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Development Centre Studies

Development Centre Studies

The World Economy

The World
Economy

HISTORICAL STATISTICS
Following on from his The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective, published by the OECD in 2001,
Angus Maddison offers a rare insight into the history and political influence of national accounts
and national accounting. He demonstrates that such statistical data can enlighten the contemporary
and later observer in the analysis of economic phenomena such as growth, market formation
and income distribution.

HISTORICAL STATISTICS

This approach is particularly interesting for developing countries which often lack the expertise or data
to produce good national accounts and are thus deprived of a vital policy-making tool. For OECD
countries, it is a reminder that policies need to be grounded in the reality of verifiable economic data
if they are to succeed.

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The World Economy HISTORICAL STATISTICS

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ANGUS MADDISON
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Development Centre Studies

The World Economy
HISTORICAL STATISTICS
by
Angus Maddison

DEVELOPMENT CENTRE OF THE ORGANISATION
FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT

ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION
AND DEVELOPMENT
Pursuant to Article 1 of the Convention signed in Paris on 14th December 1960, and which came into
force on 30th September 1961, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
shall promote policies designed:
– to achieve the highest sustainable economic growth and employment and a rising standard of
living in member countries, while maintaining financial stability, and thus to contribute to the
development of the world economy;
– to contribute to sound economic expansion in member as well as non-member countries in the
process of economic development; and
– to contribute to the expansion of world trade on a multilateral, non-discriminatory basis in
accordance with international obligations.
The original member countries of the OECD are Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany,
Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,
Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States. The following countries became members subsequently
through accession at the dates indicated hereafter: Japan (28th April 1964), Finland (28th January 1969),
Australia (7th June 1971), New Zealand (29th May 1973), Mexico (18th May 1994), the Czech Republic
(21st December 1995), Hungary (7th May 1996), Poland (22nd November 1996), Korea (12th December 1996)
and the Slovak Republic (14th December 2000). The Commission of the European Communities takes
part in the work of the OECD (Article 13 of the OECD Convention).
The Development Centre of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development was established by decision
of the OECD Council on 23rd October 1962 and comprises twenty-two member countries of the OECD: Austria, Belgium,
Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Korea, Luxembourg,
Mexico, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, as well as Argentina and Brazil
from March 1994, Chile since November 1998 and India since February 2001. The Commission of the European
Communities also takes part in the Centre’s Advisory Board.
The purpose of the Centre is to bring together the knowledge and experience available in member countries of both
economic development and the formulation and execution of general economic policies; to adapt such knowledge and experience
to the actual needs of countries or regions in the process of development and to put the results at the disposal of the countries
by appropriate means.
THE OPINIONS EXPRESSED AND ARGUMENTS EMPLOYED IN THIS PUBLICATION ARE THE SOLE RESPONSIBILITY
OF THE AUTHOR AND DO NOT NECESSARILY REFLECT THOSE OF THE OECD, THE DEVELOPMENT CENTRE OR
THE GOVERNMENTS OF THEIR MEMBER COUNTRIES.

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Publié en français sous le titre :
L’économie mondiale
STATISTIQUES HISTORIQUES

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Table of Contents

Foreword

This work cuts across the full range of the Development Centre’s 2001–2002 Work Programme
and responds to the Centre’s mandate to “ … bring together the knowledge and experience in Member
countries of both economic development and the formulation and execution of general economic
policies … and to put the results at the disposal of (developing) countries.”

3

The World Economy: Historical Statistics 4 .

103 C................ 11 benchmark years...................................... 7 Acknowledgements ....................... 1–2001 AD Select Bibliography .... 1700........................................................... 1820-70 at decade intervals................ 71 Source notes and estimates................ 1000................................. 1500.................................................................................. 1870-2001 annually Estimates for 1500-1870 show indigenous and white settler economies separately HS–3: A........................................................... 1700.......................... 7 Successor States of Former Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia ........................................... 1870 and annually since 1900 wherever possible HS–5: Asia ...................................... 1870............................................................................ 225 Source notes and estimates for world and major regions 1950–2001 annually HS–8: The World Economy...... 25 Source notes and estimates 1500................ 6 List of Basic Tables .................................................................. 241 Source notes and estimates for world and major regions..................................... 1600...................... 1820................ 15 Successor States of Former USSR ................................................... 91 Source notes and estimates for 8 countries (within 1989 frontiers) 1820.............. 1890................................................... 3 List of Tables in Prologue and Source Notes .................................................................................. Canada and the United States) ........... 113 Source notes and estimates for 47 countries for 1820.... 11 Introduction ..................................................................... 15 HS–1: 29 West European Countries ....................................................................................... 1–2001 AD ....... 107 HS–4: Latin America .................................................................................................................. 1500.......................... 10 Preface .............. 1.......... 265 5 .................................. 1950–2001 ................................................................. 1700. 189 Source notes and annual estimates 1950–2001 for 57 countries................... 1850........................................... 1600............... 1913 HS–7: The World Economy........... East Europe and the Former USSR ....... 1850............................ 1900.Table of Contents Table of Contents Foreword .......................................... New Zealand................................... 1870........................................... 1600........... 1820-2001 annually HS–2: Western Offshoots (Australia..................................... 1850 and annually since 1870 wherever possible Estimates for 26 East Asian and 15 West Asian countries annually 1950-2001 HS–6: Africa .................................................................. 13 Prologue: The Pioneers of Macromeasurement ................................................................................................. 1913 and annually wherever possible since 1920 B.............................................. estimates for sample countries and Africa as a whole............................................. 151 Source notes and estimates for 16 East Asian countries for 1820...............................................................

.............. 1493–1925 ............................ 1820–1900 ............................ 1820–1950 ......................................................................................... 244 Comparison of Maddison Per Capita GDP Levels and Prados’ Proxies............................ 190 Tentative Conjectures of African GDP and Per Capita GDP........... 226 Nature of PPP Converters Used to Estimate GDP Levels in the Benchmark Year 1990 .................................... 1700–1870 .............. 1–2001 AD ................... 1500–2001 ......................... 1870–1991 .............. 115 Net Non–Slave Migration to the Americas................... 230 Annual Change of World GDP...............................................................The World Economy: Historical Statistics List of Tables in Prologue and Source Notes Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Gross Domestic Expenditure in England and Wales in 1688 ... 1950–2001 ...... 1820–2001 ........................... and GDP of the United States.................... Measures of Australian Sector Growth and Structure............................................ 155 26 East Asian Countries: Conjectures and Estimates for GDP. 158 Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table 6–1 6–2 6–3 6–4 6–5 6–6 6–7 6–8 6–9 6–10 6–11 African Population............ 1861–1938/9 ... 17 Structure of British Gross Domestic Expenditure........... 198 Length of Railway Line in Service....... North and South.... 1820–1913 .......... 191 World Gold Output by Major Region...................................... GDP and Per Capita GDP....................... 199 African GDP and Population Movement............... GDP and Per Capita GDP.............. 1820–2001 ..................... Estimates of Australian Real GDP............................................................................. IMF and Maddison Measures.......... 114 Ethnic Composition of the Americas in 1820 ................. 194 Slave Exports from Black Africa......... 1820–2001 ..... 201 Table 7–1 Table 7–2 Table 7–3 Coverage of World GDP Sample and Proportionate Role of Proxy Measures................................. 1700–1870 .......................... GDP and Per Capita GDP................................. 249 Table 8–3 6 .......... 198 Ghanaian Population. 1500–1820 ....................... 1–1820 AD ............................................. 94 Maddison Estimates of Per Capita GDP and Proxies derived from Good and Ma . 95 Table Table Table Table Table 4–1 4–2 4–3 4–4 4–5 The Economies of the Americas: Five regions......................... 1870–1913 .................................................................................... and GDP of Canada and New Zealand........ 247 The Chinese/West European Dichotomy......... 1400–1900 ............... 153 16 East Asian Countries: GDP Conjectures and Estimates.... Table 3–1 Table 3–2 Table 3–3 Good and Ma Proxy Measures of Per Capita GDP ............................... 152 Population of Korea....... 1820–2001 ......................... 1500–1870 ....... 200 Alternative Estimates of 1990 African GDP Levels by ICP and PWT ...... 650–1900........................ 1700–1870 .... 154 Population and GDP in 20 Small East Asian Countries.. The Impact of Frontier Changes on German GDP......................... GDP and Per Capita GDP........................ 1688 and 1996 ........ Economic Growth in Ireland (Irish Republic) and the United Kingdom. 23 Table Table Table Table 1–1 1–2 1–3 1–4 Population and GDP in Modern and Habsburg Austria..... 119 Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table 5–1 5–2 5–3 5–4 5–5 5–6 5–7 5–8 Population of Undivided India................................................................ 1950–2001 ................... 115 GDP and Population in 24 Small Caribbean Countries........ 1820–1913 ... Bangladesh and Pakistan................ 1950–2001 .................................................................................................. GDP and Per Capita GDP.............................. 1820–1950 . 94 Eastern Europe and Russia: Population and GDP. by Destination .................. GDP and Per Capita GDP..................... 194 Akan (Ghanaian) Gold Production.................... 115 Arrivals of African Slaves in the Americas............. 1820–1913 ... calendar years 1861–1938 ...... 1–2001 AD . 18 Mulhall’s 1896 Guidelines for Estimates of Value Added by Sector of Economic Activity ...... 194 Egyptian Population................ 156 Turkish Population........ 157 Total Asian Population............... 1820–1913 ............................ 197 Algerian Population.. 1500–1998 . 1820–1946 ........................................... 1820–2001 ............................ 155 West Asian Population..................... 1970–2001 ................ Population and GDP: 13 Small West European Countries. 1820–2001 ................... 231 Table 8–1 Table 8–2 Amendments to GDP Estimates in Maddison (2001) for 1820–1950 .......................................... 26 28 32 33 Table Table Table Table Table 2–1 2–2 2–3 2–4 2–5 Population Population Alternative Alternative Population 71 71 73 74 76 and GDP of Australia... 1830–1913 ...........................................................

.. 1500–1868 ................. 88 Per Capita GDP in Western Offshoots........... 1869–1918 ................ 1869–1918 (2 pages) ...... 96 Population of Former Eastern Europe and USSR...... 1956–2003 . 1900–1955 .. 97 Table 3b Table 3b GDP Levels in Former Eastern Europe and USSR.................... 1500–1868 ........... 4 West European Countries and Total WEC..... 4 West European Countries and Total WEC............................................ 1820–1949 ................................. 1869–1918 (2 pages) ............ in in in in in in in in 12 West European Countries... 1869–1918 (2 pages) ........................................... 85 GDP Levels in Western Offshoots...... 1900–1955 ....... 12 West European Countries.... 81 Population of Western Offshoots.......... 1869–1918 .............................................. 1970–2001 ................... 4 West European Countries and Total WEC.......... 1950–2003 ............ 4 West European Countries and Total WEC..... 1500–1899 ..................................... 1919–1969 ..................................... 1919–1969 (2 pages) .........................Table of Contents List of Basic Tables HS–1 Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table 1a 1a 1a 1a 1a 1a 1a 1a Population Population Population Population Population Population Population Population Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table 1b 1b 1b 1b 1b 1b 1b 1b GDP GDP GDP GDP GDP GDP GDP GDP Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table 1c 1c 1c 1c 1c 1c 1c 1c Per Per Per Per Per Per Per Per of of of of of of of of Levels Levels Levels Levels Levels Levels Levels Levels Capita Capita Capita Capita Capita Capita Capita Capita 12 West European Countries.... 4 West European Countries and Average WEC..... 84 GDP Levels in Western Offshoots......... 99 7 ..................................... 1500–1899 ....... 12 West European Countries......................... 1900–1955 ...... 4 West European Countries and Total WEC..................... 1820–1949 ...................................... 82 Population of Western Offshoots............... 4 West European Countries and Average WEC. 1956–2001 ................ 1970–2001 (2 pages) .......... 12 West European Countries.. 12 West European Countries.......................................................... 98 GDP Levels in Former Eastern Europe and USSR........ 4 West European Countries and Total WEC.............................. 4 West European Countries and Average WEC............ 1500–1868 (2 pages) ... 1956–2001 ...... 1919–1969 ........... 12 West European Countries............. 1970–2001 .................................. 89 HS–3A Table 3a Table 3a Population of Former Eastern Europe and USSR. 1500–1868 (2 pages) ....................................................................... 4 West European Countries and Total WEC...................... 12 West European Countries................... 1500–1899 ...................... 1869–1918 ........................ GDP GDP GDP GDP GDP GDP GDP GDP in in in in in in in in 12 West European Countries.......................... 4 West European Countries and Average WEC.................. 12 West European Countries........................ 1970–2003 (2 pages) .......................................................................................... 1500–1868 (2 pages) ............................ 34 36 38 40 42 43 44 45 46 48 50 52 54 55 56 57 58 60 62 64 66 67 68 69 HS–2 Table 2a Table 2a Table 2a Population of Western Offshoots............................. 87 Per Capita GDP in Western Offshoots..................................... 1919–1969 ..... 1970–2001 (2 pages) ... 86 Table 2c Table 2c Table 2c Per Capita GDP in Western Offshoots............. 4 West European Countries and Total WEC......... 1950–2002 .................................... 1919–1969 (2 pages) ................ 12 West European Countries....... 1919–1969 (2 pages) ............................ 1500–1868 ................................ 12 West European Countries......... 83 Table 2b Table 2b Table 2b GDP Levels in Western Offshoots.............................. 1970–2003 ...............

........... 126 47 Latin American Countries................................. 1950–2001 (2 pages) ........................ 1950–2003 (2 pages) .............................................................................................. 1990–2001 ............. 1820–1949 (2 pages) ...... 169 8 ... 1820–1913 ..................... 1950–2003 .... 1820–1913 (2 pages) .................................................... 108 GDP Levels in Successor Republics of USSR.. 1914–1949 ........ 1950–2001 ......................... 1950–2003 ............... 1820–1949 .... 139 47 Latin American Countries.................. 140 GDP GDP GDP GDP GDP GDP GDP in in in in in in in 8 Latin American Countries........... 1950–2003 .......................... 1820–1913 ............ 1820–1949 ......................... 1973–2002 (2 pages) ........ 124 15 Latin American Countries.................... 150 HS–5 Table Table Table Table Table Table 5a 5a 5a 5a 5a 5a Population Population Population Population Population Population of of of of of of 16 16 16 15 26 57 East Asian Countries......................... 1950–2001 ...................... 1973–2002 (2 pages) ... 1820–1913 .................................. 1820–1949 (2 pages) ......The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 3c Table 3c Per Capita GDP in Former Eastern Europe and USSR..................................... 135 15 Latin American Countries........................ 168 Asian Countries............... 1950–2003 (2 pages) ............ 149 47 Latin American Countries................ 105 HS–3C Table 3a Table 3b Table 3c Population of Successor Republics of USSR.... 100 Per Capita GDP in Former Eastern Europe and USSR............................................................. 110 HS–4 Table Table Table Table Table Table Table 4a 4a 4a 4a 4a 4a 4a Population Population Population Population Population Population Population Table Table Table Table Table Table Table 4b 4b 4b 4b 4b 4b 4b GDP GDP GDP GDP GDP GDP GDP Table Table Table Table Table Table Table 4c 4c 4c 4c 4c 4c 4c Per Per Per Per Per Per Per of of of of of of of Levels Levels Levels Levels Levels Levels Levels Capita Capita Capita Capita Capita Capita Capita 8 Latin American Countries....... 162 East Asian Countries.. 123 15 Latin American Countries.............. 133 8 Latin American Countries....... 144 15 Latin American Countries........................................... 1950–2003 (2 pages) .......... 147 47 Latin American Countries.... 1950–2002 .......... 166 East Asian Countries........ 101 HS–3B Table 3a Table 3b Table 3c Population of Successor Republics of Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia............................ 104 GDP Levels in Successor Republics of Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia........................ 1820–1949 (2 pages) .......... 129 in in in in in in in 8 Latin American Countries............. 1990–2001 ...... 1950–2001 (2 pages) ................................................. 134 15 Latin American Countries............ 132 8 Latin American Countries............................................ 143 8 Latin American Countries............... 1950–2001 .................................. 105 Per Capita GDP in Successor Republics of Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia............... 1950–2001 . 137 47 Latin American Countries...... 1820–1949 ........... 1914–1949 .................. 145 15 Latin American Countries.................................. 128 47 Latin American Countries. 164 West Asian Countries.. 1950–2003 (2 pages) .............................................................. 110 Per Capita GDP in Successor Republics of USSR........ 121 8 Latin American Countries......................................................... 1950–2003 ............................................. 1820–1949 .. 1914–1949 ............................. 1914–1949 (2 pages) .. 160 East Asian Countries................ 142 8 Latin American Countries......................................... 122 8 Latin American Countries. 1820–2001 ..............................................

.................. 1900 and 1950–2001 ....... 1950–2000 ... 1–2001 AD ....................... 1950–2001 (7 pages) ........ 1–2001 AD ................ 1900 and 1950–2001 ............................... by Region........................ 1900 and 1950–2001 . 1950–2001 (2 pages) ...................................Table of Contents Table Table Table Table Table Table 5b 5b 5b 5b 5b 5b GDP GDP GDP GDP GDP GDP Table Table Table Table Table 5c 5c 5c 5c 5c Per Per Per Per Per Levels Levels Levels Levels Levels Levels Capita Capita Capita Capita Capita in in in in in in 16 16 16 15 26 57 GDP GDP GDP GDP GDP in in in in in East Asian Countries.. 1950–2001 (7 pages) ..... 1950–2002 (2 pages) ........ 1820–2001 ............................................................. 1820–1913 (2 pages) ............................... 1–2001 AD ..... 184 West Asian Countries... 20 Countries and Regional Totals.................... 259 Rate of Growth of World GDP......................... 234 Year–to–Year Percentage Change in World Population....................... 178 Asian Countries........... 233 World Per Capita GDP by Region......doi.... 202 GDP Levels in 57 African Countries........ 1950–2001 ......... 174 West Asian Countries..............1787/456125276116 9 ...... 1–2001 AD .... 239 HS–8 Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table 8a 8a 8a 8b 8b 8b 8c 8b World Population........... 258 World GDP..... 262 Rate of Growth of World Per Capita GDP.. 1950–2001 ........... 236 Year–to–Year Percentage Change in World Per Capita GDP............. 237 Alternative UNPD World Population Estimates by Region.......... 232 World GDP by Region.... 20 Countries and Regional Totals.. GDP and per capita income for the world economy http://dx..... 257 Share of World Population.......... 170 East Asian Countries.......... 1914–1949 (2 pages) . 1950–2001 ................ 1950–2003 (7 pages) .......... 1950–2001 (2 pages) ................ 20 Countries and Regional Totals. 20 Countries and Regional Totals... 238 World Population: Confrontation of UNPD and USBC–Maddison Estimates ... 188 HS–6 Table 6a Table 6b Table 6c Population of 57 African Countries.......... 1820–1913 (2 pages) ........................ 1914–1949 (2 pages) ..................... 179 16 16 16 15 57 East Asian Countries........ 1–2001 AD . 260 Share of World GDP............ 1950–2002 (2 pages) ................ 186 Asian Countries.............. 176 East Asian Countries..... 261 World Per Capita GDP........................ by Region............ 263 Access to the Excel TM database providing detailed estimates of population........................................................................................................... 210 Per Capita GDP in 57 African Countries... 1–2001 AD ... 182 East Asian Countries.. 235 Year–to–Year Percentage Change in World GDP Volume............................................. 20 Countries and Regional Totals.............................. 1950–2001 ............... 180 East Asian Countries.. 20 Countries and Regional Totals............................ 218 HS–7 Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table 7a 7b 7c 7a 7b 7b 7a* 7a** World Population by Region............................. 1–2001 AD ............................................ 172 East Asian Countries.......................1820–2001 ........................ 256 Rate of Growth of World Population........... 1–2001 AD ........org/10.... by Region.................. 20 Countries and Regional Totals............. 20 Countries and Regional Totals........

