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REPORTABLE
IN THE SUPREME COURT OF INDIA
CRIMINAL APPELLATE JURISDICTION
CRIMINAL APPEAL NO. 2287 OF 2009
Dashrath Rupsingh Rathod !!App"##ant
$"rsus
Stat" o% Maharashtra & Anr! !!R"spond"nts
' I T H
CRIMINAL APPEAL NO! 1()* OF +,1-
.Arising out o% S!L!P!/Cr#!0No!+,11 o% +,,)23
CRIMINAL APPEAL NO! 1()- OF +,1-
.Arising out o% S!L!P!/Cr#!0No!+11+ o% +,,)23
CRIMINAL APPEAL NO! 1()( OF +,1-
.Arising out o% S!L!P!/Cr#!0No!+111 o% +,,)23
CRIMINAL APPEAL NOS! 1()4514,, OF +,1-
.Arising out o% S!L!P!/Cr#!0Nos!1*,651*1+ o% +,,)23
CRIMINAL APPEAL NO!14,1 OF +,1-
.Arising out o% S!L!P!/Cr#!0No!*14+ o% +,1+23
CRIMINAL APPEAL NO! 14,+ OF +,1-
.Arising out o% S!L!P!/Cr#!0No!*)-* o% +,1+23
CRIMINAL APPEAL NO!14,* OF +,1-
.Arising out o% S!L!P!/Cr#!0No!*)-- o% +,1+23 AND
CRIMINAL APPEAL NO! 14,- OF +,1-
.Arising out o% S!L!P!/Cr#!0No!() o% +,1*2!
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J U D G M E N T
VIKRAMAJIT SEN, J.
1! L"a7" grant"d in Sp"8ia# L"a7" P"titions! Th"s"
App"a#s rais" a #"ga# nodus o% su9stantia# pu9#i8 i:portan8"
p"rtaining to Court;s t"rritoria# <urisdi8tion 8on8"rning
8ri:ina# 8o:p#aints %i#"d und"r Chapt"r =$II o% th"
N"gotia9#" Instru:"nts A8t> 1661 /%or short> ?th" NI A8t;0!
This is a:p#@ adu:9rat"d 9@ th" Ord"rs dat"d
*!11!+,,) in I!A!No!1 in CC 1()1-A+,,) o% th" thr""5
Judg" B"n8h pr"sid"d o7"r 9@ th" th"n Hon;9#" th" Chi"%
Justi8" o% India> Hon;9#" Mr! Justi8" $!S! SirpurCar and
Hon;9#" Mr! Justi8" P! Sathasi7a: Dhi8h SLP is a#so
8on8"rn"d Dith th" int"rpr"tation o% S"8tion 1*6 o% th"
NI A8t> and Dh"r"in th" B"n8h a%t"r issuing noti8" on th"
p"tition dir"8t"d that it 9" post"d 9"%or" th" thr""5Judg"
B"n8h!
PRECEDENTS
+! Th" "ar#i"st and th" :ost o%t"n Euot"d d"8ision
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o% this Court r"#"7ant to th" pr"s"nt 8onundru: is F!
Bhasa!a" 7! SanCaran $aidh@an Ba#an /1)))0 1 SCC (1,
Dh"r"in a tDo5Judg" B"n8h has> int"r a#ia> int"rpr"t"d
S"8tion 1*6 o% th" NI A8t to indi8at" that> Gth" o%%"n8" und"r
S"8tion 1*6 8an 9" 8o:p#"t"d on#@ Dith th" 8on8at"nation o%
a nu:9"r o% a8ts! Fo##oDing ar" th" a8ts Dhi8h ar"
8o:pon"nts o% th" said o%%"n8"H /10 DraDing o% th" 8h"Eu">
/+0 Pr"s"ntation o% th" 8h"Eu" to th" 9anC> /*0 R"turning th"
8h"Eu" unpaid 9@ th" draD"" 9anC> /-0 Ii7ing noti8" in
Driting to th" draD"r o% th" 8h"Eu" d":anding pa@:"nt o%
th" 8h"Eu" a:ount> /(0 Fai#ur" o% th" draD"r to :aC"
pa@:"nt Dithin 1( da@s o% th" r"8"ipt o% th" noti8"!J Th"
pro7isions o% S"8tions 111 to 11) o% th" Cod" o% Cri:ina#
Pro8"dur"> 1)1* /%or short> ?CrPC;0 ha7" a#so 9""n d"a#t Dith
in d"tai#! Furth"r:or"> Bhaskaran in t"r:s draDs a
distin8tion 9"tD""n ?gi7ing o% noti8"; and ?r"8"i7ing o%
noti8";! This is %or th" r"ason that 8#aus" /90 o% pro7iso to
S"8tion 1*6 o% th" NI A8t postu#at"s a d":and 9"ing :ad"
9@ th" pa@"" or th" ho#d"r in du" 8ours" o% th" dishonour"d
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8h"Eu" 9@ gi7ing a noti8" in Driting to th" draD"r th"r"o%!
'hi#" doing so> th" Eu"stion o% th" r"8"ipt o% th" noti8" has
a#so 9""n 8ogitat"d upon!
*! Th" issuan8" and th" r"8"ipt o% th" noti8" is
signi%i8ant 9"8aus" in a su9s"Eu"nt <udg:"nt o% a
Coordinat" B"n8h> na:"#@> #a!$a" E#"8troni8s P7t! Ltd! 7!
Nationa# Panasoni8 India P7t! Ltd! /+,,)0 1 SCC 1+,
":phasis has 9""n #aid on th" r"8"ipt o% th" noti8"> inter
alia> ho#ding that th" 8aus" o% a8tion 8annot aris" 9@ an@ a8t
o% o:ission or 8o::ission on th" part o% th" ?a88us"d;>
Dhi8h on a ho#isti8 r"ading has to 9" r"ad as ?8o:p#ainant;!
It app"ars that Harman transa8t"d 9usin"ss out o%
Chandigarh on#@> Dh"r" th" Co:p#ainant a#so :aintain"d an
o%%i8"> a#though its H"ad O%%i8" Das in D"#hi! Harman issu"d
th" 8h"Eu" to th" Co:p#ainant at Chandigarh3 Harman had
its 9anC a88ount in Chandigarh a#on"! It is un8#"ar Dh"r" th"
Co:p#ainant pr"s"nt"d th" 8h"Eu" %or "n8ash:"nt 9ut it
issu"d th" S"8tion 1*6 noti8" %ro: D"#hi! In thos"
8ir8u:stan8"s> this Court had o9s"r7"d that th" on#@
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Eu"stion %or 8onsid"ration Das GDh"th"r s"nding o% noti8"
%ro: D"#hi its"#% Dou#d gi7" ris" to a 8aus" o% a8tion %or
taCing 8ogniKan8" und"r th" NI A8t!J It th"n D"nt on to
opin" that th" pro7iso to this S"8tion Gi:pos"s 8"rtain
%urth"r 8onditions Dhi8h ar" r"Euir"d to 9" %u#%i##"d 9"%or"
8ogniKan8" o% th" o%%"n8" 8an 9" taC"n!J '" r"sp"8t%u##@
agr"" Dith this stat":"nt o% #aD and und"rs8or" that in
8ri:ina# <urisprud"n8" th"r" is a dis8"rni9#@ d":ar8at"d
di%%"r"n8" 9"tD""n th" 8o::ission o% an o%%"n8" and its
8ogniKan8" #"ading to pros"8ution! Th" Harman approa8h is
signi%i8ant and sounds a dis8ordant not" to th" Bhaskaran
ratio! Harman a#so high#ights th" r"a#it@ that S"8tion 1*6 o%
th" NI A8t is 9"ing ra:pant#@ :isus"d so %ar as t"rritoria#
<urisdi8tion %or tria# o% th" Co:p#aint is 8on8"rn"d! 'ith th"
passag" o% ti:" "Euiti"s ha7" th"r"%or" trans%"rr"d %ro: on"
"nd o% th" p"ndu#u: to th" oth"r! It is noD not un8o::on
%or th" Courts to "n8ount"r th" issuan8" o% a noti8" in
8o:p#ian8" Dith 8#aus" /90 o% th" pro7iso to S"8tion 1*6 o%
th" NI A8t %ro: a situs Dhi8h 9"ars no 8onn"8tion Dith th"
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A88us"d or Dith an@ %a8"t o% th" transa8tion 9"tD""n th"
parti"s> #"a7" asid" th" p#a8" Dh"r" th" dishonour o% th"
8h"Eu" has taC"n p#a8"! This is a#so th" position as r"gards
th" pr"s"ntation o% th" 8h"Eu"> dishonour o% Dhi8h is th"n
p#"ad"d as th" t"rritoria# p#at%or: o% th" Co:p#aint und"r
S"8tion 1*6 o% th" NI A8t! Harman, in %a8t> du#@ h""ds th"
a9surd and str"ss%u# situation> %ast 9"8o:ing 8o::on5p#a8"
Dh"r" s"7"ra# 8h"Eu"s sign"d 9@ th" sa:" draD"r ar"
pr"s"nt"d %or "n8ash:"nt and r"Euisit" noti8"s o% d":and
ar" a#so d"spat8h"d %ro: di%%"r"nt p#a8"s! It app"ars to us
that <usti%ia9#@ so at that ti:"> th" 8on8#usion in Bhaskaran
Das in%#u"n8"d in #arg" :"asur" 9@ 8uria# 8o:passion
toDards th" unpaid pa@""Aho#d"r> Dh"r"as Dith th" passag"
o% tDo d"8ad"s th" :anipu#ati7" a9us" o% t"rritoria#
<urisdi8tion has 9"8o:" a r"8urring and piEuant %a8tor! Th"
#i9"ra# approa8h pr"%"rr"d in Bhaskaran noD 8a##s %or a
stri8t"r int"rpr"tation o% th" statut"> pr"8is"#@ 9"8aus" o% its
:is":p#o@:"nt so %ar as 8hoi8" o% p#a8" o% suing is
8on8"rn"d! Th"s" ar" th" 8ir8u:stan8"s Dhi8h ha7"
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prop"##"d us to :inut"#@ 8onsid"r th" d"8isions r"nd"r"d 9@
tDo5Judg" B"n8h"s o% this Court!
-! It is not"Dorth@ that th" int"rpr"tation to 9"
i:part"d to S"8tion 1*6 o% th" NI A8t a#so aros" 9"%or" a
thr""5Judg" B"n8h in Shri Isha! A%%&' St""#s Ltd! 7!
Ja@asDa#s N"8o Ltd! /+,,10 * SCC 4,) 8#os" on th" h""#s o%
Bhaskaran! So %ar as th" %a8tua# :atriL is 8on8"rn"d> th"
dishonour"d 8h"Eu" had 9""n pr"s"nt"d %or "n8ash:"nt 9@
th" Co:p#ainantAho#d"r in his 9anC Dithin th" statutor@
p"riod o% siL :onths 9ut 9@ th" ti:" it r"a8h"d th" draD"r;s
9anC th" a%or":"ntion"d p"riod o% #i:itation had "Lpir"d!
Th" Eu"stion 9"%or" th" Court Das Dh"th"r th" 9anC Dithin
th" postu#ation o% S"8tion 1*6 r"ad Dith S"8tions * and 1+ o%
th" NI A8t Das th" draD"" 9anC or th" 8o##"8ting 9anC and
this Court h"#d that it Das th" %or:"r! It Das o9s"r7"d that
Gnon5pr"s"ntation o% th" 8h"Eu" to th" draD"" 9anC Dithin
th" p"riod sp"8i%i"d in th" S"8tion Dou#d a9so#7" th" p"rson
issuing th" 8h"Eu" o% his 8ri:ina# #ia9i#it@ und"r S"8tion 1*6
o% th" NI A8t> Dho oth"rDis" :a@ 9" #ia9#" to pa@ th" 8h"Eu"
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a:ount to th" pa@"" in a 8i7i# a8tion initiat"d und"r th" #aD!
A 8o:9in"d r"ading o% S"8tions *> 1+ and 1*6 o% th" NI A8t
Dou#d #"a7" no dou9t in our :ind that th" #aD :andat"s th"
8h"Eu" to 9" pr"s"nt"d at th" 9anC on Dhi8h it is draDn i%
th" draD"r is to 9" h"#d 8ri:ina##@ #ia9#"!J C#"ar#@> and in
our 8onsid"r"d opinion right#@> th" S"8tion had 9""n
r"nd"r"d Ma88us"d58"ntri8;! This d"8ision 8#ari%i"s that th"
p#a8" Dh"r" a 8o:p#ainant :a@ pr"s"nt th" 8h"Eu" %or
"n8ash:"nt Dou#d not 8on%"r or 8r"at" t"rritoria#
<urisdi8tion> and in this r"sp"8t runs 8ount"r to th" "ss"n8"
o% Bhaskaran Dhi8h paradoLi8a##@> in our opinion> :aC"s
a8tions o% th" Co:p#ainant an int"gra# na@ nu8#"ar
8onstitu"nt o% th" 8ri:" its"#%!
(! Th" prin8ip#" o% pr"8"d"n8" shou#d pro:pt#@ and
pr"8is"#@ 9" paraphras"d! A 8o5ordinat" B"n8h is 9ound to
%o##oD th" pr"7ious#@ pu9#ish"d 7i"D3 it is 8"rtain#@
8o:p"t"nt to add to th" pr"8"d"nt to :aC" it #ogi8a##@ and
dia#"8ti8a##@ 8o:p"##ing! HoD"7"r> on8" a d"8ision o% a
#arg"r B"n8h has 9""n d"#i7"r"d it is that d"8ision Dhi8h
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:andatori#@ has to 9" app#i"d3 Dh"r"as a Co5ordinat" B"n8h>
in th" "7"nt that it %inds its"#% una9#" to agr"" Dith an
"Listing ratio> is 8o:p"t"nt to r"8o::"nd th" pr"8"d"nt %or
r"8onsid"ration 9@ r"%"rring th" 8as" to th" Chi"% Justi8" %or
8onstitution o% a #arg"r B"n8h! Indu9ita9#@> th"r" ar" a
nu:9"r o% d"8isions 9@ tDo5Judg" B"n8h"s on S"8tion 1*6 o%
th" NI A8t> th" :a<orit@ o% Dhi8h app#@ Bhaskaran Dithout
noting or distinguishing on %a8ts Ishar Alloy! In our opinion>
it is i:p"rati7" %or th" Court to di#ig"nt#@ disti## and th"n
app#@ th" ratio o% a d"8ision3 and th" 7i"D o% a #arg"r B"n8h
ought not to 9" disr"gard"d! Inas:u8h as th" thr""5Judg"
B"n8h in Ishar Alloy has 8at"gori8a##@ stat"d that %or
8ri:ina# #ia9i#it@ to 9" attra8t"d> th" su9<"8t 8h"Eu" has to
9" pr"s"nt"d to th" 9anC on Dhi8h it is draDn Dithin th"
pr"s8ri9"d p"riod> Bhaskaran has 9""n signi%i8ant#@
Dhitt#"d doDn i% not o7"rru#"d! Bhaskaran has a#so 9""n
drasti8a##@ di#ut"d 9@ Harman inas:u8h as it has gi7"n
pri:a8@ to th" s"r7i8" o% a noti8" on th" A88us"d inst"ad o%
its :"r" issuan8" 9@ th" Co:p#ainant!
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4! In P!($ Cha") $i<a@ Fu:ar 7! Nashpa# Singh
/+,,(0 - SCC -11> anoth"r tDo5Judg" B"n8h h"#d that upon a
noti8" und"r S"8tion 1*6 o% th" NI A8t 9"ing issu"d> a
su9s"Eu"nt pr"s"ntation o% a 8h"Eu" and its dishonour
Dou#d not 8r"at" anoth"r ?8aus" o% a8tion; Dhi8h 8ou#d s"t
th" S"8tion 1*6 :a8hin"r@ in :otion! In that 7i"D> i% th"
p"riod o% #i:itation had run out> a %r"sh noti8" o% d":and
Das 9"r"%t o% an@ #"ga# "%%i8a8@! SIL I:port> USA 7! ELi:
Aid"s Si#C ELport"rs /1)))0 - SCC (41 Das app#i"d in Dhi8h
th" d"t"r:ination Das that sin8" th" r"Euisit" noti8" had
9""n d"spat8h"d 9@ FA= on +4!4!1))4 th" #i:itation %or %i#ing
th" S"8tion 1*6 Co:p#aint "Lpir"d on +4!1!1))4! 'hat is
int"r"sting is th" o9s"r7ation that G%our 8onstitu"nts o%
S"8tion 1*6 ar" r"Euir"d to 9" pro7"d to su88"ss%u##@
pros"8ut" th" draD"r o% an o%%"n8" und"r S"8tion 1*6 o% th"
NI A8tJ /":phasis supp#i"d0! It is a#so not"Dorth@ that
inst"ad o% th" %i7" Bhaskaran 8on8o:itants> on#@ %our ha7"
9""n sp"#t out in th" su9s"Eu"nt <udg:"nt in Prem Chand!
Th" 8o::ission o% a 8ri:" Das distinguish"d %ro: its
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pros"8ution Dhi8h> in our 8onsid"r"d opinion> is th" 8orr"8t
int"rpr"tation o% th" #aD! In oth"r Dords> th" %our or %i7"
8on8o:itants o% th" S"8tion ha7" to 9" in "List"n8" %or th"
initiation as D"## as th" su88"ss%u# pros"8ution o% th"
o%%"n8"> Dhi8h o%%"n8" hoD"7"r 8o:"s into "List"n8" as
soon as su9<"8t 8h"Eu" is dishonour"d 9@ th" draD"" 9anC!
Anoth"r tDo5Judg" B"n8h in Sha:shad B"gu: 7! B!
Moha::"d /+,,60 1* SCC 11 sp"aCing through Pasa@at J
this ti:" around app#i"d Bhaskaran and 8on8#ud"d that
sin8" th" S"8tion 1*6 noti8" Das issu"d %ro: and r"p#i"d to
Manga#or"> Courts in that 8it@ poss"ss"d t"rritoria#
<urisdi8tion! As a#r"ad@ not"d a9o7"> this 7i"D is not
r"8on8i#a9#" Dith th" #at"r d"8ision o% Harman.
1! Th" tDo5Judg" B"n8h d"8ision in M&sa!a*
#&ssa+" Fhan 7! Bhagh""ratha Engg! Ltd! /+,,40 * SCC 4(6
r"Euir"s to 9" dis8uss"d in so:" d"tai#! A Co:p#aint und"r
S"8tion 1*6 o% th" NI A8t Das %i#"d and 8ogniKan8" Das taC"n
9@ th" Chi"% Judi8ia# Magistrat"> Bir9hu: at Suri> '"st
B"nga# %or th" dishonour o% a nu:9"r o% 8h"Eu"s issu"d 9@
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th" a88us"d58o:pan@ Dhi8h had its h"adEuart"rs in
ErnaCu#a:> F"ra#a Dh"r" signi%i8ant#@ th" a88us"d5
8o:pan@;s 9anC on Dho: th" dishonour"d 8h"Eu"s had
9""n draDn Das #o8at"d! S"7"ra# <udg:"nts D"r" r"%"rr"d
to> 9ut not Bhaskaran! Th" third ingr"di"nt in Bhaskaran,
i!". th" r"turning o% th" 8h"Eu" unpaid 9@ th" draD"" 9anC>
Das not r"%#"8t"d upon! Inas:u8h as Mosaraf Hossain
r"%"rs 8opious#@ to th" 8aus" o% a8tion ha7ing aris"n in '"st
B"nga# Dithout ad7"rting at a## to Bhaskaran> #"a7" asid"
th" thr""5Judg" B"n8h d"8ision in Ishar Alloy> th" d"8ision
:a@ 9" s""n as per incuriam! Mor"o7"r> th" 8on8"pt o%
forum non conveniens has no ro#" to p#a@ und"r S"8tion 1*6
o% th" NI A8t> and %urth"r:or" that it 8an 8"rtain#@ 9"
8ont"nd"d 9@ th" a88us"d58o:pan@ that it Das
<usti%ia9#"A8on7"ni"nt %or it to initiat" #itigation in ErnaCu#a:!
