próprio verbo “has/have/had” para negar e para perguntar (
o “has/have/had” funciona como seu próprio auxiliar), portanto, não é usado outros auxiliares (do/does/did).

p. 46
Lesson 8

Affirmative – perfect tenses Negative – perfect tenses Interrogative – perfect tenses


Subject + has/have/had + verb Subject + has/have/had + Has/have/had/will + subject + verb
into participle NOT + verb into participle into participle + … + ?

Ex: I wanna know, have you ever seen the rain? (Eu quero saber se você já viu a chuva antes?)
I still haven’t found what I’m looking for… (Eu ainda não encontrei o que eu estou procurando)

Present perfect

Simple past x present perfect:


O presente perfeito, “present perfect” é principalmente usado para descrever um PASSADO
indefinido. Pode parecer ilógico que o tempo verbal PRESENTE perfeito seja usado para descrever um
PASSADO indefinido, mas é justamente esta sua principal importância. Portanto temos:
. simple past – passado definido
. present perfect – passado indefinido
Exs:
. Eu te vi ontem – I saw you yesterday – passado definido
. Eu te vi – I have seen you – passado indefinido
. Eu te vi – I saw you – WRONG;
. Eu te vi ontem – I have seen you yesterday –WRONG
. Eu não encontrei você no shopping – I didn’t found you at the mall – definite *
. Eu não te encontrei – I haven’t found you – indefinite
. Ela pagou ele? Has she payed him? – indefinite
. Ela pagou ele ontem? Did she pay him yesterday? – definite
. Ele não foi à aula – He hasn’t gone to the class – indefinite
. Ele não foi à aula ontem – He didn’t go to the class yesterday – definite
* este complemento de lugar “place complement” neste caso é suficiente para representar uma indicação de
tempo.

Present perfect:
Pode também ser usado considerando sua tradução “ao pé da letra” :
Ex: tenho estudado muito ultimamente – I have studied a lot recently. É bom saber que o “present continuous
tense” é muito mais indicado para estes casos. O “present perfect” é indicado principalmente para referir
a um passado “perdido/ indefinido” ou quando for acompanhado por:

. FOR (por): I have studied English for two years. (Eu tenho estudado inglês por dois anos)
. SINCE (desde): I have studied English since 2002. (Eu tenho estudado inglês desde 2002)

_Have you finished exercises 2 and 3 ? (Você acabou exercícios 2 e 3?)


. ALREADY (já *): _Yes, I’ve already finished exercises 2 and 3 or … (sim, eu já acabei exercícios 2 e 3)
. STILL (ainda): _No, I still haven’t finished exercises 2 and 3. or … (não, eu ainda não acabei exercícios 2 e 3)
. YET (ainda): _No, I haven’t finished exercises 2 and 3 yet. (não, eu não acabei os exercícios 2 e 3 ainda)
. UNTIL (até): _ Don’t worry! I promisse I’ll finish it until 3:00 o’clock. (não se preocupe! Prometo que terminarei até as 3)

. EVER (já *) _Have you ever tried Japanese food ? (Você já experimentou comida japonesa?)
_ yes, I have! I have ever tried it! I did that when I was there. (Sim, já! Experimentei quando eu estive lá)
_ Oh!!! Have you ever been in Japan!? When? (Oh!!! Você já esteve no Japão!? Quando?)
_ I went there two year ago. (Eu estive / fui lá à dois anos atrás)

p. 47
Lesson 8

* Importante: Reparem no exemplo acima que apesar do “already” e o “ever” possuírem a mesma tradução,
eles não são iguais! O “already” refere-se a um “já” relacionado ao tempo cronológico, ou um “já comum”, e o
“ever” a um “já” referente à experiência passada, vivêncial.
Ex: Have you already done the exercise? (Você já fez o exercício?) = tempo cronológico (já acabou?)
Have you ever done such exercise like this before? (Você já fez um exercício como este antes?) =
experiencia de vida (já aconteceu?)
Temos, neste tempo verbal, uma grande potencialidade para usarmos o pronome interrogativo “How
long” (quanto tempo gasta / leva p/...). Esta incidência pode ser confirmada se ainda associarmos ao “how
long” o verbo to be (por se tratar de um tempo verbal perfeito = verbo na 3° coluna = “been”).
Ex: How long has Sara been outside there, waiting for me? (Por quanto tempo a Sara tem estado lá fora
esperando por mim?)
How long have you been abroad? (Por quanto tempo você tem estado no estrangeiro?)

8.1 - Look at the pictures. What has happened? Choose from:


go to bed clean his shoes stop raining close the door fall down have a bath
before now

8.2 – Correct the sentences if necessary.


a) Carol didn’t know about how to fill the paper to apply to be a registered student......................
............. .................................................................................................................................................................................
b) Phillip has entered at Calgary University in 1999. .......................................................................................
c) Phillip has entered at Calgary University since 1999. .................................................................................
d) Phillip entered at Calgary University in 1999. ...............................................................................................

p. 48
Lesson 8

8.3 - You are asking Helen questions beginning Have you ever…? Write the questions.

8.4 - Put in gone or been.


1 Bill is on holiday at the moment. He's gone to Spain.
2 ‘Where's Jill?’ ‘She’s not here. I think she’s to the bank.’
3 Hello, Sue. Where have you ? Have you to the bank?
4 ‘Have you ever to Mexico?’ ‘No, never.’
5 My parents aren’t at home this evening. They’ve out.
6 There’s a new restaurant in town. Have you to it?
7 Ann knows Paris well. She’s there many times.
8 Helen was here earlier but I think she’s now.

8.5 - Make questions with How long…?

8.6 - You meet Lisa. The last time you saw her was years. You ask her some questions with still.

p. 49
Lesson 8

8.7 - Put the verb in the present perfect or past simple.


1 A: Have you ever been (you/ever/be) 3 Rose works in a factory. She
to Florida? .(work) there for six
B: Yes, we went (go) there on holiday months. Before that she .
Months, before that it was two years ago. (be) a waitress in a restaurant. She
A: (you/have) (work) there for two
a good time? years but she .
B: Yes, it . (be) great. (not/enjoy) it very much
2 A: Where's Alan? . 4 A: Do you know Martin’s sister?
(you/see) him? B: I (see) her a few
B: Yes, he .(go) out a times but I .
few minutes ago (never/speak) to her. .
A: And Julia? .(you/ever/speak) to her?
B: I don't know. I . A: Yes. I (meet) her
(not, see) her. at party last week. She’s very nice.

8.8 - Put in until/since/for.


1 Mr and Mrs Kelly have been married since . 1968.
2 I was tired this morning. I stayed in bed 10 o’clock.
3 We waited for Sue half an hour but she didn’t come.
4 ‘Have you just arrived?’ ‘No, I've been here half past seven.’
5 ‘How long did you stay at the party last night?’ ‘ midnight.’
6 David and I are good friends. We have known each other ten years.
7 I’m tired. I’m going to lie down a few minutes.
8 Don’t open the door of the train the train stops.
9 This is my house. I’ve lived here I was seven years old.
10 Jack has gone away. He’ll be away Wednesday.
11 Next week I’m going to Paris three days.

TEXT (by Internet)


The Miser

A miser sold all that he had and bought a lump of gold, which he buried in a hole in the ground by
the side of an old wall and went to look at daily. One of his workmen observed his frequent visits to the spot
and decided to watch his movements. He soon discovered the secret of the hidden treasure, and digging
down, came to the lump of gold, and stole it. The Miser, on his next visit, found the hole empty and began to
tear his hair and to make loud lamentations. A neighbor, seeing him overcome with grief and learning the
cause, said, "Pray do not grieve so; but go and take a stone, and place it in the hole, and fancy that the gold is
still lying there. It will do you quite the same service; for when the gold was there, you had it not, as you did
not make the slightest use of it."

Additional conversation!

. Try to find out what “hail a taxi” (picture 18 and 19) and “miss the bus” mean.
. About the miser, try to describe any situation you know that can be compared to the “real
world” we live and the miser we read on the text.
 

p. 50
Lesson 9

Vocabulary: Nature

1. rain forest 7. peninsula 13. lake 19. plains


2. waterfall 8. island 14. mountain peak 20. meadow
3. river 9. bay 15. mountain range 21. pond
4. desert 10. beach 16. hills (tide = maré)
5. sand dune 11. forest 17. canyon (marsh = pântano)
6. ocean 12. shore (margem /costa) 18. valley

p. 51
Lesson 9

Grammar: Past perfect

Usado para descrever um passado que necessariamente necessita do verbo “ter” no passado + outro
verbo que o segue no passado particípio. Descreve um determinado fato passado que aconteceu em um
outro passado ou usado para descrever “dois passados”, um “dentro do outro”. Esta definição pode parecer
confusa, mas na prática tudo é mito simples. Se digo por exemplo: “Nunca tinha estudado o passado
perfeito!”, esta frase caracteriza como sendo Passado Perfeito! Lembra da definição dos tempos prefeitos:
Has/have/had obrigatório + verbo na 3° coluna, portanto no passado perfeito temos obrigatoriamente o
“had” + verb 3rd column ( neste caso “estudado”), então traduzindo a frase: “Nunca tinha estudado o
passado perfeito!”, temos: “I had never studied the past perfect!”.
Ex:
“Quando cheguei na festa, a banda tinha parado de tocar e a comida tinha acabado”
(simple past ) (past perfect) (past perfect)
* duas situações no passado: . 1ª banda e comida acabaram; . 2ª cheguei na festa.
“When I got to the party, the band had stopped playing and the food had finished”

“When” (quando), “already” (já) e “before” (antes) são muito empregados neste tempo verbal:
“When Sara arrived home, her husband had already fallen sleep” (Quando a Sara chegou em casa, seu marido
já tinha adormecido)
Percebam que estes “dois passados” (Seu marido dormiu = 1° passado; A Sara chegou em casa = “2°
passado”) se complementam no sentido da idéia.
“Tom had never plant a plant before” (O Tom nunca tinha regado uma planta antes)

Como já podemos imaginar, a formação deste tempo verbal se dá:

Formation: ... subject + HAD + Verb into Participle + …

Ex: _ Had she ever had a car before? (Ela já tinha tido um carro antes?)
_ No, she’d never had a car before. (Não, ela nunca tinha tido um carro antes)
. They had saved a lot of money last year, that’s why they bought a new cottage. (Eles/elas tinham
economizado muito dinheiro no ano passado, por isso eles compraram uma casa de campo ). O 2° verbo está no
passado simples - bought - porque refere-se a um assado definido (...no ano passado)
I’d already had that terrible headache before, It wasn’t the first time. (Eu já tinha tido aquela terrível dor
de cabeça antes, não foi a primeira vez). Usa-se “wasn’t” porque refere-se a “antes” – “before” – passado
definido ( = simple past).

Perfect tenses - Just - recent situations:

O “just” em outros contextos significa “apenas, somente”, mas aqui, juntamente com os tempos
perfeitos, indica ou uma situação ou fato bem recente ou que:
. Acabou de contecer (“Just” usado juntamente com o presente perfeito);
. Tinha acabado de acontecer (“Just” usado juntamente com o passado perfeito);
. Terá acabado de acontecer (“Just” usado juntamente com o futuro perfeito) – estudaremos logo mais!!!;
Ex:
I have just arrived : Eu acabei de chegar
I had just arrived: Eu tinha acabado de chegar
She’s just gone away : Ela acabou de ir embora.
The fight will have just done by 7: A luta terá acabado de terminar as 7.

p. 52
Lesson 9

Just married : Recém casados


He has just finished working : Ele acabou de acabar de trabalhar.
When I called him, he had just left his home: Quando eu liguei para ele, ele tinha acabado de sair.
_Have you ever come here before? Você já veio aqui antes?
_Yes, I had just told her about that! Sim, Eu tinha acabado de falar para ela sobre isto!
He had just finished working when the telephone rang. Ele tinha acabado de terminar de trabalhar
quando o telefone tocou.

Percebam que, fora dos tempos verbais perfeitos, o “just” significa “apenas, somente, só”: Ex:
I just want to know your name, please tell me! (Eu somente / so quero saber o seu nome, por favor me diga!)
She has just two minutes to complete all the exercice. (Ela tem apenas 2 minutos para completar todo o exercício)
In the past he had just / only two friends, now he’s got more. (Antes, ele tinha apenas 2 amigos, agora ele tem mais)
Nestes exemplos, as duas últimas frases apesar de “parecerem” dos tempos perfeitos, são de fato do
presente simples e do passado simples, respectivamente (apenas com a presença do verbo “ter”), portanto
preste bastante atanção ao analisar o tempo verbal de uma frase para não cometer equívocos.

9.1 - Read the situations and write sentences from the words in brackets.

1 You went to Jill's house but she wasn't there. (she / go / out) She had gone out. .
2 You went back to your home town after many years. It wasn't the same as before.
(it / change / a lot) .
3 I invited Rachel to the party but she couldn't come.
(she / arrange / to do something else) .
4 You went to the cinema last night. You arrived at the cinema late.
(the film / already / begin) .
5 I was very pleased to see Tim again after such a long time.
(I / not / see / him for five years) ………………………………………………………….
6 I offered Sue something to eat but she wasn't hungry.
(she / just / have / breakfast) .

9.2 - Put in for or since.

1 It’s been raining since . lunchtime.


2 Tom's father has been doing the same job , an hour.
3 Have you been learning English ,a long time?
4 Sarah has lived in London . ,1985.
5 ,,Christmas, the weather has been quite good.
6 Please hurry up! We’ve been waiting ,.an hour.
7 Kevin has been looking for a job ,.he left school.
8 The house is very dirty. We haven't cleaned it .ages.

p. 53
Lesson 9

TEXT (by Louis Strack)

Cat Fancy
_I'm telling you, Johnson, this is going to be the biggest development in animal-imitative cybernetics
since Hayes pioneered the field way back in '14. Everybody's going to want a piece of my discovery! The
military, all the megacorps, the private sector. Everyone! Even United States of Earth Defense! I'm going to be
the richest man alive!
_I can see you don't share my enthusiasm yet. Just wait, old friend. Accompany me to my lab, and we
will see who has the last laugh. You'll be begging me to take you on as a lab assistant after I---Oh, here we
are. You first, my good man. Just get the lights there on your left and go on in.
_You see, I had already come up with the perfect cybernetic engine, capable of mimicking any life form.
The question was, which creature would be the best showcase of my discovery? Humans and apes are
overdone; you might remember Liebovitz's android last year that got everyone all excited? Yeah, I agree.
Damn snake-oil salesman is all he turned out to be! His "miracle man" couldn't remember it's own name after
a week. But this is different, because I've utilized a life form nobody's considered for cybernetics. It is powerful,
graceful, intelligent, and best of all people love it. I chose the tiger!
_Go ahead and pull away that dust-cloth there. Go on, have a peek! Ha! Don't look so startled, Johnson.
I leave it powered down when I'm not testing it. It is rather imposing, though, if I may say so. Yes, all the latest
technology, including claws I had made from vanadium alloy. Cuts through steel like it's wet cardboard. Omni-
directional piston ligaments, the finest photometric ocular devices I could find, and a cybernetic neural
interface, which exactly mirrors a Bengal tiger. The one in New Planetary zoo, actually. The process that I used
to get its mind in the computer will be enough to ensure me fame and fortune, but when they see the
magnificent machine I've built to house this mind---
_Huh? It did move, didn't it? I guess I left it on yesterday. No, don't look so nervous. I can shut off its
main power circuitry with this remote right here. Nothing to worry about. No, it won't do anything like that.
No, I really don't think it's sizing you up for a meal. Be reasonable, old---Oh, God! Johnson! The remote, where
is it? Where?! Gotta find it quick, before it turns on me---
_Ah, there we go! Too late to save Johnson, though. What a pity. Let's just take the power cells out of
the thing. Better safe than sorry. There! God, what a mess. Even worse, I can't call the police now, the bad
publicity would overshadow my breakthrough, and definitely frighten the investors. I've got to get rid of the
body secretly, somehow. I could bury it, but I might be seen. I could burn it, but the smoke would be awfully
suspicious. What to do? What to---
_I wonder... How fast can this cat eat?

Additional Conversation!

. Look up at a dictionary, ask your partner, try to guess or just answer if you
already know, what these vocabulary means: 1. A body of water (meandros); 2. stream /
creek. Still about “Nature and Geography”, talk about where you live and where you like to
go. Ex: I live in a valley. There is a lake nearby. I like to go to the beach, etc…
. Now, try to describe three things that you have just done, and three things that
you had just done before get ready to come here attend this class.
. About the text, we know teenagers are very “creative” and sometimes they even
abuse a little bit! Please describe for us a situation that you could identify with this fact in
your past. Then, tell us your conclusion about the text.

p. 54
Lesson 10

Vocabulary: Sea animals and Amphibians


Sea animals
Parts of a fish

4. octopus 11. bass (lobo do mar) 18. scallop (scargot)


5. eel (moréa) 12. swordfish 19. shrimp
6. ray (raia) 13. flounder (linguado) 20. sea urchin (ouriço)
7. shark 14. jellyfish (agua-viva) 21. sea anemone
8. cod (bacalhau) 15. starfish 22. worm (“verme”)
9. tuna (atum) / catfish = sardinha 16. crab (carangueijo) 23. sea horse
10. squid (lula) 17. mussel (mexilhão) 24. snail (“caramujo”)
Amphibians

25. frog 26. newt 27. salamander 28. toad

p. 55
Lesson 10

Sea mammals and Reptiles

Sea mammals

29. whale 31. porpoise (toninha) 33. seal (foca) 35. otter (lontra)

30. dolphin 32. walrus (morsa) 34. sea lion

Reptiles

36. alligator 38. rattlesnake (poisoned) 40. cobra 42. turtle


37. crocodile 39. garter snake (harmless) 41. lizard
p. 56
Lesson 10

Birds and others

Parts of a bird

6. owl 9. woodpecker 12. penguin 15. peacock (pavão)


7. blue jay (gaio) 10. eagle 13. duck 16. pigeon (pomba)
8. sparrow (pardal) 11. hummingbird 14. goose (ganso) 17. robin (tordo)

18. wasp (vespa) 22. moth (mariposa / traça) 26. honeybee 30. spider
19. beetle (bezouro) 23. mosquito (pernilongo) 27. ladybug (“joaninha”) 31. scorpion
20. butterfly 24. Cricket (grilo) 28. tick (carrapato)
21. caterpillar 25. grasshopper (gafanhoto) 29. fly (mosca)

p. 57
Lesson 10

Grammar: Present perfect continuous tense:

É o tempo verbal indicado para referir a uma situação / fato que está acontecendo, ou “anda”
acontecendo em um contexto não muito distante da realidade atual. Quando temos por exemplo : “Eu ando
tendo muitas dores de cabeça / eu tenho tido muitas dores de cabeça”, ou “ela anda estudando muito
ultimamente / ela tem estudado muito ultimamente” este é o tempo verbal mais indicado para ser utilizado.
Vamos ao exemplo: “I have been studying a lot”. Se fossemos traduzir “ao pé da letra” seria: Eu tenho
estado estudando muito, tradução esta não muito correta. A tradução indicada seria: Eu “ando” estudando
muito , por isso que traduzir “ao pé da letra” uma frase neste tempo verbal é um pouco complicado! Veja
como tudo faz sentido:

Present Perfect Continuous


I have been Studying a lot
Portanto temos:

Formation: Subject + has/have + been + verb + ING

Ex: She’s been having communication problems, she’s a foreigner. (Ela “anda” tendo problemas de comunicação,
ela é estrangeira)
Have you been eating too much? You got fatter! (Você “anda” comendo em excesso? Você engordou!)
I haven’t been reading in a good place, I need a lighter one. (Eu não “ando” lendo em um lugar bom, eu
preciso de um mais claro)

É bom lembrar que neste tempo verbal, também usamos bastante a preposição “for” (por) e “since”
(desde):
Ex: I have been learning English for seven years. (“Ando” aprendendo inglês por sete anos)
I have been learning English since I was seven years old. (“Ando” aprendendo inglês desde quando eu tinha
sete anos de idade)

Past perfect continuous:

Já o “Past perfect continuous” é usado para expressar que algo estava acontecendo ( “andava”
acontecendo), mas não acontece mais. Utilizamos os mesmos argumentos acima, apenas trocamos o
“has/have” por “had”.

Formation: Subject + HAD + been + verb + ING

Ex:
She had been studying a lot, now she’s ok, she’s approved. (Ela “andava” estudando muito, agora ela está bem,
ela foi aprovada)
Had you been living abroad? I haven’t seen you for a while! (Você “andava” morando fora? Faz um tempo que
eu não tenho te visto)
He hadn’t been having money problems and He never had had. He always knew how to make it and keep it!.
(Ele não “andava” tendo problemas com dinheiro e nunca “andou” / tinha tido. Ele sempre soube como ganhá-
lo e como mantê-lo!)

p. 58
Lesson 10

10.1 - Write a question for each situation.

1 John looks sunburnt. You ask: (you / sit in the sun?) .


2 You have just arrived to meet a friend who is waiting for you. You ask: (you / wait / long?)
.
3 You meet a friend in the street. His face and hands are very dirty. You ask: (what / you / do?)
.
4 A friend of yours is now living in Baker Street. You want to know ‘How long…?’You ask: (how long / you /
live / in Baker Street?) .
5 A friend tells you about his job - he sells computers. You want to know ‘How long...?’You
ask: (how long / you / sell / computers?) .

10.2 - Read the situations and complete the sentences.

1 The rain started two hours ago. It’s still raining now. It has been raining .for two hours.
2 We started waiting for the bus 20 minutes ago. We’re still waiting now.
We .for 20 minutes.
3 I started Spanish classes in December. I’m still learning Spanish now.
I .since December.
4 Ann began looking for a job six months ago. She’s still looking now.
for six months.
5 Mary started working in London on 18 January. She’s still working there now.
.since 18 January.
6 Years ago you started writing to a penfriend. You still write to each other regularly now.
We for years.

10.3 - Complete B’s answers to A’s questions.

p. 59
Lesson 10

10.4 - Read the situations and make sentences from the words in brackets.

1 I was very tired when I arrived home.


(1/ work / hard all day) I had been working hard all day. .
2 The two boys came into the house. They had a football and they were both very tired.
(they / play / football) .
3 There was nobody in the room but there was a smell of cigarettes.
(somebody / smoke / in the room) .
4 Ann woke up in the middle of the night. She was frightened and didn’t know where she was.
(she / dream) .
5 When I got home, Mike was sitting in front of the TV. He had just turned it off.
(he / watch / TV) .

SONG (by Internet) Like a prayer

Life is a mystery, everyone must stand alone Like a child you whisper softly to me
I hear you call my name You're in control just like a child
And it feels like home Now I'm dancing
It's like a dream, no end and no beginning
When you call my name it's like a little prayer You're here with me, it's like a dream
I'm down on my knees, I wanna take you there Let the choir sing
In the midnight hour I can feel your power
Just like a prayer you know I'll take you there life is a mistery...
I hear your voice, it's like an angel sighing
I have no choice, I hear your voice Home, Just like a prayer, your voice can take me
Feels like flying there
I close my eyes, Oh God I think I'm falling Just like a muse to me, you are a mystery
Out of the sky, I close my eyes Just like a dream, you are not what you seem
Heaven help me Just like a prayer, no choice your voice can take me
there
Just like a prayer, I'll take you there
It's like a dream to me

Additional conversation!

. Tell us which sea animals have you already seen personally? And Amphibians,
reptiles and birds? Have you ever been bitten by any bugs on the botton of page 57? If yes
how was it? If no, How you guess it would be? Tell us as well how is your relationship with
all those animals (they’re not pets yet!), and tell us your best ones and worst ones!
. The song above sung by Madona, how can you define, using your own words to
interpretate “life is a mystery”? Do you think so? Try to become a “philosopher” and figure
out the whole “message” of this song.

p. 60
Lesson 11

Vocabulary: Farm animals, Pets and Rodents

Farm animals

1. goat (bode) 3. cow 5. hen 7. sheep


2. donkey 4. horse 6. rooster 8. pig

Pets

9. cat 11. dog 13. rabbit 15. parakeet / parrot (papagaio)


10. kitten 12. puppy 14. guinea pig (porquinho da India) 16. goldfish
Rodents

17. mouse(camundongo) 19. Gopher (diversos mamíferos roedores) 21. Squirrel (esquilo)
18. rat (rato) 20. Chipmunk (esquilo c/dorso listrado) 22. Prairie dog (cão da pradaria

p. 62
Lesson 11

Vocabulary: North American animals

1. moose (alce) 5. wolf 9. beaver (castor) 13. raccoon (guatinin)


2. mountain lion 6. buffalo / bison 10. porcupine 14. deer
3. coyote 7. bat 11. bear 15. fox
4. opossum (sariguê) 8. armadillo 12. skunk

16. antler 18. whiskers (pêlo/bigode) 20. paw 22. tail


17. hoof (casco) 19. coat / fur 21. horn 23. quill

p. 63
Lesson 11

Vocabulary: Animals of the world!

24. anteater 30. gorilla 36. lion 42. elephant


25. leopard 31. hyena 37. tiger 43. hippopotamus
26. llama 32. baboon 38. camel 44. kangaroo
27. monkey 33. giraffe 39. panther 45. koala
28. chimpanzee 34. zebra 40. orangutan 46. platypus (ornitorrinco)
29. rhinoceros 35. antelope 41. panda

47. trunk 48. tusk 49. Mane (juba) 50. Pouch 51. hump

p. 64
Lesson 11

Grammar: Future perfect

Usado para um futuro programado com estrutura de tempo perfeito. O verbo “ter” sempre no futuro
do presente (will + have = eu terei, você terá, ele terá, etc) e o verbo principal sempre no passado particípio.
Ex:
. Eu terei formado na faculdade Em dezembro. I’ll have graduated in December.
. Até as 2:00 p.m eu terei acabado esta tarefa. I’ll have finished this task until 2 p.m..
. Amanha, ela já terá viajado. She’ll already have traveled tomorrow.
. Eles não terão ido embora até as 20:00 hs. They won’t have gone away until 8:00 p.m
. Voces terão desistido se amanha não der certo? Will you have given up if tomorrow…?

Portanto mais uma vez, podemos “deduzi” a formação deste tempo verbal, de acordo com o que já
vimos:
Formation: Subject + will + have + verb into participle + (complement)

O complemento a que referimos, além do “object” da oração, é provável ou cabível que seja alguma
indicação de tempo. Sim, pois neste tempo verbal, uma indicação de tempo ou um complemento de tempo
se faz merecedor de grande valia, já que este futuro revela se “programado”, completando assim, esta “ideia”.
As indicações de tempo são, na maioria das vezes, associadas a:

. when (quando): When will you have grown up? Stop doing that! (Quando você trá crescido?Para de fazer
isso!)
. by the … (na / no / nas / nos / em): She won`t have chosen her dress by the right time. I know her! (Ela não
terá escolhido e vestido na hora certa. Eu a conheço!)
. until (até): I will have repaired my house until the end of this year. (Eu terei reformado a minha casa até o
final deste ano).

11.1 - Follow the model:

I / finish / project / next month – I will have finished my project until next month.
a) She / do / housework / 2:00 o`clock................................................................................................................................................
b) We / stop / dancing / end of the party. .........................................................................................................................................
c) Bob / write / letter / tomorrow. .........................................................................................................................................................
d) They / realize / mistake / sooner or later.......................................................................................................................................
e) He / release / plan / as soon as possible. ......................................................................................................................................
f) You / accomplish / task / year............................................................................................................................................................
g) Maggy / read / brochure / season. ..................................................................................................................................................
h) He / arrange / appointment / weekend. ........................................................................................................................................
i) Susan / fish / fish / hour. ......................................................................................................................................................................
j) George / watch / the game / 1:00 p.m. ..........................................................................................................................................
k) Gregory / travel / Europe / March. ...................................................................................................................................................
l) I / arrive / home / January. ..................................................................................................................................................................
m) Morgan / classify / animals / April....................................................................................................................................................
n) Soraya / fix / problem / Monday.......................................................................................................................................................
o) Jordan / win / game / next set. ..........................................................................................................................................................
p) She / book / a flight / tomorrow.......................................................................................................................................................

p. 65
Lesson 11

11.2 - Put the verbs in brackets in the correct form, present perfect or past simple.
1 ‘Where’s your key? ‘I don’t know. I’ve lost,it’. (lose)
2 I was ,.very tired, so I lay down on the bed and went to sleep. (be)
3 Mary ,to Australia for a while but she’s back again now. (go)
4 ‘Where’s Ken?’ ‘He ,out. He’ll be back in about an hour.’ (go)
5 I did German at school but I most of it. (forget)
6 I meant to phone Diane last night but I ,(forget)
7 I a headache earlier but I feel fine now. (have)
8 Look! There’s an ambulance over there. There an accident. (be)
9 They're still building the new road. They it. (not/finish)
10 ‘Is Helen still here?’ ‘'No, she out.’ (just/go)
11 The police ,three people but later they let them go. (arrest)
12 Ann …………………me her address but I’m afraid I it. (give, lose)
13 Where's my bike? It ,outside the house. It ! (be, disappear)
14 What do you think of my English? Do you think I ? (improve)

11.3 - Are the underlined parts of these sentences right or wrong? Correct the ones that are wrong.
1 Do you know about Sue? She's given up her job. RIGHT .
2 The Chinese have invented printing. WRONG: The Chinese invented .
3 How many plays has Shakespeare written. ,.
4 Have you read any of Shakespeare’s plays? .
5 Aristotle has been a Greek philosopher. .
6 Ow! I’ve cut my finger. It’s bleeding. .
7 My grandparents have got married in London. ,.
8 Where have you been born? : .
9 Mary isn’t at home. She’s gone shopping. .
10 Albert Einstein has been the scientist who has developed
the theory of relativity. .

11.4 - Put the verb into the correct form, present perfect or past simple.
1 I don't know where Amy is. Have you seen (you/see) her?
2 When I (get) home last night, I (be) very tired and I (go)
straight to bed.
3 Your car looks very clean. (you/wash) it?
4 George (not/be) very well last week.
5 Mr Clark (work) in a bank for 15 years. Then he gave it up.
6 Molly lives in Dublin. She (live) there all her life.
7 ‘ (you/go) to the cinema last night?’ ‘Yes, but it
(be) a mistake. The film (be) awful.’
8 My grandfather (die) 30 years ago. I (never/meet) him.
9 I don’t know Carol’s husband. I (never/meet/him).
10 A: Is your father at home? B: No, I'm afraid he (go) out.
A: When exactly (he/go) out? B: About ten minutes ago.
11 A: Where do you live? B: In Boston.
A: How long (you/live) there? B: Five years.
A: Where (you/live) before that? B: In Chicago.
A: And how long (you/live) in Chicago? B: Two years.

11.5 - Put the verb into the correct form, past perfect (I had done etc.) or past simple (I did etc.).
1 ‘Was Tom at the party when you arrived?’ ‘No, he had gone (go) home.’
2 I felt very tired when I got home, so I (go) straight to bed.
3 The house was very quiet when I got home.. Everybody (go) to bed.
4 Sorry I’m late. The car (break) down on my way here.
5 We were driving along the road when we (see) a car which
(break) down, so we (stop) to see if we could help.

p. 66
Lesson 11

11.6 - Write questions with how long and when.


1 It's raining.
(how long?) How long has it been raining? .
(when?) When did it start raining? .
2 Kate is learning Italian.
(how long / learn?) ,
(when / start / learn?) .
3 I know Martin.
(how long / know?) .
(when / first / meet?) .
4 Bob and Alice are married.
(how long?) .
(when?) .

Review verb tenses TEXT(by Internet)


Albert Einstein

At the same time, as social beings, we are moved in the relations with our fellow beings by such feelings as
sympathy, pride, hate, need for power, pity, and so on.
Common sense is the collection of prejudices acquired by age eighteen.
Every kind of peaceful cooperation among men is primarily based on mutual trust and only secondarily on
institutions such as courts of justice and police.
Intellectuals solve problems; geniuses prevent them.
It is strange to be known so universally and yet to be so lonely.
It is theory that decides what can be observed.
One may say the eternal mystery of the world is its comprehensibility..
Perfection of means and confusion of goals seem-in my opinion-to characterize our age.
Problems cannot be solved at the same level of awareness that created them.
The high destiny of the individual is to serve rather than to rule...
The legs are the wheels of creativity.
The only way to escape the personal corruption of praise is to go on working.
The whole of science is nothing more than a refinement of everyday thinking.
The world is a dangerous place to live; not because of the people who are evil, but because of the people who
don't do anything about it.
To understand the world one must not be worrying about one's self.
Try not to become a man of success but rather try to become a man of value.
Two things are infinite: the universe and human stupidity; and I'm not sure about the universe.
When the solution is simple, God is answering.

Additional Conversation !
. About the animals we’ve just seen on this lesson, item some wild ones, and some
domesticated ones.
. Do you have any pets? Any farm animals?
. Which of these animals are in your neighborhood ? Which are not?
Now, let’s discuss about our genious !
. Which Thought(s) did you appreciate most and why.
. How you, I.D.O. Student can identify with these great thoughts and use them into your
personal life?
. Try to write a thought bellow by ourself ! (Please, come on, don’t be shy! There’s a poet
inside you!):_________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________ 

p. 67
Lesson 12

Vocabulary: Education Matters!