Bryan Haig on Australia. Malaysian and Sri Lankan GDP. 10 . Nanno Mulder and Thomas Chalaux provided help in measurement of world population. Michèle Alkilic–Girard and Myriam Andrieux helped in locating bibliographic material. Henk Jan Brinkman and Ian Kinniburgh provided access to UN material on world population and GDP. Siva Sivasubramonian on India. David Roberts and Michael Ward answered many queries about PWT. John Coatsworth. Thomas David on Switzerland. Roger Brown. Steve Broadberry and Dirk Pilat were helpful in providing historical crosschecks on my measure of comparative GDP levels. and World Bank derivation of purchasing power parity converters. and to Ly Na Tang Dollon for help with the tables in HS–8. Ian Castles. Richard Hooley on the Philippines. David Good and Max–Stephan Schulze on the successor states of the Austro–Hungarian Empire. Since I did not always follow advice received. Michelangelo van Meerten on Belgium. Luis Bertola on Uruguay. Elizabeth Maddison helped advance my computer education. Cormac O Grada and Mary O’Mahony on Ireland. Patrick O’Brien on Egypt. Sheila Lionet put the manuscript into a form fit for publication. OECD.The World Economy: Historical Statistics Acknowledgements I am indebted to Derek Blades for his encouragement and detailed comments on the tables and all of the text. David Henderson and Eddy Szirmai gave me helpful comments on parts of it. Harry Wu and Xu Xianchun on China. Leandro Prados on Spain. Alan Bowman. Jean–Claude Toutain on France. I do not suggest that those who gave it would endorse my judgement. Andrew Kamarck and J.R. Bart van Ark. Stanley Engerman and Andre Hofman on Latin America. I am very grateful to Gerard Ypma for help in organising the basic statistical data in HS–1 to HS–7. Alan Heston. Katya Maddison on the Middle East. Debin Ma. Colm Foy. Pierre van der Eng permitted me to use his estimates of Indonesian. McNeill on Africa. Sevket Pamuk on Turkey and the successor states of the Ottoman Empire. Claes Brundenius on Cuba. I received useful comments and research material from Maks Banens and Jean–Pascal Bassino on Vietnam. Cathy Ward provided source material underlying IMF estimates of world GDP. Carol Kidwell and William McNeill gave me useful comments on chronology.

economists and a broader public and has been a best–seller. It provides fuller source notes and much more detailed estimates of population. In order to facilitate access to the extensive data on which this book is based. Louka T. patterns of inequality and their deep–rooted causes. Katseli Director OECD Development Centre August 2003 11 . For OECD countries. to accompany this volume. technological change and the operation of market forces in determining economic outcomes. It also provides an insightful account of the forces of convergence or divergence across economies and regions and is a valuable contribution to the complex debate about the benefits and costs of globalisation. A comparative quantitative approach to the world’s regions over a very long period is useful for policy formulation for several reasons. systematic comparison and assessment of the reliability of sources and his suggestions about how gaps in the data should be filled are exemplary. For developing countries.Table of Contents Preface This is the eighth study by Angus Maddison published by the Development Centre since 1965. His rigorous handling of the data. a CD–Rom has been prepared by the OECD Statistics Directorate. under Chief Statistician Enrico Giovannini. There is a closer scrutiny of the contours of African development over the past two millennia. It is a companion volume to The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective. and is intended as a research guide for future comparisons of economic performance in space and time. it is a reminder of the key role of long–term processes such as demographic change. GDP and per capita income. This earlier work had an excellent reception from historians. it augments the statistical information on which to base policy decisions in face of uncertainty. which appeared in 2001. This book updates and supplements his earlier panoramic survey of the dynamics of growth. and of Latin American experience since Columbus. It provides a critical review of the literature on macroeconomic measurement from its seventeenth century origins to the present.

The World Economy: Historical Statistics 12 .

Section HS–7 summarises the procedures and problems involved in deriving the world totals for 1950–2003. Sections HS–1 to HS–6 explain the sources and procedures used to derive the basic estimates for countries in the major regions. there are fewer revisions. there are conflicting views on relative levels of income in Europe and Asia around 1800. Research on quantitative economic history has made great strides in the past quarter century. There were about 4 200 annual entries for individual countries in the 2001 volume and 15 200 here. I disagree with this interpretation for reasons explained in HS–8. and for 8 benchmark years back to the first century. GDP and per capita GDP estimates for 1820–2001. As a result we have a clearer notion of the range of growth experience. convergence and divergence.Table of Contents Introduction This book is intended as a quantitative reference work and guide to current and past research in macroeconomic history. there were about 15 300 entries in the earlier volume and 22 600 here. but detail is given for more countries and there is closer scrutiny of the contours of development in Latin America and Africa. and underlying causal forces. it is possible to resolve some of these differences by extending quantitative research further into the past. that agriculture originated eight thousand years ago and that there was a Malthusian torpor for most of the intervening interval. For the period before 1820. Estimates of benchmark levels of output in 1990 international dollars are unchanged except for seven African countries. It is a companion volume to The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective. and earlier centuries were regarded as impenetrable to quantitative analysis. 13 . Much less has been done on earlier centuries. The possibilities for extended annual coverage of population. For Latin America. The statistical appendices provided annual estimates for 1950–1998. published by OECD in 2001. The analysis was underpinned by a comprehensive quantification of levels and movement in population. and the efforts of individual scholars have been reinforced by the creation of international networks as explained in HS–8. In my view. The prologue provides a brief survey of the development of historical national accounts and demography from the 17th century to the present. The major purpose of that study was to provide an analytic survey of developments in the world economy over two millennia. GDP and per capita GDP were greatest for Europe and Western Offshoots. Asia and Africa combined. Another is that economic growth was much slower before the nineteenth century and therefore seemed irrelevant or uninteresting. There were two reasons for indifference to or neglect of distant horizons. As a consequence. output. HS–8 does the same for the estimates from the first century to 1950. processes of catch–up. and to explore the reasons for the great divergence in the momentum of advance in different regions. and per capita income. Annual estimates for 1870–1950 appeared in my earlier book Monitoring the World Economy 1820–1992. The present work revises and updates the population estimates for 1950–2003. One is that quantitative evidence is scarcer the further back one goes in time. It is based on some of the material I presented in the Kuznets lectures at Yale University in 1998. Research has concentrated on the past two centuries of accelerated growth. There was a belief that the roots of modern growth lay in a sudden take–off (an industrial revolution) in the late eighteenth century. It shows annual figures back to 1820 wherever possible and provides fuller source notes and explanations of proxy procedures for filling data gaps.

The World Economy: Historical Statistics 14 .

They were intended to provide a quantitative framework for effective implementation of fiscal policy and mobilisation of resources in time of war (the second Anglo–Dutch war of 1664–7). and published posthumously. good ports and internal waterways reduced transport and infrastructure costs. other physical assets and human capital in an integrated set of accounts for England and Wales. An efficient legal system and sound banking favoured economic enterprise. income. Davenant (1656–1714) had literary talent as a clear expositor of economic issues (his father was poet laureate. He was research assistant to the philosopher Thomas Hobbes in Paris in the 1640s. Professor of Anatomy in Oxford and organiser of the cadastral survey of Ireland after the Cromwellian conquest in the 1650s. its foreign trade four times as big. Both these works were circulated in manuscript in Petty’s lifetime. cheapened government services and reduced the need for inventories. The Dutch were a model of economic efficiency with obvious lessons for English policy. The 17th Century Pioneers The pioneer was William Petty (1623–87). stock of land. a major figure in the scientific revolution of the seventeenth century. importing a large part of its food. inventor. The Dutch economy was highly specialised. entrepreneur and founder of a wealthy dynasty. As former commissioner of excise when tax collection was taken out of the hands of tax farmers. concentrating its labour force in high productivity sectors. those of France negligible. international income comparisons. when “the art of reasoning by figures on things relating to government” was called Political Arithmetick. The French population was ten times the Dutch. using key indicators to demonstrate Dutch superiority. whereas popular notions of French power were greatly exaggerated. 1688–97).Prologue Prologue: The Pioneers of Macromeasurement National accounts are an indispensable tool for assessing the growth potential and performance of contemporary economies. They are sometimes considered too “modern” to be applicable to the distant past. They are fundamental in international comparison of development levels. Political Arithmetick (1676) was a comparative study of the economic performance of the Netherlands and France. Essay upon Ways and Means of Supplying the War (war of the League of Augsburg. High density of urban settlement. frugality and hard work. its foreign assets large. Property rights were clear and transfers facilitated by maintenance of registers. but the Dutch merchant fleet was nine times as big. This encouraged savings. Taxes were high but levied on expenditure rather than income. They have become an important tool of analysis for quantitative economic historians. national accounting. cartographer. Verbum Sapienti (1665) presented his estimates of population. and historical demography originated in the seventeenth century. expenditure. in 1690 and 1691. economist. The second major contribution came from Gregory King (1648–1712). its interest rate half the French level. Their publication sparked renewed interest in political arithmetic. hiring mercenaries to fight its wars. he was able to present a first consolidated and transparent picture of the government’s actual and potential 15 . one of the founders of the Royal Society in the 1660s. In fact. in reaction to Charles Davenant’s (1694). and he was reputed by some to be the grandson of William Shakespeare).

The framework can be expanded to include measures of labour input and capital stock. circulated copies of his manuscript accounts for comment to Davenant. It is a treasure trove which deserves to be mined more thoroughly by quantitative historians. and was first explored by David Glass in 1965. transport and distributive margins. ceramics. rents and profits. It shows expenditure on furniture. King preferred to avoid this risk. 1973) provides an understanding of his meticulous procedures and the sophistication of his analysis. investors and government. King’s Notebook did not surface until 1917. and contains enough information to provide an approximation to the modern notion of gross domestic product (see Table 1 where I augment his aggregate which had narrower boundaries than is now standard). and a special survey he made for clothing and textiles. based on information derived from land and excise taxes for food. He established a close relationship with Davenant who quoted his work in detail and called him “that wonderful genius and master in the art of computing”. King’s work in this field was intense from 1695 to 1700. Publications on sensitive matters of public policy required an official license. net of duplication. industry and services. which can be crosschecked in three ways. It showed value added in farming (crops and livestock) and forestry. As a commissioner for the graduated poll tax on births. In constructing it. and type of economic activity. but it is clear from the Notebook that his aggregate was the fruit of detailed estimation. Harley was later Chancellor of the Exchequer and effectively Prime Minister under Queen Anne. with adjustment to deduct material inputs. savings or dependency on social transfers. it is the total of wages. King’s Observations was first published in complete form by George Chalmers in 1802 as an annex to his book on the Comparative Strength of Great Britain. In Observations this account is very summary. King was impressed by the possibilities of using fiscal information for macroeconomic analysis. and exposed the author to sanctions of official disapproval. a breakdown of material inputs and labour costs in construction and shipbuilding. However. This sparked the interest of Patrick Colquhoun (1745–1820) who exploited new sources of information (the first two censuses and the first income tax accounts) to replicate King’s income account. and provide a more comprehensive production account showing value added for 1812. making visitations to various parts of England to examine credentials of succession to aristocratic titles. Unlike Davenant who was a well connected member of parliament. From the production side. labour and total factor productivity. their number. tools and transport equipment which can be converted into production estimates. showing 26 types of household. pottery. King was a cautious public servant in course of moving from the antiquated world of heraldry to more lucrative employment as Commissioner of Public Accounts. glass. Robert Harley (1661–1724) and others.The World Economy: Historical Statistics revenues and expenditure. King drew on 30 years experience in the Herald’s office. and marriage which came into force in 1695. income and expenditure. b) his second account showed government spending and consumer expenditure by type of product. drink and tobacco. The modern standardised system of national accounts provides a coherent macroeconomic framework covering the whole economy. value added in the paper industry. c) his production account was incomplete. His Natural and Political Observations and Conclusions on the State and Condition of England (1696) presented his results in highly concentrated form. the status and social standing of people who accounted for about two–thirds of national income. 16 . King had four dimensions to his accounts which anticipated this modern system of interrelated balances: a) the best–known is his depiction of the 1688 social hierarchy. he had access to a great deal of new information on the structure of incomes. average size. it is the sum of value added in different sectors– agriculture. but did not publish them. The hearth tax was a further guide to the number of households and their average size. deaths. but his 300 page Notebook (published in facsimile form by Laslett. His Notebook provides detailed quantification of many other items–textiles. It is also the sum of final expenditures by consumers. From the income side.

Caps and Wigs Gloves. The estimates for France and the Netherlands were in most respects very rough. Religion and Defence Military Pay Ecclesiastical Remuneration Civil Government Pay Commodities 4 844 a 1 530 a 514 a 1 800 a 1 000 Gross Capital Formation Structures Transport Equipment Other Equipment 3 675 a 975 a 700 2 000 Gross Domestic Expenditure Gregory King’s Total Additional Items Indicates items I added from Notebook. Mutton and Pork Fish. Hair-dressing. public expenditure and revenue in England. Poultry and Eggs Dairy Products Fruits and Vegetables Salt. Cravats. Candles and Soap Beds and Bedding Sheets and Table Linen Brass and Pewterware Wood and Glassware a) b) Source: 13 900 4 300 3 300 1 700 2 300 1 200 1 100 7 350 5 800 1 300 a 250 10 393 2 390 1 300 100 85 904 1 400 500 335 568 410 200 1 011 1 190 9 200 a 2 200 2 000 1 500 1 500 1 000 1 000 Education and Health Schooling Paper. This resembled Petty’s account for 1665. Pipes and Snuff Clothing Male Outerwear Shirts. It also contained a forecast of English national income to 1698. Oil. 17 1 000 54 042 b 41 643 a 12 399 . Gross Domestic Expenditure in England and Wales in 1688 (£000 at market prices) Food Bread. Financial. France and Holland in 1688 and in 1695 in order to demonstrate differences in capacity to mobilise resources for war. Spices. King had a fifth account which compared levels of per capita consumption. Biscuits and Pastry Beef. and Sweetmeats Beverages and Tobacco Beer and Ale Wine and Brandy Tobacco. and he did not discuss the problem of measuring changes in the volume of output over time or adjusting for differences in the purchasing power of currency in making international comparisons.Prologue d) a fourth dimension was his consolidated wealth and income account for 1688. Inns and Taverns 3 100 a 1 600 500 Passenger Transport Passenger Transport by Road Passenger Transport by Water a 430 a 280 a 150 Government. though the techniques of capitalisation were different. Total of items shown in Observations. and Ruffles Male Underwear Male Accessories Female Outerwear Female Underwear Nightgowns and Aprons Female Accessories Hats. showing property and labour income. Mittens and Muffs Handkerchiefs Stockings and Socks Footwear Household Operation Rent and Imputed Rent Fire. Gregory King’s Notebook in Laslett (1973) and Observations in Barnett (1936). Table 1. Books and Ink Medical 1 150 250 500 a 400 Personal and Professional Services Domestic Servants Recreation Legal. the capitalised value of physical assets and of human capital.

Structure of British Gross Domestic Expenditure.7 10.2 3.The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 2.5 5.0 5.8 1.5 4. 1688 and 1996 (per cent of total) 1688 England and Wales Food Beverages and Tobacco Clothing and Footwear Light.3 3.7 13. Paris 1998.8 10.2 73.7 0.0 6.0 1.2 74.9 15.5 23.8 100. 1996 from OECD.7 9.1 1.9 84.5 9.4 6.2 4.9 0.6 19. Vol.9 10.0 100.4 9.0 Sub-total Rent and Imputed Rent Education Health Recreation and Entertainment Transport and Communication Other Sub-total Total Private Consumption (Total Items 1-12) Government Consumption (except education and health) Gross Capital Formation Total Gross Domestic Expenditure Level of Per Capita GDP (in 1990 international dollars) Source: 6. Furnishings and Household Equipment Personal Services 25.0 1 411 17 891 1688 from Table 1.7 5.4 0. 18 l996 United Kingdom . National Accounts 1984-1996.9 3.7 2.6 11. Fuel and Power Furniture.2.8 49.