I% Bhaskaran Das %o##oD"d> Courts in ErnaCu#a:
unEu"stiona9#@ poss"ss"d t"rritoria# <urisdi8tion! It is>
hoD"7"r> i:portant to ita#i8iK" that th"r" Das an
un"Eui7o8a# "ndors":"nt o% th" B"n8h o% a pr"7ious#@
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"Lpr"ss"d 7i"D that> GDh"r" th" t"rritoria# <urisdi8tion is
8on8"rn"d th" :ain %a8tor to 9" 8onsid"r"d is th" p#a8"
Dh"r" th" a##"g"d o%%"n8" Das 8o::itt"dJ! In si:i#ar 7"in>
this Court has opin"d in O: H":ra<ani 7! Stat" o% U!P! /+,,(0
1 SCC 411> in th" 8ont"Lt o% S"8tions 111 to 16, CrPC that
G%or <urisdi8tion ":phasis is on th" p#a8" Dh"r" th" o%%"n8"
is 8o::itt"d!J
6! Th" t"rritoria# <urisdi8tion 8onundru: Dhi8h>
8andid#@ is 8urr"nt#@ in th" 8au#dron oDing to 7ar@ing i% not
8on%#i8ting ratios> has 9""n 8ogitat"d upon 7"r@ r"8"nt#@ 9@ a
tDo5Judg" B"n8h in Cri:ina# App"a# No!6,6 o% +,1* tit#"d
Nishant AggarDa# 7! Fai#ash Fu:ar Shar:a d"8id"d on
1!1!+,1* and again 9@ th" sa:" B"n8h in Cri:ina# App"a#
No!1-(1 o% +,1* tit#"d Es,&!-s L+$+-() 7! Ra:a MuCh"r<""
d"8id"d on 11!,)!+,1*! Bhaskaran Das %o##oD"d and Ishar
Alloy and Harman D"r" "Lp#ain"d! In Nishant th"
App"##ant issu"d a post5dat"d 8h"Eu" draDn on Standard
Chart"r"d BanC> IuDahati in %a7our o% 8o:p#ainant5
r"spond"nt! It app"ars that th" App"##ant had "nd"a7our"d
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to 8r"at" a 8as" or rath"r a d"%"n8" 9@ r"porting to his 9anC
in IuDahati as D"## as to th" #o8a# po#i8" station that ?on"
8h"Eu" /8orr"sponding to th" 8h"Eu" in Eu"stion0 Das
:issing and h"n8" pa@:"nt shou#d 9" stopp"d!; Th"
R"spond"nt5draD"r Das a r"sid"nt o% Distri8t BhiDani>
Har@ana3 h" pr"s"nt"d th" 8h"Eu" %or "n8ash:"nt at
Canara BanC> BhiDani 9ut it Das r"turn"d unpaid! Th"
ho#d"r th"n issu"d a #"ga# noti8" Dhi8h %ai#"d to "#i8it th"
d":and"d su: o% :on"@ 8orr"sponding to th" 8h"Eu"
7a#u"> and th"r"upon %o##oD"d it 9@ th" %i#ing o% a 8ri:ina#
8o:p#aint und"r S"8tions 1*6 and 1-1 o% th" NI A8t at
BhiDani! Th" Judi8ia# Magistrat"> BhiDani> 7id" ord"r dat"d
(!*!+,11> 8on8#ud"d that th" 8ourt in BhiDani did not
poss"ss t"rritoria# <urisdi8tion and h" a88ording#@ r"turn"d
th" 8o:p#aint %or pr"s"ntation 9"%or" th" prop"r Court! Th"
%i7" 8on8o:itants o% S"8tion 1*6 "Ltra8t"d in Bhaskaran>
D"r" r"it"rat"d and 7arious paragraphs %ro: it D"r"
r"produ8"d 9@ this Court! Nishant a#so did not %o##oD Ishar
Alloy Dhi8h> as a#r"ad@ ana#@s"d> has 8on8#ud"d that th"
Page 15
1(
s"8ond Bhaskaran 8on8o:itant> na:"#@> pr"s"ntation o%
8h"Eu" to th" 9anC r"%"rs to th" draD"" 9anC and not th"
ho#d"r;s 9anC> is not pri:ari#@ r"#"7ant %or th" d"t"r:ination
o% t"rritoria# <urisdi8tion! Nishant distinguish"d Ishar Alloy
on th" pr"di8ation that th" Eu"stion o% t"rritoria# <urisdi8tion
had not 9""n rais"d in that 8as"! It is aLio:ati8 that Dh"n a
Court int"rpr"ts an@ statutor@ pro7ision> its opinion :ust
app#@ to and 9" d"t"r:inat" in a## %a8tua# and #"ga#
p"r:utations and situations! '" thinC that th" di8tu: in
Ishar Alloy is 7"r@ r"#"7ant and 8on8#usi7" to th" dis8ussion
in hand! It a#so <usti%i"s ":phasis that Ishar Alloy is th"
on#@ 8as" 9"%or" us Dhi8h Das d"8id"d 9@ a thr""5Judg"
B"n8h and> th"r"%or"> Das 9inding on a## s:a##"r B"n8h"s!
'" ing":inat" that it is th" draD"" BanC and not th"
Co:p#ainant;s BanC Dhi8h is postu#at"d in th" so58a##"d
s"8ond 8onstitu"nt o% S"8tion 1*6 o% th" NI A8t> and it is this
postu#at" that spurs us toDards th" 8on8#usion that D" ha7"
arri7"d at in th" pr"s"nt App"a#s! Th"r" is a#so a dis8ussion
o% Harman to r"it"rat" that th" o%%"n8" und"r S"8tion 1*6 is
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14
8o:p#"t" on#@ Dh"n th" %i7" %a8tors ar" pr"s"nt! It is our
8onsid"r"d 7i"D> Dhi8h D" sha## "Lpound upon> that th"
o%%"n8" in th" 8ont":p#ation o% S"8tion 1*6 o% th" NI A8t is
th" dishonour o% th" 8h"Eu" a#on"> and it is th"
8on8at"nation o% th" %i7" 8on8o:itants o% that S"8tion that
"na9#" th" pros"8ution o% th" o%%"n8" in 8ontradistin8tion to
th" 8o:p#"tionA8o::ission o% th" o%%"n8"!
)! '" ha7" a#so painstaCing#@ p"rus"d Es8orts
Li:it"d Dhi8h Das a#so d"8id"d 9@ th" Nishant tDo5Judg"
B"n8h! Pr"7ious d"8isions D"r" 8onsid"r"d> "7"ntua##@
#"ading to th" 8on8#usion that sin8" th" 8on8"rn"d 8h"Eu"
had 9""n pr"s"nt"d %or "n8ash:"nt at N"D D"#hi> its
M"tropo#itan Magistrat" poss"ss"d t"rritoria# <urisdi8tion to
"nt"rtain and d"8id" th" su9<"8t Co:p#aint und"r S"8tion
1*6 o% th" NI A8t! I:portant#@> in a su9s"Eu"nt ord"r> in FIL
Industri"s Ltd! 7! I:ti@aK Ah:"d Bhat pass"d on 1+
th
August
+,1*> it Das d"8id"d that th" p#a8" %ro: Dh"r" th" statutor@
noti8" had ":anat"d Dou#d not o% its oDn ha7" th"
8ons"Eu"n8" o% 7"sting <urisdi8tion upon that p#a8"!
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11
A88ording#@> it 9"ars r"p"tition that th" ratio in Bhaskaran
has 9""n drasti8a##@ di#ut"d in that th" situs o% th" noti8">
on" o% th" so58a##"d %i7" ingr"di"nts o% S"8tion 1*6> has noD
9""n h"#d not to 8#oth" that Court Dith t"rritoria#
8o:p"t"n8@! Th" 8on%#i8ting or in8ongru"nt opinions n""d to
9" r"so#7"d!
JUDICIAL APPROAC# ON JURISDICTION
1,! '" sha## taC" a short digr"ssion in t"r:s o% 9ri"%
dis8ussion o% th" approa8h pr"%"rr"d 9@ this Court in th"
8ont"Lt o% S"8tion +, o% th" Cod" o% Ci7i# Pro8"dur"> 1),6
/h"r"ina%t"r r"%"rr"d to as> ?CPC;0> Dhi8h int"r a#ia> "n<oins
that a suit :ust 9" institut"d in a 8ourt Dithin th" #o8a# #i:its
o% Dhos" <urisdi8tion th" D"%"ndant a8tua##@ and 7o#untari#@
r"sid"s> or 8arri"s on 9usin"ss> or p"rsona##@ DorCs %or gain>
or Dh"r" th" 8aus" o% a8tion Dho##@ or in part aris"s! Th"
ELp#anation to that S"8tion is i:portant3 it pr"s8ri9"s that a
8orporation sha## 9" d"":"d to 8arr@ on 9usin"ss at its so#"
or prin8ipa# o%%i8"> or> in r"sp"8t o% an@ 8aus" o% a8tion
Page 18
16
arising at an@ p#a8" Dh"r" it has a#so a su9ordinat" o%%i8"> at
su8h p#a8"! Sin8" this pro7ision pri:ari#@ C""ps th"
D"%"ndant in p"rsp"8ti7"> th" 8orporation spoC"n o% in th"
ELp#anation> o97ious#@ r"%"rs to th" D"%"ndant! A p#ain
r"ading o% S"8tion +, o% th" CPC argua9#@ a##oDs th" P#ainti%%
a :u#titud" o% 8hoi8"s in r"gard to Dh"r" it :a@ institut" its
#is> suit or a8tion! Corporations and partn"rship %ir:s> and
"7"n so#" propri"torship 8on8"rns> 8ou#d D"## 9" transa8ting
9usin"ss si:u#tan"ous#@ in s"7"ra# 8iti"s! I% su95s"8tions /a0
and /90 o% S"8tion +, ar" to 9" int"rpr"t"d dis<un8ti7"#@ %ro:
su95s"8tion /80> as th" us" o% th" Dord ?or; app"ars to p"r:it
th" P#ainti%% to %i#" th" suit at an@ o% th" p#a8"s Dh"r" th"
8aus" o% a8tion :a@ ha7" aris"n r"gard#"ss o% Dh"th"r th"
D"%"ndant has "7"n a su9ordinat" o%%i8" at that p#a8"!
HoD"7"r> i% th" D"%"ndants; #o8ation is to %or: th" %u#8ru: o%
<urisdi8tion> and it has an o%%i8" a#so at th" p#a8" Dh"r" th"
8aus" o% a8tion has o88urr"d> it has 9""n h"#d that th"
P#ainti%% is pr"8#ud"d %ro: instituting th" suit an@Dh"r" "#s"!
O97ious#@> this is a#so 9"8aus" "7"r@ oth"r p#a8" Dou#d
Page 19
1)
8onstitut" a forum non conveniens! This Court has
har:onis"d th" 7arious hu"s o% th" 8onundru: o% th" p#a8"
o% suing in s"7"ra# 8as"s and has gon" to th" "Lt"nt o%
#a@ing doDn that it shou#d 9" 8ourts "nd"a7our to #o8at" th"
p#a8" Dh"r" th" 8aus" o% a8tion has su9stantia##@ aris"n and
r"<"8t oth"rs Dh"r" it :a@ ha7" in8id"nta##@ aris"n! Pat"#
RoadDa@s Li:it"d> Bo:9a@ 7! Prasad Trading Co:pan@> AIR
1))+ SC 1(1- O /1))10 - SCC +1, pr"s8ri9"s that i% th"
D"%"ndant58orporation has a su9ordinat" o%%i8" in th" p#a8"
Dh"r" th" 8aus" o% a8tion aris"s> #itigation :ust 9" institut"d
at that p#a8" a#on"> r"gard#"ss o% th" a:p#itud" o% options
postu#at"d in S"8tion +, o% th" CPC! '" n""d not di#at" on
this point 9"@ond :aCing a r"%"r"n8" to ONIC 7! Utpa#
Fu:ar Basu /1))-0 - SCC 111 and South East Asia Shipping
Co! Ltd! 7! Na7 Bharat Ent"rpris"s P7t! Ltd! /1))40 * SCC --*!
11! '" ar" a#i7" to th" possi9#" in8ongruiti"s that ar"
%raught in "Ltrapo#ating d"8isions r"#ating to 8i7i# #aD onto
8ri:ina# #aD> Dhi8h in8#ud"s i:porting th" 8i7i# #aD 8on8"pt
o% G8aus" o% a8tionJ to 8ri:ina# #aD Dhi8h "ss"ntia##@
Page 20
+,
"n7isag"s th" p#a8" Dh"r" a 8ri:" has 9""n 8o::itt"d
":poD"rs th" Court at that p#a8" Dith <urisdi8tion! In
Na7in8handra N! Ma<ithia 7! Stat" o% Maharashtra /+,,,0 1
SCC 4-, this Court had to 8onsid"r th" poD"rs o% High
Courts und"r Arti8#" ++4/+0 o% th" Constitution o% India!
Noting th" pr"s"n8" o% th" phras" G8aus" o% a8tionJ th"r"in
it Das 8#ari%i"d that sin8" so:" "7"nts 8"ntra# to th"
in7"stigation o% th" a##"g"d 8ri:" ass"7"rat"d in th"
Co:p#aint had taC"n p#a8" in Mu:9ai and "sp"8ia##@
9"8aus" th" %unda:"nta# gri"7an8" Das th" %a#sit@ o% th"
Co:p#aint %i#"d in Shi##ong> th" Drit <urisdi8tion o% th"
Bo:9a@ High Court Das unEu"stiona9#@ a7ai#a9#"! Th"
in%usion o% th" 8on8"pt o% ?8aus" o% a8tion; into th" 8ri:ina#
disp"nsation has #"d to su9s"Eu"nt 8on%usion 8ount"nan8"d
in High Courts! It s"":s to us that Bhaskaran a##oDs
:u#tip#" 7"nu"s to th" Co:p#ainant Dhi8h runs 8ount"r to
this Court;s pr"%"r"n8" %or si:p#i%@ing th" #aD! Courts ar"
"n<oin"d to int"rpr"t th" #aD so as to "radi8at" a:9iguit@ or
n"9u#ousn"ss> and to "nsur" that #"ga# pro8""dings ar" not
Page 21
+1
us"d as a d"7i8" %or harass:"nt> "7"n o% an appar"nt
transgr"ssor o% th" #aD! LaD;s "nd"a7our is to 9ring th"
8u#prit to 9ooC and to pro7id" su88our %or th" aggri"7"d
part@ 9ut not to harass th" %or:"r through 7"Latious
pro8""dings! Th"r"%or"> pr"8ision and "La8titud" ar"
n"8"ssar@ "sp"8ia##@ Dh"r" th" #o8ation o% a #itigation is
8on8"rn"d!
RELEVANT PROVISIONS
1+! Th" pro7isions Dhi8h Di## ha7" to 9" "La:in"d and
ana#@s"d ar" r"produ8"d %or %a8i#it@ o% r"%"r"n8" H
Negotiable Instruments Act, 11
“138. Dishonour of cheque for insufficiency, etc., of funds
in the account.-Where any cheque drawn by a person on an ac-
count maintained by him with a banker for payment of any amount
of money to another person from out of that account for the dis-
charge, in whole or in part, of any debt or other liability, is re-
turned by the bank unpaid, either because of the amount of money
standing to the credit of that account is insufficient to honour the
cheque or that it exceeds the amount arranged to be paid from that
account by an agreement made with that bank, such person shall
be deemed to have committed an offence and shall, without preju-
Page 22
++
dice to any other provisions of this Act, be punished with impris-
onment for a term which may be extended to two years, or with
fine which may extend to twice the amount of the cheque, or with
both
!rovided that nothing contained in this section shall apply
unless-
"a# the cheque has been presented to the bank within a pe-
riod of six months from the date on which it is drawn or
within the period of its validity, whichever is earlier$
"b# the payee or the holder in due course of the cheque, as
the case may be, makes a demand for the payment of the
said amount of money by giving a notice in writing, to
the drawer of the cheque, within thirty days of the re-
ceipt of information by him from the bank regarding the
return of the cheque as unpaid% and
"c# the drawer of such cheque fails to make the payment of
the said amount of money to the payee or, as the case
may be, to the holder in due course of the cheque,
within fifteen days of the receipt of the said notice$
Explanation. &or the purposes of this section, “debt or
other liability' means a legally enforceable debt or other lia-
bility$
142. Cognizance of offences.-(otwithstanding anything
contained in the )ode of )riminal !rocedure, *+,- ". of *+,/#-
Page 23
+*
"a# no court shall take cogni0ance of any offence punishable
under section *-1 except upon a complaint, in writing,
made by the payee or, as the case may be, the holder in
due course of the cheque%
"b# such complaint is made within one month of the date on
which the cause of action arises under clause "c# of the
proviso to section *-1%
!rovided that the cogni0ance of a complaint may be
taken by the )ourt after the prescribed period, if the
complainant satisfies the )ourt that he had sufficient
cause for not making a complaint within such period$
"c# no court inferior to that of a 2etropolitan 2agistrate or a
3udicial 2agistrate of the first class shall try any offence
punishable under section *-1$'
Code of Criminal Procedure, 1!3
“1!!. "rdinary #lace of inquiry and trial.- 4very offence shall
ordinarily be inquired into and tried by a )ourt within whose local
jurisdiction it was committed$
1!8. Place of inquiry or trial.- "a# When it is uncertain in which
of several local areas an offence was committed, or
$b# where an offence is committed partly in one local area
and partly in another, or
Page 24
+-
"c# where an offence is a continuing one, and continues to be
committed in more local areas than one, or
"d# where it consists of several acts done in different local
areas,
it may be inquired into or tried by a )ourt having jurisdiction over
any of such local areas$
1!. "ffence tria%le &here act is done or consequence ensues.-
When an act is an offence by reason of anything which has been
done and of a consequence which has ensued, the offence may be
inquired into or tried by a )ourt within whose local jurisdiction
such thing has been done or such consequence has ensued$'
PARLIAMENTAR. DEBATES
1*! Th" =$IIth %as8i8u#us o% th" N"gotia9#" Instru:"nts
A8t 8ontaining S"8tions 1*6 to 1-+ Das introdu8"d into th"
statut" in 1)66! Th" a7oD"d int"nd:"nt o% th" a:"nd:"nt
Das to "nhan8" th" a88"pta9i#it@ o% 8h"Eu"s! It Das 9as"d
on th" R"port o% th" Co::itt"" on BanCing LaDs 9@ Dr!
Ra<a:annar> su9:itt"d in 1)1(> Dhi8h sugg"st"d> inter alia,
p"na#iKing th" issuan8" o% 8h"Eu" Dithout su%%i8i"nt %unds!
Th" Minist"r o% Finan8" had assuag"d appr"h"nsions 9@
Page 25
+(
arguing that sa%"guards %or hon"st p"rsons had 9""n
in8orporat"d in th" pro7isions> 7iK!> /i0 th" 8h"Eu" shou#d
ha7" 9""n issu"d in dis8harg" o% #ia9i#it@3 /ii0 th" 8h"Eu"
shou#d 9" pr"s"nt"d Dithin its 7a#idit@ p"riod3 /iii0 a Noti8"
had to 9" s"nt 9@ th" Pa@"" d":anding pa@:"nt Dithin 1(
da@s o% r"8"i7ing noti8" o% dishonour3 /i70 th" draD"r Das
a##oD"d to :aC" pa@:"nt Dithin 1( da@s %ro: th" dat" o%
r"8"ipt o% noti8"3 /70 Co:p#aint Das to 9" :ad" Dithin on"
:onth o% th" 8aus" o% a8tion arising3 /7i0 no Court in%"rior to
that o% MM or JMFC Das to tr@ th" o%%"n8"! Th" Finan8"
Minist"r had a#so stat"d that th" Court had dis8r"tion
Dh"th"r th" DraD"r Dou#d 9" i:prison"d orAand %in"d!