1. art 5. driver´s education 9. home economics


2. busines education 6. economics 10. industrial arts / shop
3. chorus 7. English as a second language 11. PE (physical education)
4. computer science 8. foreign language 12. theater arts

p. 68
Lesson 12

Grammar: Conditional sentences

São orações subordinadas que expressam uma relação de causa-efeito. Geralmente acompanhadas
por “ if ” / “ whether ” ( = “se” ). Temos como exemplo:

Causa Efeito
. 1 - Se eu comer em demasia eu engordo
eu engordarei
Se eu ganho na loteria eu fico rico
eu ficarei rico
. 2 - Se eu comesse em demasia eu engordaria
eu poderia engordar
Se eu ganhasse na loteria eu ficaria rico
eu poderia ficar rico.
. 3 - Se eu tivesse comido em demasia eu teria engordado
eu poderia ter engordado
Se eu tivesse ganhado na loteria eu teria ficado rico
eu poderia ter ficado rico

Temos as seguintes observações:


. O número 1 representa dados da realidade, o n. 2 representa uma suposição, reflexão, e o
n. 3 representa algo que não aconteceu ou que é impossível de acontecer.

. A “causa” do número 1 está no presente


número 2 está no passado
número 3 está no “passado perfeito”

. O “efeito” do número 1 está no presente ou no futuro


do número 2 está no futuro do pretérito (ria) = que equivale ao “would” ou ao “could”
do número 3 está no futuro do pretérito (ria) + presente perfeito

Traduzindo temos: ( engordar: get – got – gotten + fat)


( ficar rico: become – became – become + rich)

Causa - cause Efeito - effect


. 1 – If I eat too much I get fat
I will get fat
If I win the lottery I become rich
I’ll become rich
. 2 – If I ate too much I would get fat
I could get fat
If I won the lottery I would become rich
I could become rich
. 3 – If I had eaten too much I would have gotten fat
I could have gotten fat
If I had won the lotery I would have become rich
I could have become rich

p. 69
Lesson 12
Podemos generalizar a partir dos exemplos acima, formando a tabela abaixo. As duas “partes” desta
tabela representam as duas partes da oração (cada uma simbolicamente representada por causa e efeito),
ressaltando que a ordem desta generalização ou tabela pode ser da esquerda para a direita ou da direita para
a esquerda (ver os dois primeiros exemplos abaixo):

Present Present / future


Past Would /could
Past perfect Would / could + present perfect
Ex:
. If she had another chance, she wouldn’t miss the appointment. (Se ela tivesse outra chance, ela não perderia o
compromisso)
. She wouldn’t miss the appointment, if she had another chance (Ela não perderia o compromisso, se ela tivesse outra
chance)
. What will you do if she calls you again? (O que você fará se ela ligar para você de novo?)
. If he had had more attention, he could have survived. (Se ele tivesse tido mais atenção, ele poderia ter sobrevivido)
. _ What would you do if you were the mayor? (O que você faria se você fosse o prefeito?)
_ If I were* the mayor, I would build lots of new popular houses. (Se eu fosse o prefeito, eu contruiria muitas novas casas
populares)

* para condicional e “wish”, prefira usar o “I were” a “I was”, o mesmo para “he, she, it”.

Além do “if”, temos a conjunção “unless” (a não ser que), e a conjunção “whether or not” (quer...não),
bastante empregada nos condicionais:
Ex: I’m gonna* go there, unless you don’t invite me. (Eu irei lá, a não ser que você não me convide)
She won’t stop dancing, whether you want or not. (Ela não irá parar de dançar, quer você queira ou não)

* o “gonna” é a forma informal e apenas falada (e “incorreta”) do “going to”.


Temos também: . “wanna = want to” e . “gotta = got to”

12.1 - Make sentences beginning with if. Choose from the boxes.

1 If you don’t hurry, you’ll be late. .


2 If you pass .
3 If .
4 .
5 .
6 .
7 .
8 .

p. 70
Lesson 12

12.2 - Complete the sentences. Use although + a sentence from the box.

I didn’t speak the language he has a very important job


I had never seen her before we don’t like them very much
it was quite cold the heating was on
I’d met her twice before we’ve known each other for a long time

1 although he has a very important job , he isn't particularly well-paid.


2 , I recognised her from a photograph.
3 She wasn’t wearing a coat .
4 We thought we’d better invite them to the party .
5 , I managed to make myself understood.
6 , the room wasn’t warm.
7 I didn’t recognise her .
8 We’re not very good friends .

12.3 - Answer the questions in the way shown.


1 A: Shall we catch the 10.30 train?
B: No. (arrive / too early) If we caught the 10.30 train, we’d arrive to early. .
2 A: Is Ken going to take the examination?
B: No. (fail) If he ..
3 A: Why don’t we stay at a hotel?
B: No. (cost too much money) If .
4 A: Is Sally going to apply for the job?
B: No. (not / get it) If .
5 A: Let’s tell them the truth.
B: No. (not / believe us) If .
6 A: Why don’t we invite Bill to the party?
B: No. (have to invite his friends too)
..

12.4 - Put the verb into the correct form.


1 I didn’t know you were in hospital. If I’d known 1 (I/know), I would have gone (I/go) to visit
you.
2 Ken got to the station in time to catch his train. If .
(he/miss) it, (he/be) late for his interview.
3 It’s good that you reminded me about Ann’s birthday . (I/forget) if
(you/not/remind) me.
4 Unfortunately, I didn’t have my address book with me when I was in New York. If
. (I/have) your address, . (I/send) you a
postcard.
5 A: How was your holiday? Did you have a nice time?
B: It was OK, but . (we/enjoy) it more if
(the weather/be) better .
6 I took a taxi to the hotel but the traffic was very bad. .
(it/be) quicker if (I/walk).
7 I’m not tired. If (I/be) tired, I'd go home now.
8 I wasn’t tired last night. If (I/be) tired, I would have
gone home earlier .

p. 71
Lesson 12

SONG (by Internet) I still haven’t found what I’m looking for

I have climbed the highest mountains


I have run through the fields
Only to be with you
Only to be with you
I have run I have crawled
I have scaled these city walls
Only to be with you
But I still haven't found
What I'm looking for
But I still haven't found
What I'm looking for

I have kissed honey lips


Felt the healing in her fingertips
It burned like fire
This burning desire
I have spoke with the tongue of angels
I have held the hand of a devil
It was warm in the night
I was cold as a stone

But I still haven't found


What I'm looking for
But I still haven't found
What I'm looking for

I believe in the Kingdom Come


Then all the colors will bleed into one
But yes I'm still running.
You broke the bonds
You loosened the chains
You carried the cross
And my shame
And my shame
You know I believed it
But I still haven't found
What I'm looking for
But I still haven't found
What I'm looking for

Additional Conversation!
. Education! That an important subject. How can you avaluate this matter here in
Brazil? Try to be objective and clear.
. What’s the difference between core course and elective course? (Tip: We don’t
have this in Brazil).
. What are your favourite subjects? In your opinion, Which subjects are most
important? Why?
. Why foreign languages are taught in Brazil (and why english)?
. About the song, try to item things that you haven’t found yet in your personal life
(be deep!)

p. 72
Lesson 13

Vocabulary: Playing a game

1. score 3. team 5. player 7. basketball court


2. coach 4. fan 6. official / referee

8. basketball 11. football 14. volleyball


9. baseball 12. soccer 15. water polo
10. softball 13. ice hockey

p. 73
Lesson 13

Vocabulary: Sport modalities

1. archery 6. flying disc* 11. racquetball 15. weightlifting


2. billiards / pool 7. golf 12. skateboarding 16. wrestling
3. bowling 8. gymnastics 13. table tennis / 17. track and field
4. cycling / biking 9. inline skating Ping-Pong 18. horse racing
5. fencing 10. martial arts 14. tennis *Note: one brand is Frisbee*

p. 74
Lesson 13

Vocabulary: Winter sports and Water sports

1. downhill skiing 3. cross-country skiing 5. figure skating


2. snowboarding 4. ice skating 6. sledding

7. waterskiing 9. surfing 11. snorkeling


8. sailing 10. sailboarding 12. scuba diving

p. 75
Lesson 13

Grammar: “Wish”

Quando dizemos por exemplo: Eu desejaria / gostaria que eu fosse famoso; estamos utilizando da
forma “wish”. Se traduzirmos wish “ao pé da letra” teremos “desejar, almejar” mas a prática não é bem assim,
o exemplo acima mostra que o “desejaria” não dispõe do would, por isso que neste contexto do “wish”, não é
indicado uma tradução literal. Podemos também tentar associar o “wish” com a idéia de “quizera
eu/ele/nós...”; “quem dera eu/ele/nós...”; quizesse eu ela, vocês...” Vamos aos exemplos abaixo:

Eu gostaria que eu estudasse com você. Significa que eu não estudo com você.
I wish I studied with you It means that I don’t study with you.
Eu gostaria que eu tivesse estudado com você Significa que eu não estudei com você
I wish I had studied with you. It means that I didn’t study with you
Eu gostaria que eu pudesse estudar com você Significa que eu não estudarei com você
I wish I could study with you It means that I won’t study with you

Comparando as duas colunas, podemos perceber que de um lado (1ª.coluna) temos o Wish e um
determinado tempo verbal (passado simples, passado particípio, e could, respectivamente), que é o modo que
estruturamos o tempo verbal de uma frase com o wish, e de outro lado temos o que isto realmente quer
dizer. A mensagem do wish ou o que o wish quer dizer (segunda coluna) é que demominamos de presente
wish, passado wish e futuro wish. Em outras palavras temos:

Estrutura da frase / como formular o tempo verbal da frase O que quer dizer / mensagem
com o wish do wish
...+ wish + subject + verb into simple past Present wish*
… + wish + subject + verb into past perfect Past wish**
…+ wish + subject + would / could Future wish***

Portanto para termos:


. “present wish”, teremos que fazer uma frase com o wish com uma estrutura verbal no
* passado simples. Ex: I wish I were you – Eu gostaria que eu fosse você
quer dizer que eu não sou você. Presente – Present wish
. “past wish”, teremos que formular uma frase com uma estrutura verbal no passado
** perfeito. Ex: I wish I had been as him – Eu desejaria/quizera eu que eu tivesse sido
como ele (foi / era). Quer dizer que eu não fui como ele. Past – Past wish
. “future wish”, teremos que formular uma frase com uma estrutura verbal utilizando o
*** could ou o would. Ex: I wish I could have free time to attend tennis class.
“Quem dera que eu pudesse ter tempo livre para frequentar aulas de tênis”.
Quer dizer que eu não terei tempo livre. Future – future wish

Técnica de memorização:
Vamos agora dispor de uma técnica para memorizar a tabela abaixo. Temos na primeira coluna as
denominações: present wish, past wish e future wish, relacionadas com a mensagem real. Já a segunda coluna
temos o tempo verbal que precisamos utilizar na frase. Colocando a primeira coluna no passado temos:

Present Wish Passado do presente = simple past


Past Wish Passado do passado = past perfect
Future Wish Passado do futuro = would / could

p. 76
Lesson 13

Chegamos então a segunda coluna:

Present Wish Na frase, o tempo verbal no simple past


Past Wish Na frase, o tempo verbal no past perfect
Future Wish Na frase, o tempo verbal no would/could

13.1 - Write sentences beginning I wish... .

1 I don’t know many people (and I’m lonely). I wish I knew more people. .
2 I don’t have a key (and I need one). I wish .
3 Ann isn’t here (and I need to see her). .
4 It’s cold (and I hate cold weather). ..
5 I live in a big city (and I don’t like it). .
6 I can’t go to the party (and I’d like to). .
7 I have to work tomorrow (but I’d like to stay in bed). .
8 I don’t know anything about cars (and my car has just broken down).
...
9 I’m not lying on a beautiful sunny beach (and that’s a pity).
..

13.2 - Are these sentences right or wrong? Correct the ones that are wrong.

1 I wish Sarah would be here now. WRONG: I wish Sarah were here now. .
2 I wish you would listen to me. .
3 I wish I would have more money. .
4 I wish it wouldn't be so cold today. .
5 I wish the weather would change. .
6 I wish you wouldn't complain all the time. .
7 I wish everything wouldn't be so expensive. .

TEXT (BY Internet)

The humming bird

Once, long ago, there was a young boy who lived in a distant land called Tandow. He was a cheerful lad
with not a care in the world. A special friend had he, the little blue humming bird. Now this little boy doesn’t
have a lot of great friends, but the little bird and the boy were inseparable friends.

The boy loved the little humming bird so, he built him a home. The bird also loved the boy and would
follow him wherever he would go. As time went by their love grew and grew.

Then one day the young lad met a pretty young girl in school. The girl had long blonde hair, blue eyes,
and a cute little smile. This was about the time of the biggest dance of the year. He gathered his courage all
day and at the end of school confronted the girl and asked her to go with him to the dance. Now this young
girl was very popular and felt she didn't want to be seen with the boy who cared for her so, she did not want
to hurt his feelings and so figured out a way to avoid saying no or yes. she told the boy if he bought her a red
rose she would escort him to the dance. This hurt the little boy because he knew that in the land of Tandow
there had

p. 77
Lesson 13

never been a red rose, in fact the only roses in the land of Tandow were white. On the way home the
boy kept mumbling to himself why couldn't she have asked for a white rose. There were hundreds of them in
his front yard.

Feeling sorry for himself the boy didn't even notice his friend the humming bird fluttering above him.
Now the bird loved him so, that it could tell instantly the boy was troubled.

The bird hovered closer as the boy mumbled on home. Now the bird knew why the boy was so
troubled.

The bird could not rest all the night long, it pondered all night, a solution to the boy's problem. finally
as the sun began to rise the answer to how the bird could help his best friend entered his mind.

The little blue humming bird flew to a rose bush and searched for a large rose with a stem bearing
thorns directly above it. Now the bird chose a thorn and with all the power in his wings cast his small body
against the sharp thorn. It entered with great pain, as the tear drops of blood fell upon the white petals of the
rose.

Now as the boy was ready for school, as he left the house he saw a red rose, he could hardly believe it,
he ran to the bush and plucked the red rose. In his excitement he failed to notice the lifeless little body that
lay below the bush in a puddle of blood. Happy as could be, he began with his red rose on his way to school.
Before he got there some other boys playing football in a field called to him and asked him to come and play.
His first thought was, no he had something more important to do. But they begged him and said they really
needed him to even the teams. He looked at the rose, then them, then back at the rose. He said to himself.
Ah!!! she didn't really want to go with me anyway. Then throwing the rose down the boy went and played
football.

1. The humming bird is Christ.


2. The boy is each of us.
3. The rose is the atonement.
4. The girl is eternal life.
5. The football game is the worldly things we sometimes feel are so important.

Additional conversation!

About the sports answer:


. Which sports are good for children to learn? Why?
. Which sport is the most difficult to learn? Why?
. Which sport is the most dangerous? Why?
. Which sports are in the Winter Olympics?
. Which sports do you think are the most exciting to watch?
. About a game, what is to “tie”?
. Try to define: captain, umpire and a little league.
. Which soccer team do you cheer for? (only the name, please! NO DISCUSSION!)

About the text answer:


. “Who” is the humming bird in your life?
. What can you tell us you understood about the text?
. Could you take any conclusion tracing a parallel with your life?

p. 78
Lesson 14

Vocabulary: Entertainment!!!

Types of entertainment

1. film / movie 2. play 3. television program 4. radio program

5. stand-up comedy 6. concert 7. ballet 8. opera

Types of stories

9. western 10. comedy 11. tragedy 12. science fiction story

13. action story / 14. horror story 15. mystery 16. romance
adventure story

p. 79
Lesson 14

Types of TV programs

17. news 18. sitcom (situation comedy) 19. cartoon

20. talk show 21. soap opera 22. nature program

23. game show / quiz show 24. children´s program 25. shopping program

26. serious book 28. sad book 30. interesting book

27. funny book 29. boring book


p. 80
Lesson 14

Grammar: Passive sentences

Quando o “Foco” ou a ênfase “das atenções” são voltadas para o objeto da oração (passive sentences
– voz passiva), e não para o sujeito (active sentences – voz ativa).
Ex: Maria conhece o Pedro. Temos: “Maria – sujeito”; “Pedro – objeto” = Voz ativa
Pedro é conhecido de Maria. Temos: ênfase em Pedro = Voz passiva

Vamos agora, perceber o que acontece quando passamos uma frase da voz ativa para a voz passiva (
Estes exemplos básicos iniciais são didáticos, e não estão sendo considerado os complementos que
possivelmente deveriam ser utilizados, ou possuem tempos verbais não adequados para o contexto ).

Comparação: Voz ativa (1° coluna) x Voz passiva (2° coluna):

Sue loves Bob (A Sue ama o Bob) / Bob is loved by Sue (O Bob é amado pela Sue)
Sue is loving Bob (A Sue está amando o Bob) / Bob is being loved by Sue (O Bob está sendo amado pela Sue)
Sue loved Bob (A Sue amou o Bob) / Bob was loved by Sue (O Bob foi amado pela Sue)
Sue was loving Bob (A Sueestava amando o Bob) / Bob was being loved by Sue (O Bob estava sendo amado pela Sue)
Sue will love Bob (A Sue amará o Bob) / Bob will be loved by Sue (O Bob será amado pela Sue)
Sue is going to love Bob (A Sue amaá o Bob) / Bob is going to be loved by Sue (O Bob será amado pela Sue)
Sue has loved Bob (A Sue tem amado o Bob) / Bob has been loved by Sue (O Bob tem sido amado pela Sue)
Sue has been loving Bob (A Sue tem estado amando o Bob) / Bob has been being loved by Sue (O Bob tem estado sendo amado pela Sue)
Sue had loved Bob (A Sue tinha amado o Bob) / Bob had been loved by Sue (O Bob tinha sido amado pela Sue)
Sue had been loving Bob (A Sue tinha estado amando o Bob) / Bob had been being loved by Sue (O Bob tinha estado sendo amado pela Sue)
Sue will have loved Bob (A Sue terá amado o Bob) / Bob will have been loved by Sue (O Bob terá sido amado pela Sue)
Sue can love Bob (A Sue pode amar o Bob) / Bob can be loved by Sue (O Bob pode ser amado pela Sue)
Sue can love Bob (A Sue pode amar o Bob) / Bob can have been loved by Sue (O Bob pode ter sido amado pela Sue)

. Primeiro fato: Todas as frases na voz passiva começam com o objeto (Bob).

. Segundo fato: Na voz passiva temos sempre um “verb to be” a mais (comparando com a voz ativa),
ou um “EXTRA VERB TO BE” (todas as variaçõres do “verb to be” acima sublinhados); Seja ele no presente (am,
is, are), no passado (was, were), no particípio (been), ou no gerúndio (Being). Se na ativa não tivermos “verb to
be”, na passiva teremos um, e se na ativa tivermos um “verb to be”, na passiva teremos dois. Este “Extra verb
to be” é definido a partir do tempo verbal original da voz ativa. Portanto mantemos o tempo verbal original
(conservando, por exemplo: has, have, had, will, going to, will have e modais – tudo em itálico está
concervado), e acrescentamos o “EXTRA TO BE” para transformarmos uma frase da ativa para a passiva.

. Terceiro fato: O verbo principal da voz ativa, está SEMPRE NO PARTICÌPIO na voz passiva (no
exemplo verb to love em negrito - loved).

. Quarto fato: O sujeito da ativa vai para a passiva precedido do “BY” – uma preposição – portanto
após preposição usa-se “Object pronoun” Ex: by her, by Sue,e não: by she.

. Quinto fato: No futuro simples acrescenta-se o “BE” e no futuro perfeito o “BEEN”.

. Sexto fato: MODAIS: acrescenta-se: o “BE” para expressar uma idéia de “certeza”, afirmação ou o
“HAVE BEEN” para expressar uma idéia de probabilidade, suposição, incerteza.

p. 81
Lesson 14

Resumindo (comparação voz ativa x voz passiva acima):

Itálico: manter / Sublinhado: “Extra to be” / Negrito: verbo principal particípio

Podemos agora, estabelecer um roteiro simples e direto dos passos a seguir para passarmos uma
frase da voz ativa para a voz passiva:

Identificar corretamente o objeto da frase na voz ativa e iniciar a voz passiva


Primeiro passo:
com este mesmo objeto.
Analisar corretamente o tempo verbal original da voz ativa para escolher
Segundo passo:
corretamente qual será o “EXTRA VERB TO BE” a ser empregado
Terceiro passo: Acrescentar o “EXTRA VERB TO BE” * de acordo com a tabela abaixo
Colocar o verbo principal ou o verbo de ação da voz ativa SEMPRE no
Quarto passo:
PASSADO PARTICÌPIO na voz passiva
Colocar o sujeito da ativa precedido de BY na passiva (geralmente no final da
Quinto passo: frase, e sempre considerando os “object pronouns”). Se na ativa o sujeito for
oculto ou indeterminado não é necessário menciona-lo na passiva.

* EXTRA VERB TO BE:


Tempo verbal da voz ativa no: EXTRA VERB TO BE
(para a voz passiva):
Simple present Am/ is/ are
Simple past Was / were
Perfect tenses (pres: has/have, past: had, fut: Been
Will have)
ING – continuous - (simple or perfect tenses) Being
Simple future Be
Modal Be / have been

Importante: O verbo “to get” pode também ser usado para as frases na passiva, principalmente, quando na
ativa, a frase tiver um sujeito indeterminado (sendo este sujeito “dispensável” na passiva).
Ex: Alguém levou my livro: “Someone took my book” = voz ativa
My livro foi levado (por alguém): “My book got taken (by someone)” = voz passiva (o sujeito “by
someone” não é necessário”)

14.1 - Use the words in brackets (...) to complete the sentences.


1 I can't use my office at the moment. It is being painted (paint).
2 We didn't go to the party. We weren’t invited (not/invite).
3 The washing machine was broken but it's OK now. It (repair).
4 The washing machine (repair) yesterday afternoon.
5 A factory is a place where things (make).
6 How old are these houses? When (they/build)?
7 A: (the computer / use) at the moment?
B: Yes, Jim is using it.
8 I've never seen these flowers before. What (they / call)?
9 Some trees (blow) down in the storm last night.
10 The bridge is closed at the moment. It (damage) last week
and it (not/ repair) yet..

p. 82
Lesson 14

14.2 - What’s happening?

1 The car is being repaired. . 3 The windows .


2 A bridge . 4 The grass .

14.3 - Complete the sentences with should (have) + the verb in brackets.
1 Margaret should pass the exam. She’s been studying very hard. (pass)
2 You missed a great party last night. You should have come (come)
3 We don’t see you enough. You and see us more often. (come)
4 I’m in a difficult position. What do you think I ? (do)
5 I’m sorry that I didn’t take your advice. I what you said. (do)
6 I’m playing tennis with Jill tomorrow. She - she’s much better than me. (win)
7 We lost the match but we . We were the better team. (win)
8 ‘Is John here yet?’ ‘Not yet, but he here soon.’ (be)
9 I posted the letter three days ago, so it by now. (arrive)

14.4 - Complete the sentences using one of these verbs in the correct form:
cause damage hold include invite make overtake show translate
write

1 Many accidents are caused by dangerous driving.


2 Cheese . from milk.
3 The roof of the building . in a storm a few days ago.
4 There’s no need to leave a tip. Service in the bill.
5 You to the wedding. Why didn’t you go?
6 A cinema is a place where films ..
7 In the United States, elections for President every four years.
8 Originally the book in Spanish and a few years ago
it into English.
9 We were driving along quite fast but we by lots of other cars.

14.5 - Rewrite these sentences. Instead of using ‘somebody’ or ‘they’, write a passive sentence.

1 Somebody has cleaned the room. The room has been cleaned. .
2 They have postponed the concert. The .
3 Somebody is using the computer at the moment. The computer .
4 I didn’t realize that somebody was recording our conversation.
I didn’t realize that .
5 When we got to he stadium we found that they had cancelled the game.
When we got to the stadium, we found that .
6 They are building a new ring road round the city.
.

p. 83
Lesson 14

TEXT (by Internet)

Henry Ford

A business that makes nothing but money is a poor kind of business.Before everything else, getting
ready is the secret to success. Coming together is a beginning, staying together is progress, and working
together is success. Even a mistake may turn out to be the one thing necessary to a worthwhile achievement.
He can who thinks he can, and he can't who thinks he can't. This is an inexorable, indisputable law.
If you take all the experience and judgment of men over fifty out of the world, there wouldn't be
enough left to run it.
If you think of standardization as the best that you know today, but which is to be improved tomorrow;
you get somewhere.
It is all one to me if a man comes from Sing Sing Prison or Harvard. We hire a man, not his history.
Obstacles are those frightful things you see when you take your eyes off your goal.
There are no big problems, there are just a lot of little problems.
There are two fools in this world. One is the millionaire who thinks that by hoarding money he can
somehow accumulate real power, and the other is the penniless reformer who thinks that if only he can take
the money from one class and give it to another, all the world's ills will be cured.
There isn't a person anywhere that isn't capable of doing more than he thinks he can.
Thinking is the hardest work there is, which is the probable reason so few engage in it.
Whether you think you can or whether you think you can't, you're right!
You can't build your reputation on what you're going to do.

Additional conversation!
. Which are you favorites types of entertainment? And Tv programs?
. How do you spend your free time? Is it possible to do something special?
. Look on the page 78 and try to describe here one by one your favourite tv program
according each type.
About Ford answer:
. Which thought you would write on the walls of your “mental entrance hall”?
. Pick up three other thoughts and try to interpretate or just talk about them using
your own words.

p. 84
Lesson 15

Vocabulary: An airport

1. airline terminal 9. airplane 17. baggage claim area


2. airline representative 10. overhead compartment 18. carousel
3. check-in counter 11. cockpit 19. luggage carrier
4. arrival and departure monitors 12. pilot 20. customs
5. gate 13. flight attendant 21. customs officer
6. boarding area 14. oxygen mask 22. declaration form
7. control tower 15. airsickness bag 23. passenger
8. helicopter 16. tray table

p. 85
Lesson 15

Vocabulary: A plane trip

Can I get a
blanket,
please?

A. buy your ticket G. find your seat M. request a blanket


B. check your bags H. stow your carry-on bag N. experience turbulence
C. go through security I. fasten your seat belt O. land / arrive
D. check in at the gate J. look for the emergency exit P. claim your baggage
E. get your boarding pass K. look at the emergency card
F. board the plane L. take off / leave

p. 86
Lesson 15

Grammar: The Two Word Verb*

O two-word verb consiste em um verbo seguido geralmente de uma preposição: to look over.
Observe que temos o verbo to look (olhar) + a preposição over (por cima de, sobre etc.). Porém, juntos,
formarão uma unidade semântica diferente da soma dos significados do verbo + a preposição:

To look over = to examine (examinar).

Trata-se de uma nova realidade lingüística, que pode, muitas vezes, ser substituída por um outro verbo
que não seja um two-word verb:

• The inspector is looking the entire place over.


The inspector is examining the entire place.
O inspetor está examinando o lugar todo.

Observe que o verbo to look over é um verbo “separável”, isto é, entre os seus componentes (look e
over) temos o objeto direto.
Diante disso, devemos salientar que alguns two-word verbs são “separáveis” (o objeto é colocado
entre as duas partes do verbo) e outros são “inseparáveis” (o objeto é colocado após o verbo). Observe os
exemplos a seguir:

• The Sales director is going to call the meeting off. (separável)


O diretor de vendas vai cancelar a reunião.
• The detectives will look into the crime soon. (inseparável)
Os detetives investigarão o crime brevemente.

Alguns verbos, como to call up (telefonar), to put on (por, vestir), to take off (tirar, despir-se), to turn
on (ligar, acender), to turn off (desligar, apagar) etc., podem ser “separáveis” ou “inseparáveis”, sem mudança
de significado:
• Please take your dress off.
• He’ll call Joan up. Please take off your dress.
He’ll call up Joan. Por favor, tire o vestido.
Ele telefonará para Joan.
• I’m going to turn the TV on.
• Liza, put a heavy coat on. It’s cold outside I’m going to turn on the TV.
Liza, put on a heavy coat. It’s cold outside. Eu vou ligar a TV.
Liza, vista um casaco pesado. Está frio lá fora.
• Please turn all the lights off.
Please turn off all the lights.
Por favor, apague todas as luzes.

* (extraído na íntegra: Inglês gramática prática - Michaelis)

p. 87
Lesson 15

Observação:

Ao substituirmos o nome por um pronome, o verbo torna-se obrigatoriamente separável:

• Please turn the radio off.


Please turn off the radio.
Por favor, desligue o rádio.

• Please turn it off. (it substitui radio)


Por favor, desligue-o.

• I’ll call Peter up.


I’ll call up Peter.
Eu telefonarei para Peter.

• I’ll call him up. (him substitui Peter)


Eu telefonarei para ele.

A - Separable Verbs
(Verbos Separáveis)

to blow up (to explode; to inflate) – explodir; inflar


to bring about (to cause) – causar
to bring on (to induce) – induzir
to bring off (to accomplish successfully) – realizar com sucesso
to bring up (to rear) – criar, educar (filhos)
to call off (to cancel) – cancelar
to call up (to telephone) – telefonar
to carry on (to keep up; to continue) – manter; continuar
to carry out (to obey) – obedecer
to cut off (to amputate) – amputar
to cut out (to eliminate) – eliminar
to do over (to redo) – refazer
– presumir; solucionar com o uso de
to figure out (to calculate; to solve by using figures;
figuras; chegar a uma explicação ou
to arrive at the explanation or solution)
solução
to fill in / out (to complete a form or a – preencher um formulário ou questionário
questionnaire
to fill up (to fill completely) – encher completamente
to find out (to discover) – descobrir
to give back (to return) – devolver
to give off ( to emit rays, smoke) – emitir raios, fumaça
to give up (to surrender, to abandon) – render-se, abandonar, deixar de, desistir
to hand in (to deliver) – entregar
to hand out (to distribute) – distribuir
to leave out (to omit) – omitir
to let down (to disappoint) – desapontar
to look over (to examine) – examinar
to look up (to seek information) – buscar informação
to make up (to invent a story; to apply
– inventar história; maquiar-se
cosmetics to the face )

p. 88
Lesson 15

to mix up (to mingle; to confuse) – associar-se; confundir


to pick out (to select) – selecionar
to pick up (to lift with the hands) – levantar com as mãos, buscar, apanhar
to point out (to indicate) – indicar
to put away (to reserve for later use) – guardar para uso posterior
to throw away (to discard) – jogar fora
to try on (to put a garment on to test the fit and –
experimentar roupa
appearance )
to try out (to test) – testar
to turn down (to refuse an offer) – recusar uma oferta
to turn off (to stop an operation) – apagar; desligar
to turn on (to begin an operation) – acender; ligar
to wear out (to wear clothes, shoes, etc. until no –
usar (roupas, sapatos etc.) até gastar
longer fit for use)

B -Inseparable Verbs
(Verbos Inseparáveis)

to call for (to require) – requerer, exigir


to call on (to visit) – visitar
to care for (to tend, to guard) – Cuidar de; importar- se com
to come across (to find accidentally) – achar por acaso
to count on (to trust) – contar com, confiar em
to get after (to criticize) – criticar
to get around (to avoid; to escape) – evitar; escapar de
to get away (to escape) – fugir, escapar
to get back (to return) – voltar, retornar
to get in (to enter a place or a car) – entrar num lugar ou carro
to get off (to leave a vehicle) – descer de um veículo
to get on (to board or enter a vehicle) – entrar num veículo
to get over (to recover from a disease) – recuperar-se uma de doença
to get out (to leave) – partir, ir embora
to get through (to finish) – terminar
to get up (to rise) – levantar-se
to go over (to review) – revisar, rever
to hear from (to receive news from) – receber notícias de
to hit on (to discover accidentally) – descobrir por acaso
to look after (to take care of) – cuidar de
to look for (to seek) – procurar
to look into (to investigate) – investigar
to look out (to be careful) – tomar cuidado
to look over (to examine) – examinar
to run across (to find or meet accidentally) – encontrar por acaso
to run off (to print or make copies of) – imprimir ou copiar
to run out (to come to an end; to expire) – chegar ao fim, expirar
to show off (to be an exhibitionist) – exibir-se, aparecer
– assumir o controle, a responsabilidade ou a
to take over (to take control of)
posse de algo

p. 89
Lesson 15

15.1 - Somebody asks you the way to a place. You say which way to go. Look at the pictures and write
sentences beginning Go… .

15.2 - Look at the pictures and complete the sentences. Use the verbs in the list + in/out/up etc.

p. 90
Lesson 15

TEXT (by Internet)

Confucius

It is better to light one small candle than to curse the darkness.