He organised mini–censuses for Lichfield. France and Holland where life annuities and tontines (a lottery on life expectation invented by Lorenzo Tonti in 1652) were part of the public debt. By comparison of the average discrepancy between births and deaths. 400 emigrated to the Americas and 300–400 emigrated to London. the caution and modesty with which he explained his carefully structured inferences and techniques of analysis are the foundation of modern historical demography.8 persons. (1997) in their detailed reconstitution of English demographic history 1580–1837 using the sophisticated techniques and massive computing power of modern demography. Deducting these the average family size was 3. He had no direct information on age at death. Edmond Halley (1656–1742) improved on Graunt’s crude analysis of life expectation and articulated the fundamental mathematical principles of life insurance in (1693) “Degrees of Mortality of Mankind. He had much more information for areas outside London. His meticulous inspection of data. of which 300 remained in Romsey. he concluded that there was net immigration from small towns and rural areas of about 6 000 persons a year. He found an average household of 4. 19 . Graunt found that burials were bigger. Graunt concluded that the population of England and Wales was 14 times as big as that of London. nobody had thought of using the mortality bills to reconstruct the demography of London. but virtually identical with the estimate of Wrigley et al. cartographic analysis of the area of different parts of the country. the average size of parishes. The worst year was 1603. based on a calculation of the surface area of the globe. a close friend of Petty. i. broken down by 81 categories.Prologue Box 1. it was clear that the population was growing. which confirmed the Romsey/London differentials. As births were rising substantially over time. In the third edition. Graunt extended the analysis of country towns to Tiverton in Devon and Cranbrook in Kent. Harfield and Buckfastleigh as a crosscheck on household size. a town near Southampton. he analysed annual data for Romsey. Graunt distinguished the regular pattern of chronic ailments from epidemics. when it caused 82 per cent of deaths.5 million. He constructed a crude survival table which showed 36 per cent mortality for those aged 0–6. London’s share of the tax burden. Gregory King made a significant improvement on Graunt’s estimate of the population of England and Wales. King also made an estimate of world population in 1695. apprentices and unmarried farm labourers who lived in. he suggested that London had grown two and a half fold in the previous 56 years. but constructed a rough proxy by grouping illnesses which affected infants and children. in 1665. Political arithmeticians were also pioneers of demography The first serious demographer was John Graunt (1620–74). and he clearly belonged to the pantheon of seventeenth century science. with an Attempt to ascertain the Price of Annuities”. In confronting data on London burials and christenings. much closer to my 604 million for 1700 than Petty’s estimate of 320 million in his day or Riccioli’s (1672) estimate of 1 billion.4 million. the proportion of land in the total and the likely density of settlement on different types of land. Over 90 years there was a net increase of 1 059 persons.23 persons. His multiplier was derived from several indicators. but this included domestic servants. with only 3 per cent surviving beyond age 66. As a crosscheck. adjustments for coverage. and attracted wide interest in England. Using inferences about age structure and likely fertility in conjunction with his other material.e. His world total in the Notebook was 626 million. He had the hearth tax returns on the number of houses (1 million rural and 300 000 urban). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. Plague was endemic but recurred at irregular intervals. likely density of settlement. His estimate of family size was smaller than Graunt’s. King’s estimate of the population of England and Wales in 1695 was 5. and those associated with old age. From Davenant (1694) he had evidence from the chimney tax on house occupancy. For 20 years he had data on causes of death. significantly lower than Graunt’s 6. He had access to returns of a partial census for 1631 which provided a benchmark for his growth estimates. Prior to Graunt. This was the ancestor of life tables. and the growth of the housing stock corroborated this. Graunt’s Observations on the Bills of Mortality published in 1662 involved a meticulous assemblage and adjustment of a very large weekly and annual database on burials and christenings in London for 1603 onwards.

In 1695 Pierre de Boisguilbert (1646–1714). 2001. At the bottom level. The French writers were both convinced that the economy of their country was in a parlous state and the English were much more upbeat about England. As a result the bureaucracy was swollen by officials who were only partially employed. 20 . social position being a proxy for income assessment. successfully besieged many enemy cities. Burgundy. Most of them paid an annual fee (paulette) to guarantee inheritability of their office. who designed and supervised the construction of fortifications on the Northern and Eastern frontiers. was on salt. There were internal transit duties (traites) on merchandise crossing regional frontiers. others exempted specified properties (réelle). published anonymously La France ruinée sous la règne de Louis XIV. As a consequence. In 1694 it acquired a central bank and established effective foundations for a market in long– term government debt. Some of these were for individuals (personnelle). Vauban proposed to abolish all the existing taxes on property. and constructed ports and forts on the Atlantic coast. income and internal transit. but in fact provided no detail. pp. In all these respects. in the 36 000 parishes. tax liability was fixed collectively. or inherited them from relatives. Languedoc and Provence. between the pays d’élection and the pays d’état (Brittany. In France the first attempt a national budget was Necker’s Compte Rendu au Roi in 1781. the need to make its fiscal structure more effective and equitable and to be less dirigiste in economic policy. The major indirect tax (gabelle). Tax rates varied regionally. so it is not surprising that he developed aspirations as a social engineer at the end of his career. which included a detailed assessment of potential revenue under a new tax regime. In 1697 another version appeared. Marshal Vauban had experience in galvanising regional and local authorities and mobilising resources for construction projects in many parts of France over a period of decades. and high in Burgundy. It was reintroduced in 1701 as a regional supplement to the taille without the key feature of graduation by ability to pay (see Collins. In 1707 Vauban published La dîme royale. a detailed proposal to transform the tax structure. transparent and equitable fiscal system. a military engineer. and the Banque de France was not created until 1800. This was adopted in 1695 and terminated in 1697 when the war ended. 133–4 and 165–7). where tax rates were largely determined by the regional authorities). Boisguilbert was impressed by the hunger crises and population decline which hit France in the early 1690s.The World Economy: Historical Statistics Between 1695 and 1707. The main direct tax. virtually zero in producing regions like Brittany. A large proportion of public officials obtained their posts by purchase. lieutenant–general (chief judge and president of the appeals court) in Rouen (capital of the province of Normandy). where wine taxes were low. He asserted that the national income had fallen by a third since 1660. He proposed to simplify the rate structure of the salt tax to reduce smuggling. the rate of tax varied between regions. inhibiting the development of a national market. Boisguilbert’s books attracted little notice but stimulated the interest of Sebastien le Prestre de Vauban (1633–1707). and replace them with a single tax on income without exemptions or regional variation. In fact their salaries (gages) were equivalent to interest on the money they paid for their post. there was large–scale smuggling and expenditure on revenue police. England had a more efficient. Collection of direct and indirect taxes was done mainly by tax farmers and traitants. still anonymous but with a less provocative title Le détail de la France. the taille. involved large exemptions for the nobility and office holders. The French revenue system Boiguilbert and Vauban wanted to transform was highly inefficient and inequitable. a very pessimistic assessment of the economic condition of France. There is a striking difference in tone between the work of Boisguilbert and Vauban and the English school of political arithmetic. He was encouraged in this endeavour by the success of a proposal he made to the king in January 1695 for a temporary wartime capitation tax. Its incidence was graduated by descending order in the social hierarchy for 22 classes of taxpayer from the Dauphin down. there was interest in national income estimation in France. who made advance payments to the authorities and kept what they could collect. He suggested new indirect taxes on luxuries and on liquor consumed in bars (cabarets). It was similar to the English poll tax of 1695–1705.

Vauban estimated agricultural output on the basis of a sample study of Normandy. legal income 10 million. For population Vauban used estimates from 28 provincial officials for years between 1694–1700. However. if we deduct inputs into agriculture. If we multiply his 5 per cent tax yield by 20. mixed income from commerce. 2 million non–agricultural labourers and artisans were assumed to earn 162 million–he derived this from their average daily wage. population and area. However. 449). banking. For this he had help from an anonymous friend (possibly Boisguilbert). gross agricultural output for France would have been 1 200 million livres. and assumed a working year of 185 days (deducting 52 Sundays. fishing. 1997. He estimated the physical crop yield for wheat and its value per square league (20 square km. 38 days for public holidays.5 million servants with emoluments of 30 million. and he was dealing with a country where fiscal and other evidence for a coherent national analysis was much more exiguous than in England. shipping. Rent and imputed rent (net of repair and maintenance) from 320 000 urban houses he estimated to be 32 million. it seems likely that he was overstating national income from agriculture substantially. his first estimate implied 1667 million livres. King’s estimate of the area of France (51 million hectares) was much more exact. Vauban’s estimate of non–rural income was 352 million livres. In fact. After a further conservative reduction of about 10 per cent. adjust for his overstatement of the area of France and the fact that Normandy was more densely populated than the country as a whole. and grain milling 58 million. p. sex and occupation which should be garnered annually by local worthies. he used a rough average of five different cartographic sources for 38 regions of France. King’s estimate for France (14 million) was much too low. livestock. he concluded that the tax yield at the national level would be 60 million livres.5 million and their families. 21 . with a third of cropland in fallow. vineyards and forestry. Vauban’s estimates of national income were rough and hybrid. His total was 19. he gave no indication of the number of people involved in rural and non–rural activity.Prologue In order to assess potential revenue from his new system he made estimates of national income. He assumed there were 1. His measure for agriculture referred to gross output. He proposed the introduction of a Chinese–style household registration system to remedy this defect. Except for the last three groups. Nevertheless. The present area is 55 million and at that time (before Lorraine and Savoie were incorporated) was about 50 million (see Le Roy Ladurie. which tallies fairly well with modern estimates for the area he covered (see Bardet and Dupaquier. as he started his analysis by asserting that it was bigger than rural income. pensions and emoluments of government officials 40 million. seed and upkeep of buildings and equipment. and 25 for illness). and did not cover non–agricultural activity in rural areas. This was an exaggeration. The sophistication of the analysis was greatly inferior to that of Gregory King. His estimated total was the equivalent of 60 million hectares. He assumed that 80 per cent of the land yielded income from crops. 1992. His estimate of the number of non–rural houses (320 000) is manifestly too low for a non–rural labour force of more than 3. For area.). assuming a 5 per cent levy (vingtième) on gross output. Vauban must have realised that his assessment of non– rural income was inadequate. vineyards and forestry. 280). From this he estimated a tax yield about 24 per cent higher than the ecclesiastical tithe for Normandy. 50 for intemperate weather. with no deduction for feed. he took the latter as representative and blew up it up by the ratio of the land area of France to that of Normandy. and appended a form showing the type of detail by age. He specified 10 types of non–agricultural income from property and labour. Interest on government debt 20 million. he could have crosschecked his estimates more closely for consistency. 20 days attending fairs and markets. He did not distinguish between different categories of agricultural income. p.1 million. He assumed this value yield per league was also valid for pastoral activities.

He published four major books between 1880 and 1896. drawing on census. Young found that land productivity in Normandy was much higher than in the rest of France. Index number techniques were developed which would have made it possible to measure temporal change and inter–spatial variance of complex aggregates. There were significant differences in their coverage and methodology. and Arthur Young’s (1794. the statistical basis for macroeconomic measurement improved a good deal in Europe. Population censuses provided a much better basis for demographic analysis. He gave detailed sources and a mass of carefully structured statistical material in comparative form for 22 countries representing about 60 per cent of world product in 1894–5. There was an increasing array of information on commodity output in agriculture. He was also insouciant about the protests of the elite who would lose their tax–exempt status. and there were significant differences in their coverage and methodology. chapter 15) detailed estimates of French agricultural output for 1787–9. and commercial information to demonstrate developments in the world economy. In chapter VIII he identified all the groups who might oppose his proposition and suggested that with 200 000 armed men at his disposal the king could easily quell any opposition. fiscal and monetary matters. trade. Feinstein and Odling–Smee (1982) and Crafts (1985). Between 1800 and the first world war. there was little improvement in their quality or comparability.The World Economy: Historical Statistics Vauban insisted that the costs of collection would be greatly reduced with his system and that the transition from the existing order would be painless. there were about thirty attempts to measure national income in Britain. Nevertheless. which strengthens the impression that Vauban overstated agricultural output. educated in Rome. Some of these were an improvement on Vauban. He felt that there could be a smooth tansition to collection of agricultural levies in kind to be stored in government warehouses. Matthews. Mulhall was Irish. He referred to other national income estimates where available. as there was only a limited and belated effort to develop appropriate price deflators (see Colin Clark. He also provided standard guidelines for his measures of national wealth. They provided little help for serious analysis of economic growth. The retrospective estimates of this new generation of quantitative historians are generally based on the modern international standardised system of national accounts. transport. His methods 22 . He felt that one could dispense with the sevices of tax farmers and traitants whom he classified as bloodsuckers (Sang-suës d’État). employment. Thanks to detailed scrutiny by Phyllis Deane (1955–7) they provided a starting point and inspiration for pioneering studies of British economic growth by Deane and Cole (1964). In February 1707. Politically his proposition was both naïve and provocative. and spent his early working life as a journalist in Argentina. notably Lavoisier’s De la richesse territoriale du royaume de France (1791). the book was officially condemned and the remaining copies were destroyed. but used his own standard rules of thumb to assess value added for all countries. wages and prices. Feinstein (1972). Although there was a proliferation of national income estimates. His Industry and Wealth of Nations (1896) was devoted entirely to providing consistent comparisons of national output and wealth. Most concentrated on the income dimension without crosschecks from the expenditure or production side. 1937). a month before Vauban’s death. Statistical offices collected data on trade. mining and manufacturing. Studenski (1958) cites nine attempts to measure French national income later in the 18th century. Michael Mulhall (1836–1900) made a serious contribution to international comparison of levels of performance. North America and the Antipodes. these estimates are still very useful to quantitative economic historians. He did not explain how the government would dispose of these commodities. Most were spot estimates for a given point of time and it was difficult to link them to measure economic growth. The 18th Century Onwards From the beginning of the eighteenth century to the 1940s.

All of Clark’s 1940 estimates have now been superseded. the government statistician for New South Wales who made the first official estimates of national income for the Seven Colonies of Australasia which were published regularly from 1886–1905. He constructed a crude PPP measure to make the individual country estimates additive in terms of his “international unit” (US dollars with average purchasing power of 1925–34). In 1940. Mulhall’s 1896 Guidelines for Estimating Value Added by Sector of Economic Activity Economic Sector Value Added Agriculture Manufacturing Minerals. seeking maximalist coverage. 23 . however. Table 3.5 per cent of aggregate domestic sales 6 per cent of the value of the housing stock two-thirds of house rent 50 per cent of tax revenue 10 per cent of the sum of 8 items above Colin Clark (1905–89) took a major step towards world accounts in his Conditions of Economic Progress in 1940. He never hesitated to adjust these estimates to conform to his own ideas about the appropriate coverage of the accounts or methods of treatment of particular items. who made his own multicountry estimates on a standardised basis. 146–148).Prologue were simple and described transparently. Systematic comparative confrontation is a particularly good way of testing the plausibility and consistency of estimates and may well induce careful scrutiny of “outlier countries”. His coverage of Europe and Western offshoots was pretty comprehensive. To measure economic growth. because he made an exhaustive survey of the work of virtually all the economists and statisticians who had published in his field in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and had extensive correspondance with the statisticians of his day who were engaged in such work. estimated gross output in each sector. He provided current price estimates of the level in income in eight countries at dates ranging from 1812 to 1895. deducted inputs as specified below. but in many cases these were weak because he was willing to make crude links between different and not always comparable “spot” estimates. but for the rest of the world was confined to Argentina and South Africa. Mulhall had a powerful influence on Timothy Coghlan. and the comparability of the different estimates was therefore restricted. and to avoid double counting. forestry and fisheries Commerce Transport House-rent Domestic servants Public service Professional services 60 per cent of gross product 50 per cent of gross product 100 per cent of gross product 10 per cent of aggregate domestic sales 10. there was no agreement on the coverage and methodology of national accounts. and to make use of some dubious deflators. To determine total value added. but his work is still of substantial historical interest. His cross–country comparison for 1894 was at current prices (in £ sterling) using exchange rates. he divided each national economy into 9 sectors. He also used the estimates analytically. He adjusted them to mitigate national idiosyncrasies of measurement and made rough proxies for another 20 countries (based on indicators of real wages) to make a rough estimate of world income for 1925–34 (p. Clark was in large degree a compiler of other people’s estimates. 40–1). 56). he made time series comparisons in real terms for 15 countries for disparate years between 1850 and the 1930s (pp. He assembled income estimates for 30 countries (pp. Unlike Mulhall.

at a time when the economy was in deep depression. the outbreak of war in 1939 led to a replication of the Davenant–King partnership of the 1690s. Input–Output and National Accounts (1961) and Demographic Accounting and Model Building (1971). 1946). published by OEEC in 1954. and purchasing power parity measures which permit comparison of levels of performance. Stone and Milton Gilbert (chief of US national income accounts until 1951 and Director of the OEEC Economics and Statistics Department until 1960) were very active in the 1950s in seeing that the 1952 standardised system was implemented in OEEC countries. In the United Kingdom. comparable accounts were felt to be a political necessity to facilitate assessment of needs for Marshall Aid and burden–sharing in NATO. 24 . The structure of his argument was butressed by national accounts developed by Colin Clark (they were already closely associated in 1931–7. He also produced guidelines for OEEC and OECD on Quantity and Price Indexes (1956). The standardised system was designed in large part by Richard Stone (1913–1991). In 1944 there were consultations between British. there are now official estimates of GDP growth for years since 1950 for 179 countries. The accounts were an important tool in Whitehall strategy for winning the war. Canadian and US statisticians with a view to standardisation of their concepts and procedures (see Denison. except in communist countries whose accounts excluded many service activities. Kravis greatly expanded the scope of the PPP measures by starting the International Comparison Project (ICP) in 1968. They have become a major instrument of economic policy in virtually all countries. His magnum opus was his posthumously published (1997) Some British Empiricists in the Social Sciences. the OEEC system was merged with that of the UN which was applied by official statisticians in most countries in the postwar years.The World Economy: Historical Statistics The Modern Era The first official estimates for the United States were made by Simon Kuznets (1901–85) in 1934. together with his colleagues Robert Summers and Alan Heston inaugurated the Penn World Tables (PWT) to fill gaps in ICP coverage. In the postwar years. and in 1978. In February 1940. 1947). 1650-1900. Shortly after. when Keynes was analysing the causes and cure for unemployment). who together with James Meade made the first official estimates of national income for the United Kingdom in 1941. The integrated statistical perspective led to much more effective resource mobilisatiton than in Germany (see Kaldor. Thanks to these pioneering efforts. The accounts were felt to be an important tool for improving public policy. Keynes persuaded the chancellor to include a first official set of accounts in his 1941 budget. and involved some duplication. Milton Gilbert (1909–79) and Irving Kravis (1916–92) pioneered the first official measures of the purchasing power parity of currencies. Maynard Keynes published How to Pay for the War: A Radical Plan for the Chancellor of the Exchequer.