D"tra8tors> hoD"7"r> point"d out that th" IPC a#r"ad@
"n7ision"d 8ri:ina# #ia9i#it@ %or 8h"Eu"59oun8ing Dh"r"
dishon"st or %raudu#"nt int"ntion or mens rea on part o% th"
DraD"r Das "7id"nt> na:"#@> 8h"ating> %raud> 8ri:ina#
9r"a8h o% trust "t8! Th"r"%or"> th"r" Das no <usti%i8ation to
:aC" th" dishonour o% 8h"Eu"s a 8ri:ina# o%%"n8"> ignoring
%a8tors #iC" i##it"ra8@> indisp"nsa9#" n"8"ssiti"s>
Page 26
+4
hon"stAinno8"nt :istaC"> 9anC %rauds> bona fide 9"#i"%>
andAor un"Lp"8t"d atta8h:"nt or %r""King o% a88ount in an@
<udi8ia# pro8""dings as it Dou#d 9ring "7"n hon"st p"rsons
Dithin th" a:9it o% S"8tion 1*6 NI A8t! Th" possi9i#it@ o%
a9using th" pro7ision as a too# o% harass:"nt 8ou#d a#so not
9" ru#"d out! Criti8s a#so d"8ri"d th" punish:"nt %or 9"ing
harsh3 that 8i7i# #ia9i#it@ 8an n"7"r 9" 8on7"rt"d into 8ri:ina#
#ia9i#it@3 that sing#ing out 8h"Eu"s out o% a## oth"r n"gotia9#"
instru:"nts Dou#d 9" 7io#ati7" o% Arti8#" 1- o% Constitution o%
India! Criti8s 8ont"nd"d that th"r" Das insu%%i8i"nt
":piri8a# "nEuir@ into statut"s or #"gis#ation in %or"ign
<urisdi8tions 8ri:ina#iKing th" dishonour o% 8h"Eu"s and
statisti8s had not 9""n :ad" a7ai#a9#" 9"aring out that
8ri:ina#iKation Dou#d in8r"as" th" a88"pta9i#it@ o% 8h"Eu"!
Th" Minist"r o% Finan8" Das not "ntir"#@ %orthright Dh"n h"
stat"d in Par#ia:"nt that th" draD"r Das a#so a##oD"d
su%%i8i"nt opportunit@ to sa@ Dh"th"r th" dishonour Das 9@
:istaC"! It :ust 9" 9orn" in :ind that in th" U!F! d"8"ption
and dishon"st@ ar" C"@ "#":"nts Dhi8h r"Euir" to 9" pro7"d!
Page 27
+1
In th" USA> so:" Stat"s ha7" th"ir oDn #aDs> r"Euiring
%raudu#"nt int"nt or CnoD#"dg" o% insu%%i8i"nt %unds to 9"
:ad" good! Fran8" has 8ri:ina#iK"d and su9s"Eu"nt#@
d"8ri:ina#iK"d th" dishonour "L8"pt in #i:it"d
8ir8u:stan8"s! Inst"ad> it pro7id"s %or disEua#i%i8ation %ro:
issuing 8h"Eu"s> a pra8ti8" Dhi8h had 9""n adopt"d in Ita#@
and Spain a#so! '" ha7" und"rtaC"n this su88in8t stud@
:ind%u# o% th" %a8t that Par#ia:"ntar@ d"9at"s ha7" a #i:it"d
part to p#a@ in int"rpr"tation o% statut"s> th" pr"su:ption
9"ing that L"gis#ators ha7" th" "Lp"ri"n8"> "Lp"rtis" and
#anguag" sCi##s to dra%t #aDs Dhi8h una:9iguous#@ 8on7"@
th"ir int"ntions and "Lp"8tations %or th" "na8t:"nts! 'hat
is pa#pa9#@ 8#"ar is that Par#ia:"nt Das aDar" that th"@ D"r"
8on7"rting 8i7i# #ia9i#it@ into 8ri:ina# 8ont"nt int"r a#ia 9@ th"
d"":ing %i8tion o% 8u#pa9i#it@ in t"r:s o% th" pand"8t
8o:prising S"8tion 1*6 and th" su88""ding S"8tions> Dhi8h
s"7"r"#@ 8urtai# d"%"n8"s to pros"8ution! Par#ia:"nt Das
a#so aDar" that th" o%%"n8" o% 8h"ating "t8!> a#r"ad@
"n7isag"d in th" IPC> 8ontinu"d to 9" a7ai#a9#"!
Page 28
+6
CIVIL LA/ CONCEPTS NOT STRICTL. APPLICABLE
1-! '" ha7" a#r"ad@ 8aution"d against th"
"Ltrapo#ation o% 8i7i# #aD 8on8"pts su8h as G8aus" o% a8tionJ
onto 8ri:ina# #aD! S"8tion 111 o% th" CrPC una:9iguous#@
stat"s that "7"r@ o%%"n8" sha## ordinari#@ 9" inEuir"d into and
tri"d 9@ a Court Dithin Dhos" #o8a# <urisdi8tion it Das
8o::itt"d! GO%%"n8"J> 9@ 7irtu" o% th" d"%inition as8ri9"d to
th" Dord 9@ S"8tion +/n0 o% th" CrPC :"ans an@ a8t or
o:ission :ad" punisha9#" 9@ an@ #aD! Ha#s9ur@ stat"s that
th" 7"nu" %or th" tria# o% a 8ri:" is 8on%in"d to th" p#a8" o%
its o88urr"n8"! B#a8Cston" opin"s that 8ri:" is #o8a# and
<urisdi8tion o7"r it 7"sts in th" Court and Countr@ Dh"r" th"
8ri:" is 8o::itt"d! This is o97ious#@ th" raison d’etre %or
th" CrPC :aCing a d"partur" %ro: th" CPC in not :aCing th"
G8aus" o% a8tionJ routin"#@ r"#"7ant %or th" d"t"r:ination o%
t"rritoria#it@ o% 8ri:ina# 8ourts! Th" Dord Ga8tionJ has
traditiona##@ 9""n und"rstood to 9" s@non@:ous to GsuitJ> or
as ordinar@ pro8""dings in a Court o% <usti8" %or "n%or8":"nt
Page 29
+)
or prot"8tion o% th" rights o% th" initiator o% th" pro8""dings!
GA8tion> g"n"ra##@ :"ans a #itigation in a 8i7i# Court %or th"
r"8o7"r@ o% indi7idua# right or r"dr"ss o% indi7idua# Drong>
in8#usi7"> in its prop"r #"ga# s"ns"> o% suits 9@ th" CroDnJ 5
.Brad#augh 7! C#arC" 6 App"a# Cas"s *(- p!*412! Un#iC" 8i7i#
a8tions> Dh"r" th" P#ainti%% has th" 9urd"n o% %i#ing and
pro7ing its 8as"> th" r"sponsi9i#it@ o% in7"stigating a 8ri:">
:arsha##ing "7id"n8" and Ditn"ss"s> r"sts Dith th" Stat"!
Th"r"%or"> Dhi#" th" 8on7"ni"n8" o% th" D"%"ndant in a 8i7i#
a8tion :a@ 9" r"#"7ant> th" 8on7"ni"n8" o% th" so 8a##"d
8o:p#ainantA7i8ti: has #itt#" or no ro#" to p#a@ in 8ri:ina#
pros"8ution! F""ping in p"rsp"8ti7" th" pr"s"n8" o% th"
Dord Gordinari#@J in S"8tion 111 o% CrPC> D" hast"n to
adu:9rat" that th" "L8"ptions to it ar" 8ontain"d in th"
CrPC its"#%> that is> in th" 8ont"nts o% th" su88""ding S"8tion
116! Th" CrPC a#so 8ontains an "Lp#i8ation o% G8o:p#aintJ as
an@ a##"gation to a Magistrat" Dith a 7i"D to his taCing
a8tion in r"sp"8t o% th" 8o::ission o% an o%%"n8"3 not 9"ing
a po#i8" r"port! Pros"8ution "nsu"s %ro: a Co:p#aint or
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*,
po#i8" r"port %or th" purpos" o% d"t"r:ining th" 8u#pa9i#it@ o%
a p"rson a88us"d o% th" 8o::ission o% a 8ri:"3 and un#iC" a
8i7i# a8tion or suit is 8arri"d out /or ?pros"8ut"d;0 9@ th"
Stat" or its no:inat"d ag"n8@! Th" prin8ipa# d"%inition o%
Gpros"8utionJ i:part"d 9@ B#a8C;s LaD Di8tionar@ (
th
Edition
is Ga 8ri:ina# a8tion3 th" pro8""ding institut"d and 8arri"d
on 9@ du" pro8"ss o% #aD> 9"%or" a 8o:p"t"nt Tri9una#> %or
th" purpos" o% d"t"r:ining th" gui#t or inno8"n8" o% a
p"rson 8harg"d Dith 8ri:"!J Th"s" r"%#"8tions ar" n"8"ssar@
9"8aus" S"8tion 1-+/90 o% th" NI A8t 8ontains th" Dords>
Gth" 8aus" o% a8tion aris"s und"r th" pro7iso to S"8tion
1*6J> r"su#ting argua9#@> 9ut in our opinion irr"#"7ant#@> to
th" 9#ind 9orroDing o% "ss"ntia##@ 8i7i# #aD attri9ut"s onto
8ri:ina# pro8""dings! '" r"it"rat" that S"8tion 116 ad:its
o% no d"9at" that in 8ri:ina# pros"8ution> th" 8on8"pt o%
G8aus" o% a8tionJ> 9"ing th" 9und#" o% %a8ts r"Euir"d to 9"
pro7"d in a suit and a88ording#@ a#so 9"ing r"#"7ant %or th"
p#a8" o% suing> is not p"rtin"nt or g"r:an" %or d"t"r:ining
t"rritoria# <urisdi8tion o% 8ri:ina# Tria#s! S"8tion 116> CrPC
Page 31
*1
"Lp#i8it#@ stat"s that "7"r@ o%%"n8" sha## ordinari#@ 9"
inEuir"d into and tri"d 9@ a Court Dithin Dhos" #o8a#
<urisdi8tion it Das 8o::itt"d! S"8tion 11) is o% si:i#ar t"nor!
'" ar" a#so una9#" to #o8at" an@ pro7ision o% th" NI A8t
Dhi8h indi8at"s or "nu:"rat"s th" "Ltraordinar@
8ir8u:stan8"s Dhi8h Dou#d <usti%@ a d"partur" %ro: th"
stipu#ation that th" p#a8" Dh"r" th" o%%"n8" is 8o::itt"d is
Dh"r" th" pros"8ution has to 9" 8ondu8t"d! In %a8t> sin8"
8ogniKan8" o% th" o%%"n8" is su9<"8t to th" %i7" Bhaskaran
8o:pon"nts or 8on8o:itants th" 8on8at"nation o% Dhi8h
rip"ns th" a#r"ad@ 8o::itt"d o%%"n8" und"r S"8tion 1*6 NI
A8t into a pros"8uta9#" o%%"n8"> th" ":p#o@:"nt o% th"
phras" G8aus" o% a8tionJ in S"8tion 1-+ o% th" NI A8t is
apposit" %or taCing 8ogniKan8"> 9ut inappropriat" and
irr"#"7ant %or d"t"r:ining 8o::ission o% th" su9<"8t o%%"n8"!
Th"r" ar" :@riad "La:p#"s o% th" 8o::ission o% a 8ri:" th"
pros"8ution o% Dhi8h is d"p"nd"nt on "Ltran"ous
8onting"n8i"s su8h as o9tain:"nt o% san8tion %or
pros"8ution und"r S"8tion 1) o% th" Pr"7"ntion o% Corruption
Page 32
*+
A8t 1)66! Si:i#ar situation is statutori#@ 8r"at"d 9@ S"8tion
1) o% th" En7iron:"nta# Prot"8tion A8t 1)64> S"8tion 11 o%
th" C"ntra# Sa#"s TaL A8t 1)(4> S"8tion +1) o% th" In8o:"
TaL A8t> S"8tions 1*+ and *,6> CrPC> S"8tion 1*1 o% th"
Custo:s A8t "t8! It Dou#d 9" id#" to 8ont"nd that th"
o%%"n8" 8o:"s into "List"n8" on#@ on th" grant o% p"r:ission
%or pros"8ution> or that this p"r:ission 8onstitut"s an
int"gra# part o% th" o%%"n8" its"#%! It Dou#d a#so 9" %uti#" to
argu" that th" p#a8" Dh"r" th" p"r:ission is grant"d Dou#d
pro7id" th" 7"nu" %or th" tria#! I% san8tion is not grant"d th"
o%%"n8" do"s not 7anish! EEua##@> i% san8tion is grant"d %ro:
a p#a8" oth"r than Dh"r" th" 8ri:" is 8o::itt"d> it is th"
#att"r Dhi8h Di## r":ain th" p#a8" %or its pros"8ution!
SECTION 018 NI ACT
1(! Th" :argina# not" o% S"8tion 1*6 o% th" NI A8t
"Lp#i8it#@ d"%in"s th" o%%"n8" as 9"ing th" dishonour o%
8h"Eu"s %or insu%%i8i"n8@> "t8!> o% %unds in th" a88ount! O%
8ours"> th" h"adings> 8aptions or op"ning Dords o% a pi"8"
Page 33
**
o% #"gis#ation ar" nor:a##@ not stri8t#@ or 8o:pr"h"nsi7"#@
d"t"r:inati7" o% th" sD""p o% th" a8tua# S"8tion its"#%> 9ut it
do"s pr"sag" its int"nd:"nt! S""H Fri8C India Ltd! 7! Union o%
India /1)),0 1 SCC -,, and Forag" & Co! 7! Muni8ipa#
Corporation o% Ir"at"r Bo:9a@ /1)))0 6 SCC (11!
A88ording#@> un#"ss th" pro7isions o% th" S"8tion 8#"ar#@ point
to th" 8ontrar@> th" o%%"n8" is 8on8"rn"d Dith th" dishonour
o% a 8h"Eu"3 and in th" 8onundru: 9"%or" us th" 9od@ o%
this pro7ision sp"aCs in th" sa:" ti:9r" sin8" it r"%"rs to a
8h"Eu" 9"ing Gr"turn"d 9@ th" 9anC unpaidJ! Non" o% th"
pro7isions o% th" IPC ha7" 9""n r"nd"r"d nugator@ 9@
S"8tion 1*6 o% th" NI A8t and 9oth op"rat" on th"ir oDn! It is
trit" that mens rea is th" Euint"ss"ntia# o% "7"r@ 8ri:"! Th"
o9<"8ti7" o% Par#ia:"nt Das to str"ngth"n th" us" o%
8h"Eu"s> distin8t %ro: oth"r n"gotia9#" instru:"nts> as
:"r8anti#" t"nd"r and th"r"%or" it 9"8a:" "ss"ntia# %or th"
S"8tion 1*6 NI A8t o%%"n8" to 9" %r""d %ro: th" r"Euir":"nt
o% pro7ing mens rea! This has 9""n a8hi"7"d 9@ d"":ing
th" 8o::ission o% an o%%"n8" d" hors mens rea not on#@
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und"r S"8tion 1*6 9ut a#so 9@ 7irtu" o% th" su88""ding tDo
S"8tions! S"8tion 1*) 8ar7"s out th" pr"su:ption that th"
ho#d"r o% a 8h"Eu" has r"8"i7"d it %or th" dis8harg" o% an@
#ia9i#it@! S"8tion 1-, 8#ari%i"s that it Di## not 9" a7ai#a9#" as a
d"%"n8" to th" draD"r that h" had no r"ason to 9"#i"7">
Dh"n h" issu"d th" 8h"Eu"> that it Dou#d 9" dishonour"d!
S"8tion 1*6 un"Eui7o8a##@ stat"s that th" o%%"n8" is
8o::itt"d no soon"r th" draD"" 9anC r"turns th" 8h"Eu"
unpaid!
14! S"8tion 1*6 NI A8t is stru8tur"d in tDo parts P th"
pri:ar@ and th" pro7isor@! It :ust 9" C"pt in :ind that th"
L"gis#atur" do"s not ordain Dith on" hand and i::"diat"#@
n"gat" it Dith th" oth"r! Th" pro7iso o%t"n 8ar7"s out a
:inor d"tra8tion or di:inution o% th" :ain pro7ision o% Dhi8h
it is an app"ndiL or add"ndu: or auLi#iar@! B#a8C LaD
Di8tionar@ stat"s in th" 8ont"Lt o% a pro7iso that it is P Ga
#i:itation or "L8"ption to a grant :ad" or authorit@
8on%"rr"d> th" "%%"8t o% Dhi8h is to d"8#ar" that th" on" sha##
not op"rat"> or th" oth"r 9" "L"r8is"d> un#"ss in th" 8as"
Page 35
*(
pro7id"d! ! A 8#aus" or part o% a 8#aus" in a statut"> th"
o%%i8" o% Dhi8h is "ith"r to "L8"pt so:"thing %ro: th"
"na8ting 8#aus"> or to Eua#i%@ or r"strain its g"n"ra#it@> or to
"L8#ud" so:" possi9#" ground o% :isint"rpr"tation o% its
"Lt"nt!J It shou#d a#so 9" C"pt in p"rsp"8ti7" that a pro7iso
or a 8ondition ar" s@non@:ous! In our p"r8"ption in th"
8as" in hand th" 8ont"nts o% th" pro7iso p#a8" 8onditions on
th" op"ration o% th" :ain pro7ision> Dhi#" it do"s %or: a
8onstitu"nt o% th" 8ri:" its"#%> it :odu#at"s or r"gu#at"s th"
8ri:" in 8ir8u:stan8"s Dh"r"> un#"ss its pro7isions ar"
8o:p#i"d Dith> th" a#r"ad@ 8o::itt"d 8ri:" r":ains
i:p"r7ious to pros"8ution! Th" pro7iso to S"8tion 1*6 o% th"
NI A8t %"atur"s thr"" %a8tors Dhi8h ar" additiona##@ r"Euir"d
%or pros"8ution to 9" su88"ss%u#! In this asp"8t S"8tion 1-+
8orr"8t#@ ":p#o@s th" t"r: G8aus" o% a8tionJ as 8o:p#ian8"
Dith th" thr"" %a8tors 8ontain"d in th" pro7iso ar" "ss"ntia#
%or th" 8ogniKan8" o% th" o%%"n8"> "7"n though th"@ ar" not
part o% th" a8tion 8onstituting th" 8ri:"! To this "Lt"nt D"
r"sp"8t%u##@ 8on8ur Dith Bhaskaran in that th"
Page 36
*4
8on8at"nation o% a## th"s" 8on8o:itants> 8onstitu"nts or
ingr"di"nts o% S"8tion 1*6 NI A8t> is "ss"ntia# %or th"
su88"ss%u# initiation or #aun8h o% th" pros"8ution! '">
hoD"7"r> ar" o% th" 7i"D that so %ar as th" o%%"n8" its"#% th"
pro7iso has no ro#" to p#a@! A88ording#@ a r"ading o% S"8tion
1*6 NI A8t in 8on<un8tion Dith S"8tion 111> CrPC #"a7"s no
:ann"r o% dou9t that th" r"turn o% th" 8h"Eu" 9@ th"
draD"" 9anC a#on" 8onstitut"s th" 8o::ission o% th"
o%%"n8" and indi8at"s th" p#a8" Dh"r" th" o%%"n8" is
8o::itt"d!
11! In this ana#@sis D" ho#d that th" p#a8"> situs or
7"nu" o% <udi8ia# inEuir@ and tria# o% th" o%%"n8" :ust
#ogi8a##@ 9" r"stri8t"d to Dh"r" th" draD"" 9anC> is #o8at"d!