Our greatest glory is not in never falling, but in rising every time we fall.
Sincerity and truth are the basis of every virtue.
The essence of knowledge is, having it, to apply it; not having it, to confess your ignorance.
The expectations of life depend upon diligence; the mechanic that would perfect his work must first
sharpen his tools.
The father who does not teach his son his duties is equally guilty with the son who neglects them.
The more man meditates upon good thoughts, the better will be his world and the world at large.
The perfecting of one's self is the fundamental base of all progress and all moral development.
The strength of a nation derives from the integrity of the home.
The superior man is firm in the right way, and not merely firm.
The superior man understands what is right; the inferior man understands what will sell.
Think no vice so small that you may commit it, and no virtue so small that you may over look it.
To be wronged is nothing unless you continue to remember it.
To put the world in order, we must first put the nation in order; to put the nation in order, we must put
the family in order; to put the family in order, we must cultivate our personal life; and to cultivate our personal
life, we must first set our heart
To see and listen to the wicked is already the beginning of wickedness.
To see what is right, and not do it, is want of courage, or of principle.
When prosperity comes, do not use all of it.
When you have faults, do not fear to abandon them.
Without knowing the force of words, it is impossible to know men.
Worry not that no one knows of you; seek to be worth knowing.

Additional Conversation!

. Discuss about the following vocabulary: _ Departure time; _ Arrival time; _ direct flight; _
stopover. What do these words mean?
. You’re going to travel abroad. Try to describe with rich details all the procedures and
steps you have to do at the airport until you get _________ .(choose the destination)
. About Confucius, be free to express any feelings you want to share with us!
 

p. 91
Lesson 16

Vocabulary: Being na author!

I like that
part about your
family.

1. writing assignment B. Edit your paper D. Rewrite your paper 2. paper / composition
A. Write a first draft C. Get feedback E. Turn in your paper

3. title 4. sentence 5. paragraph

Punctuation

6. period 9. quotation marks 12. colon


7. question mark 10. comma 13. semicolon
8. exclamation mark 11. apostrophe

p. 92
Lesson 16

Grammar: Reported Speech

“Reported speech” , ou “discurso reportado” é o discurso indireto (indirect speech), é a forma


discursiva formal usada em jornais, revistas, dissertações, etc, sempre impessoal e na terceira pessoa. Vamos
analisar os seguintes exemplos de um diálogo:
Susan: _ Clara, eu estou com fome, e você !? (discurso direto)
Clara: _ Eu também estou. (discurso direto)
Se fossemos transcrever este dialogo de forma de discurso indireto teríamos: “Susan disse/ declarou/
afirmou que estava com fome, e perguntou a Clara se ela também estava, Clara respondeu que sim”. Podemos
ainda utilizar outras formas para transformar um discurso direto em um indireto. O importante é conservar o
sentido ou idéia original do discurso direto. Poderíamos por exemplo: “Susan exclamou que estava com fome,
e perguntou à Clara se ela também estava, esta, respondeu que sim”. Em outras palavras, não existe apenas um
caminho para o “reported speech”, porém algumas transformações são necessárias.

. Primeira modificação; O Tempo verbal :


Vamos aos exemplos:
Discurso direto Discurso indireto / reportado
(Paulo dizendo para sua namorada
Fátima:)
_ Fátima, eu te amo! (simple present) Paulo disse à Fátima que ele a amava. (simple past)
_ Fátima, eu posso te amar! (can) Paulo declarou à Fátima que ele poderia ama-lá. (could)
_ Fátima, eu te amei! (simple past) Paulo exclamou que ele tinha amado Fátima. (past perfect)
_ Fátima, eu te amarei! (will love) Paulo afirmou que ele amaria Fátima. (would + love)
_ Fátima, me ame! (imperative) Paulo pediu para Fátima para ela o amar. (infinitive)

Podemos perceber que o tempo verbal do discurso indireto é com se fosse “um passo / um degrau
no passado” do discurso direto. O discurso indireto está um nível a mais no passado em relação ao discurso
direto. Temos a tabela:

O tempo verbal do discurso direto está no: No discurso indireto o tempo verbal vai para o:
Presente simples (simple present) Passado simples (simple past)
Is / are + verb + ing Was / were + verb + ing
Passado simples (simple past) Passado perfeito (past perfect)
Will Would
Is / are going to Was / were going to
Can Could
Has / have to Had to
Must Had to
Was/ were + verb + ing Had + been + verb + ing
Imperative Infinitive
. Segunda modificação; Pronomes e Advérbios / “Pronouns and adverbs”:

Vamos a um exemplo de um diálogo ao telefone, e depois vamos “reportar” este diálogo:

(Marcos atendendo ao telefone): _ Hello!? ( _ Alô)


(Do outro lado da linha:): _Hello, my name is George from the repair shop, please tell your mom that her
T.V is ready and she can pick it up. I finished it today, Thanks. ( _Olá, meu nome é Geoge, da loja de
concertos, por favor diga a sua mãe que a Tv dela está pronta, e que ela pode buscá-la. Eu a terminei hoje,
obrigado.)

p. 93
Lesson 16

(Marcos): _ Ok, I understood, great, I’ll tell her your message, thanks. Bye! ( _Ok, ie entendi, ótimo, eu diréi a
ela o seu recado, obrigado, tchau)
….Later / Mais tarde…:
(Marcos e sua mãe): _ Mom, a man from the repairing shop called you, his name is George and he said that
your T.V is ready, he finished it today. ( _ Mãe, o homem da loja de concertos ligou para você, o nome dele
é Geoge e ele disse que a sua Tv está pronta, ele a terminou hoje)
Reportando a útima frase do diálogo:

“ Marcos told his Mom that a man from the repairing shop called George had called her and said that her T.V
was ready. He had finished to fix the T.V that day”.

Observem que todas as palavras em negrito e sublinhadas são alterações necessárias em relação aos
pronomes. Os advérbios de tempo (letra maior) devem ser alterados de acordo com a tabela:

Direct speech Indirect speech


Today That day / the current day
yesterday The day before / the previous day / last day
Tomorrow The next day / the following day
Last … The …before
This That
Now Then
Here There
Next … The following …

Principais verbos:
Os principais verbos usados para reportar uma frase são:

. 1 - To tell – told – told (dizer, falar) : Verbo transitivo direto


Ex: tell me (* ) / told her (*), told them (*)

. 2 - To say – said – said (dizer falar) : Verbo transitivo indireto


Ex: say (*) to me (*), said (*) to me (*) / said (*) to them (*) / said: …

. 3 - To ask – asked – asked (perguntar, pedir) : Verbo transitivo direto.


Ex: Asked me (*), asked him (*), etc.
(*) = (that) ; que pode, ou não, aparecer na frase.

Aplicações:
Usa-se o “to say”, geralmente no sentido de dizer e o “to tell” no sentido de contar. “To say” é usado: Ou
para referir a algo que uma outra pessoa disse, ou para reproduzir palavras de alguém (na íntegra). Já o “To
tell” é usado no discurso indireto (a oração apresenta um objeto indireto). Vejamos alguns exemplos:
Ex:
. Don’t tell anything about the fact to our supervisor. Não conte nada a respeito do fato ao nosso supervisor.
. He told her that he would go to the cinema. Ele disse a ela que iria ao cinema.
. She told him a lie and then started laughing. Ela contou a ele uma mentira e então / depois começou a rir.
. He said that he has been very busy. Ele disse que ele tem estado muito ocupado.
. She said that he can’t come here today. Ela disse que não pode vir aqui hoje.
. Don’t say that to his mom! Não diga isso a mãe dele!
. “My name is Britney. I live down the hill,” she said. “ Meu nome é Britney. Eu moro no “pé” do morro”, ela
disse.

p. 94
Lesson 16

Vamos agora, com o mesmo “raciocínio” que tivemos para aplicar corretamente os verbos “to tell” e
“to say”, associadamente, estudar outros verbos, e caso algum verbo não estiver incluído nestas listas,
devemos para e pensar: Este verbo é um verbo transitivo direto, indireto ou um verbo intransitivo?

Outros verbos que funcionam como o verbo “to say” (transitivo indireto):
. Admit (admitir), announce (anúnciar), confess (confessar), complain (reclamar), comment (comentar),
explain (explicar), indicate (indicar), remark (observar / anotar / reparar / comentar / remarcar), reply
(replicar), report (reportar / estudar), shout (gritar), swear (jurar)

Outros verbos que funcionam como o verbo “to tell” (transitivo direto):
. Assure (assegurar), convince (convercer), inform (informar), notify (notificar), persuade (persuadir),
remind (lembrar/relembrar)

Ex: Susan admitted the lie to me. (A susan adimitiu a mentira para mim)
Susan admitted to me the lie. (A susan admitiu para mim a mentira)
The candidate convinced the people that he is honest. (O candidato convenceu as pessoas de que ele é
honesto)
The mayor confessed to the city population that the problems were improved. (O prefeito confessou para a
população da cidade que os problemas haviam crescido)
The mayor informed the city population that the problems were improved. (O prefeito informou a população
da cidade que os problemas haviam crescido)
She replied to him that he was right. (Ela respondeu a ele que ele estava correto)
She reminded him that he was right. (Ela o lembrou que ele estava correto)

16.1 - Read what these people say and write sentences with He/She/They said (that) ….

p. 95
Lesson 16

16.2 - Yesterday you met a friend of yours, Charlie. Here are some of the things Charlie said to you:

Later that day you tell another friend what Charlie said. Use reported speech.
1 Charlie said that he was living in London now. .
2 He said that .
3 He .
4 .
5 .
6 .
7 .
8 .
9 .
10 .
11 .
12 .

16.3 - You have been away for a while and have just come back to your home town. You meet Gerry, a friend
of yours. He asks you a lot of questions:

Now you tell another friend what Gerry asked you. Use reported speech.

1 He asked me how I was. .


2 He asked me .
3 He .
4 .
5 .
6 .
7 .
8 .
9 .

p. 96
Lesson 16

SONG (by Internet) It’s a beautiful day - song

The heart is a bloom It's a beautiful day


Shoots up through the stony ground
There's no room Touch me
No space to rent in this town Take me to that other place
You're out of luck Teach me
And the reason that you had to care I know I'm not a hopeless case
The traffic is stuck
And you're not moving anywhere See the world in green and blue
You thought you found a friend See time move right in front of you
To take you out of this place See the canyons broken by cloud
Someone you could lend a hand See the tuna fleets clearing the sea out
In return for grace See the Bedouin fires at night
See the oil fields at first light and
It's a beautiful day See the bird with a leaf in her mouth
Sky falls you feel like After the flood all the colors came out
A beautiful day
Don't let it get away It's a beautiful day
Don't let it get away
You're on the road It’s a beautiful day
But you've got no destination
You're in the mud Touch me
In the maze of her imagination Take me to that other place
Reach me
The love is done I know I'm not a hopeless case
Even if that doesn't ring true
You've been all over What you don't have you don't need it now
And it's been all over you What you don't know you can feel it somehow
What you don't have you don't need it now
It's a beautiful day Don't need it now
Don't let it get away It's a beautiful day

Additional conversation!

. Have you ever thought to be an author in your life? (even when you were very young!)
. Imagine for some reason you became an author (or already you are!), try to figure out
that you have to choose a book style and why?
. Look on the page 90 picture 1. Can you recognize what the teacher is pointing at the
chalkboard? If yes, orally do it. If no, ask your teacher, and do it so!
. About this song, Do you concider it romantic? Why or why not?
. The song message seems to explore a “broken heart”. Have you ever soffer about this
before? (be truthfull!) How did you overcome this problem? (The details is not our
business! Only tell us the main facts.)

p. 97
Lesson 17

Vocabulary: Children´s bedroom

1. bunk bed 7. bumper pad 13. diaper pail 19. cradle


2. comforter 8. chest of drawers 14. dollhouse 20. coloring book
3. night-light 9. baby monitor 15. blocks 21. crayons
4. mobile 10. teddy bear 16. ball 22. puzzle
5. wallpaper 11. smoke detector 17. picture book 23. stuffed animals
6. crib 12. changing table 18. doll 24. toy chest

p. 98
Lesson 17

Vocabulary: Housework shores

A. dust the furniture G. make the bed M. wash the dishes


B. recycle the newspapers H. put away the toys N. dry the dishes
C. clean the oven I. vacuum the carpet O. wipe the counter
D. wash the windows J. mop the floor P. change the sheets
E. sweep the floor K. polish the furniture Q. take out the garbage
F. empty the wastebasket L. scrub the floor (escovar o chão)

p. 99
Lesson 17

Vocabulary: Housing hygine products / cleaning supplies

1. feather duster 9. squeegee 17. dust mop


2. recycling bin 10. broom 18. furniture polish
3. oven cleaner 11. dustpan 19. scrub brush
4. rubber gloves 12. trash bags 20. bucket / pail
5. steel-wool soap pads (palha de aço) 13. vacuum cleaner 21. dishwashing liquid
6. rags 14. vacuum cleaner attachments 22. dish towel
7. stepladder 15. vacuum cleaner bag 23. cleanser
8. glass cleaner 16. wet mop 24. sponge

p. 100
Lesson 17

Grammar: Some Prolematic Pairs*

Nesta lição serão discutidos alguns pares de unidades lingüísticas que pertencem às várias partes do
discurso - substantivo, adjetivo, verbo, advérbio etc. – e que, muitas vezes, são usados de forma inadequada.
Serão indicadas as diferenças entre ambos, através do próprio contexto, ou de notas explicativas, bem como
justificaremos seus usos.

1. all ready / already


• They are all ready to leave the hotel.
Eles estão todos prontos para deixar o hotel.
• They have already left the hotel.
Eles já deixaram o hotel.
Em all ready temos um pronome indefinido + um adjetivo; em already temos apenas um advérbio de
tempo.

2. among (entre vários) / between (entre dois apenas)


• Please divide the money among you three.
Por favor, dividam o dinheiro entre vocês três.
• The English Channel lies between France and England.
O Canal da Mancha fica entre a França e a Inglaterra.

3. amount (quantidades incontáveis) / number (quantidades contáveis)


• He drinks a large amount of coffee a day.
Ele bebe uma quantidade enorme de café por dia.
• He has a large number of children.
Ele tem uma quantidade enorme de filhos.

4. as / like
• Paul doesn't play the piano as you do.
Paul não toca piano como você toca.
• Paul is like his father.
Paul é igual ao pai.
Ambos indicam comparações. As é uma conjunção e introduz uma nova oração, enquanto like é uma
preposição seguida de um substantivo ou pronome.
• She cooks well as my mother did.
Ele cozinha bem como minha mãe cozinhava.
• Your son walks like you.
Seu filho anda como você.

5. at the end / in the end


• I’ll take a month vacation at the end of the year.
Eu tirarei um mês de férias no final do ano.In the end they carne to visit us.

* (extraído na íntegra: Inglês gramática prática – Michaelis)

p. 101
Lesson 17

Até que enfim, eles vieram nos visitar.


At the end indica lugar, ponto ou faz referência a tempo. É seguido de of + substantivo ou pronome:
• There's a movie theather al lhe end of the street.
Há um cinema no final daquela rua.
• You’ll find an index at the end of the book.
Você encontrará um índice remissivo no final do livro.
In the end é uma locução adverbial correspondente a até que enfim, finalmente.
• In the end they decided to sell their house.
Finalmente, eles decidiram vender a casa.

6. beside (ao lado) / besides (além de, além disso)


• She always sits beside me in the English class.
Ela sempre se senta ao meu lado na aula de inglês.
• She also studies German besides English and Italian.
Ela também estuda alemão, além de inglês e italiano.

7. borrow (tomar emprestado) / lend (emprestar)


• I need to borrow ten dollars from Mary.
Eu preciso tomar dez dólares emprestados de Mary.
• I need to lend ten dollars to Mary.
Eu preciso emprestar dez dólares a Maria.

8. cause / reason
• They don 'I know what is the cause of the fire.
Eles não sabem qual é a causa do incêndio.
• I'm sure she has a good reason for coming here.
Eu tenho certeza de que ela tem uma boa razão para vir aqui.
Cause está relacionado a algo que produziu alguma coisa ou algum efeito. Reason está relacionado a
uma explicação ou justificativa.

9. Censer / Censor
• She brought that silver censer from India.
Ela trouxe aquele porta-incenso da Índia.
• He always acts like a censor.
Ele sempre age como um censor.

10. compare to (semelhança) / compare with (semelhanças e diferenças)


• The green of his eyes is often compared to the green of emeralds.
O verde dos olhos dele é freqüentemente comparado ao verde das esmeraldas.
• Le’s compare this poem with that one by Shakespeare.
Vamos comparar este poema com aquele de Shakespeare.

11. convince / persuade


• Now they're all convinced of his innocence.
Agora estão todos convencidos de sua inocência.

p. 102
Lesson 17

• We are going to persuade him to play on our team.



Nós vamos persuadi-lo a jogar no nosso time.
To convince é fazer alguém acreditar em algo, enquanto to persuade é fazer alguém realizar algo.

12. client / patient


• Peter’s advertising agency doesn't have many clients.
A agência de publicidade de Peter não tem muitos clientes.
• Dr. Morgan’s clinic has a lot of patients.
A clínica do Dr. Morgan tem muitos pacientes.
(Apenas hospitais, clínicas e profissionais da saúde têm patients.)

13. customer / client


• Our store has a lot of customers now.
Nossa loja tem muito fregueses (= clientes) agora.
• Our bank has a lot of clients now.
Nosso banco tem muitos clientes agora.
Bares, restaurantes, lojas e prestadores de serviços manuais têm customers, enquanto advogados,
auditores, publicitários, bancos e prestadores de serviços não manuais têm clients.

14. desert/dessert
• Various types of cactus grow on the desert.
Vários tipos de cacto crescem no deserto.
• Apple pie is Tony’s favorite dessert.
Torta de maçã é a sobremesa favorita de Tony.

15. discover / invent


• Columbus discovered America in 1492.
Colombo descobriu a América em 1492.
• Bell invented the telephone long time ago.
Bell inventou o telefone há muito tempo.
To discover é encontrar algo que já existia. To invent é criar algo que não existia.

16. earn / win


• He earns 400 dollars a week.
Ele ganha 400 dólares por semana.
• He certainly is going to win at cards.
Ele certamente vai ganhar no jogo de baralho.
To earn é ganhar ou perceber salário. To win é ganhar em competições, concursos ou jogos em geral.

17. few / a few


• Though the test was easy, few students had a good grade.
Embora a prova fosse fácil, poucos alunos tiveram uma boa nota.
• Though the test was difficult, a few students had a good grade.
Embora a prova fosse difícil, pelo menos alguns alunos tiveram um bom conceito.

p. 103
Lesson 17

18. fiancé (masc.) / fiancée (fem.)


• Sylvia is engaged to be married. Her fiancé is German.
Sylvia está noiva. O noivo dela é alemão.
• Bermann is engaged to be married. His fiancée is Brazilian.
Hermann está noivo. A noiva dele é brasileira.

19. finger / toe


• She hurt a finger of her left hand playing volleyball.
Ela machucou um dedo da mão esquerda jogando vôlei.
• He hurt a toe of his right foot playing soccer.
Ele machucou um dedo do pé direito jogando futebol.

20. good (adj.) / well (adv.)


• Maria is a good student.
Maria é uma boa aluna.
• I'm well now.
Eu estou bem agora.

21. habit / custom


• Telling lies is a very bad habit.
Contar mentiras é um péssimo hábito.
• The custom of trimming Christmas trees comes from Denmark.
O costume de enfeitar árvores de Natal vem da Dinamarca.
Habit é algo individual, enquanto custom é socializado, pertence a um grupo ou povo.

22. human / humane


• Do you think there is human life on other planets?
Você acha que há vida humana em outros planetas?
• We all deserve a more humane and civilized society.
Todos nós merecemos uma sociedade mais humana e civilizada.
Human refere-se ao homem, ao gênero humano. Humane significa caracterizado por bondade ou
benevolência. Ambos são adjetivos.

23. ingenious / ingenuous


• Mark is a very ingenious person.
Mark é uma pessoa muito inventiva.
• Mark is a very ingenuous person.
Mark é uma pessoa muito ingênua.

24. leave / let


• Did you leave your briefcase in the office?
Você deixou a sua pasta no escritório?
• My father didn't let me go out yesterday.
Meu pai não me deixou sair ontem.
Leave significa deixar, abandonar. Let significa permitir, autorizar.

p. 104
Lesson 17

25. little / a little


• She slept little.
Ela dormiu pouco.
• She slept a little.
Ela dormiu pelo menos um pouco.

26. made of / made from


• That sculpture is made of wood.
Aquela escultura é feita de madeira.
• This cake is made from flour and corn meal.
Este bolo é feito de farinha e fubá.
Usa-se made of quando o material não se transforma e pode ser visto. Usa-se made from quando o
material ou substância se transforma e não pode ser visto ou identificado.

27. make / do
• I'm going to make some coffee.
Eu vou fazer café.
• I'm going to do my homework.
Vou fazer a lição de casa.
Normalmente usa-se make no sentido de produzir algo material, enquanto do fica restrito à realização
de algo não material ou intelectual.

28. moral / morale


• The moral code must be respected.
O código moral deve ser respeitado.
• The morale of the group was not affected by that silly incident.
O moral do grupo não foi afetado por aquele incidente bobo.
Moral significa conduta ou padrão de comportamento, enquanto morale significa confiança, otimismo
ou domínio espiritual.

29. raise / rise


• If you have any doubt, raise your hand.
Se vocês tiverem alguma dúvida, levantem a mão.
• They usually rise very early in the morning.
Eles geralmente se levantam de manhã bem cedo.
To raise significa levantar, erguer; to rise é levantar-se, sair da cama.

30. refuse / deny


• John refused to take the money.
John recusou-se a pegar o dinheiro.
• John denied that he had taken the money.
John negou que tivesse pego o dinheiro.

31. remember / remind


• I remember every single detail of that accident.
Eu me lembro de cada pequeno detalhe daquele acidente.

p. 105
Lesson 17

• I’ll remind you of the appointment with the cardiologist.


Eu te lembrarei da consulta com o cardiologista.
• Your son reminds me of you at his age.
O seu filho me lembra você quando tinha a mesma idade dele.
To remember significa ter em mente, lembrar-se espontaneamente; to remind é fazer alguém
lembrar-se de algo ou indica que alguma pessoa ou algum evento nos ou lembra ou se parece com alguém
ou algo atual.

32. say / tell


• He said that he can’tt come to work today.
Ele disse que não pode vir trabalhar hoje.
• He told me that he would go to o doctor.
Ele me disse que iria ao médico.
Geralmente usa-se to say no sentido de dizer e to tell no sentido de contar.
• Don’t say that to your father!
Não diga isso ao seu pai!
• Don’t tell anything about the accident to your father.
Não conte nada a respeito do acidente ao seu pai.
To say é usado:
(a) quando nos referimos a algo que uma outra pessoa disse e
(b) quando reproduzimos literalmente as palavras de alguém:
• She said that she has been very busy.
Ela disse quem tem estado muito ocupada.
• “My name is John Borney. I live across the street,” he said. “Meu nome é John Barney. Eu moro do outro
lado da rua”, ele disse.
To tell é usado no discurso indireto, quando a oração apresenta um objeto indireto.
• He told me the truth and then started crying.
Ele me contou a verdade e então começou a chorar.

33. scene / scenery


• The scene was really beautiful.
A cena estava realmente linda.
• The scenery was really beautiful.
O cenário estava realmente lindo.

34. seat / sit


• The stewardess seated the passengers one by one.
A comissária sentou os passageiros um a um.
• We always like to sit in the back of the bus.
Nós sempre gostamos de nos sentar no fundo do ônibus.
To seat (sentar) é um verbo transitivo e requer sempre um objeto direto; to sit (sentar-se) é um verbo
intransitivo.

35. see / look


• He often sees what you do to the children.
Ele normalmente vê o que você faz às crianças.

p. 106
Lesson 17

• I don’t see why you have to leave so soon.


Eu não vejo por que você tem de ir embora tão cedo.
• He looks at me with curiosity.
Ele olha para mim com curiosidade.
To see é ver, perceber com os olhos ou com a mente; to look é olhar, dirigir os olhos, a fim de ver.

36. stay / remain


• We stayed at a small hotel on Sullivan Street.
Nós ficamos num pequeno hotel na rua Sullivan.
Very few people remained al lhe party after we left.
Pouquíssimas pessoas permaneceram na festa depois que nós saímos.
To stay (ficar, restar, permanecer) é usado para indicar que alguém ou algo está ou continua num lugar
ou numa condição específicos.
To remain (ficar, restar, permanecer) é usado para indicar que após a saída, retirada ou destruição
restou alguém ou algo.

37. steal / rob


• Someone stole my wallet.
Alguém roubou minha carteira.
• Some masked men robbed the bank on Clark Street this morning.
Alguns homens mascarados assaltaram o banco da rua Clark hoje de manhã.
To steal (roubar) é levar algo de alguém sem que se perceba, sem violência; to rob é assaltar uma casa,
uma pessoa ou uma empresa, normalmente com violência.

38. story / history


• She told me a very strange story.
Ela me contou uma história muito estranha.
• We are studying the history of the Greeks now.
Nós estamos estudando a história dos gregos agora.
Story é uma sucessão de eventos que pode ou não ser verdadeira; history é uma disciplina acadêmica,
um registro sistemático de fatos do passado.

39. than / then


• She would rather listen to music than study.
Ela preferiria ouvir música a estudar.
• If the part is broken, then replace it.
Se a peça está quebrada, então substitua-a.
Than é uma conjunção utilizada para estabelecer comparação ou contraste; then é um advérbio de tempo.

40. to / till (till = until)


• We’re going to walk to the lake.
Nós vamos caminhar até o lago.
• We’re going to stay here till Monday.
Nós vamos ficar aqui até segunda-feira.
To é usado para distâncias e pode ser substituído por as far as:
• The children are going to run as far as the park.

p. 107
Lesson 17

As crianças vão correr até o parque.


Till é sempre usado para tempo.
• They’ll watch TV till 10 o’clock.
Eles assistirão à TV até às dez horas.

41. take place / take part


• The convention will take place in May.
A convenção será realizada em maio.
• We will take part into the convention.
Nós participaremos da convenção.
Take place significa acontecer, ocorrer; enquanto take part significa participar, fazer parte de.

42. very / too


• It's very hot in this room.
Está muito quente nesta sala.
• It 's too hot to play soccer now.
Está extremamente quente para se jogar futebol agora.
Very é um advérbio que intensifica um adjetivo ou outro advérbio; too é um advérbio que apresenta a
idéia de exagero ou excesso.

43. to wait for / to wait on


• Please wait for me at the subway station.
Por favor, espere por mim na estação do metrô.
• I hate waiting on people.
Eu detesto esperar por pessoas. (que se atrasam)
To wait for é esperar dentro de um horário previsto; to wait on refere-se a um período além do
previsto. Usa-se, também, to wait on quando nos referimos a serviços, isto é, pessoas que estão à disposição
de outros ou quando aguardamos o desenrolar de algo:
• A waitress is a woman who waits on guests in a restaurant.
Uma garçonete é uma mulher que fica à disposição dos clientes, em um restaurante.
• Our company will wait on your decisions.
Nossa empresa esperará pelas suas decisões.

44. who / whom


• I met the woman who you said is involved in that robbery.
Eu encontrei a mulher que você disse que está envolvida naquele assalto.
• She is a woman whom I know we can trust.
Ela é uma mulher em quem eu sei que podemos confiar.
Observe que who é sujeito (de was) e whom é objeto (de we can trust).

45. wounded / injured, hurt


• Thousands of people were wounded in the war in Bosnia.
Milhares de pessoas foram feridas na guerra da Bósnia.
• A lot of people were injured / hurt in that bus accident.
Muitas pessoas ficaram feridas naquele acidente de ônibus.
As pessoas são wounded numa guerra ou batalha e injured ou hurt em acidentes.

p. 108
Lesson 17

17.1 - Put in like or as.


1 It’s raining agam. I hate weather like this.
2 Jane failed her driving test as she expected.
3 Do you think Carol looks her mother?
4 He really gets on my nerves. I can’t stand people him.
5 Why didn’t you do it I told you to do it?
6 ‘What does Bill do?’ ‘He’s a student, most of his friends.’
7 Why do you never listen? Talking to you is talking to the wall.
8 I said yesterday, I'm thinking of changing my job.
9 Tom’s idea seemed a good one, so we did he suggested.
10 It’s a difficult problem. I never know what to do in situations this.
11 I’ll phone you tomorrow usual, OK?
12 This tea is awful. It tastes water.
13 Suddenly there was a terrible noise. It was a bomb exploding.
14 She’s a very good swimmer. She swims ……….a fish.
15 I’m afraid I can’t meet you on Sunday we arranged.
16 We met Keith last night. He was very cheerful, always.

17.2 - Complete the sentences with an auxiliary verb (do/was/could/should etc.). Sometimes the verb must
be negative (don't/wasn't etc.).
1 I wasn’t tired but my friends were .
2 I like hot weather but Ann .
3 ‘Is Colin here?’ ‘He five minutes ago but I think he’s gone home now.’
4 She might phone later this evening but I don't think she ..
5 ‘Are you and Chris coming to the party?’ ‘I but Chris .’
6 I don’t know whether to apply for the job or not. Do you think I ?
7 ‘Please don't tell anybody what I said.' 'Don't worry. I .‘
8 ‘You never listen to me.’ ‘Yes, I !’
9 ‘Can you play a musical instrument?' 'No, but I wish I .’
10 ’Please help me.’ ‘I’m sorry. I if I but I .’

17.3 - Put in by or until.


1 Fred has gone away. He'll be away until Monday.
2 Sorry, but I must go. I have to be at home by 5 o’clock.
3 I’ve been offered a job. I haven’t decided yet whether to accept it or not. I have to decide
Thursday.
4 I think I'll wait Thursday before making a decision.
5 It's too late to go shopping. The shops are only open 5.30. They'll be closed now.
6 I’d better pay the phone bill. It has to be paid tomorrow.
7 Don’t pay the bill today. Wait tomorrow.
8 A: Have you finished redecorating your house?
B: Not yet. We hope to finish the end of the week.
9 A: I’m going out now. I’ll be back at 4.30. Will you still be here?
B: I don’t think so. I’ll probably have gone out then.
10 I’m moving into my new flat next week. I’m staying with a friend then.
11 I’ve got a lot of work to do. the time I finish, it will be time to go to bed.
12 If you want to do the exam, you should enter 3 April.

p. 109
Lesson 17

17.4 - Put in for or during.


1 It rained for three days without stopping.
2 I fell asleep during the film.
3 I went to the theatre last night. I met Lucy the interval.
4 Martin hasn’t lived in Britain all his life. He lived in Brazil four years.
5 Production at the factory was seriously affected the strike.
6 I felt really ill last week. I could hardly eat anything three days.
7 I waited for you half an hour and decided that you weren’t coming.
8 Sue was very angry with me. She didn’t speak to me a week.
9 We usually go out at weekends, but we don’t often go out the week.
10 Jack started a new job a few weeks ago. Before that he was out of work six months.
11 I need a change. I think I’ll go away a few days.
12 The President gave a long speech. She spoke two hours.
13 We were hungry when we arrived. We hadn’t had anything to eat the Journey.
14 We were hungry when we arrived. We hadn’t had anything to eat eight hours.

SONG (by Internet) American dream

Do I have to change my name? Just what I did it for


Will it get me far? And why I wanted more
Should I lose some weight? This type of modern life - Is it for me?
Am I gonna be a star? This type of modern life - Is it for free?

I tried to be a boy, Do I have to change my name?


I tried to be a girl Will it get me far?
Should I lose some weight?
Am I gonna be a star?
I tried to be a mess,
I tried to be the best Oh American life (american life)
I live the american dream (american dream)
I guess I did it wrong, You are the best thing I've seen,
That's why I wrote this song You are not just a dream (american life)
This type of modern life - Is it for me? American life
This type of modern life - Is it for free?
So, I went into a bar looking for sympathy I tried to be a boy,
A little company - I tried to find a friend I tried to be a girl
It's more easily said it's always been the same I tried to be a mess,
This type of modern life -Is not for me? I tried to be the best
This type of modern life -Is not for free? I tried to find a friend,
I tried to stay ahead
Oh American life (american life) I tried to stay on top...
I live the you american dream (american dream)
You are the best thing I've seen, Do I have to change my name?
You are not just a dream (american life) Will it get me far?
Should I lose some weight?
I tried to stay ahead, Am I gonna be a star?
I tried to stay on top
I tried to play the part, I'm drinking a Soy latte
But somehow I forgot I get a double shot
It goes right through my body

p. 110
Lesson 17

An agent and a chef


And you know Three nannies, an assistant
I'm satisfied, And a driver and a jet
I drive my mini cooper A trainer and a butler
And I'm feeling super-dooper And a bodyguard or five
Yo they tell I'm a trooper A gardener and a stylist
And you know I'm satisfied Do you think I'm satisfied?
I do yoga and pilates I'd like to express my extreme point of view
And the room is full of hotties I'm not Christian and I'm not a Jude
So I'm checking out the bodies I'm just living out the American dream
And you know I'm satisfied And I just realized that nothing is what it seems
I'm digging on the isotopes
This metaphysic's shit is dope Do I have to change my name?
And if all this can give me hope Am I gonna be a star?
You know I'm satisfied Do I have to change my name?
I got a lawyer and a manager Am I gonna be a star?
Do I have to change my name?

Additional Conversation!