vol. In an earlier estimate. p. Nemeth. 3.171–4 and 189–90 explain the derivation of the benchmark 1990 GDP levels. 38 and 42. US Bureau of the Census. pp. the estimates are adjusted to eliminate the impact of frontier change. His 1979 article was part of a large–scale exercise in quantitative economic history to celebrate the 150th anniversary of the Statistical Office. Galicia. from A. vol. 701). Beitrage zur österreichischen Statistik. 1850. Kausel’s estimates are corrected for territorial change. 1979. David Good and Tongshu Ma (1999). Austria: GDP by industry of origin in 1913 prices for 1830. 1. Poland and Yugoslavia). National Accounts of OECD Countries. 1500–2001 Population 1500-1700 and GDP growth rates 1500-1820 (except for France) from Appendix B of Maddison (2001). European Review of Economic History. 2/2002. pp. POPULATION: Sources for the annual estimates. the country source notes are abbreviated versions of those in Maddison (1995). using five proxies and a different estimating procedure. Portugal.Western Europe. Butschek. 1950 onwards from Appendix C of Maddison (2001). the Trieste region. 1820–30 per capita movement assumed to be the same as that for 1830–40 (see Kausel. but there are revised estimates for France. Seidel. by H. 1913–50 gross national product in 1937 prices by expenditure and industry of origin. October 2002. N. 1870–1989“. and OECD. Bukowina. Kausel. the Netherlands. Kausel (1979) also presented 1830–1913 estimates for Cisleithenia (the Austrian half of the Austro–Hungarian Empire). They suggest a “more plausible“ alternative with “firmer foundations“. from A. 14th Sonderheft. as described below. 65. p. Kausel. 25 . and Dalmatia (subsequently parts of Czechoslavakia. Good (1994) appeared satisfied to have found growth “almost identical to that of Kausel“. 105 and 107 reject the Kausel (1979) estimates as “back–of–the envelope“ calculations. 1820–1950. Switzerland and Spain. 1950 onwards from International Programs Center. Kausel was head of the national accounts division and subsequently Vice President of the Austrian Central Statistical Office. their other proxies are useful as they cover countries and periods for which direct estimates are not available (see HS–2 below). Moravia. Die Österreichische Wirtschaft 1938 bis 1945. Maddison (2001). Except for Germany and the United Kingdom. 1820–1992. 1820 onwards as described below. I also comment on new estimates for Austria and Greece which I have not adopted. and H. The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective. 1500–2001 HS–1: W ESTERN E UROPE . Quarterly National Accounts Statistics. it is derived from regression and three proxy measures: letters posted per capita. Other Cisleithenia included Bohemia. and refer to population and product within the present boundaries of Austria. 1950 onwards from OECD sources. Their estimate refers to 1870–1910 and shows slower growth than Kausel. including a comprehensive demographic analysis of the different components of the Austro–Hungarian Empire(“Die Bevölkerung Österrreich–Ungarns“. The Good and Ma characterisation of Kausel’s direct estimate is inaccurate and there is no justification for dropping it in favour of their proxy for Austria. The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective. Vienna. “Österreichs Volkseinkommen 1830 bis 1913“ in Geschichte und Ergebnisse der zentralen amtlichen Statistik in Österreich 1829–1979. 692–3. Monitoring the World Economy. pp. pp. Fischer. Vienna. 1913–63“. Part 2. Monatsberichte des Österreichischen Institutes für Wirtschaftsforschung. The anniversary volume contained many other papers. “Österreichs Volkseinkommen. Helczmanovszki). In fact. However. In most cases. 126–139. p. 1937–45 from F. “The Economic Growth of Central and Eastern Europe in Comparative Perspective. 1979. are described in the country notes below. 1989–2000. GDP: Annual estimates. 1860 and annual estimates 1870–1913. crude birth rate. and share of non–agricultural employment in the labour force. Heft 550. August 1965. 1840. updated as follows: GDP volume movement 1995–2001 from OECD. Stuttgart. 1820–1950.

Service output 1820–46 assumed to move with population. but used Good and Ma results. Population 1820–1950 from Annuaire statistique de la Belgique et du Congo Belge. He made no estimate for present–day Austria. Carbonnelle gives GDP figures for only a few benchmark years but gives a commodity production series for many more years. 1955. Brussels. 1–2. IV. GDP movement 1914–19 and 1939– 47 are interpolations between the 1913 and 1920 estimates and those for 1938 and 1948 respectively. Population and GDP in Modern and Habsburg Austria. Table 1-1. “Patterns of Growth and Stagnation in the Late Nineteenth Century Habsburg Economy“. Service output is from the same source and was assumed to move with service employment (derived for census years from P. the bottom panel shows those of Schulze. 311–40 provides well–documented annual GDP and per capita GDP estimates for 1870–1913 for Cisleithenia and Transleithenia (the Hungarian half of the Habsburg Empire). 1870 and 1913 derived from Kausel. Leuven 1989. Kausel’s 1913 per capita GDP was more than 60 per cent higher than he found for Cisleithenia. pp. 1846–1913 GDP derived from movements in agricultural and industrial output from J. 1831– 46 industrial output estimates supplied by Jean Gadisseur (1820–31 assumed to increase at same pace as in 1831–42). 1968. no.81 per cent to population and was assumed to have added the same proportion to output. December 2000. Cahiers Économiques de Bruxelles. Revue belge d’histoire contemporaine. 3.a. 1973. n. Carbonnelle. The Schulze differential is 29 per cent. De Economische Ontwikkeling van de Belgische Landbouw in Regional Perspectief. April 1959. Bairoch. 87– 8). Interpolations were made for the service sector to arrive at a figure for GDP for all the years for which Carbonnelle shows total commodity production. “Contribution à l’étude de la production agricole en Belgique de 1846 à 1913“. 1913 weights and 1913–50 GDP from C. La Population active et sa structure. Gadisseur. 1812–1846. 358. European Review of Economic History. “Recherches sur l’évolution de la production en Belgique de 1900 à 1957“. whereas Kausel showed the opposite. which added 0. 26 . pp. 1 421 2 222 Belgium: 1820–46 movement in agricultural output from Martine Goossens. Table 1–1 shows my estimates for 1830. Figures adjusted to exclude the impact of the cession by Germany of Eupen and Malmedy in 1925.a. assuming the same pattern of movement as in France.The World Economy: Historical Statistics Max–Stephan Schulze. p. He shows slower growth for present–day Austria than for Cisleithenia. vol. 1830-1913 1830 1870 1913 1830 1870 1913 Modern Austria Other Cisleithenia Total Cisleithenia 3 538 4 520 6 767 Population (000s) 12 292 16 028 22 572 15 830 20 248 29 339 GDP (million 1990 international Geary-Khamis $) 4 937 11 150 8 429 16 574 23 451 39 187 16 087 25 003 62 638 1830 1870 1913 GDP per capita (1990 international Geary-Khamis $) 1 395 907 1 865 1 034 3 465 1 736 1 016 1 235 2 135 1870 1913 1 856 2 871 Schulze GDP per capita estimates n.

Helsinki. Population.Western Europe. pp. showing faster growth for services. CBS. The 1940 and 1944 treaties which ceded territory to the USSR had no impact on population as all inhabitants were moved to Finland. Nice and surrounding parts of the Alpes Maritimes). For the second half of the seventeenth century I assume stagnant per capita income because of hunger crises and the depressing impact of more or less continuous warfare as noted by Boisguilbert and Vauban. (Mortality by Age-group in Finland. 1947–60 GDP at 1955 factor cost from Søren Larsen. II. for the per capita income difference see F. Kaukiainen. 232–5. 1992. 229–32. “Die Anfänge der volkswirtschaftlichen Gesamtrechnung in Deutschland“. p. E. 11. Danzig. North Schleswig and Eastern Upper Silesia. Presses Universitaires de Grenoble. and present frontiers from 1946 onwards. as 1913 per capita income in the truncated area was 2. Le produit intérieur de la France de 1789 à 1982. “Förändringar i levnadsstandarden i Finland. “Reviderede tidsserier for produktionsvaerdi og bruttofaktorindkomst for perioden 1947–65“. Bank of Finland. Eupen and Malmedy. p. Bourguignon (1984) L’économie Francaise au XIXe siècle. Blayo. 1973. Copenhagen. 1974. ed. but not for industry where he showed much faster growth than other scholars (see Toutain. Maddison. Memel. 198–200.A. Turpeinen.127–130. Toutain has revised his 1820–70 estimates significantly (see J. Histoire et Sociétés. 97–9. vol.5 per cent to GDP. and 4. l989. Haute Savoie. i. Karlson. Saarland.5 per cent. Estimates are adjusted to eliminate the impact of the acquisition of North Schleswig in 1921. Helsinki. This increased its population and GDP by 4 per cent. pp. pp. Germany: The present estimates refer to GDP and population within 1870 frontiers until 1918. as indicated in S. Toutain’s volume movement for agriculture and services. 1751–1970. Levy–Leboyer and F. Reykjavik. 5–136 Presses Universitaires de Grenoble). “La population de la France de 1740 à 1860“.3 per cent bigger in terms of population. Population 1820–1950 from O. I used J–C.–C. Maddison 1995 provided estimates for 1820–1992 adjusted to exclude the impact of territorial change for the area of the Federal republic within its 1989 boundaries. pp. Markkanen and I. Population 1820–1860 from L. pp. 1789– 1990“. 1820–1950 population from Hansen (1974). ISMEA. the total income loss due to these changes was 9. France: GDP estimates for 1820–70 in Maddison (1995) have been revised. Population and GDP estimates refer to the present territory of France.3 per cent to population.. 66–72. Beitrage zur empirischen Konjunkturforschung. l987.4 per cent higher than in the former Reich. 74. histoire économique et quantitative. Hansen. Heikkinen. 76). November 1975. which added 5. 1751-1970). 1500–2001 Denmark: 1820–1947 GDP at 1929 factor cost by industry of origin from S. Instead I used the industrial index of M. As frontier changes have been very complicated it is difficult to make adjusted estimates at this stage for the whole period for reunified Germany. The Finnish Economy 1860–1985: Growth and Structural Change. Hjerppe. b) between 1918 and 1922 Germany lost Alsace–Lorraine. 1997. Copenhagen. 1987). 1936 frontiers for 1919–45. However. a) In 1871 Germany took Alsace–Lorraine from France. no. Grünig. pp. 27 . excluding the impact of the loss of Alsace–Lorraine 1871–1918 and acquisition of territory in 1861 (Savoie. using Toutain’s sector weights for 1870. These territories had a population of 7 330 000 in 1918 out of a total of 66 811 000 within the 1918 Reich frontiers. Growth rates of per capita GDP for 1500-1600 and 1700-1820 are unchanged.e. “Le produit intérieur brut de la France. Sources for 1870 onwards are unchanged–see Maddison (1995). Institute of Economic History. pp. Nummela.7 per cent (for the population changes see A. together with the Levy–Leboyer/Bouguignon estimate for industry. which represented 600 000 of the 37 390 000 population of 1861. Hjerppe. Henry and Y. Toutain. but modified for 1600-1700. Ikaryhmittainen kuolleisuus Suomessa vv. R. 1950. Finland: 1860–1960 GDP by industry of origin at market prices from R. I now use his new estimates for agriculture and services. Levestandarden i Norden 1750–1914. 1750– 1913“ in G. 1861–1950 from Annuaire statistique de la France. Økonomisk vaekst i Danmark. the old Reich was 12. Y. 1966. Berlin. Dynamic Forces in Capitalist Development. 1820–60 per capita GDP assumed to increase by 22. 1. 1991.

178.4 per cent to the GDP generated with the 1937 frontiers. Germany regained the Saarland which added 1. Denison. VII. The Effects of Strategic Bombing on the German War Economy. 1945 onwards. 1870-1991 West Germany (1990 frontiers) East Germany (1990 frontiers) Germany within 1991 boundaries Germany within 1936 boundaries Germany within 1913 frontiers (ex. 131-2 and Maddison (2001). Tilly. Galbraith (ed.F. Output in services was assumed to move with population. Dessirier. Sources for GDP 1820–2001 were as follows: 1820.). Table 1-2 shows the impact of frontier changes 1870-1991.. 454–5. A detailed account of German border changes and their impact on GDP can be found in Maddison (1977). 130–33. Grumbach and Hesse.I. d) in 1938. “Indices comparés de la production industrielle et production agricole en divers pays de 1870 à 1928“. 178 provides a summary presentation of the impact of frontier change on population and GDP. for this sector. cit. p. and 441. Berlin. GDP aggregate estimated with 1850 weights for the three sectors from W.W. the DDR (East Germany) and the territory East of the Oder–Neisse which went to Poland. 1946 (linked to 1936) from Wirtschaftsproblemen der Besatzungszonen. The Impact of Frontier Changes on German GDP. F. As Hoffmann et al. no.). and to the USSR (Koenigsberg became Kaliningrad). omit 1914–24. in P. Haraldson and E. 1945. 395. 1965. Bulletin de la statistique générale de la France.C. Later it took Alsace–Lorraine and parts of Poland and Yugoslavia. p. East German territory became part of the Federal Republic. 135.H. Hoffmann. Duncker and Humblot. Das Wachstum der deutschen Wirtschaft seit der Mitte des 19. Cambridge Economic History of Europe. 1850–1938 annual GDP volume movement and link to 1950 derived from Hoffmann. “Capital Formation in Germany in the Nineteenth Century“. f) in 1991. 121. p. pp. I. Jahrhunderts. p. Mathias and M. In 1941 these areas added 22. “Phases of Capitalist Development“. Table 1-2. Germany incorporated Austria and took the Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia. Hesse. Special Paper 1 (mimeographed) in J.G. the derivation of GDP for West Germany (Federal Republic) and East Germany (DDR) is explained in Maddison (1995). pp. vol. pp. “The Gross National Product of Germany 1936–1944“. 420. Dynamic Forces in Capitalist Development.226–237. Banca Nazionale del Lavoro Quarterly Review. 134 and Maddison (1995). Maddison (2001).K.The World Economy: Historical Statistics c) in 1935.M. pp. pp. the pattern of movement in these years in industry and agriculture was derived from the output estimates of J. Springer.79 per cent to population and income. 1948. October–December 1928. D. Grumbach and H. 454. op. e) after the second world war. 1830 and 1850 derived from Tilly’s estimates for Prussia–see R. Alsace–Lorraine) GDP in million 1990 international dollars 1820 1870 1913 1936 1950 1973 1990 1991 16 390 44 094 145 045 192 910 213 942 814 786 1 182 261 1 242 096 74 652 51 412 129 969 82 177 85 961 267 562 265 354 944 755 1 264 438 1 328 057 28 225 008 299 753 26 819 72 149 237 332 . p. Postan (eds. US Strategic Bombing Survey. 1978. Service output was interpolated between the 1913 and 1925 estimates of Hoffmann et al. Études spéciales. Germany within its 1936 frontiers was effectively split between the Federal Republic. Prussian per capita output in agriculture and industry were multiplied by population in Germany as a whole. Berlin. 1938–44 GNP in 1939 prices (from the expenditure side) for the 1938 territory (including Austria and Sudetenland) from W. For the impact of territorial change on population see Maddison (1991).

Ireland: For Ireland before 1920. 1500–2001 Greece: 1913–29 real product in international units from C. This seeems highly improbable. 29 . Kostelenos refers to Greece within the boundaries of the years he covers. New York.Western Europe. and are carried back to 1833. various issues. There were four major breaks: population jumped by 21 per cent in 1864.eco.nl/ggdc. 1886 and 1914 respectively.H. Growth and Stagnation in the European Economy. by 18 per cent in 1881. there are three problems with his direct measure: a) his GDP deflator is very crude. Thessaly in 1881. It is not clear whether it is possible to accommodate these problems successfully. 1929–38 GNP at factor cost from Ekonomikos Tachydromos. Macedonia. 1950 onwards from OECD. Paris 1960. The acceptibility of the GDP measure would be enhanced by construction of sectoral volume indices. National Accounts. I am not clear whether this is feasible. but it is certainly desirable. and his new results (in cooperation with Petmezas and others). Figures are adjusted to offset territorial change. See Kostelenos (2001). 1820–1913 per capita GDP assumed to move with the aggregate for Eastern Europe. and the weights are gross output of the same items (in 1860. 1952 pp. Greece gained independence from Turkey in the 1820s. available on the Groningen website: www. Macmillan. p. 236–7. 1975. Athens. Crete (de facto) in 1898. His estimates suggest that these problems were difficult to resolve. Europe and the World Economy. p. The third problem is that Kostelenos shows a very stagnant economy in the nineteenth century. Population. but constructs an aggregate deflator to derive a GDP estimate at 1914 prices (pp. Productivity and Industrial Growth: The Irish Experience. with prices of only 11 items (6 for the whole period). Epirus. from B. 1900–40 from I. 1954. see note below for the United Kingdom. 21. 1920 per capita GDP level taken to be 54 per cent of that in the UK (excluding Southern Ireland) as estimated by C. 1926–50 from K. He measures growth of the money supply for the same period and uses the apparent velocity of circulation as a crosscheck on his GDP estimates (leading him to modify the results for 1858–9). Demographic Yearbook 1960.R. but he does not discuss the problems this created in finding appropriate data on output. “Economic Growth and Inequality in Greece in the 19th and 20th Century: A Tentative Approach“. Geneva. and 15 per cent in 1920. and 1914). Rhodes and the rest of the Dodecanese in 1947. from UN. Although Kostelenos throws more light on the available evidence than was previously available. 1820–1900 population derived.116. and gradually extended its area to include the Ionian Islands in 1864. Kostelenos has revised his estimates. 457–9). For 1910–12 he shows a rise in per capita income of 63 per cent. Thrace and the Aegean Islands in 1913. Expenditure and Output of the United Kingdom 1855–1965. 77 per cent in 1913. Centre of Planning and Economic Research. a drop of a quarter in 1913. The main reason for faster growth is the use of a new deflator — a “rolling index“ with a moving base. Conditions of Economic Progress. London. Clark. 148–9. Demographic Yearbook 1951. Money and Output in Modern Greece.rug. Kennedy. show much faster and smoother growth. New York. Cambridge University Press. He does not estimate the volume of sector output. All are agricultural or mining products. secondary and tertiary activity for 1858–1938. Mitchell European Historical Statistics 1750–1970. and a rise of a quarter in 1914. b) the second problem is territorial change. adjusting for differences in level between old and new territories. 3. If his estimates were linked to mine at 1938. pp. 124–5. 3rd edition. p. merging segments with weights of 1860. They will be more fully explained in a forthcoming publication of the National Bank of Greece. 1971. George Kostelenos. 1995 provides annual estimates of output in current prices for primary. 1921–49. Oxford University Press. but are still tentative. ECE. London. His population figures show the impact of change very clearly. 1972. etc. Feinstein. with interpolation. National Income. and one cannot criticise Kostelenos for attempting to overcome such an inherently difficult challenge.A. 1938–50 from OEEC. 22 May 1954. with per capita income 6 per cent lower in 1910 than in 1860. Svennilson. 1957. The results are more plausible. 1899. per capita GDP in 1858 would be 1550 international 1990 dollars–a level similar to that in Germany and Sweden and about 70 per cent higher than the average for Eastern Europe. There is a similar problem for 1883–87 where his per capita GDP rises by nearly 90 per cent. 1875. Recently. 1941–9 from UN. Table 6. Macmillan. pp.