Th" #aD shou#d not 9" Darp"d %or 8o::"r8ia# "Lig"n8i"s! As
it is S"8tion 1*6 o% th" NI A8t has introdu8"d a d"":ing
%i8tion o% 8u#pa9i#it@> "7"n though> S"8tion -+, is sti##
a7ai#a9#" in 8as" th" pa@"" %inds it ad7antag"ous or
8on7"ni"nt to pro8""d und"r that pro7ision! An
int"rpr"tation shou#d not 9" i:part"d to S"8tion 1*6 Dhi8h
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*1
Di## r"nd"r it as a d"7i8" o% harass:"nt i!"! 9@ s"nding
noti8"s %ro: a p#a8" Dhi8h has no 8asua# 8onn"8tion Dith th"
transa8tion its"#%> andAor 9@ pr"s"nting th" 8h"Eu"/s0 at an@
o% th" 9anCs Dh"r" th" pa@"" :a@ ha7" an a88ount! In our
dis8"rn:"nt> it is a#so noD :ani%"st that trad"rs and
9usin"ss:"n ha7" 9"8o:" r"8C#"ss and in8autious in
"Lt"nding 8r"dit Dh"r" th"@ Dou#d h"r"to%or" ha7" 9""n
"Ltr":"#@ h"sitant> so#"#@ 9"8aus" o% th" a7ai#a9i#it@ o%
r"dr"ss 9@ Da@ o% 8ri:ina# pro8""dings! It is a#Da@s op"n to
th" 8r"ditor to insist that th" 8h"Eu"s in Eu"stion 9" :ad"
pa@a9#" at a p#a8" o% th" 8r"ditor;s 8on7"ni"n8"! Toda@;s
r"a#it@ is that th" "7"r@ Magistra8@ is inundat"d Dith
pros"8utions und"r S"8tion 1*6 NI A8t> so :u8h so that th"
9urd"n is 9"8o:ing un9"ara9#" and d"tri:"nta# to th"
disposa# o% oth"r "Eua##@ pr"ssing #itigation! '" thinC that
Courts ar" not r"Euir"d to tDist th" #aD to gi7" r"#i"% to
in8autious or i:p"tuous p"rsons3 9"@ond S"8tion 1*6 o% th"
NI A8t!
16! '" %""# 8o:p"##"d to r"it"rat" our ":path@ Dith a
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*6
pa@"" Dho has 9""n dup"d or d"#ud"d 9@ a sDind#"r into
a88"pting a 8h"Eu" as 8onsid"ration %or d"#i7"r@ o% an@ o%
his prop"rt@3 or 9"8aus" o% th" r"8"ipt o% a 8h"Eu" has
indu8"d th" pa@"" to o:it to do an@thing r"su#ting in so:"
da:ag" to th" pa@""! Th" r"#i"% introdu8"d 9@ S"8tion 1*6
o% th" NI A8t is in addition to th" 8ont":p#ations in th" IPC!
It is sti## op"n to su8h a pa@"" r"8ipi"nt o% a dishonour"d
8h"Eu" to #odg" a First In%or:ation R"port Dith th" Po#i8" or
%i#" a Co:p#aint dir"8t#@ 9"%or" th" 8on8"rn"d Magistrat"! I%
th" pa@"" su88""ds in "sta9#ishing that th" indu8":"nt %or
a88"pting a 8h"Eu" Dhi8h su9s"Eu"nt#@ 9oun8"d had
o88urr"d Dh"r" h" r"sid"s or ordinari#@ transa8ts 9usin"ss>
h" Di## not ha7" to su%%"r th" tra7ai#s o% <ourn"@ing to th"
p#a8" Dh"r" th" 8h"Eu" has 9""n dishonour"d! A## r":"di"s
und"r th" IPC and CrPC ar" a7ai#a9#" to su8h a pa@"" i% h"
8hoos"s to pursu" this 8ours" o% a8tion> rath"r than a
Co:p#aint und"r S"8tion 1*6 o% th" NI A8t! And o% 8ours">
h" 8an a#Da@s %i#" a suit %or r"8o7"r@ Dh"r"7"r th" 8aus" o%
a8tion aris"s d"p"nd"nt on his 8hoosing!
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*)
1)! Th" int"rpr"tation o% S"8tion 1*6 o% th" NI A8t
Dhi8h 8o::"nds its"#% to us is that th" o%%"n8"
8ont":p#at"d th"r"in stands 8o::itt"d on th" dishonour o%
th" 8h"Eu"> and a88ording#@ th" JMFC at th" p#a8" Dh"r" this
o88urs is ordinari#@ Dh"r" th" Co:p#aint :ust 9" %i#"d>
"nt"rtain"d and tri"d! Th" 8ogniKan8" o% th" 8ri:" 9@ th"
JMFC at that p#a8" hoD"7"r> 8an 9" taC"n on#@ Dh"n th"
8on8o:itants or 8onstitu"nts 8ont":p#at"d 9@ th" S"8tion
8on8at"nat" Dith "a8h oth"r! '" 8#ari%@ that th" p#a8" o% th"
issuan8" or d"#i7"r@ o% th" statutor@ noti8" or Dh"r" th"
Co:p#ainant 8hoos"s to pr"s"nt th" 8h"Eu" %or "n8ash:"nt
9@ his 9anC ar" not r"#"7ant %or purpos"s o% t"rritoria#
<urisdi8tion o% th" Co:p#aints "7"n though non58o:p#ian8"
th"r"o% Di## in"Lora9#@ #"ad to th" dis:issa# o% th" 8o:p#aint!
It 8annot 9" 8ont"st"d that 8onsid"ra9#" 8on%usion pr"7ai#s
on th" int"rpr"tation o% S"8tion 1*6 in parti8u#ar and
Chapt"r =$II in g"n"ra# o% th" NI A8t! Th" 7indi8ation o% this
7i"D is du#@ :ani%"st"d 9@ th" d"8isions and 8on8#usion
arri7"d at 9@ th" High Courts "7"n in th" %"D 8as"s that D"
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-,
sha## d"8id" 9@ this Judg:"nt! '" 8#ari%@ that th"
Co:p#ainant is statutori#@ 9ound to 8o:p#@ Dith S"8tion 111
"t8! o% th" CrPC and th"r"%or" th" p#a8" or situs Dh"r" th"
S"8tion 1*6 Co:p#aint is to 9" %i#"d is not o% his 8hoosing!
Th" t"rritoria# <urisdi8tion is r"stri8t"d to th" Court Dithin
Dhos" #o8a# <urisdi8tion th" o%%"n8" Das 8o::itt"d> Dhi8h in
th" pr"s"nt 8ont"Lt is Dh"r" th" 8h"Eu" is dishonour"d 9@
th" 9anC on Dhi8h it is draDn!
+,! '" ar" Euit" a#i7" to th" :agnitud" o% th" i:pa8t
that th" pr"s"nt d"8ision sha## ha7" to possi9#@ #aChs o% 8as"s
p"nding in 7arious Courts spanning a8ross th" 8ountr@! On"
approa8h 8ou#d 9" to d"8#ar" that this <udg:"nt Di## ha7"
on#@ prosp"8ti7" p"rtin"n8"> i!"! app#i8a9i#it@ to Co:p#aints
that :a@ 9" %i#"d a%t"r this pronoun8":"nt! HoD"7"r> C""p5
ing in p"rsp"8ti7" th" hardship that this Di## 8ontinu" to 9"ar
on a##"g"d a88us"dAr"spond"nts Dho :a@ ha7" to tra7"# #ong
distan8"s in 8ondu8ting th"ir d"%"n8"> and a#so :ind%u# o% th"
#"ga# i:p#i8ations o% pro8""dings 9"ing p"r:itt"d to 8ontinu"
in a Court d"7oid o% <urisdi8tion> this r"8ours" in "ntir"t@ do"s
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not 8o::"nd its"#% to us! Cons"Eu"nt on 8onsid"ra9#" 8on5
sid"ration D" thinC it "Lp"di"nt to dir"8t that on#@ thos"
8as"s Dh"r"> post th" su::oning and app"aran8" o% th" a#5
#"g"d A88us"d> th" r"8ording o% "7id"n8" has 8o::"n8"d as
"n7isag"d in S"8tion 1-(/+0 o% th" N"gotia9#" Instru:"nts
A8t> 1661> Di## pro8""ding 8ontinu" at that p#a8"! To 8#ari%@>
r"gard#"ss o% Dh"th"r "7id"n8" has 9""n #"d 9"%or" th" Mag5
istrat" at th" pr"5su::oning stag"> "ith"r 9@ a%%ida7it or 9@
ora# stat":"nt> th" Co:p#aint Di## 9" :aintaina9#" on#@ at
th" p#a8" Dh"r" th" 8h"Eu" stands dishonour"d! To o97iat"
and "radi8at" an@ #"ga# 8o:p#i8ations> th" 8at"gor@ o% Co:5
p#aint 8as"s Dh"r" pro8""dings ha7" gon" to th" stag" o%
S"8tion 1-(/+0 or 9"@ond sha## 9" d"":"d to ha7" 9""n
trans%"rr"d 9@ us %ro: th" Court ordinari#@ poss"ssing t"rrito5
ria# <urisdi8tion> as noD 8#ari%i"d> to th" Court Dh"r" it is
pr"s"nt#@ p"nding! A## oth"r Co:p#aints /o97ious#@ in8#uding
thos" Dh"r" th" a88us"dAr"spond"nt has not 9""n prop"r#@
s"r7"d0 sha## 9" r"turn"d to th" Co:p#ainant %or %i#ing in th"
prop"r Court> in 8onsonan8" Dith our "Lposition o% th" #aD! I%
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su8h Co:p#aints ar" %i#"dAr"%i#"d Dithin thirt@ da@s o% th"ir r"5
turn> th"@ sha## 9" d"":"d to ha7" 9""n %i#"d Dithin th" ti:"
pr"s8ri9"d 9@ #aD> un#"ss th" initia# or prior %i#ing Das its"#%
ti:" 9arr"d!
DISPOSAL OF PRESENT APPEALS
Cr#! App"a# No!++61 o% +,,)
+1! A #"arn"d Sing#" Judg" o% th" High Court o% Judi8atur" at
Bo:9a@> Nagpur B"n8h has> pursuant to a thr"ad9ar"
dis8ussion o% Bhaskaran 8on8#ud"d that sin8" th"
8on8"rn"d 8h"Eu" Das draDn on th" BanC o% India> Bhandara
Bran8h> Maharashtra Dh"r" it Das dishonour"d> th" Judi8ia#
Magistrat" First C#ass> Digras> Distri8t Na7at:a# had no
<urisdi8tion to "nt"rtain th" Co:p#aint! It is p"rtin"nt to not"
that th" su9<"8t 8h"Eu" Das pr"s"nt"d at Digras> Distri8t
Na7at:a# Dh"r" th" Co:p#ainant had a 9anC a88ount
a#though h" Das a r"sid"nt o% Distri8t 'ashi:> Maharashtra!
Th" #"arn"d Sing#" Judg"> in th" i:pugn"d <udg:"nt> had
right#@ r"<"8t"d th" argu:"nt that th" Co:p#aint its"#%
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shou#d 9" dis:iss"d3 inst"ad h" ord"r"d that it 9" r"turn"d
to th" 8o:p#ainant %or %i#ing in th" appropriat" Court!
Th" App"a# is a88ording#@ dis:iss"d!
Cr#! App"a# No! 1()* o% +,1-
.Arising out o% S!L!P!/Cr#!0No!+,11 o% +,,)
++! In this App"a# th" R"spond"nt5a88us"d> ha7ing
pur8has"d "#"8troni8 it":s %ro: th" App"##ant58o:pan@>
issu"d th" 8h"Eu" in Eu"stion draDn on UCO BanC> Tangi>
Orissa Dhi8h Das pr"s"nt"d 9@ th" Co:p#ainant58o:pan@ at
Stat" BanC o% India> Ah:"dnagar Bran8h> Maharashtra as its
9ran8h o%%i8" Das #o8at"d at Ah:"dnagar! Th" 8h"Eu" Das
dishonour"d 9@ UCO BanC> Tangi> Orissa! A Co:p#aint Das
%i#"d 9"%or" JMFC> Ah:"dnagar! An app#i8ation Das %i#"d 9@
th" R"spond"nt5a88us"d und"r S"8tion 111 CrPC Eu"stioning
th" <urisdi8tion o% th" JMFC Ah:"dnagar> Dho h"#d that sin8"
th" d":and noti8" Das issu"d %ro: and th" pa@:"nt Das
8#ai:"d at Ah:"dnagar> h" poss"ss"d <urisdi8tion to tr@ th"
Co:p#aint! Th" High Court disagr""d Dith th" 8on8#usion o%
th" JMFC> Ah:"dnagar that th" r"8"ipt o% noti8" and non5
pa@:"nt o% th" d":and"d a:ount ar" %a8tors Dhi8h Di##
Page 44
--
ha7" pro:in"n8" o7"r th" p#a8" Dh"r"%ro: th" noti8" o%
d":and Das issu"d and h"#d that JMFC> Ah:"dnagar did not
ha7" th" t"rritoria# <urisdi8tion to "nt"rtain th" Co:p#aint! In
7i"D o% th" %or"going dis8ussion on th" issu" a9o7"> th"
p#a8" Dh"r" th" 8on8"rn"d 8h"Eu" had 9""n dishonour"d>
Dhi8h in th" 8as" in hand Das Tangi> Orissa> th" App"a# is
a##oD"d Dith th" dir"8tion that th" Co:p#aint 9" r"turn"d to
th" Co:p#ainant %or %urth"r a8tion in a88ordan8" Dith #aD!
Cr#! App"a# Nos! 1()-> 1()( & 14,1 to 14,* o% +,1-
.Arising out o% S!L!P!/Cr#!0Nos!+11+ o% +,,) and +111 o%
+,,)3
*14+ o% +,1+3 *)-* o% +,1+3 *)-- o% +,1+2
+*! Th" %a8ts 9"ing id"nti8a# to Cri:ina# App"a# arising out
o% S!L!P!/Cr#!0No!+,11 o% +,,)> th"s" App"a#s stand
dis:iss"d!
Cr#! App"a# Nos!1()4514,, o% +,1-
.Arising out o% S!L!P!/Cr#!0Nos!1*,651*1+ o% +,,)2
+-! Th" App"##ant58o:p#ainant h"r"in has its R"gist"r"d
O%%i8" in D"#hi %ro: Dh"r" th" R"spond"nts5a88us"d ar" a#so
Page 45
-(
8arr@ing on th"ir 9usin"ss! Th" 8h"Eu"s in Eu"stion D"r"
issu"d 9@ th" R"spond"nt No!+5a88us"d draDn on Indian
O7"rs"as BanC> Connaught P#a8"> N"D D"#hi! HoD"7"r> th"
sa:" D"r" pr"s"nt"d and dishonour"d at Nagpur>
Maharashtra Dh"r" th" Co:p#ainant stat"s it a#so has an
o%%i8"! Th"r" is no 8#ari%i8ation Dh@ th" 8h"Eu"s had not
9""n pr"s"nt"d in D"#hi Dh"r" th" Co:p#ainant had its
R"gist"r"d O%%i8"> a 8hoi8" Dhi8h D" thinC is 8apri8ious and
p"r%idious> int"nd"d to 8aus" harass:"nt! Upon 8h"Eu"s
ha7ing 9""n dishonour"d 9@ th" 8on8"rn"d 9anC at D"#hi>
%i7" Co:p#aints D"r" %i#"d 9"%or" Judi8ia# Magistrat" First
C#ass> Nagpur Dho h"ard th" Co:p#aints> and a#so r"8ord"d
th" "7id"n8" #"d 9@ 9oth th" parti"s! HoD"7"r> th" JMFC>
Nagpur a8Euitt"d th" R"spond"nt No!+5a88us"d on th"
ground o% not ha7ing t"rritoria# <urisdi8tion! On app"a#s
9"ing %i#"d 9"%or" th" High Court o% Bo:9a@> th" <udg:"nt
o% th" JMFC> Nagpur Das part#@ s"t asid" so %ar as th"
a8Euitta# o% th" R"spond"nt No!+5a88us"d Das 8on8"rn"d
and it Das ord"r"d that th" Co:p#aints 9" r"turn"d %or %i#ing
Page 46
-4
9"%or" th" prop"r Court! In 7i"D o% th" 8on8#usion arri7"d at
9@ us a9o7"> th"s" App"a#s ar" a#so dis:iss"d!
Cr#! App"a# No! 14,- o% +,1-
.Arising out o% S!L!P!/Cr#!0No!() o% +,1*2
+(! Th" 8h"Eu" in Eu"stion Das draDn 9@ th" R"spond"nt5
a88us"d on Stat" BanC o% Tra7an8or"> D"#hi! HoD"7"r> it Das
pr"s"nt"d 9@ th" App"##ant58o:p#ainant at Auranga9ad! A
Co:p#aint Das %i#"d 9"%or" JMFC> Auranga9ad Dho issu"d
pro8"ss! R"spond"nt5a88us"d %i#"d an app#i8ation und"r
S"8tion +,* o% CrPC s""Cing dis:issa# o% th" Co:p#aint! Th"
app#i8ation Das dis:iss"d on th" pr"di8ation that on8"
pro8"ss had 9""n initiat"d> th" Co:p#aint 8ou#d not 9"
dis:iss"d! On a Drit p"tition 9"ing %i#"d 9"%or" th" High
Court o% Bo:9a@> Auranga9ad B"n8h> th" ord"r o% issuan8"
o% pro8"ss Das s"t asid" and th" Co:p#aint Das ord"r"d to
9" r"turn"d %or 9"ing pr"s"nt"d 9"%or" a 8o:p"t"nt 8ourt
ha7ing <urisdi8tion to "nt"rtain th" sa:"! Th" High Court
had 8orr"8t#@ not"d that th" o9<"8tion p"rtain"d to th"
t"rritoria# <urisdi8tion o% th" JMFC> Auranga9ad> a %"atur"
Page 47
-1
Dhi8h had not 9""n 8o:pr"h"nsi7"#@ grasp"d 9@ th" #att"r!
Th" High Court not"d that th" R"gist"r"d O%%i8" o% th"
Co:p#ainant Das at Chit"gaon> T"hsi# Paithan> Distri8t
Auranga9ad Dh"r"as th" A88us"d Das transa8ting 9usin"ss
%ro: D"#hi! Th" High Court pithi#@ und"rs8or"d that in
paragraph - o% th" Co:p#aint it had 9""n sp"8i%i8a##@
8ont"nd"d that 8r"dit %a8i#it@ Das gi7"n to th" A88us"d in
D"#hi> Dh"r" th" Co:p#ainant58o:pan@ a#so had its 9ran8h
o%%i8"! Th" statutor@ noti8" had a#so ":anat"d %ro:
Auranga9ad> and it had 9""n d":and"d that pa@:"nt
shou#d 9" :ad" in that 8it@ Dithin th" sp"8i%i"d ti:"! It Das
a#so th" Co:p#ainant;s 8as" that th" In7oi8"> in 8as" o%
disput"s> r"stri8t"d <urisdi8tion to Auranga9ad 8ourts3 that
inti:ation o% th" 9oun8ing o% th" 8h"Eu"s Das r"8"i7"d at
Auranga9ad! It is hoD"7"r n"8"ssar@ to und"rs8or" that th"
A88us"d had 8#ari%i"d that th" su9<"8t transa8tion tooC p#a8"
at D"#hi Dh"r" th" goods D"r" supp#i"d and th" o%%"nding
8h"Eu" Das hand"d o7"r to th" Co:p#ainant! It app"ars
that a Ci7i# Suit in r"sp"8t o% th" r"8o7"r@ o% th" 8h"Eu"
Page 48
-6
a:ount has a#r"ad@ 9""n %i#"d in D"#hi! '" :a@
i::"diat"#@ r"it"rat" that th" prin8ip#"s p"rtaining to th"
8aus" o% a8tion as p"r8"i7"d in 8i7i# #aD ar" not r"#"7ant in
8ri:ina# pros"8ution! 'hi#st th" 8#aus" r"stri8ting
<urisdi8tion to 8ourts at Auranga9ad :a@ ha7" "%%i8a8@ %or
8i7i# pro8""dings> pro7id"d an@ part o% th" 8aus" o% a8tion
had aris"n in Auranga9ad> it has no 9"aring on th" situs in
8ri:ina# pros"8utions! Sin8" a Ci7i# Suit is p"nding> D"
hast"n to 8#ari%@ that D" ar" not "Lpr"ssing an@ opinion on
th" Eu"stion o% Dh"th"r th" 8ourts at D"#hi "n<o@ <urisdi8tion
to tr@ th" Suit %or r"8o7"r@! In th" i:pugn"d <udg:"nt> th"
High Court du#@ not"d Bhaskaran and Harman! HoD"7"r>
it 8o::itt"d an "rror in ana#@King th" 8aus" o% a8tion as D"##
as th" 8o7"nant r"stri8ting <urisdi8tion to Auranga9ad as
th"s" ar" r"#"7ant on#@ %or 8i7i# disput"s! HoD"7"r> th"
i:pugn"d <udg:"nt is 9"@ond int"r%"r"n8" inas:u8h as it
8on8#ud"s that th" JMFC> Auranga9ad has no <urisdi8tion
o7"r th" o%%"n8" d"s8ri9"d in th" Co:p#aint! Th" App"a# is
a88ording#@ dis:iss"d!