About the Vocabulary:


. What is your favorite thing in your bedroom?
. Look at the page 96 and tell us, which toys did you play with when you were a
child? Do you think is this a good bedroom for kids?
. What children’s stories do you know?
. Which house tasks do you do and which you don’t? Which you like doing wich you
dislike?
. Who does the housework in your family most of the times?
. Item 5 items that you have already used before.

p. 111
Lesson 18

Vocabulary: Meat and Poultry (Carne de aves domésticas)

Beef Pork Lamb


1. roast beef 5. beef ribs (costela) 9. ham (presunto) 13. lamb shanks*
2. steak 6. veal cutlets (vitela) 10. pork chops (pedaço) 14. leg of lamb
3. stewing beef (p/ panela) 7. liver (fígado) 11. bacon 15. lamb chops
4. ground beef (moída) 8. tripe (bucho/tripa) 12. sausage * canela / abaixo do joelho

16. chicken (frango) 19. breasts (peito) 22. drumsticks (coxa) 24. raw chicken (cru)
17. turkey (peru) 20. wings (asa) 23. gizzards (moela) 25. cooked chicken (assado)
18. duck (pato) 21. thighs (quarto trazeiro / sobrecoxa)

p. 112
Lesson 18

Vocabulary: Deli (aperitivos finos) and


Seafood (Frutos do mar)

1. white bread 6. pastrami (carpaccio) 11. Swiss cheese


2. wheat bread (integral) 7. roast beef 12. jack cheese
3. rye bread (centeio) 8. corned beef (carne enlatada) 13. potato salad
4. smoked turkey (defumado) 9. American cheese 14. coleslaw (salada de repolho)
5. salami 10. cheddar cheese 15. pasta salad (salada c/ massas)

Fish Shellfish
16. trout 20. halibut (hipoglosso) 22. crab 26. mussels (mexilhões)
17. catfish 21. filet of sole (linguado) 23. lobster 27. oysters
18. whole salmon 24. shrimp 28. clams (espécie de mexilhão)
19. salmon steak 25. scallops (concha) 29. fresh fish
30. frozen fish

p. 113
Lesson 18

Grammar: Question tag / negative questions

Você gostou do livro, não gostou? – Esta pergunta um tanto quanto “pretenciosa”, é um exemplo
de “question tag”. Toda vez que ou reforçamos, ou confirmamos, ou certificamos uma idéia, estamos
utilizando esta estrutura, que sugere uma concordância de idéias. Na verdade, “Tag” significa: fim, final, refrão,
ponta (além de outros significados - etiqueta, identificação ). Portanto se traduzirmos “ao-pé-da-letra”
teríamos: Question tag = perguntas (no final) com refrão. Reparem que esta “confirmação” é separada no final
da frase por uma vírgula, e é feita da seguinte forma:

. Frases afirmativas – “reforço” na negativa – Você gostou do livro, não gostou?


. Frases negativas – “reforço” na afirmativa – Você não odiou o livro, odiou?

Em Inglês a “tag question” é feita da mesma forma mostrada acima.

. Affirmative sentences – negative tag


. Negative sentences – affirmative tag

É muito importante considerarmos os “dois grandes grupos do inglês”:

. 1 – Auxiliary Verbs (Verb to be - am, is, are, was, were, will be / Modal verbs - can, could, would, may,…/
Has,have,had got / There is,are,was,were,will be)
. 2 – Auxiliaries (do/does, did, will).

Se não tivermos o grupo 1 temos que utilizar o grupo 2 para fazermos o “reforço” da “tag question”.
Ex:
. She loves John, doesn’t she? (Ela ama o John, não ama?)
. They do psychology, don’t* they? (Eles/elas fazem psicologia, não fazem?)
. They did psychology last semester, didn’t* they? (Eles/elas fizeram psicologia no semestre passado, não fizeram?)
* auxiliary
. He plays volleyball, doesn’t he? (Ele joga volei, não joga?)
. Do you love me, don’t you? (Você me ama, não ama?)

Se tivermos o grupo 2, fica ainda mais fácil de fazer a “question tag”:

Ex:
. She doesn’t do history, does she? (Ela não faz história, faz?)
. She didn’t do history, did she? (Ela não fez história, fez?)
. She hasn’t got a car, has she? (Ela não tem carro, tem?)
. He got a house, didn’t he? (Ele tinha uma casa, não tinha?)
. You have to have more money, don’t you? (Você tem que ter mais dinheiro, não tem?)
. She should go with a friend, shouldn’t she? (Ela deveria ir com uma amida, não deveria?)

Negative questions:

São perguntas, com estrutura interrogativa e negativa ao mesmo tempo. São “nossas” famosas
perguntas que já fazemos negando, por exemplo: “Você não vai?! = “don’t you go?!”; “Ela não quer? = Doesn’t
she want?”. Esta estruturação de frases é usada para indicar espanto, surpresa ou confirmação.
Reparem que usamos o mesmo “raciocínio” das “question tags”, porem, não é usado a confirmação no
final da pergunta (tag). Portanto, novamente, temos que nos ater para os “dois grandes grupos” do inglês”,
com uma diferença:

p. 114
Lesson 18

Os dois grandes grupos do inglês”, agora estão bem no começo da pergunta (ou: n.1, ou: n.2) + not!

Os dois grupos são:

. 1 – Auxiliary Verbs (Verb to be - am, is, are, was, were, will be / Modal verbs - can, could, would,
may,…/ Has,have,had got / There is,are,was,were,will be)
. 2 – Auxiliaries (do/does, did, will).
(um deles tem que aparecer na pergunta, juntamente com a negação “not”:

Ex:. Don’t you like cheese?! (Você não gosta de queijo?!)


. Won’t you go? (Você não irá?)
. Didn’t he meet her yesterday? (Ele não a encontrou ontem?)
. Haven’t you visited John yet? (Você ainda não visitou o John?)
. Can’t you do it?! (Você não dá conta de fazer isto?!)
. Don’t you have a car? (Você não tem um carro?)
. Haven’t you got a car?! (Você não tem um carro?!)
. Haven’t you ever travelled by plane? (Você nunca viajou de avião?)

18.1 - Complete these sentences with a question tag (isn’t it? / haven’t you? etc.)

18.2 – Fill one of the two sides of the tag questions

a) He has got a house, ____________?


b) They ____________ play guitar, can’t they?
c) That man _______________ Paul, isn’t it?
d) ______________ you Paul, aren’t you?
e) You were there yesterday, _____________?
f) She ______________ sad yesterday, was she?
g) They will travel tomorrow, _____________?
h) I ______________ begin a diet, shouldn’t I?
i) She used to be mean, _______________?
j) They have ever been to Portugal, _____________?
k) She has been studying a lot, ______________?
l) He had had a problem, _______________?

p. 115
Lesson 18

18.3 – Put the sentences into English

a) Ela não iria à festa?! .................................................................................................................................................................................


b) Nós não tínhamos mais dinheiro?.....................................................................................................................................................
c) Ele não faz muitos exercícios físicos? ele é forte! ........................................................................................................................
d) Ela já não tinha comprado este carro antes? ................................................................................................................................
e) Eles já não tinham ido à Inglaterra?..................................................................................................................................................
f) Eles não estiveram na Inglaterra antes? ...........................................................................................................................................
g) Eles não foram à Inglaterra no verão passado? ...........................................................................................................................
h) Eles não Irão à Inglaterra em dezembro? .......................................................................................................................................
i) É verdade que no final de julho, eles ainda não terão acabado de ter viajado para a Inglaterra?...........................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
j) Eles não terão ido à Inglaterra em jullho?! ......................................................................................................................................
k) Quando nós não podemos entrar neste clube?...........................................................................................................................
l) Onde não há perigo para estacionarmos nosso carro?..............................................................................................................
m) Como não poderíamos deixar de vir em sua casa hoje?! .......................................................................................................
n) De quem ainda não foi descoberto um escândalo na política brasileira?.........................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
o) Como ainda não poderíamos ter descoberto isto? ....................................................................................................................
p) Não haveria tido uma forma mais adequada para sabermos de tudo?.............................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
q) Talvez eles não tenham tido mais chances aqui do que lá? ...................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

18.4 - Put a question tag on the end of these sentences.

p. 116
Lesson 18

TEXT
(by Internet)

The Boy Who Cried Wolf

A shepherd-boy, who watched a flock of sheep near a village, brought out the villagers three or four times by
crying out, "Wolf! Wolf!" and when his neighbors came to help him, laughed at them for their pains.
The Wolf, however, did truly come at last. The Shepherd-boy, now really alarmed, shouted in an agony of
terror: "Pray, do come and help me; the Wolf is killing the sheep"; but no one paid any heed to his cries, nor
rendered any assistance. The Wolf, having no cause of fear, at his leisure lacerated or destroyed the whole
flock.
There is no believing a liar, even when he speaks the truth.

Additional Conversation!

. What kind of meat do you eat most often? What kind of meat do you use in a
soup? Do you like to eat fish? Do you buy fresh or frozen fish?
. Take your own conclusion about the text and tell us your point of view!
 

p. 117
Lesson 19

Vocabulary: Dealing well with restaurant matters

1. hostess 3. menu 5. patron / diner

2. dining room 4. server / waiter / waitress

A. set the table D. order from the menu G. clear the table J. leave a tip
B. seat the customer E. take the order H. carry the tray
C. pour the water F. serve the meal I. pay the check

p. 118
Lesson 19

Vocabulary: Some more vocabulary related


with a restaurant

6. server / waitress 8. bread basket 10. kitchen 12. dishroom

7. dessert tray 9. busperson 11. chef 13. dishwasher

14. place setting 18. soup bowl 22. saucer 26. steak knife
15. dinner plate 19. water glass 23. napkin 27. knife
16. bread-and-butter plate 20. wine glass 24. salad fork 28. teaspoon
17. salad plate 21. cup 25. dinner fork 29. soupspoon

p. 119
Lesson 19

Grammar: Falsos cognatos*:

* (extraído na íntegra da gramática prática da língua inglesa – O inglês descomplicado – Nelson Torres)

Às vezes, uma palavra portuguesa e uma inglesa apresentam semelhança de forma, mas possuem
significado totalmente diverso, o que pode levar a uma compreensão ou tradução errônea. São os falsos
cognatos (false cognates), também conhecidos, em inglês, como false friends, falsos, porque a semelhança
entre tais palavras é traiçoeiramente enganosa, falsa.
Apenas três exemplos, dentre os mais conhecidos, dizem tudo: actually não significa atualmente, mas
realmente; sensible não é sensível, mas sensato; e pretend não é pretender, mas fingir. É claro que nem
sempre a “falsidade” é tão patente. Há também os casos em que ela é mais sutil ou se esconde por detrás da
diversidade de significados que uma palavra pode ter.
Existem centenas de falsos cognatos e, dentre eles, selecionamos alguns, relacionando-os em ordem
alfabética. São acompanhados de exemplos em inglês com tradução para o português, a fim de que o
confronto entre os dois idiomas facilite a compreensão.
Com essa seleção, esperamos ter desmascarado pelo menos os mais traiçoeiros dos muitos false
friends que estudantes e tradutores de inglês encontram e encontrarão pela frente.
Convém salientar que, quando necessário, incluímos a classe gramatical a que a palavra pertence,
indicando da seguinte forma:

(s) = substantivo (adj) = adjetivo


(v) = verbo (adv) = advérbio

f Ability - além de habilidade, tem o sentido de capacidade.


He is a man of great ability.
Ele é um homem de grande habilidade (capacidade).

f Absolutely (adv) - geralmente não pode ser traduzido por absolutamente porque, em inglês, tem uma conotação
positiva, enquanto, em português, a conotação é negativa. O sentido de absolutely é, portanto, com certeza, sem
dúvida.
- Are you sure everything will be ready by 10 o’ clock ?
Você tem certeza de que tudo estará pronto até às l0 horas?
- Absolutely!
Sem dúvida!

f Actual (adj) - não significa atual (que se expressa por present, current), mas real.
The actual story is quite different!
A história real (A verdadeira história) é bem diferente!

f Actually (adv) - não significa atualmente (que se expressa por at present, today, currently), mas realmente.
We planned to leave at seven o' clock, but we actually left after eight.
Pretendíamos partir às sete horas, mas realmente saímos depois das oito.
f Advise (v) - embora possa ser empregado no sentido de avisar, dar ciência de, normalmente tem o sentido de
aconselhar.
Please, advise us as soon as this letter reaches you

p. 120
Lesson 19

Favor avisar-nos assim que esta carta chegar às suas mãos.


The doctor advised me to quit smoking.
O médico aconselhou-me a parar de fumar,
Observação: Cuidado para não confundir advise (v) com advice (s), que significa conselho.
Let me give you some advice.
Permita-me dar-lhe um conselho.

f Affluent - embora, como substantivo, possa significar afluente de rio ou curso d'água, affluent é muito mais usado
como adjetivo, significando
rico,próspero. An affluent society also has its problems.
Uma sociedade próspera também tem seus problemas.
f Agonize (v) - não significa agonizar, estar prestes a morrer, mas preocupar-se intensamente ou, como se diz na
linguagem popular, “esquentar a cabeça”.
She agonized for several days over the decision she had to make.
Ela “esquentou a cabeça” durante vários dias com a decisão que tinha de tomar.

f Anticipate (v) - não tem o sentido de antecipar, mas de prever, embora possa também ser empregado no sentido
de antegozar ou preceder.I don 't anticipate any difficulties, but in case difficulties do arise…Não estou prevendo
dificuldades, mas caso dificuldades venham a ocorrer...

f Apologize (v) - não significa fazer a apologia de, no sentido de elogiar, mas pedir desculpas.
She apologized for her son’s rude behavior.
Ela pediu desculpas pelo comportamento grosseiro (pela falta de educação) do seu filho.

f Apology (s) - não significa apologia, no sentido de elogio, mas desculpa, escusa.
Please accept my apologies.
Por favor, aceite minhas escusas.

f Apparent - significa aparente, embora seja pouco usado nesse sentido. Na maioria das vezes é empregado no
sentido de evidente, claro.
The apparent cause of the accident was…
Aparentemente a causa do acidente foi... (melhor do que: A causa aparente do acidente foi...)
His nervousness was apparent to all.
Seu nervosismo era evidente a todos.

f Application (s) - significa aplicação, no sentido de aplicar um tratamento ou algo semelhante; não significa esforço,
dedicação aos estudos ou ao trabalho. A palavra, porém, é mais empregada no sentido de pedido, requerimento,
inscrição.
There were only a few vacancies, but hundreds of applications were received.
Havia apenas algumas vagas, mas centenas de inscrições foram recebidas.

f Appoint (v) - não significa apontar para alguém ou alguma coisa (que se expressa por point to ou point at), mas
nomear, designar; marcar.
Paul was appointed head of the export department.
O Paul foi nomeado chefe do departamento de exportação.
She arrived at the appointed time.
Ela chegou na hora marcada.

f Appointment (s) - é usado no sentido de nomeação e também no sentido de hora marcada, compromisso.
Tony's appointment as manager was well received by all the employees.
A nomeação do Tony como gerente foi bem recebida por todos os funcionários.

p. 121
Lesson 19

Today I have an appointment with my dentist.


Hoje tenho hora marcada com meu dentista.

f Apt - não significa apto, no sentido de capacitado (que se expressa por able, capable, ready). Normalmente é
empregado no sentido de capaz de (mais freqüentemente em contexto negativo), e no sentido de apto, adequado,
que cai bem ou fica bem.
He is apt to become quite upset when he hears about it.
Ele é capaz de ficar bastante contrariado quando ouvir falar disso.
Megalomaniac is a word that aptly describes him.
Megalomaníaco é uma palavra adequada para descrevê-lo.

f Argue (v) - não significa argüir (que é to question), mas debater, discutir acaloradamente, defender uma opinião
ou um ponto de vista.
Don’t argue with your boss; he might fire you.
Não discuta com o chefe; ele pode demiti-lo.
The lecturer argued that the death penalty was unacceptable under any circumstances.
O conferencista defendeu a opinião segundo a qual a pena de morte não era admissível em circunstância alguma.

f Argument (s) - significa tanto debate, discussão (“bate-boca”), como argumento, opinião, ponto de vista.
They had a long argument about the merits and demerits of socialism.
Eles mantiveram um longo debate sobre os méritos e deméritos do I socialismo.
Her argument is that...
O ponto de vista dela é que...

f Arrange (v) - não tem o sentido popular de arranjar, isto é, conseguir, obter alguma coisa, podendo, porém,
significar fazer um arranjo musical, de flores etc. Outro sentido, bastante comum, é combinar, marcar horário,
sendo normalmente seguido pela
preposição for.
He managed to arrange for a meeting with the governor. Ele conseguiu marcar um encontro com o governador.
f Assist (v) - não significa assistir, freqüentar aula, ato religioso (que se expressa por attend), mas ajudar, ser
assistente de.
Dr Castro was assisted by a much younger surgeon.
O dr. Castro teve como assistente um cirurgião muito mais jovem.

f Assume (v) - pode significar assumir, mas nesse sentido é pouco usado (melhor dizer to undertake, to take over).É
mais freqüentemente empregado no sentido de presumi, supor.
As he didn’t come to class, I assumed he was ill ( sick).
Já que ele não veio à aula, presumi que estava doente.

f Attend (v) - nunca é usado no sentido de atender a telefone, porta ou campainha (to answer the telephone, the door
the door-bell). Attend pode significar freqüentar, assistir, no sentido de estar presente a; e cuidar, atender.
He attended excellent schools when he was young.
Ele freqüentou escolas excelentes na sua juventude.
She always attends Mass on Sundays.
Ela sempre assiste à missa aos domingos.
The good doctor attended even his poorest patients.
O bondoso médico atendia até mesmo seus pacientes mais pobres.

f Audience (s) - pode significar audiência no sentido de encontro, recepção ou julgamento, mas na maioria das
vezes é empregada no sentido de público ouvinte ou assistente, platéia.
He had an audience with the Pope.

p. 122
Lesson 19

Ele teve uma audiência com o papa.


Radio station Light FM has a large and faithful audience.
A estação de rádio Light FM tem uma audiência (público ouvinte) grande e fiel.
Was there a large audience for Dr Brown’s lecture?
Houve uma grande assistência (platéia) para a palestra do dr. Brown?

f Bachelor - além de bacharel, tem o sentido de solteiro, solteirão, celibatário.


He is a confirmed bachelor.
Ele é um solteirão convicto.

f Balance (s) - dos diversos sentidos que a palavra tem, o menos usa- do é o que mais se assemelha ao português -
balança, instrumento utilizado para pesar (dá-se preferência a scales). Balance significa também balanço contábil,
balanço comercial; equilíbrio; saldo, resto.
He lost his balance and fell.
Ele perdeu o equilíbrio e caiu.
Most of our winter stock has been sold; the balance will go on sale at a discount.
A maior parte do nosso estoque de inverno foi vendida; o saldo será posto em liqüidação com desconto.

f Bar - além de bar (“boteco”) e barra (tablete), significa também a classe dos advogados.
The American Bar Association is equivalent to our Ordem dos Advogados do Brasil (OAB) .
O American Bar Association é equivalente à nossa Ordem dos Advogados do Brasil (OAB) .
He stopped at his favorite bar and had a drink.
Ele parou no seu bar preferido e tomou um drinque.
Johnny asked his mother for a bar of chocolate.
O Johnny pediu um tablete de chocolate à sua mãe.
She bought several bars of soap.
Ela comprou vários sabonetes.
Observação: Soap (sabão, sabonete) não tem plural. Para dizer sabonetes, em inglês, somos obrigados a dizer bars of
soap.

f Bargain - não significa barganha (troca), mas pechincha, negócio vantajoso, coisa boa e barata.
At 10 dollars, this tie is a bargain!
A 10 dólares, esta gravata é uma pechincha!

f Beef - não é bife, mas carne de boi, genericamente falando.


Pork costs about the same as beef
Carne de porco custa mais ou menos o mesmo que carne de boi.

f Block - significa bloco, mas também é muito empregado no sentido de quadra, quarteirão.A block of flats…
Um bloco (conjunto) de apartamentos...
They live only a few blocks from here.
Eles moram a apenas algumas quadras daqui.

f Candor - não tem o significado de candura, pureza, mas de sinceridade, franqueza.


His candor sometimes makes him sound rude.
Sua franqueza às vezes faz com que ele pareça grosseiro.

p. 123
Lesson 19

f Carton - não significa cartão (que se traduz por card), mas caixa de papelão, pacote.
There are 10 packs of cigarettes in a carton.
Há 10 maços de cigarros em um pacote.
The cups and saucers were placed in a ( cardboard ) carton.
As xícaras e os pires foram colocados em uma caixa de papelão.

f Casual - pode significar casual, fortuito; ocasional, eventual; ou informal.


a casual meeting - um encontro casual
casual expenses - despesas ocasionais
casual clothes - roupa informal

f Casualty - nada tem a ver com casualidade (que, em inglês, se expressa por chance).Significa baixa ou perda em
guerra ou batalha.
The allied troops had few casualties.
As tropas aliadas sofreram poucas perdas.

f Character - além de significar caráter, designa também personagem (de peça teatral, livro); e pessoa excêntrica,
original.
Who are the main characters in the play?
Quem são os personagens principais da peça?
Jack is a real character!
O Jack é realmente uma “figura”!

f China - além de China, significa também porcelana, quando usado com c minúsculo.
Where did you buy such beautiful china?
Onde você comprou esta porcelana tão bonita?

f Cigar - significa charuto, e não cigarro (que se traduz por cigarette).


Some people say that smoking cigars is less harmful than smoking cigarettes.
Algumas pessoas dizem que fumar charutos é menos prejudicial do que fumar cigarros.

f Claim (v) - não significa clamar (que se traduz por shout, cry out), mas alegar, afirmar; exigir; invocar.
The attorney claimed that his client had acted in good faith.
O advogado alegou que seu cliente tinha agido de boa-fé.
This matter claims my immediate attention.
Este assunto exige minha atenção imediata.
Feeling that his rights had been violated, he claimed the protection of the law.
Achando que seus direitos haviam sido violados, ele invocou a proteção da lei.

f Collar (s) - não é colar (que se expressa por necklace), mas colarinho, gola; e coleira.
He was wearing a shirt with an open collar.
Ele trajava uma camisa de colarinho aberto.

f College - não é colégio (que é high school), mas faculdade.


Some famous universities have a great many colleges.
Algumas universidades famosas possuem um grande número de faculdades.

f Commit (v) - não só significa cometer, mas também confiar, entregar aos cuidados de; comprometer.
If he committed a crime, he must pay for it.

p. 124
Lesson 19

Se ele cometeu um crime, deve pagar pelo mesmo.


The little orphan was committed to the care of his uncle and aunt.
O pequeno órfão foi confiado aos cuidados de seus tios.
Although he witnessed the accident, he wouldn’t commit himself by talking to the police about it.Embora tivesse
presenciado o acidente, ele
não quis se comprometer falando com a polícia sobre o mesmo.

f Commodity - nada tem a ver com comodidade; significa mercadoria, artigo ou bem de consumo.
These commodities are traded on the Chicago Board of Trade.Estas mercadorias são negociadas na Bolsa de
Mercadorias de Chicago.

f Comprehensive - não significa compreensivo (que, em inglês, é sympathetic), mas sim amplo, abrangente.
This is a very comprehensive study of tropical fish.
Este é um estudo muito abrangente sobre peixes tropicais.

f Compromise - não significa compromisso, no sentido de obrigação assumida (que é commitment). Traduz-se e
entende-se por acordo, acerto alcançado através de arbitragem ou concessões mútuas.
The litigants finally arrived at a compromise.Os litigantes chegaram finalmente a um acordo.

f Confidence - significa tanto confidência como confiança.


Ann and Caroline just love to exchange confidences.
A Ann e a Caroline simplesmente adoram trocar confidências.
People have lost confidence in politicians.
As pessoas perderam a confiança nos políticos.

f Confirmed - além de confirmado, significa incorrigível, inveterado.


a confirmed drunkard - um beberrão inveterado
a confirmed liar - um mentiroso incorrigível

f Consistent - não significa consistente, no sentido de sólido (traduz-se por solid), mas coerente, constante.
He's very consistent in his opinions.
Ele é muito coerente em suas opiniões.

f Contemplate - significa contemplar, embora, nesse sentido, seja pouco usado no inglês do dia-a-dia. É mais
empregado no sentido de prever ou tencionar .
He contemplates going back to his homeland.Ele tenciona retomar à terra natal.

f Content - como adjetivo (acento na última sílaba), significa contente, satisfeito; como substantivo (acento na
primeira sílaba), significa conteúdo.
She's quite content with the salary she earns.
Ela está bastante satisfeita com o salário que ganha.
I have no idea what the content of this bottle is.
Não faço idéia de qual seja o conteúdo desta garrafa.

f Convict - não significa convicto, convencido (que é convinced), mas réu convicto, condenado ou prisioneiro.
One of the convicts planned the escape. Um dos prisioneiros planejou a fuga.

f Cord - não significa corda (que se traduz por rope), mas cordão, inclusive cordão umbilical (umbilical cord) .Usa-se
também para designar a medula espinhal (spinal cord) e fios que ligam aparelhos elétricos a uma tomada.
She broke her spinal cord in a car accident.Ela quebrou a medula espinhal em um acidente de carro.

p. 125
Lesson 19

f Costume - não tem o sentido de costume, hábito (que se expressa por custom, habit), mas trajes usados no palco
e fantasia.
A great deal of money is spent on carnival costumes.Gasta-se muito dinheiro em fantasias de carnaval.

f Data - não significa data (que é traduzido por date), mas dados no sentido de fatos, informações. Daí o termo
processamento de dados (data processing). Por se tratar de uma palavra latina no plural ( singular = datum), a
concordância verbal também deveria ser feita no plural.
The data are processed by a computer.
Os dados são processados por um computador.
No entanto, inclusive em textos técnicos, é comum a construção com o verbo no singular.
The data is processed…
Os dados são processados...
The data was collected…
Os dados foram coletados...

f Date - além de significar tâmara, é também empregado no sentido de encontro marcado, compromisso.
Do you have a date tonight?
Você tem compromisso hoje à noite?

f Deception - não é decepção (que se expressa por disappointment), mas ilusão, engano, ardil.
Spies often practice deception to achieve their aims.Os espiões muitas vezes se valem de ardis para atingir seus
objetivos.

f Defendant - não tem nada a ver com defensor (que é defender), mas significa réu.
The evidence against the defendant was irrefutable.
As provas contra o réu eram irrefutáveis.

f Demand - não deve ser entendida no sentido de demanda, ação judicial (que é lawsuit). Demand geralmente é
empregada no sentido de procura; exigência, reivindicação.The law of supply and demand…
A lei de oferta e procura...
Not all the workers' demands are reasonable.
Nem todas as exigências dos trabalhadores são razoáveis.

f Destination/Destiny - embora ambas as palavras sejam traduzidas por destino, em inglês têm sentidos bem
diferentes.
- Destination - destino, no sentido de lugar aonde alguém ou alguma coisa deve chegar.
What's your destination, Miami or New York?
Qual é o seu destino, Miami ou Nova Iorque?
- Destiny - cujo sinônimo, mais freqüentemente usado, é fate, significa destino no sentido de sorte, sina.
She says that her destiny is to suffer.Ela diz que seu destino é sofrer.

f Discuss (v) - não significa discutir, no sentido de envolver-se em uma altercação ou desentendimento com alguém
(que se expressa por argue), mas discutir no sentido de debater, trocar idéias ou, simplesmente, conversar.
Let ' s discuss this matter tomorrow.
Vamos discutir (conversar sobre) este assunto amanhã.
Vale salientar que discuss, em inglês, é um verbo transitivo direto. Portanto, nunca se diz discuss about.
Daí dizermos:
Let’ s discuss this matter later. (nuncaff Let's discuss about this matter later.)
f Discussion (s) - também não tem o sentido de desavença, desentendimento, mas de debate, troca de idéias.

p. 126
Lesson 19

The law is being discussed by Congress.


A lei está sendo discutida pelo Congresso.

f Disgrace - não tem o sentido de desgraça, infelicidade, mas de vergonha, humilhação.


Graffiti-covered buildings are a disgrace to the city!
Prédios pichados são uma vergonha para a cidade!

f Disgust - não significa desgosto (que se expressa por sadness, grief), mas aversão, nojo.
She couldn't hide her disgust at the sight of the filthy room.
Ela não pôde esconder o nojo ao ver o quarto imundo.
f Domestic - como em português, significa doméstico no sentido de referente ao lar, à casa em que se reside, assim
como ao próprio país em oposição a estrangeiro.
domestic animals - animais domésticos
domestic flight -vôo doméstico
domestic trade - comércio interno (de dentro do país)
domestic policy - política interna
É bom lembrar que, no sentido de referente ao lar, também é bastante usado household, um substantivo que
freqüentemente tem função de adjetivo.
household chores - tarefas caseiras (domésticas)
household appliances -aparelhos (eletro)domésticos
He is the head of the household.
Ele é o cabeça (chefe) da família (do lar).

f Drug - além de significar droga, alucinógeno, tem também o sentido de remédio. Daí a tão comum drugstore
(farmácia), que antigamente era o lugar onde se compravam remédios e se aviavam receitas, e hoje passou a ser uma
loja onde, além de remédios, compra-se uma série de outros artigos, inclusive guloseimas.
The drug he needs is very difficult to find.
O remédio de que ele precisa é difícil de encontrar.

f Edit - pode significar editar (que, na maioria das vezes, se expressa por publish), mas geralmente é empregado no
sentido de revisar, preparar para publicação.
He's an expert at editing.Ele é especialista em revisar textos para publicação.

f Education - significa educação no sentido de instrução, formação acadêmica, nunca no sentido de boas maneiras,
cortesia (que se expressa por politeness, good manners).
Today, a scientific education is more highly prized than a humanistic one.
Hoje em dia, dá-se mais valor a uma formação científica do que a uma
formação humanística.

f Effective - não quer dizer efetivo, mas eficaz, que produz efeito.
The government should take effective measures to eradicate illiteracy.O governo deveria tomar medidas eficazes
para erradicar o analfabetismo.

f Elaborate - não é elaborar (que se expressa por develop, prepare). Como verbo, significa descrever ou explicar
detalhadamente; como adjetivo, significa esmerado, feito com capricho.
He elaborated on the theme.Ele explicou detalhadamente o tópico.She was complimented on the elaborate
decoration.
Elogiaram-na pela decoração esmerada.
f Enroll - nada tem a ver com enrolar (que é to roll up), mas significa matricular-se, inscrever-se.

p. 127
Lesson 19

Have you enrolled for the course on Chinese cooking?


Você se matriculou no curso sobre cozinha chinesa?

f Estate - não significa estado (que se expressa por state), mas bens, patrimônio.
When Mr Carter died, he left a large estate.
Quando o sr. Carter morreu, deixou muitos bens.

f Eventually - não deve ser entendido como eventualmente, casualmente (que é accidentally), mas como
finalmente.
Eventually, all the stolen paintings were recovered by the police.Finalmente, todos os quadros roubados foram
recuperados pela polícia.

f Evidence - é mais usado no sentido de prova, indício, do que de evidência. Convém lembrar que evidence não tem
plural, embora em português se diga provas, indícios.
The evidence showed that it had been murder; not suicide.
As provas indicavam que havia sido assassinato, não suicídio.

f Exhaustive - não significa cansativo, algo que deixa alguém exausto, mas aprofundado, detalhado, minucioso.
It was an exhaustive research. Foi uma pesquisa minuciosa (aprofundada).
f Exit - nada tem a ver com êxito, sucesso. Significa saída.
He stepped out of the subway car and headed for the exit.
Ele saiu do vagão do metrô e rumou para a saída.

f Expert - não significa esperto, mas perito, especialista.


You don't have to be an expert to operate this machine.
Você não precisa ser um perito para operar esta máquina.

f Exquisite - não tem o sentido de esquisito, estranho (que, em inglês, se expressa por odd, strange), mas de
aprimorado, fino, sui generis, requintado.
an exquisite flavor - um sabor sui generis
an exquisite style - um estilo aprimorado
an exquisite pleasure - um prazer diferente e intenso

f Fabric - não significa fábrica (que se traduz por factory, plant), mas tecido ou, em certos contextos, estrutura.
fine cotton fabric - tecido de algodão de boa qualidade
our social fabric - nossa estrutura social

f Figure - além de figura, forma, é uma palavra muito usada no sentido de algarismo, número, dado numérico.
These are very impressive figures.
Estes são números (dados) muito impressionantes.
A good skater can make a figure eight on the ice.
Um bom patinador consegue fazer um (número) oito sobre o gelo.

f Fix (v) - além de fixar, tem outros sentidos, entre os quais salientamos: consertar; preparar; determinar, combinar
antecipadamente (geralmente o resultado de um jogo ou competição).
He fixed his eyes on me.
Ele fixou os olhos em mim.
The mechanic is going to fix my car:

p. 128
Lesson 19

O mecânico vai consertar meu carro.


Can you fix me a sandwich?
Você pode preparar um sanduíche para mim?
They've fixed the date for the wedding.
Eles determinaram a data do casamento.
I'm sure the game was fixed!
Tenho certeza de que houve “marmelada” no jogo!

f Fortune - pode significar fortuna, mas também tem o sentido de sorte, destino.
He made a fortune in the stock market.
Ele ganhou uma fortuna no mercado de ações.