and after 1870 the Papal states were added. “A Reconstruction of the Population of Northern Italy from 1650 to 1881 using Annual Inverse Projection“. 17. adjusted to a midyear basis. No. In other countries. 1994. OECD. Galloway’s estimates for Northern Italy show an annual growth rate of 0.644 per cent. 223–274).A. In 1866. Hodne and O. Berlin. Dreyers. Portugal: Annual GDP movement 1851–1910 derived from C.The World Economy: Historical Statistics Italy: 1820 and annual 1861–1970 GDP movement from A. For 1820–65 I assume per capita GDP movement was the same as in Sweden.–P. The Hague. Zara. 1969. 1945 assumed to be midway between 1944 and 1946. 45. Population 1913–50 from Zeventig jaren statistiek in tijdreeksen. Galloway. p. 2000. A. 1994. 1820–1913 from J. Groningen. Fiume was added in 1922. 1968. average annual growth was 0. In 1919 South Tirol. “The National Accounts for Italy.135. CBS. A more definitive estimate for 1820-65 will probably emerge when the Nordic Group complete their review of estimates for Scandinavia. In 1945. Oslo. and derived a crude measure of GDP. CBS. GDP. European Journal of Population. Central Bureau of Statistics. 1913–60. Oslo. the Venetian territories became part of Italy. Occasional Papers in Economic History. Aukrust and P.2 per cent of total GDP). 1820 population derived from K. Occasional Studies. Norway: 1865–1950 GDP by category of expenditure at constant market prices from National Accounts 1865–1960. 1861–1975. p. Carreras and Pedro Lains. pp. the old Austrian Kustenland provinces and the port of Zara were acquired. 1965. but reduces the level for all years. adjusted to midyear. pp. I used the movement in national income (excluding shipping and whaling operations carried out from Allied bases 1940–4) from O. Oslo. annual change in resident population. 1961. Beloch. 1845 and 1850 with the official estimate for 1865. Smits. CBS Occasional Paper. H. “A Revised Estimate of Italian Economic Growth 1861–1989“. Dutch GDP and Its Components. Umeå University. 1900–1986“. 14. de Gruyter. They show faster growth than I have assumed (their per capita estimate for 1850 is about one fifth lower than mine). National Accounts. Spain and Portugal“. Hva krigen kostet Norge. The official ISTAT estimates I used for 1970 onwards have a more complete coverage of the underground economy than is the case in other countries (20. 1970. Bjerve. Fiume and part of Venezia–Giulia were ceded to Yugoslavia. 10.703 per cent for the period I interpolated (see P. Banca Nazionale del Lavoro Quarterly Review. p. Tenda and Briga were added to France. Population and GDP are adjusted to eliminate the impact of territorial change. “The Hidden Economy and the National Accounts“. 348–59. 1800–1913. “Gross Domestic Product of Norway 1835-1915”. I used their estimates for agriculture and industry. June 1982. They adjust and link three nineteenth century spot estimates for 1835. Annual estimates for 1821–61 derived by logarithmic interpolation. 1861–1950 from Sommario di statistiche storiche dell Italia. 1960 onwards from OECD. Grytten. after the war with Austria.J. Annual mid–year population estimates 1770–1950 from Historical Statistics. p. using sector weights for 1910 and assuming that half of output in the rest of the economy (trade.R.L. The Hague. p. For the 1939–44 gap in these estimates. which they use as a proxy for GDP movement. The impact of these changes can be seen in Maddison (1995). underground activities which escape the net of official national accounts statisticians are typically about 3 per cent of GDP (see D.A. They estimate agricultural and industrial output and use the combined movement in these two sectors to measure aggregate physical output. 231. 1. transport and 30 . from C. Netherlands: annual estimates of population and GDP. 1987. 351–4. Scandinavian Economic History Review. E. Horlings and J. Istat. Rome. pp. I therefore made a 3 per cent downward adjustment to the benchmark level of GDP to enhance international comparability. There are interesting estimates of GDP back to 1835 in F. van Bochove and T. with gross fixed investment adjusted downwards by a third to eliminate repairs and maintenance. Bardini. Huitker. In 1947. Maddison. Blades.van Zanden. June 1991.44–47. 1995. thereafter the city and a strip of coast went to Italy and the hinterland to Yugoslavia. 1945. 1976. pp. “Main National Accounting Series. This has no effect on GDP volume movement. which Edwin Horlings kindly adjusted to a midyear basis. Bevölkerungsgeschichte Italiens.J. Until the settlement of 1954 Trieste was in dispute and under international occupation. 39).

1913– 24. Chronos. average of two alternatively deflated series from H. Ritzmann– Blickenstorfer. May/ June 2000. cit. 859–79. Valerio. pp. 292. United Kingdom: 1801–31 GDP movement from N. Population: 1820 and annual movement 1833–64 from Nunes. p. His procedures are explained in Olle Krantz. Batista. and annual estimates 1924–50 from C. 1850–1949 from Prados (2002). Nunes. Deane. ed. Wales and Scotland. Harley. pp. p. pp. Population estimates are adjusted to a midyear basis. 1865–1949 from Nuno Valerio.R. GDP 1910–58 and 1910 sector weights from D. 1850–1990 from Leandro Prados. There are annual estimates of GDP movement 1834–1946 in A. Carreras. For 1834–51 they show a bumpy trajectory. Population 1815–71 for England. Population. October. Bank of Portugal and European University Institute. June l988. 106. El Progreso Economico de Espana. 150 Jahre Wirtschaftswachstum. 1851–1913 annual estimates of real GDP. Conditions of Economic Progress (3rd ed. They were derived by regression.E. Feinstein. 1996. M. Madrid. Universidad Carlos III. 1840 and 1850 from A. Martins. Mata. 1830–1855 annual movement in real gross national product from P. 68–72.. S. Bern 1953. Staatsdruckerei. Madrid. fiscal receipts and public expenditure) and their relationship to GDP movement for 1947–85. Louis Review. Reis. op. Abstract of British 31 . Andrist.52–3.S. Clark. excluding Monmouth.Western Europe. Lisbon. and J. Cambridge.A. output and income estimates) from C. 1989. Schofield (1997).K. p. 1913. Mitchell. English Population History from Family Reconstitution 1580– 1837. Zürich. Switzerland: 1820–51 per capita GDP movement assumed equal to average for France and Germany. Fundacion Banco Exterior. Macmillan.G. adjusted to a UK basis assuming Irish output per head of population in 1831 to have been half of that in Great Britain (hypothesis of P. “Portuguese Economic Growth. 2001. Vienna. Journal of European Economic History. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Deane (1968). 1910–1958“. 42–3. 715 for England. Mata and Valerio (1989). He has revised these estimates and will present a final version fairly soon. 1855–1960 annual movement of GDP at factor cost (average of real expenditure. 188–9. 1820–30 assumed to grow at same pace as 1830–40. 1850–2000. “New Estimates of Gross National Product for the United Kingdom 1830–1914“. Federal Statistical Office. and N. June 1968) and to have grown at half the pace from 1801. 1830. using three proxy indicators (exports. Monmouth and Wales 1811–71 interpolation of the decennial census results shown in B. “Output Growth and the British Industrial Revolution: A Restatement of the Crafts–Harley View“. “Real Output in Switzerland: New Estimates for 1914–47“. T18–20. Oeppen and R. November 1992. and M. Economic History Review. 1989. adjusted to fit 1913–24 movement shown by Clark (1957). Annual percentage GDP movement. Kausel. vol. Williams. London.F. National Income Expenditure and Output of the United Kingdom 1855–1965. J. 2002. 1950 onwards from OECD sources. from E. 1957. Crafts and C. 1500–2001 services) moved parallel to population and half parallel to aggregate physical ouput. 614 derived by interpolation of their quinnquennial estimates. Annual movement 1851–70 from Ritzmann. 1997. Real product in international units. Pinheiro.M. 1985.12. following the upheavals of the Napoleonic wars and loss of the Brazilian Empire. Review of Income and Wealth. C. derived from economic activity estimates of F. Wrigley. p. E. I used their estimate of the 1850–51 movement and assumed that the per capita GDP level in 1820 was the same as in 1850. Estadisticas Historicas de Espana: Siglos XIX–XX. Anderson. Spain: 1820-50 GDP volume movement derived from Prados (1982) as explained in Maddison (1995). “New Estimates for Portugal’s GDP. without much indication of growth. 1871–1949 from Annuaire statistique de la Suisse 1952.H. p. 1.B. Fall. Population 1820 and 1850 from A. INE. pp. Review of Income and Wealth. R.).R. R. interpolation for 1821–32. Portuguese Historical Statistics. Sweden: 1820–1950 population and provisional estimates of GDP 1820-1960 by industry of origin were kindly supplied by Olle Krantz. p. 1972. 1821–49 interpolated. pp. Cambridge. “New Estimates of Swedish Historical GDP Since the Beginning of the Nineteenth Century”. Historical Statistics of Switzerland. pp. Davies. This was a period of political and economic instability.138. 1833–1985“.

54. op. O Grada and S.The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 1-3. pp. 1815–71 from Mitchell.44 per cent upward adjustment of his 1842–7 figures to link with those of Lee. 1982.M. 1871–1949 UK population from Feinstein (1972). no. cit. “On the Accuracy of the Pre–Famine Irish Censuses“. 1962. 1820-2001 United Kingdom 1820 1840 1870 1913 1920 1920 1950 1973 2001 21 239 26 745 31 400 45 649 46 821 43 718 50 363 56 223 59 905 1820 1840 1870 1913 1920 1920 1950 1973 2001 36 232 53 234 100 179 224 618 212 938 205 056 347 850 675 941 1 202 074 1820 1840 1870 1913 1920 1920 1950 1973 2001 1 707 1 990 3 191 4 921 4 568 4 690 6 907 12 022 20 066 Note: Source: Ireland Population (000) E+W+S 7 101 8 348 5 419 4 346 4 361 3 103 2 969 3 072 3 839 14 138 18 396 25 981 41 303 42 460 42 460 48 986 GDP (million 1990 Geary-Khamis international $) 6 231 30 001 8 638 44 596 9 619 90 560 11 891 212 727 11 078 201 860 7 882 201 860 10 231 21 103 89 113 Per Capita GDP (1990 Geary-Khamis international $ 880 2 121 1 035 2 424 1 775 3 487 2 736 5 150 2 540 4 754 2 540 3 446 6 867 23 201 Northern Ireland 1 258 1 377 1 530 1 689 3 196 2 540 E+W+S means England. Lee. Clarkson (1981). 1842–1920 from Mitchell. Household Size and Irish Population Change 1672–1821“. C. pp. 6. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. p. 20. 8–9. Until the 1990s. Oxford. vol. Maddison (2001). 8–9. pp. Ireland 1821–41 from J. Figures in bold refer to Irish Republic. Dublin. 156. with 2. Economic Growth in Ireland/Irish Republic and the United Kingdom. but have now surged ahead. in J. Goldstrom and I. 32 . Table 1–3 gives a geographic breakdown for benchmark years 1820–2001. Economy and Society. Wales and Scotland. Ireland 1791–1821 from D. p. Irish per capita income levels were well below those in Great Britain. Dickson.A. 247. C. p. Irish Population. T120–1. “Hearth Tax. 82. Scotland. Historical Statistics.. p. Daultry. The population and GDP estimates for 1920 and earlier years include the whole of Ireland.

various issues. Gibraltar. Population and GDP: 13 Small West European Countries.Western Europe. Per capita GDP in 9 smaller countries (Andorra. Pre–1950 population and GDP per capita levels for the 13– country group assumed to move parallel to the total/average for 12 West European countries. Isle of Man. Faeroe Islands. 1950-2001 1950 Iceland Luxembourg Cyprus Malta 9 Other 13 Country Total 143 296 494 312 285 1 529 1973 1990 2001 Population (000 at mid-year) 212 255 350 382 634 681 322 359 389 482 1 907 2 159 278 443 763 395 516 2 595 GDP (million 1990 international dollars) Iceland Luxembourg Cyprus Malta 9 Other 13 Country Total 762 2 481 930 278 1 429 5 880 2 435 5 237 3 207 855 4 718 16 452 4 596 8 819 6 651 2 987 8 152 31 205 6 131 16 452 9 823 4 790 10 357 47 553 Per capita GDP (1990 international dollars) Iceland Luxembourg Cyprus Malta 9 Other 13 Country Average 5 336 8 382 1 883 894 5 013 3 846 11 472 14 963 5 058 2 655 12 129 8 627 18 024 23 086 9 767 8 320 16 913 14 453 22 054 37 138 12 874 12 127 20 077 19 855 13 Small Countries: Estimates of GDP movement for Iceland and Luxembourg 1950–2001 from OECD National Accounts. Monaco and San Marino) assumed to be the same as the average for 12 West European countries. Liechtenstein. 33 . Channel Islands. Cyprus and Malta 1950–90 from Maddison (1995) updated from IMF. 1500–2001 Table 1-4. Greenland.

Population of 12 West European Countries. 1500-1868 (000 at mid-year) Austria Belgium Denmark Finland France Germany Italy 1500 2 000 1 400 600 300 15 000 12 000 10 500 1600 2 500 1 600 650 400 18 500 16 000 13 100 1700 2 500 2 000 700 400 21 471 15 000 13 300 1820 1821 1822 1823 1824 1825 1826 1827 1828 1829 1830 1831 1832 1833 1834 1835 1836 1837 1838 1839 1840 1841 1842 1843 1844 1845 1846 1847 1848 1849 1850 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 3 369 3 386 3 402 3 419 3 436 3 452 3 469 3 486 3 504 3 521 3 538 3 555 3 573 3 590 3 608 3 626 3 614 3 662 3 680 3 698 3 716 3 739 3 762 3 785 3 808 3 831 3 855 3 878 3 902 3 926 3 950 3 978 4 006 4 035 4 063 4 092 4 120 4 150 4 178 4 206 4 235 4 263 4 292 4 321 4 350 4 380 4 409 4 439 4 469 3 434 3 464 3 495 3 526 3 557 3 589 3 620 3 652 3 685 3 717 3 750 3 782 3 814 3 846 3 879 3 912 3 945 3 978 4 012 4 046 4 080 4 115 4 151 4 187 4 223 4 259 4 296 4 333 4 371 4 408 4 449 4 477 4 506 4 534 4 563 4 592 4 621 4 651 4 680 4 710 4 740 4 774 4 809 4 844 4 879 4 915 4 950 4 986 5 023 1 155 1 167 1 179 1 196 1 213 1 228 1 243 1 255 1 265 1 270 1 273 1 275 1 276 1 284 1 295 1 306 1 315 1 325 1 335 1 347 1 357 1 371 1 385 1 392 1 414 1 430 1 444 1 456 1 470 1 484 1 499 1 517 1 536 1 552 1 569 1 590 1 612 1 634 1 653 1 674 1 696 1 717 1 739 1 761 1 777 1 799 1 814 1 833 1 852 1 169 1 186 1 202 1 219 1 235 1 252 1 268 1 310 1 326 1 343 1 364 1 374 1 378 1 383 1 387 1 391 1 399 1 409 1 420 1 430 1 441 1 456 1 476 1 495 1 516 1 536 1 555 1 573 1 591 1 610 1 628 1 642 1 652 1 663 1 673 1 683 1 692 1 703 1 715 1 726 1 738 1 754 1 774 1 794 1 813 1 833 1 840 1 831 1 776 31 250 31 460 31 685 31 905 32 127 32 350 32 538 32 727 32 917 33 108 33 300 33 439 33 598 33 718 33 859 34 000 34 178 34 357 34 537 34 718 34 900 35 059 35 218 35 378 35 539 35 700 35 829 35 959 36 089 36 219 36 350 36 479 36 609 36 739 36 869 37 000 37 060 37 120 37 180 37 240 37 300 37 390 37 520 37 710 37 860 38 020 38 080 38 230 38 330 24 905 25 260 25 620 25 969 26 307 26 650 26 964 27 249 27 540 27 807 28 045 28 283 28 535 28 801 29 071 29 390 29 702 30 013 30 365 30 746 31 126 31 475 31 787 32 086 32 394 32 743 33 059 33 231 33 289 33 452 33 746 34 055 34 290 34 422 34 531 34 586 34 715 34 979 35 278 35 633 36 049 36 435 36 788 37 184 37 602 37 955 38 193 38 440 38 637 20 176 20 306 20 437 20 568 20 701 20 834 20 968 21 103 21 239 21 376 21 513 21 652 21 791 21 932 22 073 22 215 22 358 22 502 22 647 22 793 22 939 23 087 23 236 23 385 23 536 23 687 23 840 23 993 24 148 24 303 24 460 24 617 24 776 24 935 25 096 25 257 25 420 25 584 25 748 25 914 26 081 26 249 26 418 26 610 26 814 27 023 27 256 27 411 27 501 34 .The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 1a.