Page 49
-)
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!J!
.T!S! THAFUR2
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!J!
.$IFRAMAJIT SEN2
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!J!
.C! NAIAPPAN2
N"D D"#hi
August 1> +,1-!
Page 50
(,
REPORTABLE
IN THE SUPREME COURT OF INDIA
CRIMINAL APPELLATE JURISDICTION
CRIMINAL APPEAL NO.2287 OF 2009
DASHRATH RUPSINGH RATHOD …Appella!
"e#$%$
STATE OF MAHARASHTRA & ANR. …Re$p'(e!$
)ITH
CRIMINAL APPEAL NO. *+9, OF 20*-
.A#/$/0 '%! '1 S.L.P. .C#l.2 N'.2077 '1 20092
CRIMINAL APPEAL NO. *+9- OF 20*-
.A#/$/0 '%! '1 S.L.P. .C#l.2 N'.2**2 '1 20092
CRIMINAL APPEAL NO. *+9+ OF 20*-
.A#/$/0 '%! '1 S.L.P. .C#l.2 N'.2**7 '1 20092
CRIMINAL APPEAL NO. *+934*300 OF 20*-
.A#/$/0 '%! '1 S.L.P. .C#l.2 N'$.*,084*,*2 '1 20092
CRIMINAL APPEAL NO. *30* OF 20*-
.A#/$/0 '%! '1 S.L.P. .C#l.2 N'.,732 '1 20*22
CRIMINAL APPEAL NO. *302 OF 20*-
.A#/$/0 '%! '1 S.L.P. .C#l.2 N'.,9-, '1 20*22
CRIMINAL APPEAL NO. *30, OF 20*-
.A#/$/0 '%! '1 S.L.P. .C#l.2 N'.,9-- '1 20*22
AND
CRIMINAL APPEAL NO. *30- OF 20*-
.A#/$/0 '%! '1 S.L.P. .C#l.2 N'.+9 '1 20*,2
Page 51
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J U D G M E N T
T.S. Thakur, J.
*. I 5a6e 5a( !5e a(6a!a0e '1 0'/0 !5#'%05 !5e (#a1! '#(e#
p#'p'$e( 78 98 e$!ee9e( 7#'!5e# "/:#a9a;/! Se< J. I e!/#el8
a0#ee =/!5 !5e >'>l%$/'$ =5/>5 98 e#%(/!e 7#'!5e# 5a$ (#a=
7a$e( ' a #e9a#:a7l8 a#!/>%la!e p#'>e$$ '1 #ea$'/0 !5a!
/ll%9/e$ !5e (#a1! ;%(09e! a%!5'#e( 78 5/9. I ='%l( all !5e $a9e
l/:e !' a(( a 1e= l/e$ '1 98 '= '! 7e>a%$e !5e '#(e# a$
p#'p'$e( lea6e$ a8 #'%05 e(0e$ !' 7e /#'e( '%! 7%! 'l8
7e>a%$e !5e ?%e$!/' '1 la= !5a! a#/$e$ 1'# (e!e#9/a!/' /$ '!
'l8 $%7$!a!/al 7%! '1 >'$/(e#a7le /!e#e$! a( /9p'#!a>e 1'# !5e
>'99e#>/al ='#l(. T5e 1a>! !5a! !5e 6/e= 7e/0 !a:e 78 %$ $!#/:e$
a (/$>'#(a! '!e ' >e#!a/ a$pe>!$ =5/>5 5a6e 1'# l'0 7ee
>'$/(e#e( $e!!le( 78 ea#l/e# (e>/$/'$ '1 !5/$ C'%#! 7e/0 'l8
a a((/!/'al #ea$' 1'# !5e 9'(e$! a((/!/' !5a! I p#'p'$e
!' 9a:e. O1 !5e$e (e>/$/'$ Bhaskaran’s >a$e $!a($ '%! a$
!5e ea#l/e$! / =5/>5 !5/$ C'%#! e@a9/e( !5e 6e@e( ?%e$!/' '1
Page 52
(+
!e##/!'#/al ;%#/$(/>!/' '1 !5e C'%#!$ !' !#8 '11e>e$ p%/$5a7le
%(e# Se>!/' *,8 '1 !5e Ne0'!/a7le I$!#%9e!$ A>!< *88*
.5e#e/a1!e# >alle( ANI A>!B2. Bhaskaran’s >a$e =a$ 5ea#( 78 a
!='4;%(0e Be>5 '1 !5/$ C'%#! =5' !'': !5e 6/e= !5a! !5e
;%#/$(/>!/' !' !#8 a '11e>e %(e# Se>!/' *,8 >'%l( '! 7e
(e!e#9/e( 'l8 78 #e1e#e>e !' !5e pla>e =5e#e !5e >5e?%e =a$
(/$5''%#e(. T5a! /$ 7e>a%$e (/$5''%# '1 !5e >5e?%e =a$ '! 78
/!$el1 a '11e>e %(e# Se>!/' *,8 '1 T5e Ne0'!/a7le I$!#%9e!$
A>!< *88*< '7$e#6e( !5e C'%#!. T5e '11e>e /$ >'9ple!e 'l8 =5e
!5e (#a=e# 1a/l$ !' pa8 !5e >5e?%e a9'%! =/!5/ !5e pe#/'( '1
1/1!ee (a8$ $!/p%la!e( %(e# >la%$e .>2 '1 !5e p#'6/$' !' Se>!/'
*,8 '1 !5e A>!. Ha6/0 $a/( !5a! !5e C'%#! #e>'0/$e( !5e (/11/>%l!8
/ 1/@/0 a pla>e =5e#e $%>5 1a/l%#e >'%l( 7e $a/( !' 5a6e !a:e
pla>e. I! >'%l(< $a/( !5e C'%#!< 7e !5e pla>e =5e#e !5e (#a=e#
#e$/(e$ '# !5e pla>e =5e#e !5e pa8ee #e$/(e$ '# !5e pla>e =5e#e
e/!5e# '1 !5e9 >a##/e$ ' 7%$/e$$. T' #e$'l6e !5/$ %>e#!a/!8 !5e
C'%#! !%#e( !' Se>!/'$ *78 a( *79 '1 !5e C#.P.C. !' 5'l( !5a!
$/>e a '11e>e %(e# Se>!/' *,8 >a 7e >'9ple!e( 'l8 =/!5 !5e
Page 53
(*
>'>a!ea!/' '1 1/6e a>!$ !5a! >'$!/!%!e( !5e >'9p'e!$ '1 !5e
'11e>e a8 C'%#! =/!5/ =5'$e ;%#/$(/>!/' a8 'e '1 !5'$e a>!$
=a$ >'99/!!e( ='%l( 5a6e !5e ;%#/$(/>!/' !' !#8 !5e '11e>e. T5e
C'%#! 5el(C
“The offence under Section 138 of the Act can be completed
only with the concatenation of a number of acts. The follow-
ing are the acts which are components of the said offence:
(1 drawing of the che!ue" (# presentation of the che!ue to
the ban$" (3 returning the che!ue unpaid by the drawee
ban$" (% gi&ing notice in writing to the drawer of the
che!ue demanding payment of the che!ue amount" (' fail-
ure of the drawer to ma$e payment within 1' days of the
receipt of the notice.
(t is not necessary that all the abo&e fi&e acts should ha&e
been perpetrated at the same locality. (t is possible that
each of those fi&e acts could be done at fi&e different locali-
ties. )ut a concatenation of all the abo&e fi&e is a sine !ua
non for the completion of the offence under Section 138 of
the *ode. (n this conte+t a reference to Section 1,8(d of
the *ode is useful. (t is e+tracted below:
-1,8. (a-(c . . .
(d where the offence consists of se&eral acts done in
different local areas" it may be en!uired into or tried
by a court ha&ing /urisdiction o&er any of such local
areas.0
Thus it is clear" if the fi&e different acts were done in fi&e
different localities any one of the courts e+ercising /urisdic-
tion in one of the fi&e local areas can become the place of
trial for the offence under Section 138 of the Act. (n other
words" the complainant can choose any one of those courts
ha&ing /urisdiction o&er any one of the local areas within the
territorial limits of which any one of those fi&e acts was
Page 54
(-
done. As the amplitude stands so widened and so e+pansi&e
it is an idle e+ercise to raise /urisdictional !uestion regarding
the offence under Section 138 of the Act.0
2. Bhaskaran 5el( !5e 1/el( 1'# !=' 8ea#$. T5e 1/#$! 7l'= !' !5e
6/e= !a:e 78 !5/$ C'%#! / Bhaskaran’s >a$e =a$ (eal! 78 a
!5#ee4J%(0e Be>5 (e>/$/' / Shri Ishar Alloy Steels Ltd. v.
Jayaswals Neco Ltd. (2001 ! S"" #0$. T5e ?%e$!/' !5a!
a#'$e / !5a! >a$e =a$ =5e!5e# !5e l/9/!a!/' '1 $/@ 9'!5$ 1'#
p#e$e!a!/' '1 a >5e?%e 1'# e>a$59e! =a$ appl/>a7le &i1-a-&i1
p#e$e!a!/' !' !5e 7a: '1 !5e pa8ee '# !5a! '1 !5e (#a=e#. H/05
C'%#!$ / !5/$ >'%!#8 5a( e@p#e$$e( >'1l/>!/0 'p//'$ ' !5e
$%7;e>!. T5/$ C'%#! #e$'l6e( !5e >lea6a0e / !5'$e
p#''%>e9e!$ 78 5'l(/0 !5a! !5e >5e?%e '%05! !' 7e p#e$e!e(
!' !5e (#a=ee 7a: 1'# /!$ (/$5''%# !' p#'6/(e a 7a$/$ 1'#
p#'$e>%!/' %(e# Se>!/' *,8. T5e C'%#! '7$e#6e(C
-The use of the words -a ban$0 and -the ban$0 in the section
are an indicator of the intention of the legislature. -The
ban$0 referred to in pro&iso (a to the pro&iso to Section
138 of the Act would mean the drawee ban$ on which the
che!ue is drawn and not all ban$s where the che!ue is pre-
sented for collection including the ban$ of the payee" in
whose fa&our the che!ue is issued.
Page 55
((
(t" howe&er" does not mean that the che!ue is always to be
presented to the drawer2s ban$ on which the che!ue is is-
sued. 3owe&er" a combined reading of Sections 3" ,# and
138 of the Act would clearly show that the law mandates the
che!ue to be presented at the ban$ on which it is drawn if
the drawer is to be held criminally liable. Such presentation
is necessarily to be made within si+ months at the ban$ on
which the che!ue is drawn" whether presented personally or
through another ban$" namely" the collecting ban$ of the
payee.0
,. Ishar Alloy’s >a$e .$%p#a2 (/( '! (eal =/!5 !5e ?%e$!/' '1
;%#/$(/>!/' '1 !5e C'%#!$ '# =a$ Bhaskaran '!/>e( 78 !5e C'%#!
=5/le 5'l(/0 !5a! !5e p#e$e!a!/' '1 !5e >5e?%e '%05! !' 7e
=/!5/ $/@ 9'!5$ !' !5e (#a=ee 7a:. B%! !5a! ('e$ '!< / '%#
6/e=< 9a!e#/all8 a11e>! !5e l'0/> %(e#l8/0 !5e p#''%>e9e!<
=5/>5 p#''%>e9e! >'9/0 a$ /! /$ 1#'9 a 7e>5 '1 >''#(/a!e
;%#/$(/>!/' 7/($ %$. )5e l'0/>all8 e@!e(e( !' !5e ?%e$!/' '1
;%#/$(/>!/' '1 !5e C'%#! !' !a:e >'0/Da>e< =e 1/( /! (/11/>%l! !'
app#e>/a!e 5'= a pa8ee '1 !5e >5e?%e >a 78 p#e$e!a!/' '1 !5e
>5e?%e !' 5/$ '= 7a: >'1e# ;%#/$(/>!/' %p' !5e C'%#! =5e#e
$%>5 7a: /$ $/!%a!e. I1 p#e$e!a!/' #e1e##e( !' / Se>!/' *,8
9ea$ p#e$e!a!/' !' !5e A(#a=ee 7a:B< !5e#e /$ ' 0a/$a8/0
!5a! (/$5''%# ='%l( 7e l'>al/$e( a( >'1/e( !' !5e pla>e =5e#e
Page 56
(4
$%>5 7a: /$ $/!%a!e(. T5e ?%e$!/' /$ '! =5e!5e# '# '! !5e
pa8ee >a (ep'$/! 5/$ >5e?%e / a8 7a: '1 5/$ >5'/>e a! a8
pla>e. T5e ?%e$!/' /$ =5e!5e# 78 $%>5 (ep'$/! >a !5e pa8ee
>'1e# ;%#/$(/>!/' ' a C'%#! '1 5/$ >5'/>eE O%# a$=e# /$ / !5e
e0a!/6e. T5e pa8ee 9a8 a( /(ee( >a p#e$e! !5e >5e?%e !'
a8 7a: 1'# >'lle>!/' 1#'9 !5e (#a=ee 7a:< 7%! $%>5
p#e$e!a!/' =/ll 7e 6al/( 'l8 /1 !5e (#a=ee 7a: #e>e/6e$ !5e
>5e?%e 1'# pa89e! =/!5/ !5e pe#/'( '1 $/@ 9'!5$ 1#'9 !5e (a!e
'1 /$$%e. D/$5''%# '1 !5e >5e?%e ='%l( 7e l'>al/$e( a! !5e pla>e
=5e#e !5e (#a=ee 7a: /$ $/!%a!e(. P#e$e!a!/' '1 !5e >5e?%e a!
a8 pla>e< =e 5a6e ' 9ae# '1 ('%7!< >a'! >'1e# ;%#/$(/>!/'
%p' !5e C'%#! =/!5/ =5'$e !e##/!'#/al l/9/!$ $%>5 p#e$e!a!/'
9a8 5a6e !a:e pla>e.
-. T5e >a9e %ar&an 'lectronics (( Ltd. v. National
(anasonic India (( Ltd. (2009) 1 SCC 720. T5a! =a$ a >a$e
=5e#e !5e >'9pla/! %(e# Se>!/' *,8 =a$ 1/le( / a Del5/ C'%#!<
'l8 7e>a%$e !5e $!a!%!'#8 '!/>e #e?%/#e( !' 7e /$$%e( %(e# !5e
p#'6/$' !' Se>!/' *,8 =a$ /$$%e( 1#'9 Del5/. I1 Bhaskaran =a$
Page 57
(1
>'##e>!l8 (e>/(e(< %ar&an $5'%l( '! 5a6e /!e#1e#e( =/!5 !5e
e@e#>/$e '1 ;%#/$(/>!/' 78 !5e Del5/ C'%#! 1'# /$$%e '1 a '!/>e =a$
/ !e#9$ '1 Bhaskaran< 'e '1 !5e 1a>!'#$ !5a! >l'!5e( !5e C'%#! /
Del5/ !' !a:e >'0/Da>e a( !#8 !5e >a$e. %ar&an (/( '! (' $'.
I %ar&an’s >a$e !5/$ C'%#!< e9p5a$/De( !5#ee (/$!/>! a$pe>!$.
4irstly< /! $a/( !5a! !5e#e =a$ a ='#l( '1 (/11e#e>e 7e!=ee /$$%e '1
a '!/>e< ' !5e 'e 5a(< a( #e>e/p!< !5e#e'1< ' !5e '!5e#. I$$%e
'1 '!/>e (/( '! 0/6e #/$e !' a >a%$e '1 a>!/' =5/le #e>e/p! (/(<
(e>la#e( !5e C'%#!.
+. Secondly< !5e C'%#! 5el( !5a! !5e 9a/ p#'6/$/' '1 Se>!/'
*,8 $!a!e( =5a! ='%l( >'$!/!%!e a '11e>e. T5e p#'6/$'
appe(e( !5e#e!' $/9pl8 /9p'$e( >e#!a/ 1%#!5e# >'(/!/'$ =5/>5
9%$! 7e 1%l1/lle( 1'# !a:/0 >'0/Da>e '1 !5e '11e>e. T5e 1'll'=/0
pa$$a0e (eal$ =/!5 7'!5 !5e$e a$pe>!$C
-(t is one thing to say that sending of a notice is one of the
ingredients for maintaining the complaint but it is another
thing to say that dishonour of a che!ue by itself constitutes
an offence. 4or the purpose of pro&ing its case that the ac-
cused had committed an offence under Section 138 of the
5egotiable (nstruments Act" the ingredients thereof are re-
!uired to be pro&ed. 6hat would constitute an offence is
stated in the main pro&ision. The pro&iso appended thereto"
howe&er" imposes certain further conditions which are re-
Page 58
(6
!uired to be fulfilled before cogni1ance of the offence can be
ta$en. (f the ingredients for constitution of the offence laid
down in pro&isos (a" (b and (c appended to Section 138
of the 5egotiable (nstruments Act are intended to be applied
in fa&our of the accused" there cannot be any doubt that re-
ceipt of a notice would ultimately gi&e rise to the cause of
action for filing a complaint. As it is only on receipt of the
notice that the accused at his own peril may refuse to pay
the amount. *lauses (b and (c of the pro&iso to Section
138 therefore must be read together. (ssuance of notice
would not by itself gi&e rise to a cause of action but commu-
nication of the notice would.0
3. Thirdly< !5e C'%#! 5el( !5a! /1 p#e$e!a!/' '1 !5e >5e?%e '#
/$$%e '1 '!/>e =a$ !' >'$!/!%!e a 0''( #ea$' 1'# 6e$!/0 >'%#!$
=/!5 ;%#/$(/>!/' !' !#8 '11e>e$ %(e# Se>!/' *,8< /! ='%l( lea( !'
