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Miarca Lorraine C. Niyo
Maam Nancy Mendiola
What is a set?
Set is a group of objects (elements) that is well-defined set.
When we define a set, if we take pieces of that set, we can
form what is called a subset.So for example, we have the set
{1, 2, 3, 4, 5}. A subset of this is {1, 2, 3}. Another subset is {3,
4} or even another, {1}. However, {1, 6} is not a subset, since it
contains an element (6) which is not in the parent set.
The Universal set it's a set that contains everything.
Empty Set (or Null Set) there aren't any elements in it. Not
one. Zero.
Cardinality of a set is the number of elements contained in a

Notation and Symbols
You don't have to listen to the standard, you can use
something like m to represent a set without breaking any
mathematical laws (watch out, you can get years in math jail
for dividing by 0), but this notation is pretty nice and easy to
follow, so why not? Also, when we say an element a is in a set
A, we use the symbol to show it.
And if something is not in a set use .
Null Set - It is represented by or by {} (a set with no
The cardinality of a set A is written as n(A) .
When we say that A is a subset of B, we write A B.Or we
can say that A is not a subset of B by A B ("A is not a subset
of B").When we talk about proper subsets, we take out the line
underneath and so it becomes A B or if we want to say the
opposite, A B.

Union and Intersection of Sets
The union (denoted by ) of a collection of
sets is the set of all distinct elements in the
collection. It is one of the fundamental
operations through which sets can be
combined and related to each other.
The intersection A B of two sets A and B is
the set that contains all elements of A that also
belong to B (or equivalently, all elements of B
that also belong to A), but no other

Complement of a set

A complement of a set A refers to things not in (that is,
things outside of) A. The relative complement of A with
respect to a set B is the set of elements in B but not in A.
When all sets under consideration are considered to be
subsets of a given set U, the absolute complement of A is the
set of all elements in U but not in A.

Problem Involving Sets
A group of 50 tourists went in a tour in
Bulacan Province. Out of the 50 students, 24 joined in Barasoain
Church; 18 went to Boracay; 20 visited Rizal Park;12 made a trip to
Barasoain Church and Boracay; 15 saw Boracay and Rizal Park And;
11 made a trip to Barasoain Church and Rizal Park and 10 saw the
three tourist spots.
50 Tourists
24 Barasoain Church
18 Boracay
20 Rizal Park
12 Barasoain Church and Boracay
15 Boracay and Rizal Park
11 Barasoain Church and Rizal
10 Boracay; Barasoain Church and
Rizal Park

Addition of Integers
UNLIKE SIGN (+) + (--)
(--) + (+)
LIKE SIGNS (+) + (+) = +
(--) + (--) = --
Subtract the number and get the sign of the highest
Subtraction of Integers
add its opposite (subtrahend)
4 - 2 = 2 4 + (-2) = 2
Multiplication of Integers
(4)(3)=12 (-6)(4)= -24
Division of Integers
(-51)/(-3)=17 -57/19=-3

Properties of the Operation on Integers
rule of PEMDAS
Multiplication Signs: x,(no.),*
Division Signs: , and /
2*6-8+45/3 =19

Rational Numbers in the Number Line
One way to compare decimals is by using number lines or by
creating the same number of digits after the decimal point.
Decimals can be compared by using a number line or
determining greater than or less than by looking at place value.
The easiest way to do this is to make sure that each
number you are comparing has the SAME number of
decimal point.

Subtraction and Addition of Fraction
If the denominator is the same, you will add/subtract
only the numerator.
Find the smallest multiple (LCM) of both numbers.
Rewrite the fractions as equivalent fractions with the
LCM as the denominator. In an earlier lesson, you
learned how to simplify, or reduce, a fraction by finding
an equivalent, or equal, fraction where the numerator
and denominator have no common factors. To do this,
you divided the numerator and denominator by their
greatest common factor.

Subtract or add the whole number then add/subtract the
numerator. (With the same denominator)
Form it as a improper fraction. Find the smallest multiple
(LCM) of both numbers. Rewrite the fractions as equivalent
fractions with the LCM as the denominator then add or

Thank You!!