Do you believe in fortune tellers?


Você acredita em cartomantes (pessoas que lêem a sorte)?
She had the good fortune of marrying a man like Mário.
Ela teve a sorte de casar-se com um homem como o Mário.

f Gracious - não significa gracioso, graciosa (que se traduz por graceful), mas bondoso, amável.
Mary is a graceful dancer.A Mary é uma bailarina graciosa.
Mary 's mother is a very gracious hostess.A mãe da Mary é uma anfitriã muito amável.

f Grand - não quer dizer grande em tamanho ou volume (que se expressa por big, large), mas grandioso,
maravilhoso, magnífico.
The Grand Canyon is really a grand sight.
O Grand Canyon é realmente um espetáculo grandioso.
It was a grand opportunity and I missed it!
Foi uma oportunidade maravilhosa, e eu a deixei escapar!

f Gratify - não significa gratificar, no sentido de dar gratificação ou gorjeta, mas de agradar, contentar.
We were gratified to learn that you had been promoted.
Ficamos contentes em saber que você havia sido promovido.
Observação: Gratifying pode ser traduzido por gratificante.
It was a very gratifying experience.
Foi uma experiência muito gratificante.

f Gross - não significa grosso, antônimo de fino (que, em inglês, se traduz por thick), mas sim crasso, flagrante,
gritante; bruto, total (sem deduções); grosseiro, vulgar.
a gross mistake - um erro crasso
a gross exaggeration - um exagero gritante
grossly exaggerated - gritantemente exagerado
gross weight - peso bruto
gross (rude) behavior - comportamento grosseiro
gross (rude) words - palavras grosseiras

I
f Ignore - não significa ignorar no sentido de desconhecer (que se expressa por not to know), mas ignorar no
sentido de não tomar conhecimento.
I simply ignored his rude behavior.

p. 129
Lesson 19

Simplesmente ignorei (não tomei conhecimento de) seu comportamento grosseiro.

f Inaugurate (v) - pode ser usado no sentido de inaugurar, mas significa também empossar (em cargo ou função).
The new hospital was inaugurated yesterday.
O novo hospital foi inaugurado ontem.
The President of the USA is inaugurated in the morning of January 20th, and at night the traditional Inaugural Balls
are held.
O presidente dos EUA é empossado no dia 20 de janeiro e, à noite, realizam-se os tradicionais Bailes da Posse.

f Inauguration (s) - significa inauguração, mas também posse.


Were you present at the governor's inauguration?
Você esteve presente à posse do governador?

f Individual - como adjetivo significa individual, separado, distinto; como substantivo, significa indivíduo.
They booked individual rooms at the hotel.
Eles reservaram quartos separados no hotel.
In a democratic society, the rights of the individual are sacred.
Em uma sociedade democrática, os direitos do indivíduo são sagrados.

f Infant - como substantivo, na linguagem formal e escrita, significa bebê, infante, sendo freqüentemente empregado
como qualificativo (infantil) .
infant mortality - mortalidade infantil

f Ingenious/lngenuous - deve-se ter o cuidado de não confundir essas duas palavras.


f Ingenious - significa hábil, engenhoso.
an ingenious mind - uma mente engenhosa, criativa
f Ingenuous - significa ingênuo, inocente.
an ingenuous smile - um sorriso inocente
Observe, porém, que o substantivo ingenuity pode significar tanto engenhosidade, habilidade, como
ingenuidade. Entretanto, convém salientar que muitos native speakers dão preferência às palavras francesas naïve
(ingênuo) e naïveté (ingenuidade).Don 't be so naïve!
Não seja tão ingênuo!
It takes a lot of ingenuity to solve such complex problems. E preciso muita habilidade para solucionar problemas tão
complexos'.ji

f Injury - não significa injúria, ofensa, mas dano, principalmente ferimento.


He died from injuries suffered in a car crash.
Ele morreu de ferimentos sofridos num desastre de carro.

f Instance - não é instância, mas exemplo.


for instance - por exemplo

f Intend - não significa entender (que é understand), mas tencionar, pretender.


What does he intend to do after he graduates?
O que ele pretende fazer depois que se formar?

f Interest - além de interesse, significa juros. No sentido de juros, interest não vai para o plural.
That bank charges high interest rates.
Aquele banco cobra taxas de juros altas.
f Intrigue (v) - além de intrigar, tem o sentido de despertar curiosidade, interesse ou, ainda, deixar perplexo.

p. 130
Lesson 19

This puzzle really intrigues me.


Este quebra-cabeça realmente me deixa curioso.
John 's attitude intrigues me.
A atitude do John me deixa perplexo.

f Intriguing (adj) - além de intrigante, significa também curioso, interessante.


This puzzle is really intriguing.
Este quebra-cabeça realmente desperta a curiosidade da gente.

f Introduce - significa não apenas introduzir, mas também apresentar uma pessoa a outra.
A new subject has been introduced into our course.
Uma nova matéria foi introduzida em nosso curso.
I’d like to introduce my friend Tony to you.
Gostaria de apresentar-lhe meu amigo Tony.

f Item - além de item (em uma lista ou relação), significa artigo, mercadoria, unidade.
These are fairly expensive items.
Estes são artigos um tanto caros.

f Journal - normalmente não é palavra empregada para designar jornal (que se diz newspaper), em que pese uma
famosa exceção: The Wall Street Journal, um dos jornais mais conhecidos do mundo. O sentido normal de journal é
periódico, revista especializada.
The New England journal of Medicine
International journal of Psychoanalysis

f Large - não significa largo (que se expressa por wide), mas grande, amplo.
A man with a large family needs a large house.
Um homem com uma família grande precisa de uma casa grande.

f Lecture - não quer dizer leitura (que se expressa por reading), m palestra, conferência.
Did you enjoy Professor Brown' s lecture on the British monarchy?
Você gostou da conferência do professor Brown sobre a monarquia britânica?

f Library - não é livraria (que se traduz por bookstore), mas biblioteca.


This book must be returned to the school library by tomorrow.
Este livro tem que ser devolvido à biblioteca da escola até amanhã.

f Liquor - é usado para designar bebidas alcoólicas em geral, não significando licor, bebida alcoólica açucarada, para
a qual se usa a palavra francesa liqueur.
One shouldn’t drive under the influence of liquor.Não se deve dirigir sob a influência do álcool.

f Lunch - não é lanche, refeição leve, mas almoço.


She usually takes a nap after lunch.Ela geralmente tira uma soneca depois do almoço.

f Luxury - nada tem a ver com luxúria (que é lasciviousness, lewdness). Significa luxo, suntuosidade.
Sorry, but this is a luxury I can't afford.

p. 131
Lesson 19

Desculpe, mas esse é um luxo que está além de minhas posses.

f Magazine - não significa loja (que se diz shop ou store), mas revista.
Sometimes I like to page through old magazines.
Às vezes gosto de folhear revistas antigas.

f Major - significa major (patente militar), mas não é maior (comparativo de grande). Emprega-se freqüentemente no
sentido de importante, de vulto.
the state's major cities - as principais cidades do estado
major repairs - consertos de vulto
Chesterton 's major works - as principais obras de Chesterton
Brazil's major exports - os principais produtos exportados pelo Brasil

f Manifest - como verbo e substantivo, tem os mesmos sentidos que o português: manifestar e manifesto. Como
adjetivo, porém, tem o sentido de claro, patente, óbvio.
It became manifest that his intentions were quite different from his words.Ficou patente que suas intenções eram bem
diferentes de suas palavras.

f Master - como substantivo, além de mestre, tem o sentido de chefe, senhor, patrão. Como verbo, tem o sentido de
dominar um esporte, , um idioma, uma matéria etc.
He has master's degree in economics.Ele tem grau de mestre (mestrado) em economia.
“The servant is not above his master;” (frase bíblica)“O servo não está acima de seu senhor.”
He mastered Russian in less than a yea1:Ele dominou o (idioma) russo em menos de um ano.

f Matter - significa matéria em oposição a mente ou espírito. Além disso, matter significa assunto, problema.
mind over matter - a mente (o espírito) acima da matéria
These matters don 't concern her.
Estes assuntos não dizem respeito a ela.
What’ s the matter with you? You look pale.
O que é que há com você? Você está pálido.

f Medicine - além de significar medicina (sentido em que medical science também é muito usado), significa também
remédio, medicamento.
Take this medicine; you'll soon feel better.
Tome este remédio; logo você se sentirá melhor.

f Memory - além de memória, no plural (memories) é empregado no sentido de lembranças, recordações.


She has a fantastic memory for numbers.
Ela tem uma memória fantástica para números.
I have found memories of my childhood days.
Tenho agradáveis recordações dos dias da minha infância.

f Minor - tecnicamente tem o sentido de menor, mas a palavra é mais freqüentemente empregada no sentido de
pequeno, leve, sem importância ou de pouca importância.
He suffered only minor injuries.
Ele sofreu apenas ferimentos leves.
These are minor details; we can discuss them later.Estes são detalhes de pouca (menor) importância; podem'os
tratar deles depois.

p. 132
Lesson 19

f Miserable - não significa miserável no sentido de deserdado da sorte nem tampouco de avaro, mesquinho. O
termo é usado no sentido de triste, muito indisposto, péssimo.
This cold makes me feel miserable.
Este resfriado me deixa extremamente indisposto.
The weather has been miserable lately.
O tempo tem estado péssimo ultimamente.

f Notice - não significa notícia (que é news).Como substantivo, significa aviso, comunicação, aviso prévio; como
verbo, significa notar, perceber.
The teacher wrote a notice on the chalk-board. A professora escreveu um aviso no quadro-de-giz.
Tom's boss gave him a month's notice.
O patrão do Tom deu-lhe um mês de aviso prévio.
She had been crying, but nobody noticed it.
Ela tinha estado chorando, mas ninguém percebeu.

f Novel - não é novela (a que, nos EUA, popularmente se dá o nome de soap opera), mas romance.
Have you read Jorge Amado's latest novel?
Você leu o último romance de Jorge Amado?

f Office - não é ofício (que se expressa por trade, occupation), mas escritório ou consultório, sendo empregado
também no sentido de cargo ou função (geralmente em serviço público) .
IBM has a large office in that building.A IBM tem um escritório grande naquele prédio.
Do you know if the doctor is in his office?
Você sabe se o médico está no consultório?
He held a high office in the Reagan administration.
Ele ocupou um alto cargo na administração do presidente Reagan.

f Official - como adjetivo, significa oficial e, como substantivo, significa funcionário, não podendo ser empregado no
sentido de oficial militar (que é officer).
official papers - documentos oficiais
He met with some high government officials when he was in Brasília.
Ele manteve contato com alguns altos funcionários do governo quando esteve em Brasília.

f Operator - além de operador (de equipamento), tem o sentido de telefonista que atende em uma central
telefônica.
To make an international call, sometimes one has to ask for the operator's help.
Para fazer uma ligação internacional, às vezes é necessário pedir o auxílio da telefonista.

f Order - além de ordem (s) e ordenar (v), significa encomenda, pedido, e encomendar ou fazer pedido em
restaurante.
Our company has received an order for 200 machines.
Nossa empresa recebeu um pedido de 200 máquinas.
The manager has ordered three new computers.
O gerente encomendou três computadores novos.
"Have you ordered yet?”, the waiter asked.
“O senhor já fez seu pedido?” , perguntou o garçom.

p. 133
Lesson 19

f Ordinary - nada tem a ver com ordinário, vulgar, de baixa qualidade. Significa comum, normal.
Tomorrow isn't a holiday, just an ordinary workday.
Amanhã não é feriado; apenas um dia de trabalho normal.

f Paper - além de papel, significa jornal (abreviação de newspaper); ensaio, dissertação; trabalho (escolar).
The Financial Times is a highly respected paper:
O Financial Times é um jornal que goza de alto conceito.
John submitted an excellent paper on endangered animal species.
O John apresentou um excelente trabalho sobre espécies de animais em extinção.

f Parent - não significa parente (que é relative), mas pai ou mãe, pais; tronco, origem, matriz.
His parents live in Campinas.Os pais dele moram em Campinas.
Mark used to be a department head at our parent company, but now he's director of one of our foreign branches.
O Mark era chefe de departamento em nossa matriz, mas atualmente ele é diretor de uma de nossas filiais
estrangeiras.

f Park - além de parque (s), significa estacionar (v).


Whenever she takes the children to the park, she parks the car in a nearby street.
Sempre que ela leva as crianças ao parque, estaciona o carro em uma rua nas proximidades.

f Patron - não significa patrão (que se traduz por boss, employer), mas santo(a); padroeiro(a); patrocinador (das
artes); freguês, cliente.
Saint Sebastian is the patron saint of Rio de Janeiro.
São Sebastião é o padroeiro do Rio de Janeiro.
He's a well known patron of the arts.
Ele é um conhecido patrocinador das artes.
Mrs Baker is one of the best patrons of our boutique.
A sra. Baker é uma das melhores freguesas da nossa butique.
f Period - além de período de tempo, significa ponto final, tanto no sentido literal quanto no figurativo.
John Paul I was Pope for a very short period of time.
João Paulo I foi Papa durante um período de tempo muito breve.
A sentence usually ends with a period.
Uma frase geralmente termina com um ponto final.
Let's put a period to this silly argument!
Vamos pôr um ponto final nesta discussão sem pé nem cabeça!

f Petrol - não é petróleo, mas gasolina, no inglês britânico. Petróleo é petroleum (técnico) ou oil (popular e
jornalístico), sendo este último empregado também para designar óleo para motores. Quanto a óleo de cozinha ou
de mesa, diz-se cooking oil ou salad oil, dependendo da finalidade a que o óleo se destina.
There is a petrol station on the next corner.
Há um posto de gasolina na próxima esquina.

f Phrase - não significa frase (que se expressa por sentence), mas locução (frase de sentido incompleto, por exemplo,
adverbial Phrase); expressão consagrada, dito. “Antes tarde do que nunca” é uma expressão
"Better late than never” is a phrase we often use. que usamos freqüentemente.
f Physics/Physicist/Physician - são três palavras que requerem um cuidado especial para não serem confundidas.
Physics significa física (ciência); physicist é físico (cientista), e physician é médico.
Not many people enjoy studying physics.

p. 134
Lesson 19

Não são muitas as pessoas que gostam de estudar física.


Einstein was a renowned physicist. Einstein foi um físico renomado.
What did the physician prescribe for your arthritis?
O que o médico receitou para a tua artrite?

f Plant - não é planta no sentido de projeto arquitetônico (que se expressa por plans), nem de planta do pé (que é
sole of one's foot), mas planta no sentido de vegetal ou, ainda, fábrica, unidade fabril.
The Amazon forest is rich in medicinal plants.
A floresta amazônica é rica em plantas medicinais.
A multinational company is putting up a new plant in our town.
Uma empresa multinacional está construindo uma nova fábrica em nossa cidade.

f Point - como verbo, significa apontar, indicar e, como substantivo, é ponto ou ponta. Entretanto, a palavra point é
muito empregada em sentido idiomático, conforme mostram os exemplos.
to point to something - apontar para alguma coisa
at this point - neste ponto
the point of a needle – a ponta de uma agulha
I'm afraid you've missed the point.
Sinto muito, mas acho que você não entendeu.
Let's go straight to the point.
Vamos direto ao assunto.
There's no point in trying to fool him.
Não adianta tentar enganá-lo.
I don't see your point.
Não percebo aonde você quer chegar.
Sorry, but your argument is not to the point.
Sinto muito, mas seu argumento não vem ao caso.
Speaking of bribery, here is a case in point.
Falando em suborno, aqui está um exemplo que vem a calhar.

f Police/Policy/Politics - são três palavras que merecem atenção especial.


f Police - é polícia.
The kidnappers were arrested by the police.
Os seqüestradores foram presos pela polícia.
f Policy - é política no sentido de norma, programa de ação, e também apólice (de seguro).
This is against company policy. Isto é contra a política da empresa.
The secretary filled out the insurance policy. A secretária preencheu a apólice de seguro.
f Politics - é política no sentido de política partidária.
Some people just love to talk about politics.
Certas pessoas simplesmente adoram falar sobre política.
Observação: Político, pessoa que faz política, é politician.
He's a born politician! Ele é um político nato!

f Pork - não significa porco (que se expressa por pig ou, genericamente, por swine), mas carne de porco.
My doctor advised me not to eat pork.
Meu médico aconselhou-me a não comer carne de porco.

f Prejudice - é empregado no sentido de prejuízo ou detrimento apenas na linguagem jurídica. Normalmente tem o
sentido de preconceito.
Racial prejudice is condemned by the law.

p. 135
Lesson 19

O preconceito racial é condenado pela lei.

f Presently - não significa presentemente nem atualmente (que se expressa por at present, now, today), mas logo
mais, dentro em breve.
The bus will arrive presently.
O ônibus chegará logo mais.

f Pretend (v) - não tem o sentido de pretender, tencionar (que é intend), mas de fingir, fazer de conta.
He pretended to be sleeping.
Ele fingiu estar dormindo.

f Primary - além de primário, significa principal, fundamental e, nesse sentido, é empregado com maior freqüência.
primary school - escola primária
This is of primary importance to all of us.
Isto é de importância fundamental para todos nós.

f Principal - como adjetivo, significa principal, mas, como substantivo, é empregado para designar o diretor ou a
diretora de uma escola.
The principal held a meeting with all the teachers.
O diretor realizou uma reunião com todos os professores.

f Private - além de privado, na maioria dos casos deve ser entendido como particular.
private business - negócio particular
private property - propriedade particular
private schoo l- escola particular
private reasons - motivos de ordem particular
private enterprise - iniciativa privada

f Proper - normalmente não significa próprio (que se expressa por own), mas adequado, apropriado; decente,
educado; propriamente dito.
This is not the proper word.
Esta não é a palavra adequada.
Susie is very proper behaviour impressed everyone.
O comportamento muito educado da Susie impressionou a todos.
Russia proper...
A Rússia propriamente dita...

f Propitiate - nada tem a ver com propiciar, proporcionar (que se traduz por give, provide, afford). Significa
aplacar, apaziguar, conciliar.
The Romans used to make offerings in order to propitiate their gods.
Os romanos costumavam fazer oferendas para aplacar seus deuses.

f Prospect - nada tem a ver com prospecto, programa. O significado da palavra é perspectiva.
His new job afforded bright prospects for his career.
Seu novo emprego abriu ótimas perspectivas para sua carreira.

f Provision - além de significar provisão, no sentido de abastecimento (geralmente no plural, provisions), é palavra
empregada também para designar: cláusula, dispositivo (na linguagem contratual,jurídica) e providências,
medidas.
Before you go camping, make sure you have all the provisions.
Antes de ir acampar, certifique-se de que tem todas as provisões.

p. 136
Lesson 19

She read carefully all the provisions of the contract.


Ela leu cuidadosamente todas as cláusulas do contrato.
Have you made all the provisions for your stay in Miami?
Você tomou todas as providências para sua estada em Miami?

f Push - não tem nada a ver com puxar (que é pull), mas significa empurrar, pressionar (chave, botão).
Jane was pushing a baby carriage along the sidewalk.
A Jane estava empurrando um carrinho de bebê ao longo da calçada.
Don 't push, pull!
Não empurre, puxe!
To turn on the machine, just push this button.
Para ligar a máquina, basta pressionar este botão.

f Question - além de questão, é palavra muito empregada no sentido de pergunta e dúvida.


“To be or not to be, that is the question!”
“Ser ou não ser, eis a questão!”
"Any questions?", asked the lecturer.
“Alguma pergunta?”, indagou o conferencista.
There's no question about it.
Não há dúvida quanto a isso.

f Quiet - além de quieto, é uma palavra passível de diversas traduções.


Keep quiet!
Fique quieto!
a quiet street - uma rua sossegada, com pouco movimento
a quiet life - uma vida tranqüila, sem agitações
a quiet sea - um mar calmo
a quiet man - um homem reservado

f Realize - embora possa significar realizar, concretizar (planos, aspirações), é mais comumente usado no sentido de
perceber, compreender.
Suddenly we realized that we had taken the wrong road.
Subitamente percebemos que havíamos pegado a estrada errada.

f Recipient - não significa recipiente, no sentido de vaso ou vasilha que recebe algum produto (que se traduz por
receptacle ou container), mas recebedor, beneficiário.
All pension recipients must be registered with the INSS.
Todos os que recebem pensão devem estar registrados junto ao INSS.

f Record - como verbo, não significa recordar (que se expressa por recall, remember), mas registrar; gravar.Como
substantivo, significa recorde quando se trata de feito ou proeza (principalmente, mas não exclusivamente,
esportiva) nunca realizada antes. Além disso, significa também disco; assentamento, registro.
The inspector recorded everything he saw.
O inspetor registrou tudo o que viu.
Would you like to have your name in the Guinness Book of Records?
Você gostaria de ter o seu nome no Livro de Recordes de Guinness?

p. 137
Lesson 19

The Beatles recorded this song in 1965.


Os Beatles gravaram esta música em 1965.
Would you like to hear the record I've just bought?
Você gostaria de ouvir o disco que acabei de comprar?
His name is not on our records.
O nome dele não consta nos nossos registros.

f Relative - como adjetivo, significa relativo. Como substantivo, porém, significa parente.
Most of her relatives live in Fortaleza. A maioria dos parentes dela mora em Fortaleza.

f Remark - nada tem a ver com remarcar (marcar novamente), significando notar, observar, comentar.
Did you remark how nervous she looked?
Você notou como ela parecia estar nervosa?
“what a quiet street!”, he remarked.
“Que rua sossegada!”, ele observou.

f Report - como substantivo, é informação ou relatório. Como verbo, porém, significa: relatar; apresentar-se; dar
parte, comunicar.
This report must be finished by tonight. Este relatório tem que estar concluído até hoje à noite.
I reported only what I actually saw.
Relatei apenas o que realmente vi.
When you have finished this task, report yourself to the supervisor.
Quando você tiver terminado esta tarefa, apresente-se ao supervisor. Why didn’t you report the burglary to the
police?
Por que você não comunicou o roubo à polícia?

f Requirement - não é requerimento (que se expressa por request, application), mas requisito.
If he meets all the requirements, he'll get the job.Se ele satisfizer todos os requisitos, conseguirá o emprego.

f Resign - embora signifique resignar-se, conformar-se (a forma reflexiva é opcional em inglês) , pode ser
empregado também como demitir-se, renunciar.
Fernando Collor resigned from the presidency of Brazil on December 29th, 1992.
Fernando Collor renunciou à presidência do Brasil no dia 29 de dezembro de 1992.
She has never resigned (herself) to her husband's premature death.
Ela nunca se resignou à morte prematura de seu marido.

f Rest - além de resto, significa também descanso; morte.


Keep only the fresh vegetables, the rest you may throw away.
Guarde apenas os legumes frescos; o resto você pode jogar fora.
You look tired; why don't you take a rest?
Você parece cansado; por que não vai descansar (não tira urna folga)?
She suffered a great deal before she passed away, but now she ' s at rest.
Ela sofreu muito antes de morrer, mas agora descansou (morreu).
f Resume - nada tem a ver com resumir (que é sum up, summarize). Significa retomar, dar prosseguimento.
After a few hours' interruption, the work was resumed.
Depois de uma interrupção de algumas horas, o trabalho foi retomado.
Let's resume this discussion after the coffee-break, shall we?
Vamos dar prosseguimento a esse debate depois da pausa para o cafezinho, OK?

f Retire - não significa retirar, excluir (que é remove, exclude), mas recolher-se, ir dormir; aposentar-se.

p. 138
Lesson 19

As he didn't feel well, he retired earlier than usual.


Como não estivesse se sentindo bem, ele foi deitar mais cedo do que de costume.
My uncle intends to retire next year.
Meu tio pretende aposentar-se no ano que vem.

f Romance - não significa romance (que é novel), mas namoro, romantismo.


She loves songs that speak of love and romance.
Ela adora músicas (canções) que falam de amor e romantismo.

f Rumor - não significa rumor no sentido de ruído (que é noise), mas no sentido de boato.
Some people just love to spread rumors.
Certas pessoas simplesmente adoram espalhar boatos.

f Save - além de salvar, significa poupar, economizar.


In periods of drought, people do their best to save water.
Em épocas de seca, as pessoas fazem o possível para poupar água.
She's saving money for a trip to Europe.
Ela está economizando dinheiro para uma viagem à Europa.

f Scholar - não significa escolar, mas pessoa erudita, profundamente versada em determinado assunto.
Latin and Greek scholars are hard to find nowadays.
Pessoas profundamente versadas em latim e grego são difíceis de encontrar hoje em dia.

f Sensible - não é sensível (que se traduz por sensitive), mas sensato, equilibrado.
He's a very sensible person.
Ele é uma pessoa muito sensata.
That was a sensible thing to do.
Essa foi uma maneira sensata de agir.
Entretanto, sensible pode ser traduzido por sensível em casos nos quais a palavra é empregada em seu sentido
etimológico, ou seja, que pode ser sentido, percebido, como sinônimo de perceptível.
a sensible rise in the temperature
uma sensível (perceptível) elevação da temperatura
a sensible increase in prices
um aumento sensível (perceptível) nos preços
a sensible difference
uma diferença sensível (perceptível)

f Soda - não tem sentido restrito a um tipo de refrigerante, como a nossa soda limonada, sendo um termo genérico
aplicável a qualquer refrigerante, sinônimo de soft drink
Let's have a soda (a soft drink)!Vamos tomar um refrigerante!

f Sort - nada tem a ver com sorte, destino (que se expressa por fate, fortune).Significa tipo, espécie.
What sort of books do you like to read? Que tipo de livros você gosta de ler?
Observação: A expressão sort of é usada no sentido de um tanto, mais ou menos.
I feel sort of tired.
Sinto-me um tanto cansado.

p. 139
Lesson 19

f Stomach - não se refere apenas a estômago, mas também a abdome, barriga, ventre. Stomachache, portanto, não
é uma dor limitada ao estômago, mas pode se referir a toda a região abdominal.
She left earlier because she had a stomachache.
Ela foi embora mais cedo porque estava com dor de barriga.

f Story / History - são duas palavras que não devem ser confundidas. History é a história escrita por historiadores,
matéria obrigatória em todas as escolas. Story é uma narrativa cujo enredo envolve personagens, locais,
acontecimentos etc., reais ou fictícios.
The history of the Roman empire…
A história do império romano...
Children 's stories often start like this: “Once upon a time…”
Histórias infantis muitas vezes começam assim: “Era uma vez...”
Vale salientar que no inglês atual, notadamente na linguagem jornalística, emprega-se a palavra story no sentido
de artigo de jornal ou de revista.
The story was published on the front page of the New York Times.
O artigo foi publicado na primeira página do New York Times.
Have you read Time's cover story for this week?
Você leu o artigo de capa da Time desta semana?

f Stranger - não significa estrangeiro (que é foreign para adjetivo, e foreigner para substantivo) , mas estranho,
forasteiro, desconhecido.
Although he is a foreigner, he's not a stranger to me.
Embora ele seja estrangeiro, não é nenhum estranho para mim.
We often warn the children not to talk to strangers.
Freqüentemente alertamos as crianças para não conversarem com desconhecidos.
f Subscription - não somente significa subscrição, compromisso de contribuição em dinheiro ou de compra de
ações, integralização de capital (linguagem contratual) , mas também assinatura de jornal ou revista.
Subscription rates for foreign magazines are usually quoted in dollars.
Os preços de assinaturas de revistas estrangeiras geralmente são cotados em dólares.
She has just renewed her subscription to House and Garden.
Ela acaba de renovar sua assinatura da House and Garden.

f Suburb - não tem o mesmo sentido (um tanto pejorativo) de subúrbio. Suburb (especialmente nos Estados Unidos)
designa uma comunidade ou área residencial, em geral pequena e de classe média alta, logo além dos limites de
uma cidade.
As soon as they were able to afford it, they moved from downtown to a pleasant suburb.
Assim que suas condições financeiras permitiram, mudaram-se do centro para uma agradável área suburbana.

f Succeed - Além de suceder, significa ter êxito, obter sucesso.


David succeeded his father as president of the company.
O David sucedeu o pai como presidente da empresa.Did you succeed in getting what you wanted?
Você teve êxito em obter (conseguir) o que queria?
“Nothing succeeds like success.” (dito chistoso americano)
“Nada faz sucesso como o (próprio) sucesso.”

f Support - não significa suportar, tolerar (que se expressa por bear, stand), mas sustentar, apoiar, escorar.
I can 't stand such incompetence!
Não suporto tal (tamanha) incompetência!
A beam supports the roof.
Uma viga apóia (escora) o telhado.
Does he earn enough to support a family?

p. 140
Lesson 19

Ele ganha o suficiente para sustentar uma família?

f Sympathetic/Sympathize/Sympathy - são palavras que podem levar a uma interpretação ou tradução errônea.
f Sympathetic ( adj ) - não quer dizer simpático ( que se traduz por pleasant, likeable), mas compreensivo.
A true friend is always sympathetic.
Um verdadeiro amigo é sempre compreensivo.
f Sympathize (v) - não é simpatizar (que pode ser expresso por feel attracted to, feel attracted by ou,
simplesmente, like), mas compadecer-se, mostrar-se compreensivo.
The authorities sympathized with the slight of the strikers.
As autoridades mostraram-se compreensivas perante a difícil situação dos grevistas.
f Sympathy (s) - não significa simpatia (que pode se expressar por likeableness, charm), mas compaixão,
condolência, condolências, solidariedade.
I offer you my deepest sympathy.
Apresento-lhe minhas mais profundas condolências.

f Tax - embora tenha o sentido de taxa, tributo, como substantivo, seu equivalente mais usado em português é
imposto. Como verbo, tax significa tributar, lançar impostos; exigir, sobrecarregar, pôr à prova, abusar.
to pay taxes - pagar impostos
tax collector - coletor, cobrador de impostos
Alcoholic beverages and cigarettes are heavily taxed.
Bebidas alcoólicas e cigarros são pesadamente tributados.
I don’t want to tax your patience, but…
Não quero abusar da sua paciência, mas...

f Temper - significa têmpera, mas é muito mais empregado no sentido de humor, disposição; calma, serenidade;
irritação, cólera.
the temper of the steel - a têmpera do aço
The boss was in a bad temper this moming.
O chefe estava de mau humor hoje de manhã.
It's not easy to keep one's temper in certain situations.
Não é fácil manter a calma em certas situações.
He had a fit of temper.
Ele teve um acesso de cólera.

f Tentative - não é um substantivo equivalente à nossa tentativa. Trata-se de um adjetivo que significa experimental,
provisório, não-definitivo.
a tentative plan - um plano não-definitivo, ou provisório
a téntative schedule - um horário (cronograma) provisório

f Terrific - embora mantenha o sentido etimológico de terrífico, aterrorizante, na prática é empregado com uma
conotação positiva, sendo traduzido por fabuloso, fantástico, impressionante.
What a terrific movie!
Que filme fantástico!
The weight-lifter was a man of terrific strength.
O halterofilista era um homem de força impressionante.

f Test - além de ser empregado no sentido de teste científico, prova, é também empregado como prova escolar.
a test tube - um tubo de ensaios

p. 141
Lesson 19

laboratory tests - testes de laboratório


a test pilot - um piloto de provas
Our English test will be on Thursday.
Nossa prova de inglês será na quinta-feira.

f Tint - não significa tinta (que se traduz por ink), mas tonalidade (de cor), matiz.
This variety of orchid has a purplish tint.
Esta variedade de orquídea tem uma tonalidade arroxeada.

f Tribute - não significa tributo no sentido de imposto (que é tax), mas tributo no sentido de homenagem.
Americans pay tribute to men like Washington and Lincoln.
Os americanos prestam homenagem a homens como Washington e Lincoln.

f Tutor - não deve ser entendido como tutor (que é guardian), mas como professor particular. Nesse sentido, tutor
também é usado como verbo.
She tutors in English and French.
Ela dá aulas particulares de inglês e francês.
Do you know a good tutor in math?
Você conhece um bom professor particular de matemática?

f Ultimate - tem os sentidos de: último, supremo; final; fundamental, básico.


his ultimate aim - seu objetivo supremo
the ultimate proof - a prova final, definitiva
the ultimate causes - as causas fundamentais

f Ultimately - não significa ultimamente, que se expressa por lately, recently, mas, sim, em última análise.
The jury 's decision will ultimately depend on the evidence submitted.
A decisão do júri dependerá, em última análise, das provas apresentadas.

f Union - além de significar união, é palavra muito usada para designar sindicato.
the auto-workers union
o sindicato dos trabalhadores da indústria automobilística

f Usually - embora signifique usualmente, deve ser traduzido por expressões mais genuinamente nossas, tais como
geralmente, habitualmente, normalmente.
I usually get up at seven o’clock.
Geralmente me levanto às sete horas.
He usually works till six. Normalmente ele trabalha até às seis.
V

f Vegetable - como adjetivo, tem o sentido de vegetal; como substantivo, significa legume, hortaliça.
vegetable oil - óleo vegetal
the vegetable kingdom - o reino vegetal
Vegetables are indispensable in a balanced diet.
Os legumes são indispensáveis em uma dieta balanceada.

f Venture - nada tem a ver com ventura, felicidade (que se traduz por happiness, good luck). A palavra significa
aventura, no sentido de empreendimento arriscado, empreitada, risco assumido.

p. 142
Lesson 19

His oil prospecting venture has made him a millionaire.