5a#a$$9e! '1 !5e (#a=e# '1 !5e >5e?%e$ !5e#e78 >all/0 1'# !5e
ee( !' $!#/:e a 7ala>e 7e!=ee !5e #/05!$ '1 !5e pa#!/e$ !' !5e
!#a$a>!/'. T5e C'%#! $a/(C
-6e cannot" as things stand today" be obli&ious of the fact
that a ban$ing institution holding se&eral che!ues signed by
the same borrower can not only present the che!ue for its
encashment at four different places but also may ser&e no-
tices from four different places so as to enable it to file four
complaint cases at four different places. This only causes
gra&e harassment to the accused. (t is" therefore" necessary
in a case of this nature to stri$e a balance between the right
of the complainant and the right of an accused &is-7-&is the
pro&isions of the *ode of *riminal 8rocedure.0
7. Bhaskaran =a$< / !5e =a:e '1 !5e a7'6e< >'$/(e#a7l8
Page 59
()
(/l%!e( a( !5e l'0/> 7e5/( 6e$!/0 '1 ;%#/$(/>!/' 7a$e( ' !5e
pla>e 1#'9 =5e#e !5e '!/>e =a$ /$$%e( ?%e$!/'e(. E6e
p#e$e!a!/' '1 !5e >5e?%e a$ a #ea$' 1'# a$$%9p!/' '1
;%#/$(/>!/' !' !a:e >'0/Da>e =a$ ('%7!e( 1'# a %/la!e#al a>! '1
!5e >'9pla/a!Fpa8ee '1 !5e >5e?%e >'%l( =/!5'%! a8 1%#!5e# '#
$%pp'#!/0 #ea$' >'1e# ;%#/$(/>!/' ' a C'%#! =/!5/ =5'$e
!e##/!'#/al l/9/!$ '!5/0 e@>ep! !5e p#e$e!a!/' '1 !5e >5e?%e 5a(
5appee(.
8. T5#ee #e>e! (e>/$/'$ ee( 7e 9e!/'e( a! !5/$ $!a0e =5/>5
5a6e 1'll'=e( Bhaskaran a( a!!e9p!e( !' #e>'>/le !5e #a!/' '1
!5a! >a$e =/!5 !5e $%7$e?%e! (e>/$/'$ / Ishar Alloy Steels a(
%ar&an 'lectronics. I Nishant A))arwal v. *ailash *+&ar
Shar&a (201! 10 S"" ,2 !5/$ C'%#! =a$ '>e a0a/ (eal/0
=/!5 a >a$e =5e#e !5e >'9pla/! 5a( 7ee 1/le( / C'%#! a! B5/=a/
/ Ha#8aa =/!5/ =5'$e !e##/!'#/al ;%#/$(/>!/' !5e >'9pla/a! 5a(
p#e$e!e( !5e >5e?%e 1'# e>a$59e!< al!5'%05 !5e >5e?%e =a$
(#a= ' a 7a: a! Ga%5a!/ / A$$a9. Rel8/0 %p' !5e 6/e= !a:e
/ Bhaskaran !5/$ C'%#! 5el( !5a! !5e B5/=a/ C'%#! 5a(
Page 60
4,
;%#/$(/>!/' !' (eal =/!5 !5e 9a!!e#. )5/le $a8/0 $'< !5e C'%#! !#/e(
!' (/$!/0%/$5 !5e !5#ee4J%(0e Be>5 (e>/$/' / Ishar Alloy
Steels .$%p#a2 a( !5a! #e(e#e( / %ar&an 'lectronics >a$e
.$%p#a2 !' 5'l( !5a! !5e #a!/' '1 !5'$e (e>/$/'$ (/( '! (/l%!e !5e
p#/>/ple $!a!e( / Bhaskaran >a$e. T5a! e@e#>/$e =a$ #epea!e( 78
!5/$ C'%#! / -IL Ind+stries Ltd. v. I&tiya. Ah&ad Bhat
(201/ 2 S"" 2## a( / 'scorts Ltd. v. 0a&a 1+kher2ee
(201/ 2 S"" 233 =5/>5 !'' 1'll'=e( Bhaskaran a( 5el( !5a!
>'9pla/! %(e# Se>!/' *,8 Ne0'!/a7le I$!#%9e! A>! >'%l( 7e
/$!/!%!e( a! a8 'e '1 !5e 1/6e pla>e$ #e1e##e( !' / Bhaskaran’s
>a$e.
9. )e 5a6e< =/!5 %!9'$! #e$pe>! !' !5e J%(0e$ >'9p#/$/0 !5e
Be>5 !5a! 5ea#( !5e a7'6e >a$e$< 1'%( /! (/11/>%l! !' 1'll'= $%/!
a( $%7$>#/7e !' !5e 6/e= $!a!e( / Bhasakaran. T5e #ea$'$ a#e
'! 1a# !'' $ee: a( 9a8 7e $!a!e( #/05! a=a8.
*0. Se>!/' *,8 /$ a peal p#'6/$/' !5a! p#e$>#/7e$ /9p#/$'9e!
%p!' !=' 8ea#$ a( 1/e %p!' !=/>e !5e >5e?%e a9'%!. I! 9%$!<
!5e#e1'#e< 7e /!e#p#e!e( $!#/>!l8< 1'# /! /$ 'e '1 !5e a>>ep!e( #%le$
Page 61
41
'1 /!e#p#e!a!/' !5a! / a peal $!a!%!e< !5e C'%#!$ ='%l( 5e$/!a!e
!' a$>#/7e a 9ea/0< 7#'a(e# !5a =5a! !5e p5#a$e ='%l(
'#(/a#/l8 7ea#. Se>!/' *,8 /$ / !=' pa#!$. T5e ea>!/0 pa#! '1
!5e p#'6/$/' 9a:e$ /! a7%(a!l8 >lea# !5a! =5a! >'$!/!%!e$ a
'11e>e p%/$5a7le =/!5 /9p#/$'9e! a(F'# 1/e /$ !5e (/$5''%#
'1 a >5e?%e 1'# /$%11/>/e>8 '1 1%($ e!>. / !5e a>>'%!
9a/!a/e( 78 !5e (#a=e# =/!5 a 7a: 1'# (/$>5a#0e '1 a (e7! '#
'!5e# l/a7/l/!8 =5e!5e# / 1%ll '# pa#!. T5e la0%a0e %$e( / !5e
p#'6/$/' /$ %a97/0%'%$ a( !5e /0#e(/e!$ '1 !5e '11e>e >lea#l8
(/$>e#/7le &i1. (a C5e?%e /$ (#a= 78 !5e a>>%$e( ' a a>>'%!
9a/!a/e( 78 5/9 =/!5 a 7a:e#. (4 T5e >5e?%e a9'%! /$ /
(/$>5a#0e '1 a (e7! '# l/a7/l/!8 a( (c T5e >5e?%e /$ #e!%#e(
%pa/( 1'# /$%11/>/e>8 '1 1%($ '# !5a! !5e a9'%! e@>ee($ !5e
a##a0e9e! 9a(e =/!5 !5e 7a:. B%! 1'# !5e p#'6/$' !5a!
>'9p#/$e$ !5e $e>'( pa#! '1 !5e p#'6/$/'< a8 (/$5''%# 1all/0
=/!5/ !5e 1'%# >'#e#$ '1 !5e ea>!/0 p#'6/$/' ='%l( 7e
p%/$5a7le =/!5'%! 9%>5 a('. T5e p#'6/$'< 5'=e6e#< (#a=$ a
e@>ep!/' !' !5e 0ee#al/!8 '1 !5e ea>!/0 pa#! '1 !5e p#'6/$/'< 78
Page 62
4+
$!/p%la!/0 !=' $!ep$ !5a! '%05! !' 7e !a:e 78 !5e >'9pla/a!
5'l(e# '1 !5e >5e?%e 7e1'#e !5e 1a/l%#e '1 !5e (#a=e# 0/6e$ !' !5e
1'#9e# !5e >a%$e '1 a>!/' !' 1/le a >'9pla/! a( !5e >'9pe!e!
C'%#! !' !a:e >'0/Da>e '1 !5e '11e>e. T5e$e $!ep$ a#e (/$!/>!
1#'9 !5e /0#e(/e!$ '1 !5e '11e>e =5/>5 !5e ea>!/0 p#'6/$/'
>#ea!e$ a( 9a:e$ p%/$5a7le. I! 1'll'=$ !5a! a '11e>e =/!5/ !5e
>'!e9pla!/' '1 Se>!/' *,8 /$ >'9ple!e =/!5 !5e (/$5''%# '1 !5e
>5e?%e 7%! !a:/0 >'0/Da>e '1 !5e $a9e 78 a8 C'%#! /$
1'#7/((e $' l'0 a$ !5e >'9pla/a! ('e$ '! 5a6e !5e >a%$e '1
a>!/' !' 1/le a >'9pla/! / !e#9$ '1 >la%$e .>2 '1 !5e p#'6/$' #ea(
=/!5 Se>!/' *-2 =5/>5 #%$ a$ %(e#C
5Section 1/26
*ogni1ance of offences. 95otwithstanding anything
contained in the *ode of *riminal 8rocedure" 1:,3 (# of
1:,%9
(a no court shall ta$e cogni1ance of any offence punishable
under section 138 e+cept upon a complaint" in writing" made
by the payee or" as the case may be" the holder in due
course of the che!ue;
(b such complaint is made within one month of the date on
which the cause of action arises under clause (c of the
pro&iso to section 138: <8ro&ided that the cogni1ance of a
complaint may be ta$en by the *ourt after the prescribed
period" if the complainant satisfies the *ourt that he had
sufficient cause for not ma$ing a complaint within such
period.=
(c no court inferior to that of a >etropolitan >agistrate or a
?udicial >agistrate of the first class shall try any offence
Page 63
4*
punishable under section 138.-
**. T5e 1'll'=/0 ='%l( >'$!/!%!e G>a%$e '1 a>!/'H #e1e##e( !' /
$%7 >la%$e .72 a7'6eC
.a2 T5e >'9pla/a! 5a$ p#e$e!e( !5e >5e?%e 1'# pa89e!
=/!5/ !5e pe#/'( '1 $/@ 9'!5$ 1#'9 !5e (a!e '1 !5e
/$$%e !5e#e'1.
.72 T5e >'9pla/a! 5a$ (e9a(e( !5e pa89e! '1 !5e
>5e?%e a9'%! 1#'9 !5e (#a=e# 78 /$$%/0 a =#/!!e
'!/>e =/!5/ !5/#!8 (a8$ '1 #e>e/p! '1 /1'#9a!/' 78 5/9
1#'9 !5e 7a: #e0a#(/0 !5e (/$5''%#.
.>2 T5e (#a=e# 5a$ 1a/le( !' pa8 !5e >5e?%e a9'%! =/!5/
1/1!ee (a8$ '1 !5e #e>e/p! '1 !5e '!/>e.
*2. A p#'pe# %(e#$!a(/0 '1 !5e $>5e9e %(e#l8/0 !5e
p#'6/$/' ='%l( !5%$ 9a:e /! a7%(a!l8 >lea# !5a! =5/le !5e
'11e>e /$ >'9ple!e %p' (/$5''%#< p#'$e>%!/' 1'# $%>5 '11e>e /$
(e1e##e( !/ll !5e !/9e !5e >a%$e '1 a>!/' 1'# $%>5 p#'$e>%!/'
a>>#%e$ !' !5e >'9pla/a!. T5e p#'6/$' / !5a! $e$e< $/9pl8
p'$!p'e$ !5e a>!%al p#'$e>%!/' '1 !5e '11e(e# !/ll $%>5 !/9e 5e
Page 64
4-
1a/l$ !' pa8 !5e a9'%! =/!5/ !5e $!a!%!'#8 pe#/'( p#e$>#/7e( 1'#
$%>5 pa89e!. T5e#e /$< / '%# 'p//'< a pla%$/7le #ea$' =58
!5/$ =a$ ('e. T5e Pa#l/a9e! / /!$ =/$('9 >'$/(e#e( /! ;%$! a(
p#'pe# !' 0/6e !' !5e (#a=e# '1 a (/$5''%#e( >5e?%e a
'pp'#!%/!8 !' pa8 %p !5e a9'%!< 7e1'#e pe#9/!!/0 5/$
p#'$e>%!/' ' 9a!!e# !5e '11e>e /$ >'9ple!e< !5e 9'9e! !5e
>5e?%e =a$ (/$5''%#e(. T5e la= 5a$ !' !5a! e@!e! 0#a!e( a
>'>e$$/' a( p#e$>#/7e( a $>5e9e %(e# =5/>5 (/$5''%# ee(
'! e>e$$a#/l8 lea( !' peal >'$e?%e>e /1 !5e (#a=e# 9a:e$
a9e($ 78 9a:/0 pa89e! =/!5/ !5e !/9e $!/p%la!e( '>e !5e
(/$5''%# /$ '!/1/e( !' 5/9. Pa89e! '1 !5e >5e?%e a9'%! =/!5/
!5e $!/p%la!e( pe#/'( =/ll / $%>5 >a$e$ (/11%$e !5e ele9e! '1
>#/9/al/!8 !5a! Se>!/' *,8 a!!#/7%!e$ !' (/$5''%# 78 =a8 '1 a
le0al 1/>!/' /9pl/>/! / !5e %$e '1 !5e ='#($ A$5all 7e (ee9e( !'
5a6e >'99/!!e( a '11e>eB. T5e (#a=e# ='%l( 78 $%>5 pa89e!
$!a( a7$'l6e( 78 !5e peal >'$e?%e>e$ '1 (/$5''%#. T5/$
$>5e9e 9a8 7e %/?%e !' Se>!/' *,8 NI A>!< 7%! !5e#e /$ 5a#(l8
a8 ('%7! !5a! !5e Pa#l/a9e! /$ >'9pe!e! !' le0/$la!e $' !'
Page 65
4(
p#'6/(e 1'# $/!%a!/'$ =5e#e a >5e?%e /$ (/$5''%#e( e6e =/!5'%!
a8 >#/9/al /!e!/' ' !5e pa#! '1 !5e (#a=e#.
*,. T5e $>5e9e '1 Se>!/' *,8 !5%$ '! 'l8 $a6e$ !5e 5'e$!
(#a=e# 7%! 0/6e$ a >5a>e !' e6e !5e (/$5'e$! 'e$ !' 9a:e
a9e($ a( e$>ape p#'$e>%!/'. C'9pl/a>e =/!5 !5e p#'6/$/' /$<
/ !5a! 6/e=< a 9a(a!'#8 #e?%/#e9e!. .See ".". Alavi %a2i v.
(ala7etty 1+ha&&ed and Another (200, # S"" 3332.
*-. %ar&an / !5a! 6/e= >'##e>!l8 5el( !5a! -what would consti-
tute an offence is stated in the main pro&ision. The pro&iso ap-
pended thereto howe&er imposes certain further conditions which
are re!uired to be fulfilled before cogni1ance of the offence can be
ta$en.0 I1 !5e Pa#l/a9e! /!e(e( !' 9a:e !5e >'(/!/'$ $!/p%4
la!e( / !5e p#'6/$'< al$' a$ /0#e(/e!$ '1 !5e '11e>e< !5e p#'6/4
$/' ='%l( 5a6e #ea( (/11e#e!l8. I! ='%l( !5e 5a6e $pe>/1/>all8
a((e( !5e ='#($ -and the drawer has despite receipt of a notice
demanding the payment of the amount" failed to pay the same
within a period of fifteen days from the date of such demand made
in writing by a notice0. T5a!< 5'=e6e#< /$ '! 5'= !5e ea>!/0
Page 66
44
p#'6/$/' '1 Se>!/' *,8 #ea($. T5e le0/$la!%#e 5a$< /! /$ '76/'%$<
9a(e a >lea# (/$!/>!/' 7e!=ee =5a! ='%l( >'$!/!%!e a '11e>e
a( =5a! ='%l( 0/6e !' !5e >'9pla/a! !5e >a%$e '1 a>!/' !' 1/le
a >'9pla/! 1'# !5e >'%#! >'9pe!e! !' !a:e >'0/Da>e. T5a! a
p#'6/$' /$ a e@>ep!/' !' !5e 0ee#al #%le /$ =ell $e!!le(. A p#'4
6/$' /$ a((e( !' a ea>!9e! !' ?%al/18 '# >#ea!e a e@>ep!/' !'
=5a! /$ >'!a/e( / !5e ea>!9e!. I! ('e$ '! 78 /!$el1 $!a!e a
0ee#al #%le. I! $/9pl8 ?%al/1/e$ !5e 0ee#al/!8 '1 !5e 9a/ ea>!4
9e!< a p'#!/' =5/>5 7%! 1'# !5e p#'6/$' ='%l( 1all =/!5/ !5e 9a/
ea>!9e!.
*+. T5e P. Ra9aa!5a A/8a#< La= Le@/>'< 2( E(/!/'< )a(5=a &
C'. a! pa0e *++2 (e1/e$ p#'6/$' a$ 1'll'=$C
-The word -pro&iso0 is used fre!uently to denote the clause
the first words of which are -pro&ided that0 inserted in deeds
and instruments generally. And containing a condition or
stipulation on the performance or non-performance of which"
as the case maybe. The effect of a proceeding clause or of
the deed depends.
A *lause inserted in a legal or formal document" ma$ing
some condition" stipulation" e+ception or limitation or upon
the obser&ance of which the operation or &alidity of the
instrument depends < S. 1@'" (ndian A&idence Act=.
A pro&iso is generally intended to restrain the enacting
clause and to e+cept something which would ha&e otherwise
been within it or in some measure to modify the enacting
clause...0
Page 67
41
*3. T' ?%'!e -*raies on Statute Baw0" 7!5 E(.< S=ee! & Ma@=ell
a! pa0e 220 -(f the principal ob/ect of the Act can be accomplished
and stand under the restriction of the sa&ing clause or pro&iso" the
same is not to be held &oid for repugnancy.0
*7. Oe '1 !5e ea#l/e$! ;%(09e!$ ' !5e $%7;e>! /$ a !5#ee J%(0e
Be>5 (e>/$/' / *edarnath J+te 1an+8act+rin) "o. v.
"o&&ercial 9a: ;88icer< "alc+tta and ;rs. AI0 1$## S" 12.
T5e C'%#! =a$ / !5a! >a$e e@a9//0 !5e e11e>! '1 a p#'6/$' =5/>5
/9p'$e( a >'(/!/' ' 0e!!/0 e@e9p!/' 1#'9 !a@ a( '7$e#6e(C
-... The substanti&e clause gi&es the e+emption and the
pro&iso !ualifies the substanti&e clause. (n effect the pro&iso
says that part of the turno&er of the selling dealer co&ered
by the terms of sub-cl. (ii will be e+empted pro&ided a
declaration in the from prescribed is furnished. To put it in
other words" a dealer cannot get the e+emption unless he
furnishes the declaration in the prescribed form. (t is well
settled that Cthe effect of an e+cepting or !ualifying pro&iso"
according to the ordinary rules of construction" is to e+cept
out of the preceding portion of the enactment" or to !ualify
something enacted therein" which but for the pro&iso would
be within itC : see C*raies on Statute BawC" Dth Adn." p.
#1,.0
*8. Al$' pe#!/e! /$ a 1'%#4J%(0e Be>5 (e>/$/' '1 !5/$ C'%#! /
=warka (rasad v. =warka =as Sara8 (1$,# 1 S"" 12> =5e#e
!5/$ C'%#! =a$ e@a9//0 =5e!5e# a >/e9a !5ea!#e e?%/ppe( =/!5
Page 68
46
p#';e>!'#$ a( '!5e# 1/!!/0$ #ea(8 !' 7e la%>5e( a$ e!e#!a/9e!
5'%$e =a$ >'6e#e( %(e# !5e (e1//!/' '1 Gaccommodation2 a$ (e4
1/e( / Se>!/' 2 .*2 .(2 '1 U!!a# P#a(e$5 .Te9p'#a#82 C'!#'l '1
Re! a( E6/>!/' A>!< *9-7. T5e p#'6/$' p#'6/(e( 1'# $'9e e@>ep4
!/' 1'# 1a>!'#/e$ a( 7%$/e$$ >a##/e( / a 7%/l(/0. I! =a$ 5el(
!5a! $'9e!/9e$ (#a1!$9e />l%(e p#'6/$' 78 =a8 '1 '6e# >a%!/'
!' #e9'6e a8 ('%7!$ a( a>>'99'(a!/' ='%l( />l%(e !5/$ >/4
e9a 5allC
-18. A pro&iso must be limited to the sub/ect-matter of the enacting
clause. (t is a settled rule of construction that a pro&iso must prima facie
be read and considered in relation to the principal matter to which it is a
pro&iso. (t is not a separate or independent enactment. E6ords are de-
pendent on the principal enacting words" to which they are tac$ed as a
pro&iso. They cannot be read as di&orced from their conte+tE 1:1# A.*.