1500–2001 Table 1a.Western Europe. Population of 12 West European Countries. 1500-1868 (000 at mid-year) Netherlands Norway Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom 12 WEC 1500 950 300 550 650 3 942 48 192 1600 1 500 400 760 1 000 6 170 62 580 1700 1 900 500 1 260 1 200 8 565 68 796 1820 1821 1822 1823 1824 1825 1826 1827 1828 1829 1830 1831 1832 1833 1834 1835 1836 1837 1838 1839 1840 1841 1842 1843 1844 1845 1846 1847 1848 1849 1850 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 2 333 2 365 2 400 2 435 2 474 2 514 2 543 2 561 2 585 2 610 2 633 2 653 2 665 2 683 2 707 2 732 2 762 2 791 2 821 2 853 2 886 2 921 2 952 2 981 3 014 3 047 3 069 3 071 3 069 3 076 3 098 3 133 3 167 3 194 3 218 3 235 3 253 3 277 3 294 3 304 3 318 3 340 3 366 3 397 3 431 3 460 3 484 3 510 3 543 970 984 998 1 013 1 028 1 044 1 062 1 079 1 093 1 108 1 124 1 137 1 150 1 163 1 174 1 188 1 202 1 214 1 224 1 233 1 241 1 254 1 271 1 286 1 302 1 319 1 337 1 351 1 363 1 377 1 392 1 409 1 425 1 440 1 457 1 479 1 501 1 521 1 543 1 570 1 596 1 614 1 627 1 646 1 668 1 690 1 707 1 716 1 724 2 585 2 611 2 646 2 689 2 727 2 771 2 805 2 828 2 847 2 863 2 888 2 901 2 923 2 959 2 983 3 025 3 059 3 076 3 090 3 106 3 139 3 173 3 207 3 237 3 275 3 317 3 343 3 362 3 397 3 441 3 483 3 517 3 540 3 563 3 608 3 641 3 673 3 688 3 734 3 788 3 860 3 917 3 966 4 023 4 070 4 114 4 161 4 196 4 173 1 986 1 998 2 008 2 020 2 031 2 042 2 054 2 065 2 077 2 088 2 100 2 112 2 123 2 135 2 147 2 159 2 171 2 183 2 195 2 208 2 220 2 235 2 251 2 266 2 282 2 298 2 314 2 330 2 346 2 363 2 379 2 399 2 406 2 412 2 427 2 442 2 457 2 471 2 484 2 497 2 510 2 524 2 538 2 552 2 566 2 579 2 593 2 607 2 623 21 239 21 551 21 832 22 117 22 407 22 698 22 996 23 275 23 560 23 847 24 139 24 433 24 684 24 937 25 194 25 452 25 715 25 968 26 223 26 483 26 745 27 004 27 277 27 511 27 785 28 040 28 272 28 118 27 683 27 429 27 181 26 945 27 076 27 248 27 446 27 697 27 978 28 186 28 422 28 660 28 888 29 128 29 401 29 630 29 842 30 089 30 315 30 572 30 845 114 571 115 738 116 904 118 076 119 243 120 424 121 530 122 590 123 638 124 658 125 667 126 596 127 510 128 431 129 377 130 396 131 420 132 478 133 549 134 661 135 790 136 889 137 973 138 989 140 088 141 207 142 213 142 655 142 718 143 088 143 615 144 168 144 989 145 737 146 520 147 294 148 102 148 964 149 909 150 922 152 011 153 105 154 238 155 472 156 672 157 857 158 802 159 771 160 496 35 .

The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 1a. Population of 12 West European Countries. 1869-1918 (000 at mid-year) 1869 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 Austria Belgium Denmark Finland France Germany Italy 4 499 4 520 4 562 4 604 4 646 4 688 4 730 4 772 4 815 4 857 4 899 4 941 4 985 5 030 5 075 5 121 5 166 5 212 5 257 5 303 5 348 5 394 5 446 5 504 5 563 5 622 5 680 5 739 5 798 5 856 5 915 5 973 6 035 6 099 6 164 6 228 6 292 6 357 6 421 6 485 6 550 6 614 6 669 6 724 6 767 6 806 6 843 6 825 6 785 6 727 5 029 5 096 5 137 5 178 5 219 5 261 5 303 5 345 5 394 5 442 5 492 5 541 5 606 5 673 5 740 5 807 5 876 5 919 5 962 6 007 6 051 6 096 6 164 6 231 6 300 6 370 6 439 6 494 6 548 6 604 6 662 6 719 6 801 6 903 6 997 7 086 7 175 7 258 7 338 7 411 7 478 7 498 7 517 7 590 7 666 7 723 7 759 7 762 7 729 7 660 1 871 1 888 1 903 1 918 1 935 1 954 1 973 1 994 2 019 2 043 2 064 2 081 2 101 2 120 2 137 2 160 2 186 2 213 2 237 2 257 2 276 2 294 2 311 2 327 2 344 2 367 2 397 2 428 2 462 2 497 2 530 2 561 2 594 2 623 2 653 2 681 2 710 2 741 2 775 2 809 2 845 2 882 2 917 2 951 2 983 3 018 3 055 3 092 3 130 3 165 1 734 1 754 1 786 1 819 1 847 1 873 1 899 1 928 1 957 1 983 2 014 2 047 2 072 2 098 2 130 2 164 2 195 2 224 2 259 2 296 2 331 2 364 2 394 2 451 2 430 2 511 2 483 2 515 2 549 2 589 2 624 2 646 2 667 2 686 2 706 2 735 2 762 2 788 2 821 2 861 2 899 2 929 2 962 2 998 3 027 3 053 3 083 3 105 3 124 3 125 38 890 38 440 37 731 37 679 37 887 38 044 38 221 38 398 38 576 38 763 38 909 39 045 39 191 39 337 39 472 39 629 39 733 39 858 39 889 39 920 40 004 40 014 39 983 39 993 40 014 40 056 40 098 40 192 40 348 40 473 40 546 40 598 40 640 40 713 40 786 40 859 40 890 40 942 40 942 41 046 41 109 41 224 41 307 41 359 41 463 41 476 40 481 39 884 39 288 38 542 38 914 39 231 39 456 39 691 40 017 40 450 40 897 41 491 42 034 42 546 43 052 43 500 43 827 44 112 44 404 44 777 45 084 45 505 46 001 46 538 47 083 47 607 48 129 48 633 49 123 49 703 50 363 51 111 51 921 52 753 53 592 54 388 55 214 56 104 56 963 57 806 58 644 59 481 60 341 61 187 62 038 62 884 63 852 64 457 65 058 66 096 66 230 66 076 65 763 65 237 27 681 27 888 28 063 28 233 28 387 28 505 28 630 28 837 29 067 29 252 29 425 29 534 29 672 29 898 30 113 30 366 30 644 30 857 31 049 31 243 31 468 31 702 31 892 32 091 32 303 32 513 32 689 32 863 33 078 33 285 33 487 33 672 33 877 34 166 34 436 34 715 35 011 35 297 35 594 35 899 36 213 36 572 36 917 37 150 37 248 37 526 37 982 38 142 37 981 37 520 36 .

1500–2001 Table 1a. Population of 12 West European Countries. 1869-1918 (000 at mid-year) Netherlands 1869 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 3 575 3 610 3 636 3 662 3 670 3 745 3 788 3 832 3 883 3 834 3 986 4 043 4 079 4 130 4 180 4 226 4 276 4 326 4 378 4 432 4 485 4 535 4 585 4 632 4 684 4 743 4 803 4 866 4 935 5 003 5 070 5 142 5 221 5 305 5 389 5 470 5 551 5 632 5 710 5 786 5 862 5 922 5 984 6 068 6 164 6 277 6 395 6 516 6 654 6 752 Norway 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 729 735 745 755 767 783 803 829 852 877 902 919 923 920 919 929 944 958 970 977 984 997 013 026 038 057 083 112 142 174 204 230 255 275 288 297 309 319 329 346 367 384 401 423 447 472 498 522 551 578 Sweden 4 159 4 169 4 186 4 227 4 274 4 320 4 362 4 407 4 457 4 508 4 555 4 572 4 569 4 576 4 591 4 624 4 664 4 700 4 726 4 742 4 761 4 780 4 794 4 805 4 816 4 849 4 896 4 941 4 986 5 036 5 080 5 117 5 156 5 187 5 210 5 241 5 278 5 316 5 357 5 404 5 453 5 449 5 542 5 583 5 621 5 659 5 696 5 735 5 779 5 807 37 Switzerland 2 639 2 655 2 680 2 697 2 715 2 733 2 750 2 768 2 786 2 803 2 821 2 839 2 853 2 863 2 874 2 885 2 896 2 907 2 918 2 929 2 940 2 951 2 965 3 002 3 040 3 077 3 114 3 151 3 188 3 226 3 263 3 300 3 341 3 384 3 428 3 472 3 461 3 560 3 604 3 647 3 691 3 735 3 776 3 819 3 864 3 897 3 883 3 883 3 888 3 880 United Kingdom 31 31 31 31 32 32 32 33 33 33 34 34 34 35 35 35 36 36 36 36 37 37 37 38 38 38 39 39 39 40 40 41 41 41 42 42 42 43 43 44 44 44 45 45 45 46 46 46 46 46 127 400 685 874 177 501 839 200 576 932 304 623 935 206 450 724 015 313 598 881 178 485 802 134 490 859 221 599 987 381 773 155 538 893 246 611 981 361 737 124 520 916 268 426 649 049 340 514 614 575 12 WEC 161 847 162 386 162 570 163 337 164 541 165 857 167 195 168 801 170 416 171 840 173 423 174 685 175 813 176 963 178 085 179 412 180 679 181 992 183 244 184 525 185 909 187 219 188 478 189 829 191 145 192 727 194 266 196 011 197 942 199 877 201 746 203 501 205 339 207 338 209 266 211 201 213 064 215 052 216 969 219 005 221 025 223 009 225 112 226 548 227 957 230 052 230 245 230 056 229 286 227 568 .Western Europe.

Population of 12 West European Countries. 1919-1969 (000 at mid-year) 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 Austria Belgium 6 420 6 455 6 504 6 528 6 543 6 562 6 582 6 603 6 623 6 643 6 664 6 684 6 705 6 725 6 746 6 760 6 761 6 758 6 755 6 753 6 653 6 705 6 745 6 783 6 808 6 834 6 799 7 000 6 971 6 956 6 943 6 935 6 935 6 928 6 932 6 940 6 947 6 952 6 966 6 987 7 014 7 047 7 086 7 130 7 176 7 224 7 271 7 322 7 377 7 415 7 441 7 628 7 552 7 504 7 571 7 635 7 707 7 779 7 844 7 904 7 968 8 032 8 076 8 126 8 186 8 231 8 262 8 288 8 315 8 346 8 374 8 392 8 346 8 276 8 247 8 242 8 291 8 339 8 367 8 450 8 557 8 614 8 639 8 678 8 730 8 778 8 819 8 868 8 924 8 989 9 053 9 104 9 119 9 166 9 218 9 283 9 367 9 448 9 508 9 557 9 590 9 613 Denmark 3 202 3 242 3 285 3 322 3 356 3 389 3 425 3 452 3 475 3 497 3 518 3 542 3 569 3 603 3 633 3 666 3 695 3 722 3 749 3 777 3 805 3 832 3 863 3 903 3 949 3 998 4 045 4 101 4 146 4 190 4 230 4 271 4 304 4 334 4 369 4 406 4 439 4 466 4 488 4 515 4 547 4 581 4 610 4 647 4 684 4 720 4 758 4 798 4 839 4 867 4 891 Finland 3 117 3 133 3 170 3 210 3 243 3 272 3 304 3 339 3 368 3 396 3 424 3 449 3 476 3 503 3 526 3 549 3 576 3 601 3 626 3 656 3 686 3 698 3 702 3 708 3 721 3 735 3 758 3 806 3 859 3 912 3 963 4 009 4 047 4 091 4 139 4 187 4 235 4 282 4 324 4 360 4 395 4 430 4 461 4 491 4 523 4 549 4 564 4 581 4 606 4 626 4 624 38 France 38 700 39 000 39 240 39 420 39 880 40 310 40 610 40 870 40 940 41 050 41 230 41 610 41 860 41 860 41 890 41 950 41 940 41 910 41 930 41 960 41 900 41 000 39 600 39 400 39 000 38 900 39 700 40 290 40 680 41 110 41 480 41 829 42 156 42 460 42 752 43 057 43 428 43 843 44 311 44 789 45 240 45 670 46 189 47 124 47 808 48 340 48 763 49 194 49 569 49 934 50 353 Germany Italy 60 547 60 894 61 573 61 900 62 307 62 697 63 166 63 630 64 023 64 393 64 739 65 084 65 423 65 716 66 027 66 409 66 871 67 349 67 831 68 558 69 286 69 835 70 244 70 834 70 411 69 865 67 000 64 678 66 094 67 295 67 991 68 375 68 876 69 146 69 550 69 868 70 196 70 603 71 019 71 488 72 014 72 481 73 123 73 739 74 340 74 954 75 639 76 206 76 368 76 584 77 144 37 250 37 398 37 691 38 086 38 460 38 810 39 165 39 502 39 848 40 186 40 469 40 791 41 132 41 431 41 753 42 093 42 429 42 750 43 068 43 419 43 865 44 341 44 734 45 004 45 177 45 290 45 442 45 725 46 040 46 381 46 733 47 105 47 418 47 666 47 957 48 299 48 633 48 921 49 182 49 476 49 832 50 198 50 523 50 843 51 198 51 600 51 987 52 332 52 667 52 987 53 317 .The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 1a.

1919-1969 (000 at mid-year) Netherlands 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 6 805 6 848 6 921 7 032 7 150 7 264 7 366 7 471 7 576 7 679 7 782 7 884 7 999 8 123 8 237 8 341 8 434 8 516 8 599 8 685 8 782 8 879 8 966 9 042 9 103 9 175 9 262 9 424 9 630 9 800 9 956 10 114 10 264 10 382 10 493 10 615 10 751 10 889 11 026 11 187 11 348 11 486 11 639 11 806 11 966 12 127 12 292 12 455 12 597 12 725 12 873 Norway Sweden 2 603 2 635 2 668 2 695 2 713 2 729 2 747 2 763 2 775 2 785 2 795 2 807 2 824 2 842 2 858 2 874 2 889 2 904 2 919 2 936 2 954 2 973 2 990 3 009 3 032 3 060 3 091 3 127 3 165 3 201 3 234 3 265 3 296 3 328 3 361 3 394 3 427 3 460 3 492 3 523 3 553 3 581 3 610 3 639 3 667 3 694 3 723 3 754 3 786 3 819 3 851 5 830 5 876 5 929 5 971 5 997 6 021 6 045 6 064 6 081 6 097 6 113 6 131 6 152 6 176 6 201 6 222 6 242 6 259 6 276 6 298 6 326 6 356 6 389 6 432 6 491 6 560 6 636 6 719 6 803 6 884 6 956 7 014 7 073 7 125 7 171 7 213 7 262 7 315 7 364 7 409 7 446 7 480 7 520 7 562 7 604 7 661 7 734 7 808 7 868 7 912 7 968 39 Switzerland 3 869 3 877 3 876 3 874 3 883 3 896 3 910 3 932 3 956 3 988 4 022 4 051 4 080 4 102 4 122 4 140 4 155 4 168 4 180 4 192 4 206 4 226 4 254 4 286 4 323 4 364 4 412 4 467 4 524 4 582 4 640 4 694 4 749 4 815 4 878 4 929 4 980 5 045 5 126 5 199 5 259 5 362 5 512 5 666 5 789 5 887 5 943 5 996 6 063 6 132 6 212 United Kingdom 46 534 46 821 44 072 44 372 44 596 44 915 45 059 45 232 45 389 45 578 45 672 45 866 46 074 46 335 46 520 46 666 46 868 47 081 47 289 47 494 47 991 48 226 48 216 48 400 48 789 49 016 49 182 49 217 49 519 50 014 50 312 50 127 50 290 50 430 50 593 50 765 50 946 51 184 51 430 51 652 51 956 52 372 52 807 53 292 53 625 53 991 54 350 54 643 54 959 55 214 55 461 12 WEC 222 505 223 731 222 433 223 981 225 763 227 572 229 158 230 702 231 958 233 260 234 460 235 975 237 420 238 602 239 744 240 932 242 148 243 333 244 568 246 102 247 846 248 417 247 979 249 048 249 046 249 088 247 666 246 921 249 881 252 882 255 052 256 376 258 086 259 434 260 975 262 493 264 112 265 884 267 717 269 638 271 707 273 807 276 246 279 157 281 663 284 115 286 472 288 595 290 255 291 806 293 747 . Population of 12 West European Countries.Western Europe. 1500–2001 Table 1a.

Population of 12 West European Countries. 1970-2003 (000 at mid-year) 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Austria Belgium Denmark Finland France Germany 7 467 7 500 7 544 7 586 7 599 7 579 7 566 7 568 7 562 7 549 7 549 7 565 7 574 7 552 7 553 7 558 7 566 7 576 7 596 7 624 7 718 7 813 7 910 7 983 8 022 8 042 8 056 8 072 8 092 8 111 8 131 8 151 8 170 8 188 9 638 9 673 9 709 9 738 9 768 9 795 9 811 9 822 9 830 9 837 9 847 9 852 9 856 9 856 9 855 9 858 9 862 9 870 9 884 9 938 9 969 10 004 10 045 10 084 10 116 10 137 10 157 10 181 10 203 10 223 10 242 10 259 10 275 10 289 4 929 4 963 4 992 5 022 5 045 5 060 5 073 5 088 5 104 5 117 5 123 5 122 5 118 5 114 5 112 5 114 5 121 5 127 5 130 5 133 5 141 5 154 5 171 5 188 5 206 5 233 5 262 5 284 5 302 5 320 5 336 5 353 5 369 5 384 4 606 4 612 4 640 4 666 4 691 4 711 4 726 4 739 4 753 4 765 4 780 4 800 4 827 4 856 4 882 4 902 4 917 4 932 4 947 4 962 4 986 5 014 5 041 5 065 5 087 5 106 5 122 5 136 5 148 5 158 5 167 5 176 5 184 5 191 50 787 51 285 51 732 52 157 52 503 52 758 52 954 53 165 53 381 53 606 53 870 54 147 54 434 54 650 54 947 55 171 55 387 55 630 55 873 56 417 56 735 57 055 57 374 57 658 57 907 58 150 58 388 58 623 58 866 59 116 59 382 59 658 59 925 60 181 77 783 78 355 78 717 78 950 78 966 78 682 78 299 78 161 78 066 78 081 78 298 78 402 78 335 78 122 77 855 77 685 77 713 77 718 78 031 78 645 79 380 79 984 80 598 81 132 81 414 81 654 81 891 82 011 82 024 82 075 82 188 82 281 82 351 82 398 40 Italy 53 661 54 006 54 366 54 797 55 226 55 572 55 839 56 059 56 240 56 368 56 451 56 502 56 536 56 630 56 697 56 731 56 734 56 730 56 734 56 738 56 743 56 747 56 841 57 027 57 179 57 275 57 367 57 479 57 550 57 604 57 719 57 845 57 927 57 998 .The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 1a.