Seu empreendimento na exploração de petróleo fez dele um milionário.
Observação: A expressão joint venture, muito usada hoje em dia, significa uma aventura conjunta ou empreendimento
conjunto, geral- mente de natureza comercial ou industrial, no qual duas pessoas (físicas ou jurídicas) investem recursos
financeiros com a finalidade de auferir lucro.

f Vicious - não significa viciado no sentido de pessoa viciada (em drogas, por exemplo), mas no sentido de
defeituoso ou impuro. A palavra também é usada no sentido de perverso, mau, feroz.
a vicious circle - um círculo vicioso
vicious air - ar viciado, impuro
a vicious temper - um temperamento explosivo, perverso
a vicious dog - um cão feroz

Additional Conversation!

. About the vocabulary, Do you Know anyone who works in a restaurant? What does he or
she do?
. In your opinion, which restaurant jobs are hard? Why?
. Talk about how you set the table in your home.
 

p. 143
Lesson 20

Grammar: Peculiarities of Language*

Popular Comparisons:
(Comparações Populares)

A comparação popular, também chamada de símile, é uma expressão que descreve uma pessoa ou
coisa como sendo semelhante a alguém ou a alguma coisa. Há dois tipos de comparação: com adjetivos e
com verbos.

1. Comparações com adjetivos


Nas comparações com adjetivos temos o seguinte padrão lingüístico:
as + ADJ + as
• He's as white as a sheet.
Ele está branco como cera.
• The antenna is as steady as a hummingbird.
A antena está firme como uma vara verde.
• She's as ugly as sin.
Ela é feia como um demônio.

Observe que não apresentamos a tradução exata das comparações, mas buscamos expressões
equivalentes em língua portuguesa.
Mencionamos, a seguir, as
comparações mais comuns em
inglês e seus correspondentes em
português.
as brave as a Lion
valente como um leão
as black as pitch preto como carvão
as blind as a bat cego como um morcego
as busy as a bee ocupado como uma formiga
as calm as a millpond sereno como um lago
as clear as crystal claro como cristal
as cool as a cucumber calmo como um monge
as cold as ice frio como gelo
as deaf as a door-nail surdo como uma porta
as deaf as a post surdo como um poste
as deep as the ocean profundo como o oceano
as drunk as a skunk bêbado como um gambá
as dry as a bone seco como farinha
as dry as dust seco como o deserto
as flat as a pancake chato como um ovo estalado
as free as a bird livre como um passarinho
as fresh as a rose fresco como uma rosa
as happy as a lark feliz como uma cigarra
as heavy as lead pesado como chumbo
as high as the sky alto como as nuvens

*(extraído na íntegra: Inglês gramática prática – Michaelis)

p. 144
Lesson 20

as hungry as a wolf ,faminto como um leão


as light as a feather leve como uma pluma
as mad as a march hare enfezado como um touro bravo
as nervous as a cat arisco como um gato
as old as the hills velho como Matusalém
as soft as a pillow macio como algodão
as strong as an ox forte como um touro
as sweet as sugar doce como mel
as thin as a paper magro como uma folha de papel
as thin as a rake magro como um pau de virar tripa
as true as steel verdadeiro como a Bíblia
as weak as a kitten fraco como um filhote de passarinho
as white as snow branco como a neve

2. Comparações com verbos


Nas comparações com verbos, o elemento que estabelece a semelhança entre duas entidades é a
preposição like / como:
• She walks like an angel.
Ela anda como um anjo.
• The little dog is shaking like a leal
O cachorrinho está tremendo como vara verde.
• Tony eats like a horse.
Tony come como um leão.
Devemos salientar que, de um modo geral, as comparações são iguais em várias línguas, porém, às
vezes, a tradução literal toma-se imprecisa, havendo necessidade de lançar mão de expressões equivalentes.

to act like a spoiled child agir como uma criança mimada


to behave like a princess (or prince) comportar-se como uma princesa (ou um príncipe)
to cry like a little baby chorar como um bebezinho
to drink like a fish beber como um gambá
to eat like a pig comer como um porco
to fit like a glove assentar como uma luva
to get a memory like a sieve ter uma memória de galinha
to live like a fighting cock viver como um nababo
to run like a hare correr como um coelho
to react like a ton of bricks reagir como um terremoto
to scream like a siren soar como uma sirene
to sing like a bird cantar como um passarinho
to sleep like a log dormir como uma pedra
to smoke like a chimney fumar como uma chaminé
to snore like a hog roncar como um porco
to sound like a firecracker soar como uma bombinha
to swim like a fish nadar como um peixe
to talk like a parrot falar como um papagaio
to walk like an athlete caminhar como um atleta
to walk like a dancer andar como uma bailarina
to walk like a drake andar como uma pata choca
to work like a horse trabalhar como um cavalo

p. 145
Lesson 20

Common Proverbs and Sayings


(Provérbios e Ditos Populares)
Provérbios e ditos populares são expressões de caráter prático, comum em todas as línguas, que
expressam, com imagens ricas e precisas, alusões ou lições de moral.
Procuramos compilar os provérbios e ditos mais comuns em língua inglesa e apresentamos as formas
idênticas ou aproximadas em português.

1. A friend in need is a friend indeed. É na ocasião que se conhecem os amigos.


2. A key of gold opens any door. Uma chave de ouro abre qualquer porta.
3. A word to the wise is sufficient. Ao bom entendedor meia palavra basta.
4. A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. É melhor um pássaro na mão do que dois voando.
5. All that glitters is not gold. Nem tudo que reluz é ouro.
6. A married man is a tamed ass. Um homem casado é um burro amansado.
7. After battles come rewards. Depois da luta, vem a recompensa.
8. A little is better than none. É melhor pouco do que nada.
9. At night all cats are grey. A noite todos os gatos são pardos.
10. All is fish that comes to the net. Tudo o que cai na rede é peixe.
11. After a storm comes a calm. Depois da tempestade, vem a bonança.
12. All roads lead to Rome. Todas as estradas levam a Roma.
13. Among the blind the one-eyed man is king. Em terra de cego quem tem um olho é rei.
14. Better be poor than ignorant. É melhor ser pobre que ignorante.
15. Better late than never. Antes tarde do que nunca.
16. Barking dogs seldom bite. Cão que ladra não morde.
17. Better a living dog than a dead lion. É melhor um covarde vivo do que um herói morto.
18. Better lose the saddle than the horse. Vão-se os anéis, ficam os dedos.
19. Birds of a feather flock together. Diz-me com quem andas, eu te direi quem és.
20. Charity begins at home. A caridade começa em casa.
21. Don’t look a gift horse in the mouth. A cavalo dado não se olham os dentes.
22. Do not celebrate a triumph before victory. Não celebre o triunfo antes da vitória.
Do not count your chickens before they are
23. Não conte com o ovo no fiofó da galinha.
hatched.
24. Don’t put the car before the horse. Não ponha o carro na frente dos bois.

25. Don´t make an elephant out of a fly. Não faça um cavalo de batalha de algo tão simples.

26. Don’t judge a book by its cover. Não julgue um livro pela capa.
27. Dog does not eat dog. Lobo não come lobo.
28. Everyone has his own burden to bear. Cada um tem seu fardo para carregar.
29. Every beginning is difficult. O começo é sempre difícil.
30. Everybody’s friend, nobody’s friend. Amigo de todos, amigo de ninguém.
31. Every man knows where his shoe pinches. Cada um sabe onde lhe aperta o sapato.
32. Everybody for himself, and God for all. Cada um por si e Deus por todos.
33. Everybody pulls for his own side. Cada um puxa a brasa para a sua sardinha.
34. Easy come, easy go. Vem fácil, vai fácil.
35. Experience is the best teacher. A vida é a melhor escola.
36. First appearances are often deceiving. As aparências enganam.
37. Flies do not enter a shut mouth. Em boca fechada não entra mosquito.
38. Forbidden fruits are sweetest. A fruta proibida é mais gostosa.
39. God gives candies to those who can not chew them. Deus dá nozes a quem não tem dentes.

p. 146
Lesson 20
40. God helps the man who gets up early. Deus ajuda quem cedo madruga.
41. Hell is full of good will. O inferno está cheio de boas intenções.
42. He laughs best who laughs last. Ri por último quem ri melhor.
43. Haste and quality do not go together. A pressa é inimiga da perfeição.
44. He was born with a silver spoon in the mouth. Ele nasceu em berço de ouro.
45. He makes a storm in a tea cup. Ele faz uma tempestade em copo d’água.
It’s useless to lock the stable door after the horse is
46. Não adianta pôr tranca depois que a casa foi roubada.
stolen.
47. If you can’t beat them, join them. Se você não pode vencê-los, junte-se a eles.
48. I tell the story as it was told me. Eu vendo o peixe como comprei.
49. Love is blind. O amor é cego.
50. Love and smoke can not be hidden. Paixão e fumaça não se escondem.
51. Lies have short legs. A mentira tem perna curta.
52. Little by little the bird builds its nest. De grão em grão, a galinha enche o papo.
53. Misfortunes never come singly. Desgraça pouca é bobagem.
54. Man proposes, God disposes O homem propõe, Deus dispõe.
55. Nothing travels as fast as scandal. Nada se espalha mais rápido do que um escândalo.
56. Never put off till tomorrow what you can do today. Nunca deixe para amanhã o que você pode fazer hoje.
57. Out of sight, out of mind. Longe dos olhos, longe do coração.
58. One does not play with fire. Não se brinca com fogo.
59. One swallow does not make a summer. Uma andorinha só não faz verão.
60. One should eat to live, not live to eat. Deve-se comer para viver, não viver para comer.
61. Once a drunkard always a drunkard. Uma vez alcoólatra, sempre alcoólatra.
62. Prevention is better than cure. Prevenir é melhor do que remediar.
63. Rome was not built in a day. Roma não se fez num dia.
64. Speech is silver, but silence is gold. A palavra é prata, o silêncio é ouro.
65. Scratch my back, I’ll scratch yours. Uma mão lava a outra.
66. Three is a crowd. Um é pouco, dois é bom, três é demais.
67. To the scalded dog cold water seems hot. Gato escaldado tem medo de água fria.
68. The bigger they come, the harder they fall. Quanto mais alto o coqueiro, maior é o tombo.
69. To each his own. Cada macaco no seu galho.
70. The man who sleeps with dogs wakes up with fleas. O homem que dorme com cachorro acorda com pulgas.
71. The devil is not as bad as he is painted O diabo não é tão feio como o pintam.
72. Two heads are better than one. Duas cabeças pensam melhor do que uma.
73. To error is human, to forgive divine. Errar é humano, perdoar é divino.
74. To sell one's soul to the devil. Vender a alma ao diabo.
75. The pot calls the kettle black. Ri-se o roto do rasgado.
76. The mind is always deceived by the heart. A razão é sempre enganada pela emoção.
77. The wolf changes his fur, but not his nature. O lobo muda de pele, mas não muda de ação.
78. The walls have ears. As paredes têm ouvidos.
There is no ill that lasts forever, nor any boon that Não há. mal que sempre dure, nem bem que nunca se
79.
never ends. acabe.
80. There is nothing new under the sun. Nada de novo sob o sol.
81. There is no victory without suffering. Não há. glória sem sacrifício.
82. The opportunity makes the thief. A ocasião faz o ladrão.
83. There is no rose without its thorns. Não há rosas sem espinhos.
84. Time reveals everything. O tempo tudo revela.
85. Too much hurry spoils everything. A pressa é inimiga da perfeição.
86. The face is the mirror of the soul. Os olhos são o espelho da alma.

p. 147
Lesson 20
87. The last drop makes the cup run over. A última gota faz transbordar a xícara.
88. The first step is the hardest. O mais difícil é o primeiro passo.
89. Two wrongs don’t make a right. Um erro não justifica o outro.
90. There is no smoke without fire. Não há fumaça sem fogo.
91. Union is strengtht. A união faz a força.
92. When the cat is away, the mice will play. Quando está fora o gato, folga o rato.
93. While there is life, there is hope. Enquanto há vida, há esperança.
94. Where there is smoke, there is fire. Onde há fumaça, há fogo.
95. Wash your dirty linen at home. Roupa suja se lava em casa.
96. You have to dance to the music. Você deve dançar conforme a música.
97. You can not get blood out of a turnip. Não se tira leite das pedras.
98. You can go to Rome by many roads. Quem tem boca vai a Roma.
99. You can’t teach an old dog new tricks. Cavalo velho não pega andadura.
100. You are never too old to learn. Nunca é tarde para aprender.

TEXT (by Internet) Mother Teresa

People are often unreasonable, illogical, and self- If you find serenity and happiness, they may be
centered; jealous;
Forgive them anyway. Be happy anyway.

If you are kind, people may accuse you of selfish, The good you do today, people will often forget
ulterior motives; tomorrow;
Be kind anyway. Do good anyway.

If you are successful, you will win some false Give the world the best you have, and it may never
friends and some true enemies; be enough;
Succeed anyway. Give the world the best you've got anyway.

If you are honest and frank, people may cheat you; You see, in the final analysis, it is between you and
Be honest and frank anyway. God;
It was never between you and them anyway.
What you spend years building, someone could
destroy overnight;
Build anyway.
Student sincere opinion!
. This lesson we didn’t have a vocabulary because the size of the grammar and we finish our texts
with this incredible person that was “Mother Teresa” . Her Goodness and glory I really wish bless
all of you my dear and important students!!!
. Our final “formal additional conversation” will be a very important chat about here, the I.D.O.
school and the teacher (me!). It’s really important to me your opinion, suggestion, comment,
avaluation or something else (a complaining for example!) I’d like you to tell me or write and give
me later (or read right now!). Please, help me to keep offering a good quality course! Speak up,
ok!!! I really need your feedback. So Let’s do it_______________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________

p. 148
Anexo

Anexo

“The Perfect tenses + The Modal verbs”:

Vamos agora, refletir acerca dos modais associados com os tempos perfeitos. A idéia é bem simples
de compreender. Quando usamos os modais com os tempos perfeitos vejam que a mensagem da frase muda
radicalmente. Veremos caso a caso, cada modal, o que acontece em relação aos tempos perfeitos associados
com estes modais.
Inicialmente, Em relação ao “should”:
Ex: Ela dereria estudar mais: She should study more – Temos aqui apenas o modal “should” = dever no
passado.
Ela deveria ter estudado mais: She should have studied more – Agora, modal “should” + tempo presente
perfeito.
No segundo exemplo, a idéia “Ela deveria ter estudado mais” foi de que não há mais esperança, ou
sua prova já passou, ou ela já foi reprovada, etc... Ao passo que no 1° exemplo: “Ela dereria estudar mais”, a
idéia é de que ainda há esperança, recurso.Outros exemplos:
Ela deveria ir a festa = a festa ainda não aconteceu, há chances. She should go to the party.
Ela deveria ter ido a festa = a festa já passou, não há mais chances. She should have gone to the party.
Ele deveria estar pensando em ir a festa = também ainda há chances. She should be thinking to go to the
party.
Vejamos alguns exemplos com o modal “can”, alternadamente sem e com tempo perfeito, reparem
que para o modal “can”, a associação com os tempos perfeitos, denotam uma idéia de probabilidade!:
Ex: Ele pode ir a festa. He can go to the party. = Idéia de permissão / probabilidade.
Ele pode ter ido a festa. He can have gone to the party. = Idéia de probabilidade!
Ele pode dirigir. He can drive. = Idéia de capacidade / destreza.
Ele pode ter dirigido. He can have driven. = Idéia de probabilidade!
Já o “Could” com um tempo verbal perfeito (exs de números ímpares), dá a idéia de algo que não foi
“feito”:
Ex: Quando eu era pequeno, eu podia nadar 2 horas sem parar! When I was Young, I could swim 2 hours
without stopping!
A água desta piscina estava ótima, eu podia ter nadado 2 hs sem parar! The water of this pool was great;
I could have swum 2 straight hours!
Ela podia fazer isto para ele. She could do it for him.
Ela podia ter feito isto para ele. She could have done it for him.
No caso do “would”, veremos que nessecitamos para que este esteje associado a um tempo verbal
perfeito, que o contexto da frase seja, na maioria dos casos, uma frase ou oração condicional (estudaremos
com detalhes no capítulo 59), porem, vamos a alguns exemplos (lembrando que o “would” + verbo =
verbo com terminação “ria”), reparem no 2° ex, a idéia de que algo não aconteceu:
Ex: Ela Iria a festa se ela não viajasse. She would go to the party if she didn’t travel
Ela teria ido a festa se ela não estivesse viajando. She would have gone to the party if she has been
travelling
Finalmente o “May”, que já expressa uma “incerteza”, “probabilidade” ou “dúvida”, associado com um
tempo perfeito, expressará estas idéias ainda mais fortemente, porém com a conotação da falta de
informação ou conhecimento (geralmente focada no passado) do fato. Repare o segundo exemplo:
Ex: Ele talvez vá lá. He may go there.
Ele talvez tenha ido lá. He may have gone there.

p. 149
Anexo
Importante:
“Misturando” o verbo “haver” = “There is/are” + os modais , temos idéias interessantes. Lembrem que
depois dos modais, os verbos seguintes devem estar no infinitivo sem o “to”. Portanto se tenho por exemplo:
Ex:
Deveria (= should) haver (there is/are, mas, depois dos modais = be) mais escolas aqui: There should be
more schools here.
Poderia ( = could) haver (depois do “could” = “there be”) mais escolas aqui: There could be more schools
here.
Talvez ( = may) tenha / há (“there be”) mais escolas aqui: There may be more schools here.
Haveria ( = would + “there be”) mais escolas aqui: There would be more schools here.
Para perguntas e negações, basta procedermos de acordo com o que já sabemos:
Ex: There wouldn’t be more schools here. Would there be more schools here? Não haveria mais escolas aqui /
haveria mais escolas aqui? Frases na negativa e interrogativa, respectivamente.

Exercício 1: Use os modais, com ou sem a associação dos tempos perfeitos, tirando suas próprias conclusões.
Siga os modelos. “Use the modal verbs, with or without the perfect tenses associations, taking your own
conclusions. Follow the models”:

She didn’t eat the wedding cake. It was amazing! She should have eaten the cake.
She eats too much cake. She shouldn’t eat too much cake.
She ate a cake yesterday and felt stomachache. The cake can have caused stomachache.

a) Cida ate only once yesterday. ..........................................................................................................................................................................


b) Tom regreted about his shopping. He didn’t have that money........................................................................................................
c) The sky is very cloudy. .......................................................................................................................................................................................
d) He drove all his way long over 160 km/h. ..................................................................................................................................................
e) Sandra and Tarcisio Could travel but they didn’t. ...................................................................................................................................
f) Sirley and Thomas almost went to Sidney last summer. .......................................................................................................................
g) She hired a detective to watch her husband.............................................................................................................................................
h) He’s completely drunk........................................................................................................................................................................................
i) Carlos didn’t go to an important conference. ............................................................................................................................................
j) He’s dring 4 straight hours. He was supposed to get in about 2.......................................................................................................
k) Jessica didn’t study enough for her exam. .................................................................................................................................................
l) Cable tv never was and never will be cheaper than ardinary tv..........................................................................................................
m) He’s depressed. He doesn’t stop crying and he’s very quiet.............................................................................................................
n) Raquel wants to quit smoking and want a medical support. .............................................................................................................
o) Her cat was with some problem last week. It just didn’t eat at all!..................................................................................................
p) He didn’ take care his dog and it got sick..................................................................................................................................................
q) A male lion is able to kill the female lion’s babies..................................................................................................................................
r) She got a lung cancer and even like this she didn’t quit smoking....................................................................................................
s) The Brazilian soccer team is the fafourite for the next world cup.....................................................................................................
t) Some theories believe that UFUs built the pyramids..............................................................................................................................
u) The nature wild aspects facinate many people. .......................................................................................................................................
v) A motorcycle rider travels long distances...................................................................................................................................................
w) The kindom of the lions maybe persuade thought the generations..............................................................................................
x) The traffic of rare species animals maybe bring them to the destruction.....................................................................................
y) He delayed a lot to ask her to date. ..............................................................................................................................................................
z) If we don’t change our enviroment treatment, about 200 years from now, we’ll have no water........................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

p. 150
Anexo
Exercício 2: Use o verbo “haver” – “There is/are”, com ou sem a associação dos tempos perfeitos, tirando
suas próprias conclusões. Siga os modelos. “Use There is/are verb, with or without the perfect tenses
associations, taking your own conclusions. Follow the models”:

I don’t know if I did the right thing! There may be better choices tha I could have done.
There aren’t enough hospitals here. There could / should be more hospitals here.

a) If peolpe were more altruit, ..................................................................................................................................................................


b) She is driving to a friend’s house but she can’t see any traffic sign. ...................................................................................
c) He’s not quite sure how many options does he have................................................................................................................
d) We live in the same planet, but some people believe,..............................................................................................................
e) In the future, the medicine will be better. ......................................................................................................................................
f) The president didn’t worry about his people. ................................................................................................................................
g) If people weren’t so selfish, the society,..........................................................................................................................................
h) Elizabeth almost was approved in her exam. ...............................................................................................................................
i) They can’t see any solution for their problem................................................................................................................................
j) He doesn’t give much attention to his wife. They ........................................................................................................................
k) The mayor did many things but she could more.........................................................................................................................
l) If we start having good atitudes now, in the future,....................................................................................................................

Uma revisão dos tempos perfeitos / “A Perfect tenses review”:

Antes de fornecer um quadro comparativo de todos os tempos verbais perfeitos, vamos lembrar das
principais características gerais e comuns:

Os “Perfect tenses” são:


. Indeterminado no tempo
. Presença obrigatória ou do has (He/she/ it ), ou do have ( I / you/we/they ), ou do had (all ),
ou do will have (all) + verbo 3 coluna
. Verbos no passado particípio (3ª Coluna)

Revisão
Em todos os tempos perfeitos utiliza-se o próprio verbo “has/have/had/will have” para negar e para
perguntar.( o “has/have/had/will have” funciona como seu próprio auxiliar), portanto, não é usado outros
auxiliares (do/does/did).

Affirmative – perfect tenses Negative – perfect tenses Interrogative – perfect tenses


Subject + has/have/had + verb Subject + has/have/had + Has/have/had + subject + verb
into participle NOT + verb into participle into participle + … + ?

* no caso do “perfect future” o sujeito fica entre o “will e o “have” na interrogativa, e na


negativa o “won”t” vem depois do sujeito. Ver exemplos (próxima página)

p. 151
Revisão
Agora vamos as características principais de cada tempo verbal perfeito:

Os tempos verbais O que descreve? Principais


Exemplos Tradução / Traslation
Perfeitos: Relaciona com um... características

. 1°:
. 1°: Passado . 1°: Ausência do: . She has gone away . 1°:
indefinido. “For, since, still, yet, = . Ela foi embora =
(quando = não sei!) already, until, ever, . She’s gone away. . Ela foi embora.
. 2°: Tradução “ao- just” . Has she gone away? . Ela foi embora ?
Presente
pé-da-letra” . 2°: Presença . She hasn’t gone . Ela não foi embora.
Has/have + verb
(conjugação do verbo principalmente: ou away. . 2°:
into 3rd column
“ter” no pres + outro do “for” ou do . 2°: . Ele tem trabalhado
verbo no particípio = “since”, podendo . He’s worked there lá por 10 anos.
terminação “ido” / ocorrer também os for 10 years. . Ele tem trabalhado
“ado”). demais citados acima. . Has he worked lá desde 1995?
there since 1995?
. Eu “ando”
. I’ve been writing a
escrevendo muito
lot lately!
ultimamente!
. Have you been
Presente contínuo Acontecimento ou Tradução não deve . Você “anda” lendo
reading much?
Has/have + been + fato que “anda” ser feita “ao-pé-da- muito?
. She hasn’t been
verb + “ing” acontecendo! letra”. . Ela não “anda”
doing anything
fazendo nada de
special on her
especial nas férias
holiday.
dela.
. When he got home, . Quando ele chegou
Descreve um his wife had already em casa, sua mulher
determinado fato slept. já tinha dormido.
passado que “When”, “already” e . She had never been . Ela nunca tinha ido
Passado
aconteceu em um “before” são muito to China before, it à China antes, foi sua
Had + verb into 3rd
outro passado ou empregados neste was her first time! primeira vez!
column
usado para descrever tempo verbal . Had he had this . Ele tinha tido isso
“dois passados”, um before? antes?
“dentro do outro”. . He hadn’t had it . Ele não tinha tido
before! isso antes!
. Eu “andei”
. I had been writing a escrevendo muito na
lot last week! semana passada!
Tradução aqui
Acontecimento ou . Had you been . Você “andou”
Passado contínuo também, como no
fato que “andava” reading much? lendo muito?
Had + been + verb presente contínuo,
acontecendo, mas . She hadn’t been . Ela não “andou”
+ “ing” não deve ser feita
não acontece mais! doing anything fazendo nada de
“ao-pé-da-letra”.
special on her especial nas férias
holiday. dela. (as férias dela
acabou!)
. When november . Quando dia 27 de
27th arrives, I’ll have novembro chegar, eu
Importante a
completed 29 years terei completado 29
presença de um
Acontecimento ou old! anos de idade!
Futuro complemento de
fato que acontecerá . Will she have . Ela terá chegado
Will + Have + verb tempo, que
em um futuro arrived here until the aqui até o trem ter
into 3rd column provavelmente vem
programado. train has gone away? ido embora?
com “when”,
. By the end of the . No final do ano, ele
“by the...” ou “until”.
year, he won’t have ainda não terá se
graduated yet! graduado.

p. 152
Revisão

Passe as frases para o inglês. “Put the sentences into English”


a) Ele tinha acabado de acordar quando sua mãe o chamou para tomar o café da manhã......................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
b) Ela já fez este exercício antes, mas não sabe quando. ..........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
c) Quando ele deixou seu emprego, ele já tinha trabalhado lá por dez anos. .................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
d) O garoto andava tendo muitos pesadelos, então, sua mãe o levou para ver um médico, agora, ele anda dormindo
bem..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
e) Quando o inverno chegar as formigas terão acabado de formarem seu estoque de comida.............................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
f) Ele nunca experimentou comida coreana antes. ......................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
g) Ele já experimentou comida coreana várias vezes..................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
h) Quando eles chegaram na estação de metrô, ele tinha acabado de passar................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
i) Ela ainda não foi embora, e ele, ele já foi embora? .................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
j) Lucia está muito elegante. Eu acho que ela anda fazendo muitos exercícios físicos.................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
k) Em agosto, o Alfred já terá terminado o seu mestrado em línguas. ...............................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
l) Até o final do ano, ele ainda será considerado como sendo o melhor corredor de formula 1.............................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
m) Eu nunca comi isto antes, e você, já tinha comido isto antes?.........................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
n) Em novembro, ele teria completado 10 anos de emprego se não tivesse sido demitido. ....................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
o) Ele não deveria ter dado um cheque em branco para sua esposa!.................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
p) Ela não poderia ter desconfiado em seu marido.....................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
r) Nós talvez tenhamos ainda tempo de mudarmos o modo com que tratamos a natureza....................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
s) Nós talvez não tínhamos sido instruídos adequadamente de como tratarmos a natureza...................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
t) Todos aqueles presidentes, não podiam ter estimulado tantas guerras........................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
u) Se as pessoas fossem mais exigentes, talvez pudéssemos escolher melhor nossos candidatos. .......................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
v) Talvez tenha sido mais fácil para a população, fechar os olhos para tantas mentiras.............................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
w) Deveria haver mais recursos para a educação em nosso país. .........................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
x) Poderia haver tido mais esforços para nossas crianças pobres.........................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
y) Haveria dinheiro em nosso país se os políticos tivessem mais honestidade. ..............................................................................

p. 153
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

WORKBOOK

p. 154
Lesson 1

1.1 - Complete the sentences with a lot of + one of these:

accidents books fun interesting things traffic

1 I like reading. I have a lot of books. .


2 We enjoyed our visit to the museum. We saw .
3 This road is very dangerous. There are .
4 We enjoyed our holiday. We had .
5 It took me a long time to drive here. There was .

1.2 - In some of these sentences much is not natural. Change the sentences or write OK.
1 Do you drink much coffee? .
2 I drink much tea. .
3 It was a cold winter. We had much snow. .
4 There wasn’t much snow last winter. .
5 It costs much money to travel around the world. .
6 We had a cheap holiday. It didn’t cost much. .
7 Do you know much about computers? .
8 ‘Have you got any luggage?’ ‘Yes, much.’ .

1.3 - Complete the sentences. Use very little or very few + one of these words:

coffee hotels mistakes people rain time work

1 Your English is very good. You make very few mistakes .


2 I drink .I don’t like it.
3 The weather here is very dry in summer. There is .
4 It’s difficult to find a place to stay in this town. There are .
'' 5 We must hurry. We’ve got .
6 The town is very quiet at night. go out.
7 Some people in the office are very lazy. They do .

1.4 - Put in little / a little / few / a few.

1 There was little food in the fridge. It was nearly empty.


2 ‘When did Sarah go out?’ ‘ minutes ago.’
3 I can’t decide now. I need time to think about it.
4 There was traffic, so we arrived earlier than we expected.
5 The bus service isn't very good at night. There are buses after 9 o'clock.
6 ‘Would you like some soup?’ ‘Yes, , please.’
7 I’d like to practise my English more but I have opportunity.

1.5 - Right or wrong? Correct the sentences where necessary. Write OK if the sentence is correct.

1 We’re going away (for few days) next week. for a few days .
2 Everybody needs little luck. .
3 I can’t talk to you now – I’ve got few things to do. .
4 I eat very little meat – I don’t like it very much. .
5 Excuse me, can I ask you few questions? .
6 There were little people on the bus - it was nearly empty. .

p. 155
Lesson 1

1.6 - Complete the sentences. Use too or enough with the words in brackets (. ..).

1 I couldn’t work. I was too tired. . (tired)


2 Can you turn the radio up, please? It isn’t loud enough. . (loud)
3 I don’t want to walk home. It’s (far)
4 Don’t buy anything in that shop. It’s (expensive)
5 You can’t put all your things in this bag. It (big)
6 I couldn’t do the exercise. It (difficult)
7 Your work needs to be better. It (good)
8 I can 't talk to you now. I (busy)
9 I thought the film was boring. It (long)

1.7 – Put in: Much / many / little / few / a lot of

a) Ana has got ____________ friends, and him, does he have ___________ friends?
b) They don’t usually spend ___________ of their time away. They usually enjoy even a __________ of their time!
c) Selma is a fantastic doctor, she’s got ____________ different good advice and she doesn’t hesitate to make
___________ of her pacients happy and satisfied. Congraulations Selma!
d) Rich people usually work ___________ hours a day, because __________ of their time, they are busy solving
____________ but important details about financial matters or ____________ money subjects too.
f) Loosing weight is an art. We should to balance ____________ food aspects and __________ psychological
aspects as well! We don’t get ____________ good results if we don’t do ___________ things as reduce the food and
exercise!
g) Yesterday, I ate so __________ pizza, that I think I got two extra kilos! First I ate a __________ peperonni, than,
some ___________ slices of cheese ones and finally __________ of banana as a deseart!
h) Alfred was going to do some grocery shopping, so his mom asked him: _ please my baby, bring me
_________ bread for us, and don’t save! Oh, and butter, __________ cheese, a small quantity please!

1.8 – Put in: Little / few / a little / a few

a) Tina is always in a hurry. She loves to be busy. She rarely gets ___________ time to herself to do nothing!
b) Top modeling careers are not just “flowers”. Sometimes they complaing they have only _________ minutes to
relax.
c) Lack of money it’s when someone has ___________ dollars. _________ money is never good!
d) Laura is a composer. She writes lots of popular songs but just __________ country ones. _________ music just
make everyone up!

1.9 – Complete the sentences using the quantity expressions, preferable associated with very / pretty / so /
too

a) _Why don’t you want me anymore? I love you _____________ !


_ Yes, I know. The problem is that you love me _____________ .
b) We should keep a “balance for life”, because everything ______________ or ____________ is negative!
c) Jussara, Zuleica and Tatty are ______________ nice people. Everybody loves them!
d) Candy and Ann are _____________ close sisters. They support each other ____________ .

p. 156
Lesson 2

2.1 - What are the things in the pictures? Write a...of ...for each picture. Use the words in the boxes.

bar cup loaf bread milk tea


bottle glass piece chocolate paper water
bowl jar piece honey soup wood
1 a bottle of milk. . 4 . 7 .
2 . 5 . 8 .
3 . 6 . 9 .

2.2 - Complete the sentences. Use some or any + one of these words:

air cheese letters photographs


batteries friends languages milk shampoo

1 I want to wash my hair. Is there any shampoo ?


2 This evening I'm going to write .
3 I haven’t got my camera, so I can’t take .
4 Do you speak foreign ?
5 Yesterday evening I went to a restaurant with of mine.
6 Can I have in my coffee, please?
7 The radio isn’t working. There aren’t in it.
8 It's hot in this office. I'm going out for fresh .
9 ‘Would you like ?’ ‘No, thank you. I’ve had enough to eat.’