'%%. (f the rule of construction is that prima facie a pro&iso should be
limited in its operation to the sub/ect-matter of the enacting clause" the
stand we ha&e ta$en is sound. To e+pand the enacting clause" inflated
by the pro&iso" sins against the fundamental rule of construction that a
pro&iso must be considered in relation to the principal matter to which it
stands as a pro&iso. A pro&iso ordinarily is but a pro&iso" although the
golden rule is to read the whole section" inclusi&e of the pro&iso" in such
manner that they mutually throw light on each other and result in a har-
monious construction.
The proper course is to apply the broad general rule of construction
which is that a section or enactment must be construed as a whole" each
portion throwing light if need be on the rest.
The true principle undoubtedly is" that the sound interpretation and
meaning of the statute" on a &iew of the enacting clause" sa&ing clause"
and pro&iso" ta$en and construed together is to pre&ail. (>a+well on (n-
terpretation of Statutes" 1@th Adn. p. 1D#0
(emphasis supplied
Page 69
4)
*9. I Sreenivasa ?eneral 9raders @ ;rs. v. State o8 Andhra
(radesh @ ;rs. (1$>! / S"" !3! a'!5e# !5#ee4 J%(0e 7e>5
'1 !5/$ C'%#! e@a9/e( !5e #'le '1 a p#'6/$' =5/le /!e#p#e!/0 R%le
7-.*2 '1 !5e A(5#a P#a(e$5 .A0#/>%l!%#al P#'(%>e & L/6e$!'>:2
Ma#:e!$ R%le$< *939.
-The normal function of a pro&iso is to e+cept something out
of the main enacting part or to !ualify something enacted
therein which but for the pro&iso would be within the
pur&iew of the enactment. 8ro&iso to Fule ,%(1 is added to
!ualify or create an e+ception.0
20. Re1e#e>e 9a8 al$' 7e 9a(e !' 9ri4hovandas %ari4hai
9a&4oli v. ?+2arat 0even+e 9ri4+nal and others (1$$1 !
S"" //2 =5e#e/ !5/$ C'%#! >lea#l8 5el( !5a! =5e !5e la0%a0e '1
!5e 9a/ ea>!9e! /$ >lea#< !5e p#'6/$' >a 5a6e ' e11e>! ' !5e
/!e#p#e!a!/' '1 !5e 9a/ >la%$e.
0,. (t is a cardinal rule of interpretation that a pro&iso to a particular pro&ision
of a statute only embraces the field" which is co&ered by the main pro&ision. (t
car&es out an e+ception to the main pro&ision to which it has been enacted by
the pro&iso and to no other. The proper function of a pro&iso is to e+cept and
deal with a case which would otherwise fall within the general language of the
main enactment" and its effect is to confine to that case. 6here the language
of the main enactment is e+plicit and unambiguous" the pro&iso can ha&e no
repercussion on the interpretation of the main enactment" so as to e+clude
from it" by implication what clearly falls within its e+press terms. The scope of
the pro&iso" therefore" is to car&e out an e+ception to the main enactment and
it e+cludes something which otherwise would ha&e been within the rule. (t has
to operate in the same field and if the language of the main enactment is
clear" the pro&iso cannot be torn apart from the main enactment nor can it be
used to nullify by implication what the enactment clearly says nor set at
Page 70
1,
naught the real ob/ect of the main enactment" unless the words of the pro&iso
are such that it is its necessary effect.0
(emphasis supplied
2*. T5e $a9e l/e '1 #ea$'/0 =a$ 1'll'=e( / A.N. Seh)al and
;rs. v. 0a2e 0a& Sheora& and ;rs. 1$$2 S+77 (1 S"" !0/
=5/le /!e#p#e!/0 a p#'6/$' / !5e Ha#8aa Se#6/>e '1 E0/ee#$
R%le$< *930 =5e#e !5e C'%#! 5el( !5a! !5e p#'6/$' !' R%le +.22.a2
>a'! 7e appl/e( !' >'1e# !5e 7ee1/! '1 #e0%la# app'/!9e! '
e6e#8 p#'9'!ee app'/!e( / e@>e$$ '1 +0I ?%'!a. T5/$ C'%#!
5a#9'/'%$l8 #ea( !5e 9a/ p#'6/$/' a( !5e p#'6/$' a( 0a6e
e11e>! !' !5e #%le.
22. I *erala State %o+sin) Board and ;rs. v. 0a&a7riya
%otels (( Ltd. and ;rs. 1$$/ (3 S"" #,2 !5/$ C'%#! =a$ e@4
a9//0 =5e!5e# !5e pe#/'( '1 - 8ea#$ e6/$a0e( / p#'6/$' !' Se>4
!/' *3./2 %(e# Je#ala La( A>?%/$/!/' A>!< *93* >'%l( 7e #e>:4
'e( 1#'9 (a!e =5e a0#ee9e! =a$ e@e>%!e( '# 1#'9 (a!e '1
p%7l/>a!/' '1 '!/1/>a!/' %(e# Se>!/' ,.*2 '1 !5e A>! a1!e# !5e
a0#ee9e! =a$ e@e>%!e(. A1!e# #el8/0 ' 9ri4hovandas %ari4A
hai 9a&4oli .$%p#a2 a( A.N. Seh)al .$%p#a2 !5/$ C'%#! 5el( !5a!
Page 71
11
!5e p#'6/$' $5'%l( 7e 5a#9'/'%$l8 #ea( =/!5 !5e $e>!/'. T' ?%'!e
9ri4hovandas .$%p#a2 a$ 1'll'=e( / !5/$ ;%(09e!C
-(n Tribho&andas 3aribhai Tamboli &. Gu/arat Fe&enue Tribunal this
*ourt held that the proper function of a pro&iso is to e+cept and deal
with a case which would otherwise fall within the general language of
the main enactment and its effect is to be confined to that case. 6here
the language of the main enactment is e+plicit and unambiguous" the
pro&iso can ha&e no repercussion on the interpretation of the main en-
actment" so as to e+clude from it" by implication what clearly falls within
its e+press terms. The scope of the pro&iso" therefore" is to car&e out an
e+ception to the main enactment and it e+cludes something which oth-
erwise would ha&e been within the rule. (t has to operate in the same
field and if the language of the main enactment is clear" the pro&iso can-
not be torn apart from the main enactment nor can it be used to nullify
by implication what the enactment clearly says" nor set at naught the
real ob/ect of the main enactment" unless the words of the pro&iso are
such that it is its necessary effect. (n that case it was held that by read-
ing the pro&iso consistent with the pro&isions of Section 88 of the )om-
bay Tenancy and Agricultural Act" the ob/ect of the main pro&ision was
sustained.0
(emphasis supplied
2,. I *+sh Sah)al @ ;rs. v. 1.". 1itter @ ;rs. (2000 /
S"" 32# a la(la(8 9a(e a appl/>a!/' 1'# e6/>!/' '1 !5e !ea!
' !5e 7a$/$ !5a! $5e =a!e( !5e pla>e 1'# 7%$/e$$ p%#p'$e$ =5/>5
=a$ '! all'=e( a$ pe# !5e p#'6/$' !' Se>!/' 2*.22 U.P. U#7a
B%/l(/0$ .Re0%la!/' '1 Le!!/0< Re! a( E6/>!/'2 A>!< *972. T5e
C'%#! e@a9/e( !5e #'le a( p%#p'#! '1 !5e p#'6/$' a( '7$e#6e( C
-This we say because the normal function of a pro&iso is to
e+cept something out of the enactment or to !ualify
something enacted therein which but for the pro&iso would
be within the pur&iew of the enactment. (See : Hedarnath
Page 72
1+
?ute >anufacturing *o. Btd. &. *ommercial Ta+ Iffice
<1:D'=3S*FD#D. Since the natural presumption is that but
for the pro&iso" the enacting part of the section would ha&e
included the sub/ect-matter of the pro&iso" the enacting part
has to be gi&en such a construction which would ma$e the
e+ceptions car&ed out by the pro&iso necessary and a
construction which would ma$e the e+ceptions unnecessary
and redundant should be a&oided (See: ?ustice G. 8. SinghEs
C8rinciples of Statutory (nterpretationC Se&enth Adition
1:::" p-1D3. This principle has been deduced from the
decision of the 8ri&y *ouncil in Go&t. of the 8ro&ince of
)ombay &. 3ormus/i >ane$/i (A(F 1:%, 8* #@@ as also the
decision of this *ourt in Jurga Jutt Sharma &.5a&aratna
8harmaceutical Baboratories (A(F 1:D' S* :8@.0
2-. T' !5e $a9e e11e>! a#e !5e (e>/$/'$ '1 !5/$ C'%#! / Ali 1.*.
and ;rs. v. State o8 *erala and ;rs. (200! 11 S"" #!2<
Na)ar (alika .$%p#a2 a( / Steel A+thority o8 India Ltd. v.
S.B.9.N.I San)a& @ ;rs. (200$ 1# S"" 1.
2+. I >'>l%$/'< =e 9a8 #e1e# !' >a+well" -(nterpretation of
Statutes0 Adn. 1#" 1:D:" on 8. 18:-1:@ =5/>5 $!a!e$ !5a! /! /$ a
0ee#al 1/(/0 a( p#a>!/>e -that inconsistencies can be a&oided
by applying the general rule that the words of a pro&iso are not to
be ta$en -absolutely in their strict literal sense0 <F &. Jimbdin
(1:1@= but that a pro&iso is -of necessity ... limited in its opera-
tion to the ambit of the section which it !ualifies0 <Bloyds and Scot-
tish 4inance Btd &. >odern *ars and *ana&ans (Hingston Btd.
Page 73
1*
(1:DD=. And" so far as that section itself is concerned" the pro&iso
recei&es a restricted construction: where the section confers pow-
ers" -it would be contrary to the ordinary operation of a pro&iso to
gi&e it an effect which would cut down those powers beyond what
compliance with the pro&iso renders necessary.0 <Fe Tabris$y &.
)oard of Trade (1:%,=0
23. Bhaskaran< / '%# 6/e=< #ea($ !5e p#'6/$' a$ p#e$>#/7/0 !5e
/0#e(/e!$ '1 !5e '11e>e /$!ea( '1 !#ea!/0 /! a$ a e@>ep!/' !'
!5e 0ee#al/!8 '1 !5e ea>!/0 pa#! 78 $!/p%la!/0 1%#!5e# >'(/!/'$
7e1'#e a >'9pe!e! C'%#! 9a8 !a:e >'0/Da>e '1 !5e $a9e. See
/ !5e l/05! '1 !5e p#'6/$/'$ '1 Se>!/' *-2 '1 !5e A>!< !5e p#'6/$'
$/9pl8 (e1e#$ p#'$e>%!/' '1 !5e '11e(e# !/ll !5e >'(/!/'$ p#e4
$>#/7e( !5e#e/ a#e $a!/$1/e(. Bhaskaran ('e$ '! 6/e= !5e 9a!!e#
/ !5a! pe#$pe>!/6e =5/le %ar&an .$%p#a2 ('e$. )e 1/( '%#$el6e$
/ #e$pe>!1%l a0#ee9e! =/!5 !5e 6/e= / %ar&an’s >a$e ' !5/$
a$pe>!.
27. I Bhaskaran< !5/$ C'%#! #e$'l6e( !5e >'1%$/' a$ !' !5e
pla>e '1 >'99/$$/' '1 !5e '11e>e 78 #el8/0 %p' Se>!/'$ *77 !'
Page 74
1-
*79 '1 !5e C#.P.C. B%! !5e >'1%$/' a#/$e$ 'l8 /1 'e =e#e !' !#ea!
!5e p#'6/$' a$ $!/p%la!/0 !5e /0#e(/e!$ '1 !5e '11e>e. O>e /! /$
5el( !5a! !5e >'(/!/'$ p#e>e(e! 1'# !a:/0 >'0/Da>e a#e '!
!5e /0#e(/e!$ >'$!/!%!/0 !5e '11e>e '1 (/$5''%# '1 !5e >5e?%e<
!5e#e /$ ' #''9 1'# a8 $%>5 >'1%$/' '# 6a0%ee$$ a7'%! !5e
pla>e =5e#e !5e '11e>e /$ >'99/!!e(. Appl8/0 !5e 0ee#al #%le
#e>'0/$e( %(e# Se>!/' *77 '1 !5e C#.P.C. !5a! all '11e>e$ a#e l'4
>al< !5e pla>e =5e#e !5e (/$5''%# '>>%#$ /$ !5e pla>e 1'# >'99/$4
$/' '1 !5e '11e>e 6e$!/0 !5e C'%#! e@e#>/$/0 !e##/!'#/al ;%#/$(/>4
!/' '6e# !5e a#ea =/!5 !5e p'=e# !' !#8 !5e '11e>e$. Ha6/0 $a/(
!5a! =e 9%$! 5a$!e !' a((< !5a! / >a$e$ =5e#e !5e '11e>e %(e#
Se>!/' *,8 /$ '%! '1 !5e '11e>e$ >'99/!!e( / a $/0le !#a$a>!/'
=/!5/ !5e 9ea/0 '1 Se>!/' 220 .*2 '1 !5e C#.P.C. !5e !5e '14
1e(e# 9a8 7e >5a#0e( =/!5 a( !#/e( a! 'e !#/al 1'# e6e#8 $%>5
'11e>e a( a8 $%>5 /?%/#8 '# !#/al 9a8 7e >'(%>!e( 78 a8
C'%#! >'9pe!e! !' e?%/#e /!' '# !#8 a8 '1 !5e '11e>e$ a$ p#'4
6/(e( 78 Se>!/' *8- '1 !5e C'(e. S' al$'< /1 a '11e>e p%/$5a7le
%(e# Se>!/' *,8 '1 !5e A>! /$ >'99/!!e( a$ a pa#! '1 $/0le !#a$4
Page 75
1(
a>!/' =/!5 !5e '11e>e '1 >5ea!/0 a( (/$5'e$!l8 /(%>/0 (el/64
e#8 '1 p#'pe#!8 !5e / !e#9$ '1 Se>!/' *82 .*2 #ea( =/!5 Se>!/'$
*8- a( 220 '1 !5e C#.P.C. $%>5 '11e>e 9a8 7e !#/e( e/!5e# a! !5e
pla>e =5e#e !5e /(%>e9e! !'': pla>e '# =5e#e !5e >5e?%e 1'#94
/0 pa#! '1 !5e $a9e !#a$a>!/' =a$ (/$5''%#e( '# a! !5e pla>e
=5e#e !5e p#'pe#!8 =5/>5 !5e pe#$' >5ea!e( =a$ (/$5'e$!l8 /4
(%>e( !' (el/6e# '# a! !5e pla>e =5e#e !5e a>>%$e( #e>e/6e( $%>5
p#'pe#!8. T5e$e p#'6/$/'$ 9a:e /! >lea# !5a! / !5e >'99e#>/al
='#l( a pa#!8 =5' /$ >5ea!e( a( /(%>e( !' (el/6e# p#'pe#!8 '
!5e 7a$/$ '1 a >5e?%e =5/>5 /$ (/$5''%#e( 5a$ !5e #e9e(8 '1 /$!/4
!%!/0 p#'$e>%!/' '! 'l8 a! !5e pla>e =5e#e !5e >5e?%e =a$ (/$4
5''%#e( =5/>5 a! !/9e$ 9a8 7e a pla>e '!5e# !5a !5e pla>e
=5e#e !5e /(%>e9e! '# >5ea!/0 !a:e$ pla>e 7%! al$' a! !5e pla>e
=5e#e !5e '11e>e '1 >5ea!/0 =a$ >'99/!!e(. T' !5a! e@!e! !5e
p#'6/$/'$ '1 C5ap!e# KIII '1 !5e C'(e =/ll 7ea# #ele6a>e a( 5elp
(e!e#9/e !5e pla>e =5e#e !5e '11e>e$ >a 7e !#/e(.
28. )e 9a8 a! !5/$ $!a0e #e1e# !' !=' '!5e# (e>/$/'$ '1 !5/$ C'%#!
=5/>5 7ea# $'9e #ele6a>e !' !5e ?%e$!/' !5a! 1all$ 1'# '%#
Page 76
14
(e!e#9/a!/'. I Sadanandan Bhadran v. 1adhavan S+nil
*+&ar (1998) 6 SCC 514 a !='4;%(0e 7e>5 '1 !5/$ C'%#! 5el(
!5a! >la%$e .a2 '1 p#'6/$' !' Se>!/' *,8 ('e$ '! (/$e!/!le !5e
pa8ee !' $%>>e$$/6el8 p#e$e! >5e?%e 1'# pa89e! (%#/0 !5e
pe#/'( '1 /!$ 6al/(/!8. O ea>5 $%>5 p#e$e!a!/' '1 !5e >5e?%e a(
/!$ (/$5''%# a 1#e$5 #/05! 4 a( '! >a%$e '1 a>!/' L a>>#%e$ / 5/$
1a6'%#. He 9a8< !5e#e1'#e< =/!5'%! !a:/0 p#e4e9p!'#8 a>!/' /
e@e#>/$e '1 $%>5 #/05! %(e# >la%$e .72 '1 Se>!/' *,8 0' '
p#e$e!/0 !5e >5e?%e $' l'0 a$ !5e >5e?%e /$ 6al/( 1'# pa89e!.
B%! '>e 5e 0/6e$ a '!/>e %(e# >la%$e .72 '1 Se>!/' *,8 5e
1'#1e/!$ $%>5 #/05! 1'# / >a$e '1 1a/l%#e '1 !5e (#a=e# !' pa8 !5e
9'e8 =/!5/ !5e $!/p%la!e( !/9e 5e ='%l( 7e l/a7le 1'# !5e '11e>e
a( !5e >a%$e '1 a>!/' 1'# p#'$e>%!/' =/ll a#/$e. T5e >'##e>!e$$
'1 !5/$ 6/e= =a$ ?%e$!/'e( / 1S0 Leathers v. S. (alania77an
@ Anr. (2013) 1 SCC 177 7e1'#e a 7e>5 >'9p#/$/0 '1
Ma#:a(e8 Ja!;% a( B. S%(e#$5a Re((8< J.J. =5' #e1e##e( !5e
/$$%e !' a la#0e# 7e>5. T5e la#0e# 7e>5 / 1S0 Leathers’s >a$e
.$%p#a2 '6e##%le( Sadanandan Bhadran .$%p#a2 5'l(/0 !5a!
Page 77
11
!5e#e =a$ ' #ea$' =58 a 1#e$5 >a%$e '1 a>!/' =/!5/ !5e
9ea/0 '1 Se>!/' *-2 .72 #ea( =/!5 $e>!/' *,8 $5'%l( '! 7e
(ee9e( !' 5a6e a#/$e !' !5e >'9pla/a! e6e#8 !/9e !5e >5e?%e
=a$ p#e$e!e( 7%! (/$5''%#e( a( !5e (#a=e# '1 >5e?%e 1a/le( !'
pa8 !5e a9'%! =/!5/ !5e $!/p%la!e( pe#/'( / !e#9$ '1 p#'6/$' !'
*,8. T5/$ C'%#! $a/(C
-(n the result" we o&errule the decision in Sadanandan
)hadranEs case (supra and hold that prosecution based
upon second or successi&e dishonour of the che!ue is also
permissible so long as the same satisfies the re!uirements
stipulated in the pro&iso to Section *,8 of the 5egotiable
(nstruments Act. The reference is answered accordingly. The
appeals shall now be listed before the regular )ench for
hearing and disposal in light of the obser&ations made
abo&e.0
29. )5a! /$ /9p'#!a! /$ !5a! / Sadanandan Bhadran .$%p#a2
!5/$ C'%#! 5a(< ' a >a#e1%l aal8$/$ '1 Se>!/' *,8< 5el( !5a! a
'11e>e /$ >#ea!e( =5e a >5e?%e /$ #e!%#e( 78 !5e 7a: %pa/(
1'# a8 #ea$'$ 9e!/'e( !5e#e/< al!5'%05 !5e p#'6/$' !' Se>!/'
*,8 $!/p%la!e$ !5#ee >'(/!/'$ 1'# !5e appl/>a7/l/!8 '1 !5e $e>!/'.