Population of 12 West European Countries.Western Europe. 1500–2001 Table 1a. 1970-2003 (000 at mid-year) Netherlands 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 13 032 13 194 13 330 13 438 13 541 13 653 13 770 13 853 13 937 14 030 14 144 14 246 14 310 14 362 14 420 14 491 14 572 14 665 14 761 14 849 14 952 15 066 15 174 15 275 15 382 15 459 15 533 15 613 15 705 15 800 15 892 15 981 16 068 16 151 Norway Sweden Switzerland 3 877 3 903 3 933 3 961 3 985 4 007 4 026 4 043 4 059 4 073 4 086 4 100 4 115 4 128 4 140 4 152 4 167 4 186 4 209 4 226 4 242 4 262 4 286 4 312 4 337 4 359 4 381 4 406 4 433 4 458 4 481 4 503 4 525 4 546 8 043 8 098 8 122 8 137 8 161 8 193 8 222 8 252 8 276 8 294 8 310 8 320 8 325 8 329 8 343 8 356 8 376 8 405 8 445 8 493 8 559 8 617 8 676 8 722 8 769 8 825 8 859 8 865 8 868 8 871 8 873 8 875 8 877 8 878 6 267 6 343 6 401 6 441 6 460 6 404 6 333 6 316 6 333 6 351 6 385 6 425 6 468 6 501 6 530 6 565 6 604 6 651 6 705 6 765 6 838 6 923 7 001 7 064 7 120 7 166 7 198 7 213 7 225 7 242 7 262 7 283 7 302 7 319 41 United Kingdom 55 632 55 907 56 079 56 210 56 224 56 215 56 206 56 179 56 167 56 228 56 314 56 383 56 340 56 383 56 462 56 620 56 796 56 982 57 160 57 324 57 493 57 666 57 866 58 027 58 213 58 426 58 619 58 808 59 036 59 293 59 522 59 723 59 912 60 095 12 WEC 295 723 297 839 299 565 301 103 302 169 302 629 302 824 303 246 303 706 304 298 305 157 305 864 306 238 306 483 306 795 307 204 307 815 308 472 309 474 311 113 312 757 314 306 315 984 317 539 318 750 319 831 320 832 321 691 322 451 323 271 324 197 325 088 325 884 326 618 .

1500-1868 (000 at mid-year) a Greece Portugal Spain 13 small WEC 29 WEC 1500 800 1 000 1 000 6 800 276 57 268 1600 1 000 1 500 1 100 8 240 358 73 778 1700 1 925 1 500 2 000 8 770 394 81 460 1820 1821 1822 1823 1824 1825 1826 1827 1828 1829 1830 1831 1832 1833 1834 1835 1836 1837 1838 1839 1840 1841 1842 1843 1844 1845 1846 1847 1848 1849 1850 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 7 101 7 200 7 267 7 335 7 403 7 472 7 542 7 612 7 683 7 755 7 827 7 900 7 949 7 998 8 047 8 096 8 146 8 196 8 247 8 298 8 349 8 400 8 422 8 441 8 479 8 497 8 490 8 205 7 640 7 256 6 878 6 514 6 337 6 199 6 083 6 015 5 973 5 919 5 891 5 862 5 821 5 788 5 776 5 718 5 641 5 595 5 523 5 487 5 466 2 312 2 333 2 355 2 376 2 398 2 420 2 443 2 465 2 488 2 511 2 534 2 557 2 581 2 605 2 629 2 653 2 677 2 702 2 727 2 752 2 777 2 803 2 829 2 855 2 881 2 908 2 934 2 961 2 989 3 016 3 044 3 072 3 100 3 129 3 158 3 187 3 216 3 246 3 273 3 306 3 336 3 367 3 398 3 430 3 461 3 493 3 525 3 558 3 591 3 297 3 316 3 335 3 354 3 373 3 393 3 412 3 432 3 452 3 472 3 491 3 512 3 532 3 552 3 475 3 595 3 617 3 639 3 661 3 683 3 704 3 715 3 726 3 738 3 749 3 760 3 771 3 783 3 794 3 804 3 816 3 827 3 839 3 850 3 858 3 867 3 875 3 889 3 925 3 963 4 000 4 074 4 113 4 131 4 176 4 201 4 226 4 251 4 276 12 203 12 284 12 366 12 449 12 532 12 615 12 699 12 784 12 869 12 955 13 041 12 128 13 216 13 304 13 392 13 482 13 571 13 662 13 753 13 845 13 937 14 030 14 123 14 217 14 312 14 407 14 503 14 600 14 697 14 795 14 894 14 974 15 055 15 136 15 217 15 299 15 381 15 455 15 526 15 584 15 642 15 699 15 754 15 809 15 864 15 920 15 976 16 032 16 088 657 665 672 678 685 692 698 704 710 716 722 727 733 738 743 749 755 761 767 774 780 787 793 799 805 811 817 820 820 822 825 828 833 837 842 846 851 856 861 867 873 880 886 893 900 907 912 918 922 133 040 134 336 135 632 136 933 138 231 139 544 140 782 141 975 143 157 144 312 145 455 145 520 147 572 148 630 149 616 150 875 152 040 153 242 154 457 155 715 156 988 158 224 159 444 160 598 161 835 163 093 164 238 164 819 165 018 165 525 166 194 166 869 167 816 168 689 169 595 170 493 171 425 172 410 173 494 174 642 175 862 177 125 178 389 179 735 181 073 182 378 183 441 184 530 185 373 Ireland 42 .The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 1a. Population of 4 West European Countries and Total WEC.

thereafter only the Northern Ireland province. 43 . 1500–2001 Table 1a.Western Europe. Population of 4 West European Countries and Total WEC. Ireland Greece Portugal Spain 5 449 5 419 5 398 5 373 5 328 5 299 5 279 5 278 5 286 5 282 5 266 5 203 5 146 5 101 5 024 4 975 4 939 4 906 4 857 4 801 4 757 4 718 4 680 4 634 4 607 4 589 4 560 4 542 4 530 4 518 4 502 4 469 4 447 4 435 4 418 4 408 4 399 4 398 4 388 4 385 4 387 4 385 4 381 4 368 4 346 4 334 4 278 4 273 4 273 4 280 3 621 3 657 3 694 3 732 3 770 3 809 3 848 3 887 3 927 3 967 4 008 4 049 4 090 4 132 4 174 4 217 4 260 4 303 4 347 4 392 4 437 4 482 4 528 4 574 4 621 4 668 4 716 4 764 4 813 4 862 4 912 4 962 4 997 5 032 5 067 5 102 5 138 5 174 5 210 5 246 5 283 5 320 5 355 5 390 5 425 5 463 5 502 5 541 5 580 5 620 4 302 4 327 4 353 4 379 4 405 4 431 4 458 4 484 4 511 4 538 4 571 4 610 4 651 4 691 4 732 4 773 4 815 4 857 4 899 4 942 4 985 5 028 5 068 5 104 5 141 5 178 5 215 5 252 5 290 5 327 5 366 5 404 5 447 5 494 5 541 5 589 5 637 5 686 5 735 5 784 5 834 5 884 5 935 5 964 5 972 5 980 5 988 5 996 6 005 6 013 16 144 16 201 16 258 16 315 16 372 16 429 16 487 16 545 16 603 16 677 16 768 16 859 16 951 17 043 17 136 17 230 17 323 17 418 17 513 17 600 17 678 17 757 17 836 17 916 17 996 18 076 18 157 18 238 18 320 18 402 18 484 18 566 18 659 18 788 18 919 19 050 19 133 19 316 19 450 19 585 19 721 19 858 19 994 20 128 20 263 20 398 20 535 20 673 20 811 20 950 13 small WEC 930 933 941 949 958 966 975 983 992 1 000 1 009 1 018 1 027 1 036 1 045 1 054 1 064 1 073 1 082 1 092 1 101 1 111 1 121 1 131 1 140 1 150 1 161 1 171 1 181 1 191 1 202 1 212 1 223 1 234 1 244 1 255 1 266 1 277 1 289 1 300 1 311 1 323 1 334 1 346 1 358 1 362 1 367 1 371 1 376 1 380 29 WEC 186 844 187 504 187 816 188 712 190 046 191 492 192 963 194 700 196 449 198 022 199 779 201 221 202 532 203 865 205 172 206 686 208 141 209 643 211 085 212 551 214 110 215 597 217 031 218 554 220 043 221 799 223 515 225 436 227 546 229 659 231 710 233 645 235 665 237 886 240 037 242 197 244 238 246 505 248 653 250 920 253 174 255 394 257 730 259 376 260 975 263 255 263 637 263 637 263 058 261 531 Figures are shown here for Ireland 1500-1920 for information. They are not included in the total because the UK figures already include the whole of Ireland for 1500-1920. 1869-1918 (000 at mid-year) 1869 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 a.

1919-1969 (000 at mid-year) Ireland 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 4 352 4 361 3 096 3 002 3 014 3 005 2 985 2 971 2 957 2 944 2 937 2 927 2 933 2 949 2 962 2 971 2 971 2 967 2 948 2 937 2 934 2 958 2 993 2 963 2 946 2 944 2 952 2 957 2 974 2 985 2 981 2 963 2 959 2 952 2 947 2 937 2 916 2 895 2 878 2 852 2 843 2 832 2 818 2 830 2 850 2 864 2 876 2 884 2 900 2 913 2 926 b Greece Portugal Spain 5 660 5 700 5 837 5 890 6 010 6 000 5 958 6 042 6 127 6 205 6 275 6 351 6 440 6 516 6 591 6 688 6 793 6 886 6 973 7 061 7 156 7 280 7 362 7 339 7 297 7 284 7 322 7 418 7 529 7 749 7 856 7 566 7 646 7 733 7 817 7 893 7 966 8 031 8 096 8 173 8 258 8 327 8 398 8 448 8 480 8 510 8 550 8 614 8 716 8 741 8 773 6 021 6 029 6 071 6 146 6 223 6 300 6 378 6 457 6 538 6 619 6 701 6 784 6 869 6 954 7 040 7 127 7 216 7 305 7 396 7 488 7 581 7 675 7 757 7 826 7 896 7 967 8 038 8 110 8 183 8 256 8 329 8 443 8 490 8 526 8 579 8 632 8 693 8 756 8 818 8 889 8 962 9 037 9 031 9 020 9 082 9 123 9 129 9 109 9 103 9 115 9 097 21 091 21 232 21 411 21 628 21 847 22 069 22 292 22 518 22 747 22 977 23 210 23 445 23 675 23 897 24 122 24 349 24 579 23 810 25 043 25 279 25 517 25 757 25 979 26 182 26 387 26 594 26 802 27 012 27 223 27 437 27 651 28 063 28 298 28 550 28 804 29 060 29 319 29 579 29 842 30 106 30 373 30 641 30 904 31 158 31 430 31 741 32 085 32 452 32 850 33 239 33 566 44 13 small WEC 1 384 1 389 1 393 1 398 1 402 1 407 1 411 1 416 1 420 1 425 1 429 1 434 1 439 1 443 1 448 1 453 1 457 1 462 1 467 1 471 1 476 1 481 1 485 1 490 1 495 1 500 1 505 1 510 1 514 1 519 1 524 1 529 1 544 1 559 1 574 1 591 1 600 1 613 1 636 1 661 1 682 1 701 1 717 1 729 1 747 1 759 1 773 1 787 1 803 1 819 1 837 29 WEC 256 661 258 081 260 241 262 045 264 259 266 353 268 182 270 106 271 747 273 430 275 012 276 916 278 776 280 361 281 907 283 520 285 164 285 763 288 395 290 338 292 510 293 568 293 555 294 848 295 067 295 377 294 285 293 928 297 304 300 828 303 393 304 940 307 024 308 754 310 696 312 607 314 605 316 758 318 987 321 318 323 824 326 346 329 115 332 342 335 251 338 111 340 884 343 440 345 628 347 633 349 946 . Population of 4 West European Countries and Total WEC.The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 1a.

1970-2003 (000 at mid-year) Ireland 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 b. Population of 4 West European Countries and Total WEC.Western Europe. 1500–2001 Table 1a. 2 950 2 978 3 024 3 073 3 124 3 177 3 228 3 272 3 314 3 368 3 401 3 443 3 480 3 504 3 529 3 540 3 541 3 540 3 530 3 513 3 508 3 531 3 557 3 577 3 594 3 611 3 633 3 669 3 711 3 754 3 797 3 841 3 883 3 924 b Greece Portugal Spain 8 793 8 831 8 889 8 929 8 962 9 047 9 167 9 308 9 430 9 548 9 643 9 729 9 790 9 847 9 896 9 936 9 967 9 993 10 004 10 056 10 158 10 283 10 357 10 415 10 462 10 489 10 511 10 533 10 556 10 579 10 602 10 624 10 645 10 666 9 044 8 990 8 970 8 976 9 098 9 411 9 622 9 663 9 699 9 725 9 778 9 850 9 860 9 872 9 885 9 897 9 907 9 915 9 921 9 923 9 923 9 919 9 915 9 931 9 955 9 969 9 980 9 995 10 012 10 030 10 048 10 066 10 084 10 102 33 876 34 195 34 513 34 837 35 184 35 564 35 997 36 439 36 861 37 200 37 488 37 751 37 983 38 184 38 363 38 535 38 708 38 881 39 054 39 215 39 351 39 461 39 549 39 628 39 691 39 750 39 804 39 855 39 906 39 953 40 016 40 087 40 153 40 217 From 1921 the figures refer to the Irish Republic. 45 13 small WEC 1 853 1 869 1 883 1 907 1 929 1 915 1 914 1 922 1 939 1 957 1 990 2 009 2 020 2 030 2 040 2 050 2 064 2 086 2 110 2 131 2 159 2 188 2 218 2 245 2 268 2 285 2 303 2 322 2 340 2 359 2 377 2 395 2 412 2 429 29 WEC 352 240 354 702 356 845 358 825 360 466 361 743 362 752 363 850 364 949 366 096 367 457 368 647 369 371 369 920 370 509 371 162 372 001 372 887 374 092 375 950 377 856 379 688 381 580 383 334 384 719 385 936 387 063 388 065 388 977 389 945 391 036 392 101 393 061 393 957 .

GDP Levels in 12 West European Countries.The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 1b. 1500-1868 (million 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) Austria Belgium 1500 1 414 1 225 1600 2 093 1700 1820 1821 1822 1823 1824 1825 1826 1827 1828 1829 1830 1831 1832 1833 1834 1835 1836 1837 1838 1839 1840 1841 1842 1843 1844 1845 1846 1847 1848 1849 1850 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 Finland France 443 136 10 912 8 256 11 550 1 561 569 215 15 559 12 656 14 410 2 483 2 288 727 255 19 539 13 650 14 630 4 104 4 529 913 22 535 5 078 35 468 38 524 37 267 38 706 40 025 38 526 39 783 39 179 39 158 40 415 39 655 40 378 44 090 43 416 43 663 45 312 44 803 45 669 47 899 46 367 49 828 51 045 49 933 52 595 54 497 52 833 52 965 58 806 55 198 56 933 58 039 57 188 60 931 57 969 60 763 59 842 62 469 66 038 70 645 66 046 70 577 66 154 71 812 74 416 75 256 73 157 73 651 69 308 75 958 26 819 4 948 1 471 1 541 1 564 1 564 1 611 1 623 1 646 1 693 1 716 1 681 1 693 1 681 1 728 1 716 1 809 1 798 1 798 1 844 1 856 1 879 1 938 1 938 1 949 2 054 2 159 2 218 2 265 2 253 2 370 2 510 2 649 2 521 2 615 2 626 2 638 2 930 2 766 2 813 2 790 2 977 2 953 3 000 3 093 3 292 3 257 3 373 3 373 3 373 3 432 5 628 6 519 7 528 7 277 7 633 7 665 7 892 8 216 8 442 8 668 8 894 9 444 9 509 10 026 10 285 10 350 10 350 10 867 11 029 11 320 11 644 12 032 12 032 12 388 12 452 12 905 Denmark 1 483 1 667 1 680 1 590 1 718 1 756 1 744 1 763 1 622 1 782 46 Germany Italy 37 250 48 178 47 941 48 890 48 653 49 840 49 128 53 162 55 773 55 536 55 773 59 096 57 672 60 520 65 029 66 928 67 165 67 640 67 877 71 912 33 019 37 995 39 141 38 377 39 523 40 503 42 482 38 950 40 668 .

1500–2001 Table 1b.Western Europe. GDP Levels in 12 West European countries. 1500-1868 (million 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) Netherlands Norway Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom 12 WEC 1500 723 192 382 411 2 815 38 459 1600 2 072 304 626 750 6 007 56 822 1700 4 047 450 1 231 1 068 10 709 71 077 1820 1821 1822 1823 1824 1825 1826 1827 1828 1829 1830 1831 1832 1833 1834 1835 1836 1837 1838 1839 1840 1841 1842 1843 1844 1845 1846 1847 1848 1849 1850 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 4 288 4 458 4 498 4 702 4 871 4 871 4 902 5 125 5 373 5 492 5 300 5 298 5 638 5 742 5 750 5 823 5 980 6 205 6 380 6 485 6 588 6 734 6 756 6 680 6 723 6 807 6 837 6 869 6 938 7 119 7 345 7 551 7 642 7 578 7 790 7 941 8 036 8 179 8 039 7 810 7 887 8 007 8 123 8 427 8 760 9 015 9 255 9 335 9 286 1 071 3 098 3 255 3 220 3 342 3 463 3 498 3 185 3 307 3 603 3 463 3 394 3 255 3 463 3 638 3 638 3 725 3 777 3 638 3 429 3 777 3 864 3 742 3 742 3 899 4 247 4 020 3 933 4 177 4 438 4 595 4 490 4 334 4 351 4 334 4 769 5 013 4 856 4 995 5 395 5 656 5 743 5 413 5 709 5 918 6 283 6 057 6 109 6 005 6 161 2 165 36 232 142 693 3 541 3 633 3 863 3 729 3 314 3 873 3 869 4 200 5 298 5 035 4 379 4 691 5 049 5 047 4 778 5 183 5 135 4 514 5 333 42 228 44 249 43 800 44 249 46 046 48 517 50 314 49 640 52 336 54 806 53 234 52 111 50 988 51 886 55 031 57 951 61 770 62 219 62 893 64 016 63 342 66 037 67 160 69 631 71 428 71 203 76 370 77 717 77 942 79 964 81 760 84 007 84 680 85 354 87 600 90 296 91 644 90 745 93 665 1 653 2 301 2 344 2 405 2 393 47 238 474 .