2.3 - Complete the sentences. Use some or any.

1 Ann didn’t take any photographs but I took some ..(I/take)


2 ‘Where’s your luggage?’ ‘ I haven’t got any .’ (I/not/have)
3 ‘Do you need any money?’ ‘No, thank you .’(I/have)
4 ‘Can you lend me some money?’ ‘I’m sorry but .’ (I/not/have)
5 The tomatoes in the shop didn’t look very good, so (I/not/buy)
6 There were some nice oranges in the shop, so (I/buy)

2.4– Fill the gaps with one of the sixteen words as: Everybody, nobody, someone, somewhere, etc…

Matheus is on holiday, with his girlfriend Edy and money to spend. Now, he’s hungry, so he’ll go
___________ to eat _____________ , than he wants to do _____________ else but he’s not sure, maybe a movie or a
disco. That’s a terrible doubt for him becase ____________ to him sounds great! Fortunately his girlfriend is more
confident about decisions. She knows _____________ that will meet at a party, actually ____________ is going to be
there!

p. 157
Lesson 2

2.5 - Put in something/somebody/anything/anybody.

1 She said something to me but I didn’t understand it.


2 ‘What’s wrong?’ ‘There’s in my eye.’
3 Do you know about politics?
4 I went to the shop but I didn’t buy .
5 has broken the window. I don’t know who.
6 There isn’t in the bag. It’s empty.
7 I’m looking for my keys. Has seen them?
8 Would you like to drink?
9 I didn’t eat because I wasn't hungry.
10 This is a secret. Please don’t tell .

2.5 - Answer these questions with nobody/no-one or nothing.

1a What did you say? Nothing. . 5a Who knows the answer? .


2a Who saw you? Nobody. . 6a What did you buy? .
3a What do you want? . 7a What happened? .
4a Who did you meet? . 8a Who was late? .

Now answer the same questions with full sentences.


Use nobody/no-one/nothing or anybody/anyone/anything.

1b I didn’t say anything. . 5b the answer.


2b Nobody saw me. . 6b .
3b I don’t . 7b .
4b I . 8b .

2.6- Complete the sentences. Use nobody/no-one/nothing/anybody/anyone/anything.

1 That house is empty. Nobody .lives there.


2 Jack has a bad memory. He can’t remember anything ..
3 Be quiet! Don’t say .
4 I didn’t know about the meeting. told me.
5 ‘What did you have to eat?’ ‘ . I wasn’t hungry.’
6 I didn’t eat .I wasn’t hungry.
7 Jenny was sitting alone. She wasn’t with .
8 I’m afraid I can’t help you. There’s I can do.
9 I don’t know about car engines.
10 The museum is free. It doesn’t cost to go in.
11 I heard a knock on the door but when I opened it there was there.
12 She spoke very fast. I didn’t understand .
13 ‘What are you doing this evening?’ ‘ . Why?’
14 Helen has gone away. knows where she is. She didn’t tell
where she was going.

p. 158
Lesson 3

3.1 - Write Questions with How ...?

1 Are you 1 metre 70? 1.75? 1.80? How tall are you? .
2 Is this box one kilogram? Two? Three? .
3 Are you 20 years old? 22? 25? .
4 Did you spend £10? £15? £20? .
5 Do you watch TV every day? Once a week? Never?
.
6 Is it 1000 miles from Paris to Moscow? 1500? 2000?
.

3.2 - Look at the pictures and write questions with How long …?

1 How Long does it take by plane from London to Amsterdam? .


2 .
3 .
4 .

3.3 - Write questions with How long did it take ...?

1 (She found a place to live.) How long did it take her to find a place to live? .
2 (I walked to the station.) you .
3 (He cleaned the windows.) .
4 (I learnt to ski.) .
5 (They repaired the car.) .

3.4 – Complete with how + one of the most suitable auxiliary verbs or auxiliaries in each situation

a) ____________ Susan go to work? _ By car.


b) ____________ Susan today? _ She’s pretty fine, I guess.
c) ____________ Susan make this delicious apple pie? _ I have no idea! I think she bought it!
d) ____________ Susan do to have this incredible look? _ I know she’s got a natural beauty, she works out a lot,
eats properly and she’s got her own personal fashion style! Oh, I forgot, She very rich too!
e) _______intelligent_______ Susan? _ She’s a genious!
f) _____________ Susan got so many friends? _ Oh, it’s because she’s very friendly and easygoing!

p. 159
Lesson 4

4.1 - Make questions with who or what (subject or object).

4.2 - You want the missing information (XXXXX). Write questions with who or what.

4.3 – Traslate the sentences into English


a) Quem foi comprar refrigerante?.........................................................................................................................................................
b) Com quem ele foi comprar refrigerante? .......................................................................................................................................
c) Eu não fui lá ontem!.................................................................................................................................................................................
d) Não fui eu!...................................................................................................................................................................................................
e) Quando ela começa a trabalhar? .......................................................................................................................................................
f) Como ele gosta dela? ..............................................................................................................................................................................

p. 160
Lesson 4

4.4 - You want missing information (XXXXX). Write questions with who or what.

4.5 - Make questions with who or what.

4.6 – Put the sentences into interrogative, first, without the object boldfaced one and than without the subject
a) Martin had an excellent job in Germany in 2001.
Object question: .............................................................................................................................................................................................
Subject Question:...........................................................................................................................................................................................
b) Martin had an excellent job in Germany in 2001.
Object question: .............................................................................................................................................................................................
c) Martin had an excellent job in Germany in 2001.
Object question: .............................................................................................................................................................................................
d) Martin had got an excellent job in Germany in 2001.
Object question: .............................................................................................................................................................................................
e) Martin and Silvia had a problem at their job in 2001.
Object question: .............................................................................................................................................................................................
Subject Question:...........................................................................................................................................................................................
f) Juliana and Marcela are one of the best lawyers in Brazil.
Object question: .............................................................................................................................................................................................
Subject Question:...........................................................................................................................................................................................
g) Giovana and Flavio love to be travelling.
Object question: .............................................................................................................................................................................................
Subject Question:...........................................................................................................................................................................................
h) Giovana and Flavio love to be travelling at Bahia.
Object question: .............................................................................................................................................................................................

p. 161
Lesson 5

5.1 - Look at the pictures and complete the sentences.

1 Dan persuaded me to go to the cinema. .


2 I wanted to get to the station. A woman told .
3 Brian Wasn’t well. I advised .
4 Linda had a lot of luggage. She asked .
5 I was busy. I told .
6 I wanted to make a phone call. Paul let .
7 Sue is going to phone later. I told .
8 Ann’s mother taught .

5.2 - Complete the answers to the questions.

5.3 - Complete these sentences. Write about yourself. Use to… or –ing.
1 I enjoy .
2 I don’t like .
3 If it’s a nice day tomorrow, I’d like .
4 When I’m on holiday, I like .
5 I don’t mind but .
6 I wouldn’t like .

5.4 - Complete the sentences. Use without -ing.


(Tom left / he didn't say goodbye) Tom left without saying goodbye. .
(Sue walked past me / she didn’t speak) Sue walked .
(Don’t do anything / ask me first) Don’t .
(I went out / I didn’t lock the door) I .

p. 162
Lesson 5

5.5 - Put to when necessary


a) Margaret rarely let her 18 years-old daughter __________ (go out) at night.
b) Elizabeth doesn’t like to do the houseworks, except ____________ (do) the dishes.
c) She had decided what to do on her vacation. First _________ (do) nothing, second __________ (do) nothing and
than finally __________ (do) a litlle bit more nothing. How you can see, she’ll _________ (be) pretty busy!
d) When you invite a teacher ___________ (explain) a subject to you, he or she will teach you how __________
(understand) this focused subject, and help you ____________ (figure out) what you need.

– Make a list of your own using:

. Four verbs you need “ing” (the second verb)


. Four verbs you need “to” (between the verbs)
. Four verbs you can choose either.
. Four vebs followed by a non verb

You should contextualize these verbs into sentences! (Do them! Don’t be lazzy!)

.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

p. 163
Lesson 6

6.1 - Write the opposite

1 younger older . 4 better .


2 colder . 5 nearer .
3 cheaper . 6 easier

6.2 - Complete the sentences. Use a comparative.


1 Helen’s car isn't very big. She wants a bigger one.
2 My job isn’t very interesting. I want to do something more interesting .
3 You’re not very tall. Your brother is .
4 David doesn’t work very hard. I work ..
5 My chair isn’t very comfortable. Yours is ..
6 Your plan isn’t very good. My plan is ..
7 These flowers aren’t very nice. The blue ones are ..
8 My bag isn’t very heavy. Your bag is ..
9 I’m not very interested in art. I’m .in history.
10 It isn’t very warm today. It was .yesterday.
11 These tomatoes don’t taste very good. The other ones tasted ..
12 Britain isn’t very big. France is ..
13 London isn’t very beautiful. Paris is ..
14 This knife isn’t very sharp. Have you got a .one?
15 People today aren’t very polite. In the past they were ..

6.3 - Complete the sentences. Use than.

1 He isn’t very tall. You ‘re taller than him. (OR …than he is.) .
2 She isn’t very old. You’re .
3 I don’t work very hard. You work .
4 He doesn’t watch TV very much. You .
5 I’m not a very good cook. You .
6 We don’t know many people. You .
7 They haven’t got much money. You .
8 I can’t run very fast. You can .
9 She hasn’t been here very long. You .
10 They didn't get up very early. You .
11 He wasn’t very surprised. You .

6.4 - Use the information to complete the sentences about Julia, Andrew and Caroline. Use the same age /
the same street etc.

p. 164
Lesson 6

6.5 - Look at the pictures and write sentences about A, B and C.

1 A is bigger than C but not as big as B.


2 A is B but not C.
3 C is A but .
4 A is but .
5 B has got ..
6 C works .

6.6 - Complete the sentences. Use a superlative (the oldest etc.).

1 This building is very old. It’s the oldest building in the town.
2 It was a very happy day. It was of my life.
3 It’s a very good film. It's .I’ve ever seen.
4 She’s a very popular singer. She’s . in the country.
5 It was a very bad mistake. It was .I’ve ever made.
6 It’s a very pretty village. It’s . I’ve ever seen.
7 It was a very cold day. It was .of the year.
8 He’s a very boring person. He’s . I’ve ever met.

6.7 - Write sentences with a superlative (the longest etc.).

1 Sydney is the largest city in Australia. .


2 Everest .
3 .
4 ..
5 .
6 .

p. 165
Lesson 7

7.1 - Answer with So … I (so am I / So do I / so can I etc.).

Answer with Neither.

7.2 - You are talking to Maria. Write true sentences about yourself. Where possible, use So … I or Neither …
I. Look at there examples carefully.

p. 166
Lesson 7

7.3 - Complete the sentences for the pictures. Use Both… and Neither….

7.4 - Write sentences with both and all.

7.5 – Put in: so/too /neither/either or do,does,did,am,is,was,etc…


a) Fabiana loves shopping and Edinho loves _____________ .
b) Paula can cook and Anderson can _____________ .
c) His father is not a farmer and his mom is not a farmer ____________ .
d) I can’t ride a horse but my sister ___________ .
e) ___________ his father nor his uncle are from Paris. They both are from Milan.
f) They weren’t happy about the party and ___________ was he.
g) Paula couldn’t come to the party and Alice couldn’t ______________ .
h) Susan and Barbara are friends and ___________ are Ana and Gicele.
i) Marcelo can ride a motorcicycle as no one else but his brother _____________ .

7.6 – Complete the sentences with: neither / neither ... nor / either / either ... or / both use of if necessary
a) Patty and Tom didn’t know how to get there because ______________ them had a map.
b) Patty and Tom didn’t get late at their appointment because _____________ them had a watch and they were
careful.
c) ____________ Patty ___________ Tom are American. They’re from Britain. So, _____________ are British.
d) To learn how to deal with money is very easy. __________ you can get it easly.
e) _____________ my pets like cats. They are dogs!
f) __________ Patty makes money ________ She will have to ask her mom some.
g) __________ men and women make the whole, but _________ can be total withot each other!

p. 167
Lesson 8

8.1 - Complete the sentences with a verb from the list.

break buy decide finish forget go go invite see not/see take tell

1 ‘Can I have this newspaper?’ Yes, I’ve finished .with it’.


2 I some new shoes. Do you want to see them?
3 ‘Where is Liz?’ ‘She , out.’
4 I’m looking for Paula. you her?
5 Look! Somebody that window.
6 ‘Does Lisa know that you're going away?’ ‘Yes, I her.’
7 I can't find my umbrella. Somebody it.
8 I’m looking for Sarah. Where she ?
9 I know that woman but I her name.
10 Sue is having a party tonight. She a lot of people.
11 What are you going to do? you ?
12 ‘Where are my glasses?’ ‘1 don’t know. I them.’

8.2 - Look at the pictures and complete the sentences. Your sentence must end with one of these:
for ten minutes all day all her life for ten years since he was 20 since Sunday

1 They have been married for ten years. .


2 She . .
3 They .
4 The sun .
5 She .
6 He .

8.3 - Right or wrong? Correct the verbs that are wrong. (The verbs are underlined.)
1 I’ve lost my key. I can’t find it. RIGHT .
2 Have you seen Ann yesterday? WRONG: Did you see .
3 I’ve finished my work at 2 o’clock. .
4 I’m ready now. I’ve finished my work. .
5 What time have you finished your work? .
6 Sue isn’t here. She’s gone out. .
7 Jim’s grandmother has died in 1989 .
8 Where have you been last night? .

p. 168
Lesson 8

8.4 - Write for or since.


1 Jill has been in Ireland since Monday.
2 Jill has been in Ireland for three days.
3 My aunt has lived in Australia 15 years.
4 Margaret is in her office. She has been there 7 o’clock.
5 India has been an independent country 1947.
6 The bus is late. We've been waiting 20 minutes.
7 Nobody lives in those houses. They have been empty many years.
8 Mike has been ill a long time. He has been in hospital October.

8.5 - Put in is/are/was/were/have/has.


1 Joe has lost his passport. 6I just made some coffee. Would
2 This bridge built ten years ago. you like some?
3 you finished your work? 7 Glass made from sand.
4 This town is always clean. The streets 8 This is a very old photograph.
cleaned every day. It taken a long time ago.
5 Where you born? 9 Joe bought a new car.

8.6 - Write three sentences for each situation. Look at the example carefully.

8.7 – Put in: Until / since / for / already / still / yet


a) Frederic and Gustav have been good friends ___________ 1976, but __________ 5 years, they haven’t been in
touch at all. Frederic __________ has some difficulty stabilishing contacts, ___________ his time of youth he was
like that. Justav is quite different from him. Gustav has ___________ called Frederic but no noe answered!
b) Alessandra has lived in USA ___________ three years but she doesn’t have the “green card” _________ . She’s
___________ tried before, but __________ now no positive results!
c) When Richard’s mom ask him if he’s ____________ chosen his career, he answers: _ Mom, not _________ . His
mom gets nervous because ___________ the second time, he ____________ haven’t decided ___________ the date of
the questionaire of his enrollment paper was supposed to be handled back to the universty registration office.

p. 169
Lesson 8

8.8 - Read the information about these people and complete the sentences. Use form… to/until/since.

1 (Alex / Canada / 1982 -1990) Alex lived in Canada from 1982 to 1990. .
2 (Alex / Canada / → 1990) Alex lived in Canada 1990.
3 (Alex / England / 1990 → ) Alex has lived in England .
4 (Alice / France / →1991) Alice lived in .
5 (Alice / Switzerland / 1991→) Alice has lived in .
6 (Carol / a hotel/ 1990 -1993) Carol worked 1990 .
7 (Carol / a restaurant / 1993 →) Carol has worked .
8 (Gerry / a teacher / 1983 -1989) Gerry was a .
9 (Gerry / a salesman / 1989 →) Gerry has been .

Now write sentences with for.

10 (Alex / Canada) Alex lived in Canada for eight years. .


11 (Alex / England) Alex has lived in England .
12 (Alice / Switzerland) Alice has .
13 (Carol / a hotel) Carol worked .
14 (Carol / restaurant) Carol .
15 (Gerry / a teacher) Gerry .
16 (Gerry / a salesman) Gerry .

8.9 - Make sentences with How long. Follow the model


Cristina is on strike. How long has Cristina been on strike?
a) He’s an artist and she’s a singer.
b) She knows “Fernada Montenegro”.
c) They are on holiday.
e) The students are learning English.

8.10 - Make sentences with Have … ever. Follow the model


(She / Spain). Has she ever been in Spain (before)?
a) (Adriano / try parachute). .
b) (Frederico / break his arm). .
c) (Sergio / fall in love truthfully). .
d) (Marina / eat Chinese food). .
e) (Daniela / Australia). .
f) (Luciana / visit a foregn country). .

p. 170
Lesson 9

9.1 - Write a sentence with just for each picture.

1 They’ve just arrived. . 3 They .


2 He . 4 The race .

9.2 - Write a sentence with just (They’ve just…/ She’s just… etc.) or a negative sentence with yet (They
haven’t… yet / She hasn’t… yet etc.).

9.3 - Read the situations and write sentences ending with before. Use the verb given in brackets.
1 The man sitting next to me on the plane was very nervous. It was his first flight.
(fly) He hadn’t flown before. .
2 A woman walked into the room. She was a complete stranger to me.
(see) I before.
3 Simon played tennis yesterday. He wasn't very good at it because it was his first game.
(play) He .
4 Last year we went to Denmark. It was our first time there.
(be) We .

p. 171
Lesson 9

9.4 - Use the sentences on the left to complete the paragraphs on the right. These sentences are in the order
in which they happened - so (1) happened before (2), (2) before (3) etc. But your paragraph begins with
the underlined sentence, sometimes you need the past perfect.

1 (1) Somebody broke into the office We arrived at work in the morning and
during the night found that somebody had broken into
(2) We arrived at work in the morning. the office during the night. So
(3) We called the police. We .

2 (1) Ann went out. I tried to phone Ann this morning but
(2) I tried to phone her this morning. no answer. She
(3) There was no answer. out.

3 (1) Jim came back from holiday a few I met Jim a few days ago. He just
days ago. .
(2) I met him the same day. He .
(3) He looked very well.

4 (1) Kevin wrote to Sally many times. Yesterday Kevin .


(2) She never replied to his letters. He very surprised. He
(3) Yesterday he had a phone call from her. many times but she
(4) He was very surprised. .

9.5 - Make sentences. Follow the model

(Alice / arrive at the bank / close). Wh


When Alice arrived at the bank, it had already closed.
(Alice / never go to the bank). Alice had never gone to the bank before.

a) (Pedro / sign a check / very first time). ............................................................................................................................................


b) (Carol / finish her exam / the alarm sound)...................................................................................................................................
c) (Lu / write the book / the editor call her)........................................................................................................................................
d) (Paulo / never buy a car). ......................................................................................................................................................................
e) (Sally / leave home / her mom arrives at home)..........................................................................................................................
f) (Renata and Victor / watch the movie again).................................................................................................................................

9.6 – Take conclusions using before according the model

A man looks at a Japonese menu and knows nothing. He had never eaten Japanese food before.

a) John gets completely lost in a small city he’s visiting................................................................................................................


b) Jordan is a terrible volleyball player and he doesn’t know the rules...................................................................................
c) Last month we went to Australia. It was our first time there...................................................................................................
d) A woman knew how to withdraw money from a moneymachine. .......................................................................................
e) Lucas was quite embarrassed at his girlfriend’s home. He didn’t know her parents. ...................................................

10.1 - What have these people been doing or what has been happening?
p. 172
Lesson 10

10.2 - Read the situations and complete the sentences.

1 We played tennis yesterday. Half an hour after we began playing, it started to rain.
We had been playing for half an hour when it started to rain .
2 I had arranged to meet Tom in a restaurant. I arrived and waited for him. After 20 minutes I suddenly
realised that I was in the wrong restaurant.
I for 20 minutes when I .
.
3 Sarah got a job in a factory. Five years later the factory closed down.
At the time the factory , Sarah .
there for five years.
4 I went to a concert last week. The orchestra began playing. After about ten minutes a man in the audience
suddenly began shouting.
The orchestra when .
5 This time make your own sentence:
I began walking along the road. I . when
………………………………………………………….

10.3 - Put the verb into the most suitable form, past continuous (I was doing), past perfect (I had
done) or past perfect continuous (I had been doing).

1 It was very noisy next door. Our neighbours were having (have) a party.
2 We were good friends. We had known (know) each other for a long time.
3 John and I went for a walk. I had difficulty keeping up with him because he
(walk) so fast.
4 Mary was sitting on the ground. She was out of breath. She . (run).
5 When I arrived, everybody was sitting round the table with their mouths full. They
(eat) .
6 When I arrived, everybody was sitting round the table and talking. Their mouths were empty but their
stomachs were full. They (eat).
7 Jim was on his hands and knees on the floor. He (look) for his contact lens.
8 When I arrived, Kate (wait) for me. She was rather annoyed with me because I
was late and she (wait) for a very long time.
9 I was sad when I sold my car. I (have) it for a very long time.
10 We were extremely tired at the end of the journey. We (travel) for more than 24
hours.

p. 173
Lesson 11

11.1 - Make sentences from the words in brackets. Use the present perfect or past simple.
1 (it / not / rain / this week) It hasn’t rained this week. .
2 (the weather / be / cold / recently) The weather .
3 (it / cold / last week) It .
4 (I / not / read / a newspaper yesterday) I .
5 (I/ not / read / a newspaper today) .
6 (Ann / earn / a lot of money / this year) .
7 (she / not / earn / so much / last year) .

11.2 - What has happened in these situations?


1 Jack had a beard. Now he hasn't got a beard. He has shaved off his beard. ,.
2 Linda was here five minutes ago. Now she’s in bed. She .
3 The temperature was 25 degrees. Now it is only 17. The temperature

4 The light was off. Now it is on. Somebody) .


5 The tree was only three metres high. Now it is four. The tree .
6 The plane was on the runway a few minutes ago. Now it is in the air.
The plane .

11.3 - Read the situations and write questions from the words in brackets.
1 John tells you that his mother is in hospital. You ask him:
(how long / be / in hospital?) How long has your mother been in hospital? .
2 You meet a woman who tells you that she teaches English. You ask her:
(how long / teach / English? ) :
3 You know that Jane is a good friend of Carol’s. You ask Jane:
(how long / know / Carol?) ,
4 Your friend's brother went to Australia some time ago and he's still there. You ask your friend: (how long /
be / in Australia?) ……………..
5 Tim always wears the same jacket. It's a very old jacket. You ask him:
(how long / have / that jacket?) :
6 You are talking to a friend about Alan. Alan now works at the airport. You ask your friend: (how long /
work / at the airport?) .
7 A friend of yours is having driving lessons. You ask him:
(how long / have / driving lessons?) .
8 You meet somebody on a train. She tells you that she lives in Glasgow. You ask her: (always / live / in
Glasgow?) .

11.4 - For each situation, ask a question using the words in brackets.
1 You have a friend who is learning Arabic. You ask:
(how long / learn / Arabic?) How long have you been learning Arabic? .
2 You have just arrived to meet a friend. She is waiting for you. You ask:
(how long / wait?) .
3 You see somebody fishing by the river. You ask:
(how many fish / catch?) .
4 Some friends of yours are having a party next week. You ask: (how many people / invite?)
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
5 A friend of yours is a teacher. You ask:
(how long / teach?) .
6 You meet somebody who is a writer. You ask:
(how many books / write?) .
(how long / write / books?) .

p. 174
Lesson 11

7 A friend of yours is saving money to go on holiday. You ask:


(how long / save?) .
(how much money / save? ) :

11.5 - Put the verb into the more suitable form, present perfect simple (I have done etc.) or continuous (I
have been doing etc.).

1 Where have you been? Have you been playing (you/play) tennis?
2 Look! Somebody (break) that window.
3 You look tired. (you/work) hard?
4 ‘ (you/ever/work) in a factory?’ ‘No, never .’
5 ‘Jane is away on holiday.’ ‘Oh, is she? Where (she/go)?
6 My brother is an actor. He (appear) in several films.
7 ‘Sorry I’m late.’ ‘That’s all right. I (not/wait) long.
8 ‘Is it still raining?’ ‘No, it (Stop) .
9 I (lose) my address book: (you/see) it anywhere?
10 I (read) the book you lent me but I (not/finish) it yet.
11 I , (read) the book you lent me, So you can have it back now.

11.6 - Make meaningful sentences, follow the model.

Camila started writing her report 20 minutes ago. She’s still writing now.
She has been writing it for 20 minutes.

a) It’s 9 o’clock now. We started to watch a movie an hour ago................................................................................................


...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
b) Yesterday I did my exam. Until this, I was studying as a crazy! .............................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
c) Fernanda is studying 12 hours a day recently...............................................................................................................................
d) She got at 1:30 at the bus stop and the bus got at 2................................................................................................................
e) Stella used to feel terrible pains in her finger until she did a surgery.................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
f) Marcos and Tom haven`t believed about their choice…… ........................................................................................................
g) She started to be a member of the “BDV” in 1998. She’s still a member ..........................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
h) Farias started to write to a penfriend long ago up to now. ....................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

p. 175
Lesson 12

12.1 - Which is right?


1 If I’m / I’ll be late this evening, don’t wait for me. I’m is right
2 Will you write to me if I give / I’ll give you my address?
3 If there is /will be a fire, the alarm will ring.
4 If I don’t see you tomorrow morning, I phone / I’ll phone you in the evening.
5 I’m / I’ll be surprised if Martin and Julia get / will get married.
6 Do you go / Will you go to the party if they invite / they’ll invite you?

12.2 - Use your own ideas to complete these sentences.


1 I'm going to the concert if I can get a ticket. .
2 If you don’t hurry you’ll miss the train. .
3 I don’t want to go swimming if .
4 If you go to bed early tonight, .
5 Turn the television off if .
6 Tina won't pass her exams if .
7 If I have time tomorrow, .
8 We can go to the beach tomorrow if .

12.3 - Put the verb in the correct form.


1 If he had the money, he would buy a fast car. (he/have)
2 Jane likes living in a city. happy if she lived in the country. (she/not/be)
3 If I wanted to learn Italian, to Italy. (I/go)
4 I haven’t told Ann what happened. She’d be angry if . (she/know)
5 If a map, I could show you where I live. (we/have)
6 What would you do if a lot of money? (you/win)
7 It's not a very good hotel. there if I were you. (I/not/stay)
8 If nearer London, we would go there more often. (we/live)
9 It's a pity you have to go now. nice if you had more time. (it/be)
10 I’m not going to take the job. I’d take it if better. (the salary /be)
11 I don’t know anything about cars. If the car broke down, what to do. (I/not/know)
12 If you could change one thing in the world, what ? (you/change)

12.4 - Complete the sentences. Use your own ideas.


1 I’d go to the dentist if I had a toothache. .
2 If I could go anywhere in the world, .
3 I wouldn’t be very happy if .
4 I’d buy a house if .
5 If I saw an accident in the street, .
6 The world would be a better place if .

12.5 - Write a sentence with if for each situation.


1 I wasn’t hungry, so I didn’t eat anything.
If I’d been hungry, I would have eaten something. .
2 The accident happened because the driver in front stopped so suddenly.
If the driver in front .
3 I didn’t know that George had to get up early, so I didn’t wake him up.
If I ..
4 I was able to buy the car only because Jim lent me the money.
..
5 Margaret wasn't injured in the crash because she was wearing a seat belt.
...

p. 176
Lesson 12

6 You didn’t have any breakfast – that’s why you’re hungry now.
..
4 I didn’t get a taxi because I didn’t have any money on me.
..

12.6 – Complete the conditional sentences

a) If Morgan wins the lottery, he _____________ a car. (buy)


b) If Morgan won the lottery, he _____________ a car. (buy)
c) If Morgan had won the lottery, he _____________ a car. (buy)
d) Morgan bought a car, although he _______________ it. (like)
e) Morgan ______________ a car whether his wife wants or not. (buy)
f) Morgan ______________ a car, unless his money is not enough yet. (buy)
g) Morgan ______________ a car, if his wife hadn’d spent all his money on nothing! (buy)
h) Morgan ______________ a car, if his wife allowed him to do it. (buy)
i) Morgan ______________ a car if he wants. (buy)

12.7 – Complete the gaps using the information in brackets, putting the verb into the correct form

a) Sally is in bed. If ________________ (I / Know) she was in bed, I ______________ (visit / she)
b) Don’t worry, I do appreciate talking to you! If I ______________ (enjoy / you) I’d not stay long with you.
c) He ordered an expensive but awful meal from a restaurant. If he _______________ (the place / sell) such bad
dishes, he ______________ never called a delivery service.
d) The movie was just fine, but the man in front of her was too big. If she knew the cinema was so full she
______________ (go / watch the film). If she _______________ (has / crystal ball) ______________ (stay / home)
e) The party started at 9. John got there at 10. If he _______________ (get / party) at 8, he _________________ too
early (arrive).
f) If Sally had heard her mom before, she _______________ (break up / boyfriend), he was really bad to her.
g) He’s not sad. If he __________________ (upset), he’d take some anti-depressive pills, or ____________________ (he
/ have some psychological support).
h) Our holiday could have be better if ______________________ (the weather / sunny), but anyway we had fun! We
could be indoor playing cards and chatting a lot.

12.8 – Create three sentences of each verb tense style, on your own, using the conditional you’ve just lernt.
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

p. 177
Lesson 13

13.1 - Write your own sentences beginning I wish... .

1 (somewhere you’d like to be now - on the beach, in New York, in bed etc.)
I wish I ..
2 (something you’d like to have - a computer, a job, lots of money etc.)
..
3 (something you’d like to be able to do - sing, speak a language, fly etc.)
..
4 (something you’d like to be - beautiful, strong, rich etc.)

13.2 - Imagine that you are in these situations. For each situation, write a sentence with I wish... .

1 You’ve eaten too much and now you feel sick. ,


You say: I wish I hadn’t eaten so much. .
2 There was a job advertised in the newspaper. You decided not to apply for it. Now you think that your
decision was wrong.
You say: I wish I .
3 When you were younger, you didn't learn to play a musical instrument. Now you regret this. You say:
.
4 You’ve painted the gate red. Now you think that it doesn't look very nice.
You say: .
5 You are walking in the country. You would like to take some photographs but you didn’t bring your
camera. You say: .
6 You have some unexpected guests. They didn't tell you they were coming. You are very busy and you are
not prepared for them.
You say (to yourself): .

13.3 - What do you say in these situations? Write sentences with I wish... would... .

1 It’s raining. You want to go out, but not in the rain. You say: I wish it would stop raining.
2 You’re waiting for John. He’s late and you're getting impatient.
You say (to yourself): I wish .
3 You can hear a baby crying and you're trying to study.
You say: .
4 You’re looking for a job - so far without success. Nobody will give you a job.
You say: I wish somebody .
5 Brian has been wearing the same clothes for years. You think he needs some new clothes.
You say (to Brian): .
For the following situations, write sentences with I wish... wouldn’t... .
6 Your friend drives very fast. You don’t like this.
You say (to your friend): I wish you .
7 Jack always leaves the door open. This annoys you.
You say (to Jack): ..
8 A lot of people drop litter in the street. You don't like this.
You say: I wish people .

p. 178
Lesson 14

14.1 - Write sentences from the words in brackets ( ...). Sentences 1- 7 are present.

1 (the office / clean / every day) The office is cleaned every day. .
2 (these rooms / clean / every day?) Are these rooms cleaned every day? .
3 (glass / make / form sand) Glass .
4 (stamps / sell / in a post office) .
5 (this room / not / use / very often) .
6 (we / allow / to park here?) .
7 (how / this word / pronounce?) .
Sentences 8-15 are past.
8 (the office / clean / yesterday) This office was cleaned yesterday. .
9 (the house / paint last month) The house .
10 (three people / injure / in the accident) .
11 (my bicycle / steal / a few days ago) .
12 (when / this bridge / build?) .
13 (you / invite / to the party last week?) .
14 (how / these windows / break?) .
15 (I / not / wake up / by the noise) .

14.2 - Complete the sentences. Use the passive (present or past) of these verbs:

elean damage find give invite make make show steal take

1 The room is cleaned . every day.


2 I saw an accident yesterday. Two people were taken to hospital.
3 Paper from wood.
4 There was a fire at the hotel last week. Two of the rooms .
5 ‘Where did you get this picture?’ ‘It to me by a friend of mine.’
6 Many American programmes on British television.
7 ‘Did Jim and Sue go to the wedding?’ ‘No. They but they didn’t go.’
8 ‘How old is this film?’ ‘It in 1965.’
9 My car last week but the next day it by the police.

14.3 - Complete the sentences. Use could or could have + a suitable verb.

1 A: What shall we do this evening? B: I don’t mind. We could go to the cinema.


2 A: I had a very boring evening at home yesterday.
B: Why did you stay at home? You to the cinema.
3 A: There’s an interesting job advertised in the paper. You for it.
B: What sort of job is it? Show me the advertisement.
4 A: Did you go to the concert last night?
B: No. We but we decided not to.
5 A: Where shall we meet tomorrow?
B: Well, I to your house if you like.

p. 179
Lesson 14

14.4 - Look at the pictures. What is happening or what has happened? Use the present continuous (is/are
being…) or the present perfect (has/have been…).