I! /$ 'l8 %p' $a!/$1a>!/' '1 !5e !5#ee >'(/!/'$ !5a! p#'$e>%!/'
Page 78
16
>a 7e la%>5e( 1'# a '11e>e %(e# Se>!/' *,8. T5/$ C'%#!
'7$e#6e(C
- In a careful analysis of the abo&e section" it is seen that its
main part creates an offence when a che!ue is returned by
the ban$ unpaid for any of the reasons mentioned therein.
The significant fact" howe&er" is that the pro&iso lays down
three conditions precedent to the applicability of the abo&e
section and" for that matter" creation of such offence and
the conditions are: (i the che!ue should ha&e been pre-
sented to the ban$ within si+ months of its issue or within
the period of its &alidity" whiche&er is earlier; (ii the payee
should ha&e made a demand for payment by registered no-
tice after the che!ue is returned unpaid; and (iii that the
drawer should ha&e failed to pay the amount within 1' days
of the receipt of the notice. (t is only when all the abo&e
three conditions are satisfied that a prosecution can be
launched for the offence under Section 138. So far as the
first condition is concerned" clause (a of the pro&iso to Sec-
tion 138 does not put any embargo upon the payee to suc-
cessi&ely present a dishonoured che!ue during the period of
its &alidity. This apart" in the course of business transactions
it is not uncommon for a che!ue being returned due to in-
sufficient funds or similar such reasons and being presented
again by the payee after sometime" on his own &olition or at
the re!uest of the drawer" in e+pectation that it would be
encashed. 5eedless to say" the primary interest of the
payee is to get his money and not prosecution of the
drawer" recourse to which" normally" is ta$en out of compul-
sion and not choice. 4or the abo&e reasons it must be held
that a che!ue can be presented any number of times during
the period of its &alidity. (ndeed that is also the consistent
&iew of all the 3igh *ourts e+cept that of the Ji&ision )ench
of the Herala 3igh *ourt in Humaresan
1
which struc$ a dis-
cordant note with the obser&ation that for the first dishon-
our of the che!ue" only a prosecution can be launched for
there cannot be more than one cause of action for prosecu-
tion.0
(emphasis supplied
Page 79
1)
,0. 1S0 Leathers .$%p#a2 al$' l'':e( a! Se>!/' *,8 a( 5el(
!5a! a >'9pla/! >'%l( 7e 1/le( %(e# Se>!/' *,8 a1!e# >a%$e '1
a>!/' !' (' $' 5a( a>>#%e( / !e#9$ '1 >la%$e .>2 '1 !5e p#'6/$' !'
Se>!/' *,8 =5/>5 5appe$ ' $''e# !5e (#a=e# '1 !5e >5e?%e
1a/l$ !' 9a:e !5e pa89e! '1 !5e >5e?%e a9'%! !' !5e pa8ee
=/!5/ 1/1!ee (a8$ / !e#9$ '1 >la%$e .72 !' p#'6/$' !' Se>!/' *,8.
1S0 Leathers =a$ '! $' 9%>5 >'>e#e( =/!5 !5e ?%e$!/'
=5e!5e# !5e p#'6/$' $!/p%la!e( /0#e(/e!$ '1 !5e '11e>e '#
>'(/!/'$ p#e>e(e! 1'# 1/l/0 a >'9pla/!. I! =a$ p#/9a#/l8
>'>e#e( =/!5 !5e ?%e$!/' =5e!5e# !5e $e>'( '# $%>>e$$/6e
(/$5''%# 1'll'=e( 78 $!a!%!'#8 '!/>e$ a( 1a/l%#e '1 !5e (#a=e# !'
9a:e pa89e! >'%l( 7e 9a(e a 7a$/$ 1'# la%>5/0 p#'$e>%!/'
a0a/$! !5e (#a=e#. T5a! ?%e$!/'< a$ '!/>e( a7'6e< =a$
a$=e#e( / !5e a11/#9a!/6e 5'l(/0 !5a! $%>>e$$/6e >a%$e '1 a>!/'
>'%l( a#/$e /1 !5e#e =e#e $%>>e$$/6e (/$5''%#$ 1'll'=e( 78
$!a!%!'#8 '!/>e$ a$ #e?%/#e( %(e# !5e la= a( $%>>e$$/6e 1a/l%#e
'1 !5e (#a=e# !' 9a:e !5e pa89e!. 1S0 Leathers >a'!<
!5e#e1'#e< 7e !a:e a$ a a%!5'#/!8 1'# (e!e#9//0 =5e!5e# !5e
Page 80
6,
p#'6/$' $!/p%la!e$ >'(/!/'$ p#e>e(e! 1'# la%>5/0 a p#'$e>%!/'
'# /0#e(/e!$ '1 !5e '11e>e p%/$5a7le %(e# Se>!/' *,8.
Sadanandan Bhadran 9a8 5a6e 7ee '6e##%le( !' !5e e@!e! /!
5el( !5a! $%>>e$$/6e >a%$e$ '1 a>!/' >a'! 7e 9a(e a 7a$/$ 1'#
p#'$e>%!/'< 7%! !5e (/$!/>!/' 7e!=ee !5e /0#e(/e! '1 !5e
'11e>e< ' !5e 'e 5a(< a( >'(/!/'$ p#e>e(e! 1'# la%>5/0
p#'$e>%!/'< ' !5e '!5e#< (#a= / !5e $a/( ;%(0e9e! 5a$ '!
7ee 1a%l!e(. T5a! (/$!/>!/' pe#9ea!e$ !5e p#''%>e9e!$ '1
!5/$ C'%#! / Sadanandan Bhadran a( 1S0 Leathers. H/05
C'%#! '1 Je#ala 5a$< / '%# 6/e=< >'##e>!l8 /!e#p#e!e( Se>!/' *,8
'1 !5e A>! / *airali 1arketin) @ (rocessin) "oo7erative
Society Ltd. C. (+llen)adi Service "oo7erative Ltd. (200, 1
*L9 2>, =5e /! $a/(C
-(t is e&ident from the language of Section *,8 of the 5.(.
Act that the drawer is deemed to ha&e committed the
offence when a che!ue issued by him of the &ariety
contemplated under Section *,8 is dishonoured for the
reasons contemplated in the Section. The crucial words are
Cis returned by the ban$ unpaidC. 6hen that happens" such
person shall be deemed to ha&e committed the offence.
6ith the deeming in the body of Section *,8" the offence is
already committed or deemed to ha&e been committed. A
careful reading of the body of Section *,8 cannot lead to
any other conclusion. 8ro&iso to Section*,8 according to me
Page 81
61
only insists on certain conditions precedent which ha&e to be
satisfied if the person who is deemed to ha&e committed the
offence were to be prosecuted successfully. The offence is
already committed when the che!ue is returned by the
ban$. )ut the cause of action for prosecution will be
a&ailable to the complainant not when the offence is
committed but only after the conditions precedent
enumerated in the pro&iso are satisfied. After the offence is
committed" only if the option gi&en to a&oid the prosecution
under the pro&iso is not a&ailed of by the offender" can the
aggrie&ed person get a right or course of action to prosecute
the offender. The offence is already deemed and declared
but the offender can be prosecuted only when the
re!uirements of the pro&iso are satisfied. The cause of
action for prosecution will arise only when the period
stipulated in the pro&iso elapses without payment.
(ngredients of the offence ha&e got to be distinguished from
the conditions precedent for &alid initiation of prosecution.0
The stipulations in the pro&iso must also be pro&ed
certainly before the offender can be successfully prosecuted.
)ut in the strict sense they are not ingredients of the
deemed offence under the body of Section *,8 of the 5.(.
Act" though the said stipulations; must also be pro&ed to
ensure and claim con&iction. (t is in this sense that it is said
that the pro&iso does not ma$e or unma$e the offence
under Section *,8 of the 5.(. Act. That is already done by
the body of the Sections. This dispute as to whether the
stipulations of the pro&iso are conditions precedent or
ingredientsKcomponents of the offence under Section *,8 of
the 5.(. Act may only be academic in most cases.
Lndoubtedly the ingredients stricto sensu as also the
conditions precedent will ha&e to be established
satisfactorily in all cases. If course in an appropriate case it
may ha&e to be considered whether substantial compliance
of the conditions precedent can be rec$oned to be sufficient
to /ustify a con&iction. )e that as it may" the distinction
between the ingredients and conditions precedent is
certainly real and e+istent. That distinction is certainly &ital
while ascertaining complicity of an indictee who faces
indictment in a prosecution under Section *,8 with the aid
Page 82
6+
of Section *-* of the 5.(. Act. That is how the !uestion
assumes such crucial significance here.0
,*. T' $%9 %pC
(i A '11e>e %(e# Se>!/' *,8 '1 !5e Ne0'!/a7le I$!#%9e!$
A>!< *88* /$ >'99/!!e( ' $''e# a >5e?%e (#a= 78 !5e a>>%$e(
' a a>>'%! 7e/0 9a/!a/e( 78 5/9 / a 7a: 1'# (/$>5a#0e '1
(e7!Fl/a7/l/!8 /$ #e!%#e( %pa/( 1'# /$%11/>/e>8 '1 1%($ '# 1'# !5e
#ea$' !5a! !5e a9'%! e@>ee($ !5e a##a0e9e! 9a(e =/!5 !5e
7a:.
(ii C'0/Da>e '1 a8 $%>5 '11e>e /$ 5'=e6e# 1'#7/((e %(e#
Se>!/' *-2 '1 !5e A>! e@>ep! %p' a >'9pla/! / =#/!/0 9a(e 78
!5e pa8ee '# 5'l(e# '1 !5e >5e?%e / (%e >'%#$e =/!5/ a pe#/'( '1
'e 9'!5 1#'9 !5e (a!e !5e >a%$e '1 a>!/' a>>#%e$ !' $%>5 pa8ee
'# 5'l(e# %(e# >la%$e .>2 '1 p#'6/$' !' Se>!/' *,8.
(iii T5e >a%$e '1 a>!/' !' 1/le a >'9pla/! a>>#%e$ !' a
>'9pla/a!Fpa8eeF5'l(e# '1 a >5e?%e / (%e >'%#$e /1
(a !5e (/$5''%#e( >5e?%e /$ p#e$e!e( !' !5e (#a=ee 7a:
=/!5/ a pe#/'( '1 $/@ 9'!5$ 1#'9 !5e (a!e '1 /!$ /$$%e.
Page 83
6*
.72 I1 !5e >'9pla/a! 5a$ (e9a(e( pa89e! '1 >5e?%e
a9'%! =/!5/ !5/#!8 (a8$ '1 #e>e/p! '1 /1'#9a!/' 78
5/9 1#'9 !5e 7a: #e0a#(/0 !5e (/$5''%# '1 !5e
>5e?%e a(
.>2 I1 !5e (#a=e# 5a$ 1a/le( !' pa8 !5e >5e?%e a9'%! =/!5/
1/1!ee (a8$ '1 #e>e/p! '1 $%>5 '!/>e.
(iv T5e 1a>!$ >'$!/!%!/0 >a%$e '1 a>!/' (' '! >'$!/!%!e !5e
/0#e(/e!$ '1 !5e '11e>e %(e# Se>!/' *,8 '1 !5e A>!.
(v T5e p#'6/$' !' Se>!/' *,8 $/9pl8 p'$!p'e$F(e1e#$ /$!/!%!/'
'1 >#/9/al p#'>ee(/0$ a( !a:/0 '1 >'0/Da>e 78 !5e C'%#! !/ll
$%>5 !/9e >a%$e '1 a>!/' / !e#9$ '1 >la%$e .>2 '1 p#'6/$' a>>#%e$
!' !5e >'9pla/a!.
(vi O>e !5e >a%$e '1 a>!/' a>>#%e$ !' !5e >'9pla/a!< !5e
;%#/$(/>!/' '1 !5e C'%#! !' !#8 !5e >a$e =/ll 7e (e!e#9/e( 78
#e1e#e>e !' !5e pla>e =5e#e !5e >5e?%e /$ (/$5''%#e(.
(vii T5e 0ee#al #%le $!/p%la!e( %(e# Se>!/' *77 '1 C#.P.C
appl/e$ !' >a$e$ %(e# Se>!/' *,8 '1 !5e Ne0'!/a7le I$!#%9e!$
A>!. P#'$e>%!/' / $%>5 >a$e$ >a< !5e#e1'#e< 7e la%>5e( a0a/$!
!5e (#a=e# '1 !5e >5e?%e 'l8 7e1'#e !5e C'%#! =/!5/ =5'$e
Page 84
6-
;%#/$(/>!/' !5e (/$5''%# !a:e$ pla>e e@>ep! / $/!%a!/'$ =5e#e
!5e '11e>e '1 (/$5''%# '1 !5e >5e?%e p%/$5a7le %(e# Se>!/'
*,8 /$ >'99/!!e( al'0 =/!5 '!5e# '11e>e$ / a $/0le !#a$a>!/'
=/!5/ !5e 9ea/0 '1 Se>!/' 220.*2 #ea( =/!5 Se>!/' *8- '1 !5e
C'(e '1 C#/9/al P#'>e(%#e '# /$ >'6e#e( 78 !5e p#'6/$/'$ '1
Se>!/' *82.*2 #ea( =/!5 Se>!/'$ *8- a( 220 !5e#e'1.
,2. Be1'#e pa#!/0 =/!5 !5/$ a$pe>! '1 !5e 9a!!e#< =e ee( !'
#e9/( '%#$el6e$ !5a! a a6ala>5e '1 >a$e$ /6'l6/0 (/$5''%# '1
>5e?%e$ 5a$ >'9e %p' !5e Ma0/$!#a>8 '1 !5/$ >'%!#8. T5e
%97e# '1 $%>5 >a$e$ a$ '1 O>!'7e# 2008 =e#e e$!/9a!e( !' 7e
9'#e !5a ,8 la:5$ 78 !5e La= C'99/$$/' '1 I(/a / /!$ 2*,
!5
Rep'#!. T5e #e$%l! /$ !5a! >a$e$ /6'l6/0 (/$5''%# '1 >5e?%e /$ /
all 9a;'# >/!/e$ >5':/0 !5e >#/9/al ;%$!/>e $8$!e9 a! !5e
Ma0/$!#a!eH$ le6el. C'%#!$ / !5e 1'%# 9e!#'p'l/!a >/!/e$ a( '!5e#
>'99e#>/all8 /9p'#!a! >e!#e$ a#e pa#!/>%la#l8 7%#(ee( a$ !5e
1/l/0 '1 $%>5 >a$e$ /$ / 6e#8 la#0e %97e#$. M'#e !5a 1/6e la:5
$%>5 >a$e$ =e#e pe(/0 / >#/9/al >'%#!$ / Del5/ al'e a$ '1 *
$!
J%e 2008. T5e p'$/!/' /$ ' (/11e#e! / '!5e# >/!/e$ =5e#e la#0e
Page 85
6(
%97e# '1 >'9pla/!$ a#e 1/le( %(e# S.*,8 '! e>e$$a#/l8
7e>a%$e !5e '11e>e /$ >'99/!!e( / $%>5 >/!/e$ 7%! 7e>a%$e
9%l!/a!/'al a( '!5e# >'9pa/e$ a( >'99e#>/al e!/!/e$ a(
a0e>/e$ >5''$e !5e$e pla>e$ 1'# 1/l/0 !5e >'9pla/!$ 1'# ' 7e!!e#
#ea$' !5a !5e 1a>! !5a! '!/>e$ (e9a(/0 pa89e! '1 >5e?%e
a9'%!$ =e#e /$$%e( 1#'9 $%>5 >/!/e$ '# !5e >5e?%e$ =e#e
(ep'$/!e( 1'# >'lle>!/' / !5e/# 7a:$ / !5'$e >/!/e$. Rel/a>e /$
'1!e pla>e( ' Bhaskaran’s >a$e !' ;%$!/18 /$!/!%!/' '1 $%>5
>a$e$ 1a# a=a8 1#'9 =5e#e !5e !#a$a>!/' 1'#9/0 7a$/$ '1 !5e
(/$5''%#e( >5e?%e 5a( !a:e pla>e. I! /$ '! %>'99' !' 1/(
>'9pla/!$ 1/le( / (/11e#e! ;%#/$(/>!/' 1'# >5e?%e$ (/$5''%#e( /
!5e $a9e !#a$a>!/' a( a! !5e $a9e pla>e. T5/$ p#'>e(%#e /$
9'#e '1!e !5a '! /!e(e( !' %$e $%>5 'pp#e$$/6e l/!/0a!/' !'
a>5/e6e !5e >'lla!e#al p%#p'$e '1 e@!#a>!/0 9'e8 1#'9 !5e
a>>%$e( 78 (e8/0 5/9 a 1a/# 'pp'#!%/!8 !' >'!e$! !5e >la/9 78
(#a00/0 5/9 !' a (/$!a! pla>e. Bhaskaran’s >a$e >'%l( e6e#
5a6e /!e(e( !' 0/6e !' !5e >'9pla/a!Fpa8ee '1 !5e >5e?%e $%>5
a a(6a!a0e. E6e $'< e@pe#/e>e 5a$ $5'= !5a! !5e 6/e= !a:e
Page 86
64
/ Bhaskaran’s >a$e pe#9/!!/0 p#'$e>%!/' a! a8 'e '1 !5e 1/6e
(/11e#e! pla>e$ /(/>a!e( !5e#e/ 5a$ 1a/le( '! 'l8 !' 9ee! !5e
app#'6al '1 '!5e# 7e>5e$ (eal/0 =/!5 !5e ?%e$!/' 7%! al$'
#e$%l!e( / 5a#($5/p< 5a#a$$9e! a( />'6e/e>e !' !5e a>>%$e(
pe#$'$. )5/le a8'e /$$%/0 a >5e?%e /$ a( '%05! !' 7e 9a(e
#e$p'$/7le /1 !5e $a9e /$ (/$5''%#e( (e$p/!e >'9pl/a>e =/!5 !5e
p#'6/$/'$ $!/p%la!e( / !5e p#'6/$'< !5e C'%#! '%05! !' a6'/( a
/!e#p#e!a!/' !5a! >a 7e %$e( a$ a /$!#%9e! '1 'pp#e$$/' 78
'e '1 !5e pa#!/e$. T5e %/la!e#al a>!$ '1 a >'9pla/a! /
p#e$e!/0 a >5e?%e a! a pla>e '1 5/$ >5'/>e '# /$$%/0 a '!/>e 1'#
pa89e! '1 !5e (/$5''%#e( a9'%! >a'! / '%# 6/e= a#9 !5e
>'9pla/a! =/!5 !5e p'=e# !' >5''$e !5e pla>e '1 !#/al. S%11/>e /!
!' $a8< !5a! '! 'l8 ' !5e P#/>/ple$ '1 I!e#p#e!a!/' '1 S!a!%!e$
7%! al$' !5e p'!e!/al 9/$>5/e1 =5/>5 a e##'e'%$ /!e#p#e!a!/'
>a >a%$e / !e#9$ '1 /;%$!/>e a( 5a#a$$9e! !' !5e a>>%$e( !5e
6/e= !a:e / !5e Bhaskaran’s >a$e ee($ !' 7e #e6/$/!e( a$ =e
5a6e ('e / 1'#e0'/0 pa#a0#ap5$.
,,. )/!5 !5e a7'6e '7$e#6a!/'$< I >'>%# =/!5 !5e '#(e#
Page 87
61
p#'p'$e( 78 98 '7le B#'!5e#< "/:#a9a;/! Se< J.
……………….……….…..…J.
(T.S. Thakur)
Ne= Del5/
A%0%$! *< 20*-

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