1 (the office / clean) The office is being cleaned. .


2 (the shirts / iron) The shirts have ironed. .
3 (the window / break) The window .
4 (the roof / repair) The roof .
5 (the car / damage) .
6 (the houses / knock / down) .
7 (the trees / cut / down) .
8 (they / invite / to a party) .

14.5 - Complete the sentences with a verb in the correct form.


1 I’ve lost one of my gloves. I must have dropeed it somewhere.
2 They haven’t lived here for long. They can’t know many people.
3 Ted isn’t at work today. He must ill.
4 Ted wasn’t at work last week. He must ill.
5 (The doorbell rings) I wonder who that is. It can’t Mary. She’s still at work at this time.
6 Carol knows a lot about films. She must to the cinema a lot.
7 Look. Jack is putting on his hat and coat. He must out.
8 I left my bike outside the house last night and this morning it isn't there any more. Somebody must
it.
9 Ann was in a very difficult situation. It can’t easy for her.
10 There is a man walking behind us. He has been walking behind us for the last 20 minutes. He must
us.

14.6 – Put the sentences from active to the passive voice, hiding by when possible.
a) The vets caught three big tigers on the middle of Africa to exam them, last week. .....................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
b) Jessica and Margaret told their teacher Thomas that they didn’t understand the subjects at all...........................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
c) Big trucks can transport heavy loads in their trunks. .................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
d) Paul has been studying maths for his exam next neek hardly, he needs to be approved..........................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
e) Paul is studying maths now. He has an exam next week. ........................................................................................................
f) They had cancelled the flight becouse the weather was very foggy. ...................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
g) People won’t forget our national hero “Ayrton Senna”. ...........................................................................................................
h) They have changed the day of that important appointment. ................................................................................................

p. 180
Lesson 15

15.1 - Look at the pictures and complete the sentences with a preposition.

15.2 - Complete the sentences. Use out/away/back etc.

1 ‘What happened to the picture on the wall?’ ‘It fell down .’


2 Please don’t go ! Stay here with me.
3 She heard a noise behind her, so she looked .
4 I’m going now to do some shopping. I’ll be at 5 o’clock.
5 I’m feeling very tired. I’m going to lie on the sofa.
6 When you have read this page, turn and read the other side.
7 Jim is from Canada. He lives in London now but he wants to go to Canada.
8 We haven’t got a key to the house, so we can’t get .
9 I was very tired this morning. I couldn’t get .
10 Ann is going on holiday next month. She’s going on the 5th and coming
on the 24th.

15.3 - Look at the pictures. What did these people do?

p. 181
Lesson 15

15.4 - Complete the sentences. Use a verb from the box + on/off/up etc. If necessary, put the verb
into the correct form. Ali these phrasal verbs (wake up etc.) are in Appendix 6.

break fall give slow take + on/off/up/down/over


carry get hold speak wake

1 I went to sleep at 10 o’clock and woke up at eight o’clock the next morning.
2 It’s time to go.’ ‘ a minute. I’m not ready yet.’
3 The train and finally stopped.
4 I like flying but I’m always nervous when the plane .
5 How was your exam? How did you ?
6 It’s difficult to hear you. Can you a little?
7 This car isn’t very good. It has many times.
8 When babies try to walk, they sometimes .
9 I told him to stop but he .Perhaps he didn’t hear me.
10 I tried to find a job but I . It was impossible.

15.5 – You can write these sentences in three different ways. Complete the table.

15.6 – Complete the sentences. Use one of the verbs in the list + it/them.
bring pick switch take turn (+ on/off/up/back)

1 I wanted to watch something on television, so I turned it on. .


2 I bought a lamp but it doesn’t work. I'm going to to the shop.
3 There were some gloves on the floor, so I and put them on the table.
4 When I finished working on the computer, I .
5 Thank you for lending me these books. I won’t forget to .

15.7 - Complete the sentences. Choose from the boxes

1 They knocked ten house down (OR down ten houses) .when they built the new road.
2 That music is very loud. Can you turn it down ?
3 I knocked and broke it.
4 If you want to know what a word means, you can look in a dictionary.
5 I want to keep these magazines. Please don’t throw .
6 Somebody gave me a form and told me to fill .
7 I tried in the shop but I didn’t buy them.
8 I visited the school. One of the teachers showed .
9 ‘Do you play the piano?’ ‘No, I started to learn but I gave after a month.’
10 You’re not allowed to smoke here. Please put .

p. 182
Lesson 16

16.1 - Use the pictures to complete the sentences.

1 I met Diane last week. She said she was enjoying her new job. .
2 Betty didn’t want anything to eat. She said .
3 I wanted to borrow Mike’s ladder but he said .
4 Sally was invited to the party but she said .
5 Sharon told me she didn’t want the picture. She said .
6 Martin has just gone away on holiday. He said .
7 I was looking for Robert. Linda said .
8 ‘Why did Steve stay at home?’ ‘He said ’
9 ‘Has Mary gone out?’ ‘I think so. She said ’

16.2 - Somebody says something to you which is the opposite of what they said before. Write a
suitable answer beginning I thought you said... .

1 A: That restaurant is expensive.


B: Is it? I thought you said it was cheap. .
2 A: Ann is coming to the party tonight.
B: Is she? I thought you said she .
3 A: Ann likes Paul.
B: Does she? I thought .
4 A: I know lots of people.
B: Do you? I thought you said you .
5 A: I’ll be here next week.
B: Will you? .
6 A: I'm going out this evening.
B: Are you? .
7 A: I can speak a little French.
B: Can you? .
8 A: I haven't been to the cinema for ages.
B: Haven't you? .

p. 183
Lesson 16

16.3 - Here are some things that Ann said to you:

16.4 - The following sentences are direct speech:

Now choose one of these to complete each sentence below. Use reported speech.

1 Bill was taking a long time to get ready, so I told him to hurry up. .
2 Sarah was driving too fast, so I asked .
3 Sue was very pessimistic about the situation. I told .
4 I couldn't move the piano alone, so I .
5 The customs officer looked at me suspiciously and .
6 I had difficulty understanding him, so I .
7 I didn’t want to delay Ann, so I .
8 John was very much in love with Mary, so he .
9 He started asking me personal questions, so .

p. 184
Lesson 17

17.1 - (Sections A and D) Complete the sentences using like or as + one of the following:

a beginner blocks of ice a palace a birthday present a problem


a child a church winter a tourist guide

1 This house is beautiful. It's like a palace. .


2 Margaret once had a part-time job .
3 My feet are really cold. They’re .
4 I’ve been learning Spanish for a few years but I still speak .
5 I wonder what that building with the tower is. It looks .
6 My brother gave me this watch a long time ago.
7 It’s true that we disagree about some things but I don’t regard this .
8 It’s very cold for the middle of summer. It’s .
9 He’s 22 years old but he sometimes behaves .

17.2 - Put in during or while.

1 We met a lot of people while we were on holiday.


2 We met a lot of people during our holiday.
3 I met Mike I was shopping.
4 we were in Paris, we stayed at a very comfortable hotel.
5 our stay in Paris, we visited a lot of museums and galleries.
6 The phone rang three times we were having dinner.
7 The phone rang three times the night.
8 I had been away for many years. that time, many things had changed.
9 What did they say about me I was out of the room?
10 Jack read a lot of books and magazines he was ill.
11 I went out for dinner last night. Unfortunately, I began to feel ill the meal and had to go
home.
12 Please don’t interrupt me I’m speaking.
13 There were many interruptions the President’s speech.
14 Can you lay the table……………………………………….. I get the dinner ready?
15 We were hungry when we arrived. We hadn't had anything to eat we were
trave11ing.

17.3 - Use your own ideas to complete these sentences. Use by or until.

1 Fred is away at the moment. He'll be away until Monday. .


2 Fred is away at the moment. He'll be back by Monday. .
3 I’m just going out. I won’t be very long. Wait here .
4 I’m going shopping. It’s 4.30 now. I won’t be very long. I’ll be back .
5 If you want to apply for the job, your application must be received .
6 Last night I watched TV .

p. 185
Lesson 18

18.1 - Answer whit Have you? / Haven’t you? / Did she? / Didn’t she? etc.

18.2 - Complete these sentences with a question tag, positive (is it? / do you? etc.) or negative
(isn’t it? / don’t you? etc.).

18.3 - Complete these sentences. Use only one verb (is/have/can etc.) each time.
1 Kate wasn’t hungry but we were . 4 I haven’t seen the film but Tom ..
2 I’m not married but my brother . 5 Diane won’t be here but Chris ..
3 Bill can’t help you but I . 6 You weren’t late but I .

18.4 - Put the words in the right order. Ali the sentences are questions.
1 (has / gone / where / David?) Where has David gone? .
2 (working / Rachel / is / today?) Is Rachel working today? .
3 (the children / what / are / doing?) What .
4 (made / is / how / cheese?) .
5 (to the party / corning / is / your sister?) .
6 (you / the truth / tell / don 't / why?) .
7 (your guests / have / yet / arrived?) .
8 (leave / what time / your train / does?) .
9 (your car / in the accident / was / damaged?) .
10 (to work / Ann / why / go / didn't?) .

p. 186
Lesson 18

18.5 - Complete these sentences with a negative verb (isn’t/haven’t/don’t etc.).

1 They aren’t rich. They haven’t got much money.


2 ‘Would you like something to eat?’ ‘No, thank you. I hungry.’
3 I find my glasses. Have you seen them?
4 George write letters very often. He prefers to use the phone.
5 We can walk to the station from here. It very far.
6 ‘Where’s Jill?’ ‘I know. I seen her today.’
7 Be careful! fall!
8 We went to the cinema last night. I like the film very much.
9 I’ve been to Spain many times but I been to Portugal.
10 Julia be here tomorrow. She’s going away.
11 ‘Who broke that window?’ ‘Not me. I do it.’
12 We didn’t see what happened. We looking at the time.

18.6 - In these conversations, you are B. Read the information in brackets and then answer with I think so, I
hope not etc.

1 (You don't like rain.) A: Is it going to rain? B: (hope) I hope not. .


2 (You need more money quickly.)
A: Do you think you'll get a pay rise soon? B: (hope) .
3 (You think Diane will probably get the job that she applied for.)
A: I wonder if Diane will get the job. B: (expect) .
4 (You're not sure whether Jill is married -probably not.)
A: Is Jill married? B: (think) .
5 (You are the receptionist at a hotel. The hotel is full. )
A: Have you got a room for tonight? B: (afraid) .
6 (You're at a party. You have to leave early.)
A: Do you have to leave already? B: (afraid) .
7 (Ann normally works every day, Monday to Friday. Tomorrow is Wednesday.).
A: Is Ann working tomorrow? B: (suppose) .
8 (You are going to a party. You can't stand John.)
A: Do you think John will be at the party ? B: (hope) .
9 (You're not sure what time the concert is -probably 7.30.)
A: Is the concert at 7.30? B: (think) .

My dear I.D.O. Students:


You’ve just finish all exercises!!! Congratulations! I hope you could enjoy them and you could
grow as well. I really expect that you, my great partners, stay along into this amazing English jorney
life! Keep and ahead we get there together. Thanks everything, by heart!!!
Lúcio Alberto – the author

p. 187
Compositions – Guide List

Recommendation: Please, try to do at least 20 lines ( All the following compositions ).


. Lesson 01 : Write here your food shopping list, considering the amount of each product you need to spend for a
month.

. Lesson 02 : Imagine that you’re candidate to be the next mayor. Trace your political plans for the population.
Think about nice projects. It can be written by pattern items.

. Lesson 03 : Write about the polemic American situation involving the terrorism war and the president decisions.

. Lesson 04 : Nowadays, famous people are in focus. Write about the topic: “celebrities” – the true and the false
aspects and values.

. Lesson 05 : Violence – possible solutions. The causes and the roots of this historical problem.

. Lesson 06 : Life styles – Why are the people so different? You can think about the personal, physical and social
aspects.

. Lesson 07 : Think about Brazilian education. Try to find alternatives, suggestions or your point of view for an
efficient improvement. How to reduce the distance between public and private education?

. Lesson 08 : Technology. Where can we get? Do you believe that machines can replace human beings? How about
the movies “terminator” or “artificial intelligence”. Do you think we’re risky to experience that?

. Lesson 09 : Imagine that you’ve just won a huge money in the lottery. Think about what you want to do.

. Lesson 10 : Remember the three most funny or embarrassing situation you’ve ever had. Describe them in details.

. Lesson 11 : Clones – benefits and harm nesses about that. Advantages and disadvantages for medicine.

. Lesson 12 : Capital punishment. Are you favor or against this subject? Support your answer giving touchable
reasons.

. Lesson 13 : You’ve got the power to wish anything, and change any situation that you want to! What would you
do?

. Lesson 14: Free theme! Only condition: Most of the sentences should be into passive. (no need to be the entire
page)

. Lesson 15 : You’re about to get the job of your dreams. Write with details about how it would be, and the whys.

. Lesson 16 : Create a dialogue between you and any person. Then, report this dialogue.

. Lesson 17 : Globalization, Brazilian political and economical situation. Write about these subjects.

. Lessons 18 : Success: Secrets, “recipes”, and directions. How’s the best way to get there?

. Lesson 19 : You’ve just finished this basic English course. Write here now, all your feelings, suggestions or
complaining.

p. 188
Writings and Compositions
Lesson ______
Student________________________________________________________________

p. 189
Writings and Compositions
Lesson ______
Student________________________________________________________________

p. 190
Writings and Compositions
Lesson ______
Student________________________________________________________________

p. 191
Writings and Compositions
Lesson ______
Student________________________________________________________________

p. 192
Writings and Compositions
Lesson ______
Student________________________________________________________________

p. 193
Writings and Compositions
Lesson ______
Student________________________________________________________________

p. 194
Writings and Compositions
Lesson ______
Student________________________________________________________________

p. 195
Writings and Compositions
Lesson ______
Student________________________________________________________________

p. 196
Writings and Compositions
Lesson ______
Student________________________________________________________________

p. 197
Writings and Compositions
Lesson ______
Student________________________________________________________________

p. 198
Writings and Compositions
Lesson ______
Student________________________________________________________________

p. 199
Writings and Compositions
Lesson ______
Student________________________________________________________________

p. 200
Writings and Compositions
Lesson ______
Student________________________________________________________________

p. 201
Writings and Compositions
Lesson ______
Student________________________________________________________________

p. 202
LIST
OF THE REGULAR
AND
THE IRREGULAR
VERBS

p. 203
Lista de Verbos regulares*

*Extraido na integra: The Oxford Picture Dictionary List of Regular Verbs


Antes de começarmos esta lista, vamos lembrar que os verbos regulares possuem esta classificação, devido
ao fato de terem conjugação “regular” em seu passado simples e seu passado particípio com terminação “ed”
(segunda e terceira colunas). Porem, os verbos que já terminam em “e”, basta acrescentarmos o “d”, verbos que
terminam em consoante, vogal, consoante (CVC), temos que dobrar a ultima consoante e acrescentar o “ed”, e
verbos que terminam em consoante + “y”, temos que tirar o “y” e acrescentar “ied”.
Os verbos regulares abaixo estão marcados com os números 1, 2, 3, ou 4 de acordo com suas 4 diferentes
formas escritas que acabamos de mencionar. Iremos, portanto, seguir esta “legenda” desdes números (1 a 4), e
saberemos o que devemos fazer com cada verbo de acordo com cada caso, considerando o passado simples e o
passado particípio (2° e 3° coluna):
1. adicionar “ed” no final do verbo. Ex: ASK ; ASKED
2. adicionar “d” no final do verbo. Ex: LIVE; LIVED
3. dobrar a consoante final e acrescentar “ed” no final do verbo. Ex: STOP; STOPPED
4. tirar o “y” e acrescentar o “ied” no final do verbo. Ex: CRY; CRIED
Act (1) – agir Add (1) – addicionar, somar
Address (1) – endereçar Answer (1) – responder, atender
Apologize (2) – desculpar-se Appear (1) – aparecer, surgir
Applaud (1) - aplaudir Arrange (2) – arrangar, arrumar, configurar, dar certo
Arrest (1) – prender Arrive (2) – chegar
Ask (1) – perguntar, pedir Assenble (2) – ajuntar, agregar, acumular, reunir,
encontar-se, montar, armar (máquinas, etc) colocar em
ordem.
Assist (1) – assistir, consultar, dar suporte/ajuda Bake (2) – assar
Barbecue (2) – fazer churrasco Bathe (2) – banhar, tomar banho
Board (1) – embarcar, subir a bordo de, acostar, abordar Boil (1) – ferver, cozinhar
Borrow (1) – pegar emprestado Bounce (2) – quicar, balançar
Brainstorm (1) – ter um “apanhado” de ideias Breathe (2) – respirar
Broil (1) – grelhar, aquecer muito, torrar, brigar, lutar, Brush (1) – escovar
meter-se em confusão
Burn (1) – queimar Call (1) – ligar, chamar
Carry (4) – carregar Change (2) – mudar, trocar
Check (1) – checar, vistoriar, conferir Choke (2) – silenciar, abafar, asfixiar, sufocar, estrangular,
sufocar-se, ter falta de ar
Chop (3) – cortar, talhar, picar, cortar em pedaços Circle (2) – circular, fazer um círculo
pequenos, retalhar, sacudir, desbastar
Claim (1) – alegar, afirmar, clamar, sustentar Clap (3) – aplaudir, bater palmas
Clean (1) – limpar Clear (1) – aclamar, clarear, iluminar, retirar, limpar,
desobstruir, desimpedir,
Climb (1) – subir, escalar Close (2) – fechar
Collate (2) – examinar, verificar, conferir, pôr em ordem, Collect (1) – coletar
arranjar, intercalar
Color (1) – colorir Comb (1) – pentear
Commit (3) – cometer Compliment (1) – elogiar
Conserve (2) - conservar Convert (1) – converter
Cook (1) – cozinhar Copy (4) – copiar
Correct (1) – corrigir Cough (1) – tossir
Count (1) – contar ($) Cross (1) – cruzar, atravessar, passar
Cry (4) – chorar Dance (2) – dançar
Design (1) – design, desenhar Deposit (1) – depositar
Deliver (1) – entregar Dial (1) – discar
Dictate (2) – ditar Die (2) – morrer

p. 204
Discuss (1) – discutir Dive (2) – mergulhar
Dress (1) – vestir Dribble (2) – driblar
Drill (1) – furar, perfurar, brocar Drop (3) – pingar, gotejar, destilar, deixar cair alguma
coisa, pôr, colocar, desprender, diminuir, baixar, descer,
deixar, renunciar a, desistir de, deixar, pôr fim a, largar,
cair, adormecer, etc.
Drown (1) – afogar-se, imundar, alagar, trasbordar, Dry (4) – secar
submergir, embebedar-se, ensopar
Dust (1) – empueirar Dye (2) – tingir, pintar
Edit (1) – editar Eject (1) – ejetar
Empty (4) – esvaziar End (1) – finalizar, acabar, terminar
Enter (1) – entrar, adentrar Erase (2) – apagar
Examine (2) – examinar Exchange (2) – trocar, experenciar
Exercise (2) – exercitar Experience (2) – esperenciar, experimentar
Exterminate (2) – exterminar Fasten (1) – apertar
Fax (1) – passar o fax File (2) – arquivar, salvar, guardar, registrar
Fill (1) – encher, preencher Finish (1) – acabar, terminar
Fix (1) – concertar Floss (1) – passar o “fio dental” nos dentes
Fold (1) – dobrar (se), abraçar, enlaçar, cercar, juntar, Fry (4) – fritar
rodear
Gargle (2) – bochechar Graduate (2) – graduar (se), formar (se)
Grate (2) – ranger, ofender, irritar, raspar, ralar Grease (2) – engraxar, lubrificar, acelerar, facilitar
Greet (1) – cumprimentar Grill (1) – grelhar
Hail (1) – curar, cicatrizar Hammer (1) – martelar
Harvest (1) – colher, armazenar Help (1) – ajudar, socorrer
Hire (2) – contratar, empregar, alugar Hug (3) – abraçar
Immigrate (2) – imigrar Inquire (2) – inquirir, perguntar (por), informar-se,
indagar, investigar
Insert (1) – inserir, enfiar, colocar Introduce (2) – apresentar
Invite (2) – convidar Iron (1) – passar (roupas)
Jog (3) – correr (nossa corrida velocidade moderada) Join (1) – juntar, agregar, unir
Jump (1) – pular, saltar Kick (1) – chutar
Kiss (1) – beijar Knit (3) – tricotar, ligar, unir, entrelaçar, crescer junto,
fundir-se, franzir, cerzir
Land (1) – aterrizar Laugh (1) – rir, gargalhar
Learn (1) - aprender Lengthen (1) – encompridar, alongar, estender, prolongar,
continuar, esticar
Listen (1) – escutar, ouvir Live (2) – morar, viver
Load (1) – carregar Lock (1) – trancar
Look (1) – olhar Mail (1) – postar
Manufacture (2) – manufaturar Mark (1) – marcar, destacar
Match (1) – ligar, corresponder, corelacionar Measure (2) – medir, mensurar
Milk (1) – tirar leite Miss (1) – faltar, sentir falta de, perder
Mix (1) – misturar Mop (3) – esfregar, lavar
Move(2) – mexer, mudar, movimentar Mow (1) - ceifar
Need (1) – precisar, necesitar Nurse (2) – dar cuidados de enfermágem
Obey (1) – obedecer Observe (2) – observar
Open (1) – abrir Operate (2) – operar, operacionalizar
Order (1) – ordenar, pedir Overdose (2) – superdosar
Paint (1) – pintar Park (1) – estacionar
Pass (1) – passar, utrapassar Pause (2) – pausar
Peel (1) – descascar Perm (1) – fazer permanente
Pick (1) – pegar, buscar, apanhar Pitch (1) – montar, armar, acampar, fincar, cravar,
arremessar, lançar, atirar
Plan (3) – planejar Plant (1) plantar
Play (1) – brincar, tocar, jogar Point (1) – apontar
Polish (1) – polir, lustrar, dar brilho Pour (1) – despejar, jogar
Pretend (1) – fingir, enganar, mentir, desfarçar Print (1) – imprimir

p. 205
Protect (1) – proteger Pull (1) – puxar
Push (1) – empurrar Race (2) – diputar corrida
Raise (2) – subir, elevar, aumentar, crescer Rake (2) – limpar, ajuntar, remexer, procurar
Receive (2) – receber Record (1) – gravar, arquivar, recordar, bater um Record
Recycle (2) – reciclar Register (1) – registrar
Relax (1) – relaxar Remove (2) – remover
Rent (1) – alugar Repair (1) – concertar, arrumar/reparar/reformar
Repeat (1) – repetir Report (1) – reportar, contar, descrever, denunciar,
estudar
Request (1) – requerir, pedir, requisitar Return (1) – retornar, voltar
Rinse (2) – enxaguar Roast (1) – assar, torrar, tostar, esquentar excessivamente,
criticar, zombar, ridicularizar
Rock (1) – balançar, embalar, acalentar, agitar, tremer, Sauté (2) – fritar rapidamente com pouco óleo
sacudir
Save (2) – economizar, salvar, gravar Scrub (3) – esfregar, friccionar, lavar esfregando
Seat (1) – assentar, sentar, estabelecer, colocar, instituir Sentence (2) – sentenciar
Serve (2) – servir Share (2) – dividir, compartilhar, meiar
Shave (2) – barbear, raspar Ship (3) – embarcar, pôr/receber/ir a bordo, enviar,
mandar, carregar (com navio, trem ou viatura)
Shop (3) – comprar Shorten (1) – encurtar, cortar, diminuir
Shout (1) – gritar Sign (1) – assinar
Simmer (1) – ato de cozinhar lentamente, fervura lenta, Skate (2) - patinar
chiar
Ski (1) – esquiar Slice (2) – fatiar
Smell (1) – cheirar Sneeze (2) – espirrar
Sort (1) – separar, isolar, servir, adaptar-se, estar de Spell (1) – soletrar
acordo, arrumar, arranjar
Staple (2) – segurar com grampos Start (1) – começar, iniciar
Stay (1) – ficar, permanecer Steam (1) – vaporizar
Stir (3) – mexer (com a colher), mistur, arcircular, correr, Stir-fry (4) – fritar rapidamente no óleo bem quente
provocar (método chinês)
Stop (3) – parar Stow (1) – alojar, estivar, acondicionar, empacotar,
arrumar, guardar, acabar com, cessar
Strech (1) – alongar, esticar, estender, estirar, alargar Supervise (2) – supervisionar
Swallow (1) – engolir, tragar, absorver, reprimir, conter Tackle (2) – manejar, tentar resolver, lidar, atacar, agarrar,
atracar-se, engalfinhar-se, cometer falta, atacar
Talk (1) – falar, conversar Taste (2) – degustar, saborear, experimentar
Thank (1) – agradecer Tie (2) – amarrar, empatar
Touch (1) – tocar Transcribe (2) – transcrever
Trasfer (3) – transferir Travel (1) – viajar
Trim (3) – pôr em ordem, arranjar, preparar, equipar, Turn (1) – virar, tornar
podar (plantas), cortar ou aparar (cabelos), enfeitar,
adornar, adaptar-se as circunstâncias
Type (2) – datilografar, “bater” no computador Underline (2) – sublinhar
Unload (1) – descarregar, tirar a carga Unpack (1) – desempacotar, desembrulhar
Use (2) – usar Vacuum (1) – aspirar (pó, sujeira, tec)
Vomit (1) – vomitar Vote (2) – votar
Wait (1) – esperar Walk (1) – caminhar, andar
Wash (1) – lavar Watch (1) – ver, assistir
Water (1) – regar, aguar Weed (1) – capinar, limpar de ervas daninhas
Weigh (1) – pesar, oprimir, causar mágoas ou desgosto, Wipe (2) – esfregar, limpar, passar pano em, secar,
ponderar, considerar ou examinar cuidadosamente enxugar
Work (1) – trabalhar, funcionar, dar certo Wrap (3) – embrulhar
Yield (1) – render, produzir, dar, conceder, concentir,
permitir, autorizar, submeter (se), sujeitar (se), descobrir,
revelar (segredo)

p. 206
Lista de Verbos Irregulares

Simple Simple Past Traslation


Present Past Participle

be was/were been ser , estar


bear bore born(e) suportar; dar à luz; produzir
beat beat beaten bater; vencer; rechaçar
begin began begun começar, iniciar
bend bent bent curvar, inclinar; desviar
bid bade bidden ordenar; fazer oferta; lance em leilão
bind bound bound amarrar; juntar; vincular
bite bit bitten morder; ferroar
bleed bled bled sangrar; sentir (angústa ou compaixão)
blow blew blown soprar; assoar
break broke broken quebrar; infringir
bring brought brought trazer; levar
build built built construir; estabelecer
burn burnt burnt queimar; chamuscar
burst burst burst romper; irromper; explodir
buy bought bought comprar, adquirir; subornar
catch caught caught apanhar, agarrar; prender; capturar
choose chose chosen escolher, selecionar
come came come vir, chegar; surgir
cost cost cost custar; causar prejuízo
creep crept crept engatinhar; arrastar-se
cut cut cut cortar, partir; reduzir
deal dealt dealt lidar; negociar
dig dug dug cavar; cavucar
do did done fazer; realizar; completar
draw drew drawn desenhar; puxar; arrastar; sacar (arma)
dream dreamt dreamt sonhar; imaginar
drink drank drunk beber, tomar; absorver
drive drove driven dirigir, guiar; impelir
dwell dwelt dwelt habitar, morar; existir
eat ate eaten comer; tomar (sorvete ou sopa)
fall fell fallen cair; desmoronar
feed fed fed alimentar; sustentar; suprir
feel felt felt sentir; examinar (pelo tato); tocar
fight fought fought brigar, lutar; combater
find found found achar, encontrar; descobrir
flee fled fled fugir, escapar; abandonar
fling flung flung arremessar, lançar; mover-se com violência

p. 207
fly flew flown voar; fazer voar; fugir; escapar

forget forgot forgotten esquecer;negligenciar (sem intenção)


freeze froze frozen congelar; tomar-se coberto de gelo
get got got conseguir; receber; comprar; ganhar
give gave given dar; conceder
go went gone ir; viajar; partir; mover-se
grind ground ground moer; triturar; esmagar
grow grew grown crescer; cultivar; criar
has/have had had ter, possuir
hang hung hung pendurar; suspender; enforcar
hear heard heard ouvir; ouvir falar; prestar atenção
hide hid hidden esconder, ocultar; abrigar clandestinamente
hit hit hit bater, golpear; atingir
hold held held segurar; prender; deter
hurt hurt hurt ferir, machucar; magoar
keep kept kept manter, conservar, guardar
knell knelt knelt ajoelhar-se; ficar de joelhos
know knew known saber; conhecer; entender
lay laid laid prostrar; derrubar; preparar (p/ usar)
impor; colocar (em posição horizontal), guiar, conduzir; levar a;
lead led led
impelir
leave left left partir; ir embora; deixar
learn learnt learnt Aprender, compreender
lend lent lent emprestar; proporcionar
let let let deixar; permitir; alugar
lie lay lain deitar-se;reclinar-se;jazer; estender-se; ficar, estar situado
light lit lit acender; iluminar
lose lost lost perder; extraviar
make made made fazer; produzir, fabricar
mean meant meant significar; querer dizer; pretender
meet met met encontrar, encontrar-se; conhecer
pay paid paid pagar; recompensar; prestar (atenção)
put put put pôr, colocar; enfiar
read read read ler; decifrar; prever
ride rode ridden cavalgar; andar (meio de transporte)
ring rang rung tocar (sino, campainha), soar
rise rose risen levantar; levantar-se; erguer-se
run ran run correr; gerenciar (negócios)
say said said dizer; expressar (opinião)
see saw seen ver; assistir a
seek sought sought procurar; buscar; tentar
sell sold sold vender; convencer
send sent sent enviar; mandar; despachar
set set set estabelecer, determinar; pôr a mesa

p. 208
sew sewed sewn costurar; pregar (botão)
shake shook shaken agitar; fazer tremer ou vibrar; apertar (a mão ao cumprimentar)
shed shed shed Lançar, dar a luz, perder, cortar, derramar
shine shone shone brilhar, cintilar; irradiar
shoot shot shot atirar, dar tiros; lançar, arremessar
show showed shown mostrar, indicar, apresentar
shrink shrank shrunk encolher; contrair; reduzir
shut shut shut fechar; obstruir; encerrar (temporada)
sing sang sung cantar; entoar; gorjear
sink sank sunk afundar, submergir
sit sat sat sentar-se; assentar
sleep slept slept dormir; acomodar (para passar a noite)
smell smelt smelt cheirar, farejar, sentir cheiro de
sow sowed sown semear; espalhar; propagar
speak spoke spoken falar; dizer; expressar
spell spelt spelt soletrar; grafar; enfeitiçar
spend spent spent gastar; passar (o tempo)
spread spread spread espalhar; expandir
spring sprang sprung fazer explodir; fazer soltar
stand stood stood pôr ou colocar de pé, fazer ficar de pé; tolerar, suportar
steal stole stolen roubar, furtar; mover-se furtivamente
stick stuck stuck cravar, fincar; enfiar
strike struck struck bater, golpear; chocar-se com
strive strove striven empenhar-se, esforçar-se
swear swore sworn jurar; prometer; praguejar
sweep swept swept varrer; vasculhar
swim swam swum nadar; deslizar
swing swung swung balançar; sacudir; abanar
take took taken pegar, agarrar; capturar
teach taught taught ensinar; dar instrução
tear tore torn rasgar; despedaçar; dilacerar
tell told told contar, narrar; dizer
think thought thought pensar, achar; refletir
throw threw thrown jogar, arremessar
thrust thrust thrust empurrar; meter, enfiar
tread trod trodden pisar; trilhar; esmagar com o pé
wake woke woken acordar, despertar; animar
wear wore worn usar, vestir; calçar
weep wept wept lamentar; verter (lágrimas)
win won won vencer, ganhar; conseguir
wind wound wound enrolar; dar corda a relógio
write wrote written escrever; grafar; redigir

p. 209
Referências Bibliográficas

GREGORIN, Clóvis O.; BRITTO, Marisa M. Jenkins de. Michaelis Inglês Gramática Prática. São Paulo:
Melhoramentos, 1995.

TORRES, Nelson. Gramática Prática da Língua Portuguesa: O Inglês Descomplicado. 9. ed. São Paulo:
Saraiva, 2002.

MURPHY, Raymond. Essential Grammar in Use: A self-study reference and practice book for elementary
students of English.. 2. ed. Cambridge University Press, 1997.

MURPHY, Raymond. Essential Grammar in Use: A self-study reference and practice book for intermediate
students of English.. 2. ed. Cambridge University Press, 1997.

SHAPIRO, Norma; ADELSON-GOLDSTEIN, Jayme. Picture Dictionary. Oxford University Press, 1998.

MARQUES, Amadeu. Skull Friends. São Paulo: Ática, 1995.

MARQUES, Amadeu. Happiness. São Paulo: Ática, 1994.

p. 210

Related Interests