The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 1b. 1869-1918 (million 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) 1869 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 Austria Belgium Denmark Finland France Germany Italy 8 419 9 029 9 099 8 888 9 287 9 333 9 545 9 873 10 201 10 131 10 272 10 694 10 764 11 210 11 514 11 444 11 819 12 640 12 617 12 499 13 179 13 648 13 953 14 047 14 868 15 267 15 501 15 829 16 721 17 072 17 213 17 283 17 963 18 128 18 409 19 441 20 191 21 434 21 528 21 458 21 763 22 443 23 568 23 451 19 572 18 154 17 933 17 548 17 186 13 390 13 716 13 780 14 621 14 718 15 203 15 171 15 365 15 559 16 012 16 174 16 982 17 209 17 791 18 050 18 211 18 438 18 664 19 376 19 505 20 443 20 896 20 929 21 446 21 770 22 093 22 611 23 063 23 484 23 872 24 357 25 069 25 295 25 813 26 395 27 074 27 851 28 433 28 854 29 145 29 695 30 471 31 183 31 926 32 347 30 300 29 935 31 672 27 199 21 917 3 630 3 782 3 793 4 003 3 979 4 096 4 166 4 248 4 131 4 295 4 435 4 540 4 586 4 750 4 913 4 936 4 971 5 170 5 357 5 392 5 462 5 788 5 905 6 045 6 162 6 290 6 640 6 885 7 049 7 165 7 469 7 726 8 052 8 239 8 729 8 916 9 068 9 324 9 674 9 978 10 363 10 678 11 250 11 250 11 670 12 405 11 542 12 032 11 320 10 946 1 910 1 999 2 013 2 083 2 204 2 255 2 300 2 428 2 370 2 326 2 351 2 364 2 300 2 524 2 619 2 639 2 703 2 837 2 881 2 990 3 092 3 265 3 233 3 137 3 258 3 514 3 706 3 948 4 140 4 319 4 217 4 415 4 364 4 274 4 562 4 734 4 811 5 003 5 175 5 233 5 463 5 584 5 744 6 063 6 389 6 108 5 801 5 878 4 939 4 281 78 029 72 100 71 667 78 313 72 822 82 070 84 815 77 880 82 070 81 058 76 001 82 792 85 971 90 017 90 306 89 294 87 705 89 150 89 728 90 595 92 906 95 074 97 241 99 697 101 431 105 188 103 021 107 933 106 488 111 690 118 048 116 747 114 869 112 990 115 447 116 314 118 336 120 504 125 705 124 983 130 185 122 238 134 230 145 356 144 489 134 230 131 485 138 131 117 036 92 328 72 386 72 149 71 674 76 658 79 981 85 914 86 389 85 914 85 440 89 474 87 338 86 626 88 762 90 186 95 170 97 543 99 917 100 629 104 663 108 935 112 021 115 581 115 343 120 090 126 023 129 109 135 279 140 026 144 061 150 231 155 690 162 335 158 538 162 335 171 354 178 236 182 034 187 492 195 799 199 122 203 156 210 513 217 633 227 127 237 332 202 207 192 002 193 900 194 138 194 612 41 146 41 814 42 272 41 647 43 274 43 130 44 365 43 431 43 409 44 051 44 561 46 690 43 541 47 354 47 218 47 556 48 542 50 695 52 090 51 920 49 686 52 863 52 648 49 688 51 967 51 235 52 027 53 456 51 091 55 646 56 944 60 114 64 016 62 231 65 196 65 805 69 477 72 087 80 214 82 149 88 494 85 285 90 839 91 574 95 487 95 413 106 730 119 746 125 383 127 249 48 . GDP Levels in 12 West European Countries.

Western Europe. 1500–2001 Table 1b. GDP Levels in 12 West European Countries. 1869-1918 (million 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) Netherlands 1869 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 9 552 9 952 9 942 10 146 10 472 10 213 10 908 11 074 11 364 11 468 11 074 12 313 12 540 12 875 13 816 14 065 14 378 14 594 15 178 15 707 15 707 15 070 14 783 15 006 15 157 15 524 16 015 15 405 16 959 17 310 17 566 17 604 17 958 18 796 19 197 19 334 19 953 20 661 20 679 20 694 21 457 22 438 23 263 23 998 24 955 24 281 25 105 25 779 24 131 22 634 Norway 2 491 2 485 2 521 2 680 2 735 2 827 2 913 2 998 3 011 2 919 2 955 3 047 3 072 3 060 3 047 3 108 3 145 3 164 3 200 3 341 3 457 3 549 3 580 3 659 3 757 3 769 3 806 3 922 4 118 4 130 4 247 4 320 4 436 4 528 4 510 4 504 4 559 4 724 4 901 5 060 5 195 5 379 5 544 5 795 6 119 6 254 6 523 6 731 6 119 5 893 Sweden 6 474 6 927 7 048 7 379 8 058 8 371 8 005 8 527 8 249 8 197 8 058 8 440 8 458 8 806 8 893 9 137 9 102 9 067 9 102 9 345 9 833 9 972 10 094 10 303 10 320 10 529 11 051 11 695 12 112 12 374 12 652 13 104 12 965 12 948 13 905 14 044 14 201 15 123 15 454 15 419 15 315 16 237 16 637 17 107 17 403 17 246 17 246 17 020 14 932 14 706 Switzerland 5 836 5 581 5 964 5 684 5 844 6 550 7 275 7 109 6 416 6 535 6 517 6 955 7 078 6 870 6 887 7 666 8 268 8 593 8 554 8 757 8 766 9 389 8 856 9 627 10 014 9 783 10 861 11 142 11 716 11 927 12 513 12 649 12 511 12 801 12 554 13 223 13 543 14 972 15 110 14 873 15 648 16 177 16 530 16 701 16 483 16 496 16 658 16 606 14 790 14 737 49 United Kingdom 12 WEC 94 339 100 180 105 570 105 795 108 266 110 063 112 758 113 881 115 004 115 454 115 004 120 395 124 663 128 257 129 155 129 380 128 706 130 728 135 894 141 959 149 596 150 269 150 269 146 676 146 676 156 559 161 500 168 239 170 485 178 796 186 208 184 861 184 861 189 578 187 556 188 679 194 295 200 808 204 627 196 316 200 808 207 098 213 162 216 307 224 618 226 864 245 058 250 449 252 695 254 268 339 103 345 273 358 108 361 242 379 979 388 398 382 400 386 896 391 988 384 599 401 416 408 873 423 253 431 284 435 051 437 319 445 109 458 663 471 062 483 468 494 895 496 530 499 328 510 582 528 460 541 783 561 217 567 533 594 181 616 982 626 156 625 148 632 497 647 532 659 273 677 567 699 323 727 627 724 500 747 235 753 860 788 458 816 772 840 743 791 376 806 239 835 878 810 230 780 758 .

The World Economy: Historical Statistics

Table 1b. GDP Levels in 12 West European Countries, 1919-1969
(million 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars)

1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

Austria

Belgium

Denmark

Finland

France

Germany

Italy

14 503
15 571
17 236
18 784
18 597
20 754
22 161
22 536
23 216
24 295
24 647
23 967
22 044
19 769
19 113
19 277
19 652
20 238
21 317
24 037
27 250
26 547
28 446
27 016
27 672
28 376
11 726
13 695
15 102
19 230
22 865
25 702
27 460
27 484
28 680
31 611
35 105
37 520
39 818
41 272
42 445
45 939
48 378
49 550
51 567
54 662
56 234
59 399
61 205
63 925
67 945

25 854
29 921
30 439
33 414
34 611
35 743
36 293
37 523
38 913
40 951
40 595
40 207
39 496
37 717
38 525
38 202
40 563
40 854
41 404
40 466
43 216
38 072
36 067
32 962
32 198
34 094
36 132
38 267
40 563
42 989
44 736
47 190
49 874
49 486
51 071
53 173
55 696
57 313
58 381
58 316
60 160
63 394
66 478
69 904
72 988
78 128
80 870
83 440
86 695
90 293
96 302

12 359
12 942
12 569
13 841
15 299
15 346
14 996
15 871
16 186
16 735
17 855
18 917
19 127
18 625
19 220
19 804
20 247
20 749
21 251
21 765
22 803
19 606
17 668
18 065
20 061
22 161
20 493
23 690
25 020
25 697
27 471
29 654
29 852
30 144
31 859
32 478
32 828
33 225
35 746
36 551
39 270
40 367
42 926
45 295
45 579
49 843
52 117
53 539
55 339
57 613
61 283

5 169
5 782
5 974
6 606
7 092
7 277
7 692
7 986
8 612
9 194
9 302
9 194
8 970
8 932
9 526
10 606
11 059
11 807
12 478
13 123
12 561
11 909
12 299
12 337
13 756
13 762
12 963
14 017
14 343
15 481
16 420
17 051
18 501
19 121
19 255
20 941
22 008
22 673
23 739
23 867
25 285
27 598
29 701
30 627
31 636
33 235
35 002
35 843
36 600
37 442
41 048

108 800
125 850
120 648
142 322
149 691
168 474
169 197
173 676
170 064
181 912
194 193
188 558
177 288
165 729
177 577
175 843
171 364
177 866
188 125
187 402
200 840
165 729
131 052
117 470
111 546
94 207
102 154
155 326
168 330
180 611
205 174
220 492
234 074
240 287
247 223
259 215
274 098
287 969
305 308
312 966
321 924
344 609
363 754
387 937
408 090
435 296
456 456
479 631
501 799
523 967
560 280

156 591
170 235
189 511
206 188
171 318
200 557
223 082
229 363
252 321
263 367
262 284
258 602
238 893
220 916
234 778
256 220
275 496
299 753
317 783
342 351
374 577
377 284
401 174
406 582
414 696
425 041
302 457
143 381
161 011
190 695
223 178
265 354
289 679
314 794
341 150
366 584
406 922
436 086
461 071
481 599
516 821
558 482
581 487
606 292
623 382
661 273
695 798
715 393
717 610
755 463
805 410

105 980
96 757
95 287
100 210
106 266
107 312
114 397
115 595
113 094
121 182
125 180
119 014
118 323
122 140
121 317
121 826
133 559
133 792
142 954
143 981
154 470
155 424
153 517
151 610
137 307
111 562
87 342
114 422
134 446
142 074
152 563
164 957
177 272
190 541
204 288
214 884
227 389
237 699
251 732
265 192
281 707
296 981
321 992
347 098
371 822
386 333
395 020
415 639
445 232
482 462
510 051

50

Western Europe, 1500–2001

Table 1b. GDP Levels in 12 West European Countries, 1919-1969
(million 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars)

1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

Netherlands

Norway

Sweden

Switzerland

28 049
28 898
30 670
32 342
33 140
35 561
37 058
40 028
41 700
43 921
44 270
44 170
41 475
40 901
40 826
40 078
41 575
44 195
46 716
45 593
48 687
42 898
40 627
37 133
36 235
24 306
24 880
41 999
48 613
53 804
58 546
60 642
61 914
63 162
68 652
73 319
78 759
81 654
83 950
83 701
87 793
95 180
95 455
101 993
105 686
114 446
120 435
123 754
130 267
138 627
147 552

6 890
7 324
6 719
7 502
7 667
7 630
8 102
8 279
8 597
8 879
9 705
10 421
9 613
10 255
10 500
10 837
11 302
11 993
12 422
12 734
13 339
12 152
12 446
11 963
11 724
11 112
12 452
13 786
15 365
16 589
16 913
17 838
18 665
19 332
20 225
21 229
21 639
22 771
23 432
23 218
24 411
25 813
27 377
28 159
29 254
30 662
32 305
33 556
35 690
36 498
38 140

15 558
16 463
15 854
17 351
18 273
18 847
19 544
20 640
21 284
22 293
23 651
24 138
23 268
22 641
23 076
24 834
26 418
27 949
29 272
29 759
31 813
30 873
31 395
33 309
34 789
35 972
36 947
41 001
42 011
43 316
44 900
47 269
49 148
49 845
51 237
53 395
54 944
57 032
59 591
59 887
61 714
64 986
68 710
71 599
75 411
80 562
83 643
85 383
88 272
91 475
96 056

15 707
16 726
16 311
17 890
18 925
19 631
21 065
22 120
23 307
24 609
25 466
25 301
24 246
23 422
24 593
24 642
24 543
24 626
25 796
26 785
26 752
27 032
26 851
26 175
25 944
26 571
34 202
36 543
40 944
41 768
40 631
42 545
45 990
46 369
48 001
50 705
54 117
57 710
60 002
58 732
62 425
66 793
72 200
75 661
79 370
83 541
86 195
88 305
91 008
94 272
99 584

51

United Kingdom
226 640
212 938
195 642
205 750
212 264
221 024
231 806
223 270
241 240
244 160
251 348
249 551
236 747
238 544
245 507
261 680
271 788
284 142
294 025
297 619
300 539
330 638
360 737
369 721
377 807
362 983
347 035
331 985
327 044
337 376
349 955
347 850
358 234
357 585
371 646
386 789
400 850
405 825
412 315
411 450
428 107
452 768
467 694
472 454
490 625
516 584
529 996
540 163
552 277
574 775
585 207

12 WEC
722 099
739 408
736 859
802 200
793 144
858 158
905 392
916 887
958 535
1 001 498
1 028 497
1 012 040
959 491
929 593
964 560
1 003 848
1 047 566
1 097 965
1 153 541
1 185 615
1 256 847
1 238 163
1 252 277
1 244 342
1 243 734
1 190 146
1 028 782
968 114
1 032 793
1 109 630
1 203 351
1 286 544
1 360 663
1 408 150
1 483 287
1 564 323
1 664 355
1 737 477
1 815 085
1 856 751
1 952 062
2 082 910
2 186 152
2 286 569
2 385 410
2 524 565
2 624 071
2 714 045
2 801 994
2 946 812
3 108 858

The World Economy: Historical Statistics

Table 1b. GDP Levels in 12 West European Countries, 1970-2001
(million 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars)

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001

Austria

Belgium

Denmark

Finland

France

Germany

72 785
76 506
81 256
85 227
88 588
88 267
92 307
96 624
96 273
101 525
103 874
103 771
105 750
108 716
109 077
111 525
114 135
116 053
119 730
124 791
130 476
134 944
136 754
137 455
140 949
143 849
146 726
149 028
154 350
158 665
163 412
164 851

102 265
106 103
111 679
118 516
123 494
121 855
128 743
129 549
133 231
136 350
142 458
140 680
142 665
142 648
146 180
147 650
149 854
153 392
160 632
166 396
171 442
174 880
177 695
175 072
180 312
185 047
187 268
193 929
198 370
204 292
212 434
214 655

62 524
64 191
67 578
70 032
69 379
68 921
73 382
74 573
75 674
78 356
78 010
77 316
79 650
81 656
85 241
88 897
92 135
92 406
93 482
93 728
94 863
96 184
97 413
98 232
103 884
107 713
110 406
113 745
116 545
119 238
122 793
123 978

44 114
45 036
48 473
51 724
53 291
53 905
53 676
53 808
54 934
58 756
61 890
63 043
65 090
66 849
68 866
71 184
72 873
75 861
79 581
84 092
84 103
78 841
76 222
75 347
78 327
81 311
84 563
89 930
94 727
98 549
104 566
105 298

592 389
621 055
648 668
683 965
704 012
699 106
729 326
756 545
777 544
802 491
813 763
822 116
842 787
852 644
865 172
877 305
898 129
920 822
961 287
1 000 286
1 026 491
1 036 379
1 051 689
1 041 232
1 061 556
1 079 157
1 091 028
1 111 532
1 150 381
1 188 152
1 235 635
1 258 297

843 103
867 917
903 739
944 755
952 571
947 383
993 132
1 021 710
1 050 404
1 092 615
1 105 099
1 109 276
1 099 799
1 119 394
1 150 951
1 176 131
1 202 151
1 220 284
1 260 983
1 302 212
1 264 438
1 328 057
1 357 825
1 343 060
1 374 575
1 398 310
1 409 496
1 429 073
1 457 039
1 483 607
1 528 353
1 536 743

52

Italy

521 506
531 385
546 933
582 713
610 040
596 946
635 737
654 108
678 494
716 984
742 299
745 816
749 233
758 360
777 841
799 697
822 404
847 870
880 671
906 053
925 654
938 522
945 660
937 303
957 993
986 004
996 850
1 016 570
1 035 304
1 052 066
1 081 646
1 101 366

Western Europe, 1500–2001

Table 1b. GDP Levels in 12 West European Countries, 1970-2001
(million 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars)
Netherlands

Norway

Sweden

Switzerland

United Kingdom

12 WEC

1970

155 955

38 902

102 275

1971

162 539

40 683

103 241

105 935

599 016

3 240 769

110 253

611 705

1972

167 919

42 785

3 340 614

105 604

113 781

633 352

1973

175 791

3 471 767

44 544

109 794

117 251

675 941

1974

3 660 253

182 763

46 858

113 306

118 957

666 755

3 730 014

1975

182 596

48 811

116 198

110 294

665 984

3 700 266

1976

191 194

52 135

117 428

108 745

680 933

3 856 738

1977

196 392

54 002

115 553

111 392

695 699

3 959 955

1978

201 024

56 453

117 577

111 847

720 501

4 073 956

1979

205 501

58 894

122 092

114 634

740 370

4 228 568

1980

207 979

61 811

124 130

119 909

728 224

4 289 446

1981

206 925

62 406

124 113

121 802

718 733

4 295 997

1982

204 517

62 514

125 358

120 051

729 861

4 327 275

1983

208 014

64 729

127 555

120 659

755 779

4 407 003

1984

214 854

68 530

132 717

124 311

774 665

4 518 405

1985

221 470

72 105

135 277

128 561

802 000

4 631 802

1986

227 570

74 687

138 381

130 653

837 280

4 760 252

1987

230 788

76 203

142 733

131 614

877 143

4 885 169

1988

236 824

76 117

145 946

135 709

920 841

5 071 803

1989

247 906

76 818

149 415

141 599

940 908

5 234 204

1990

258 094

78 333

151 451

146 900

944 610

5 276 855

1991

263 950

80 774

149 760

145 724

930 493

5 358 508

1992

269 298

83 413

147 631

145 540

930 975

5 420 115

1993

271 347

85 694

144 353

144 839

952 554

5 406 488

1994

280 094

90 400

150 296

145 610

994 384

5 558 380

1995

286 416

93 879

155 843

146 345

1 022 172

5 686 046

1996

295 008

98 479

157 557

146 784

1 048 748

5 772 913

1997

306 465

103 079

160 830

149 272

1 085 547

5 909 000

1998

319 640

105 614

166 596

152 784

1 117 234

6 068 584

1999

331 670

106 740

174 077

155 272

1 143 810

6 216 138

2000

343 126

109 181

180 310

159 955

1 179 586

6 420 997

2001

347 136

110 683

182 492

162 150

1 202 074

6 509 723

53

The World Economy: Historical Statistics

Table 1b. GDP Levels in 4 West European Countries and Total WEC, 1500-1868
(million 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars)
a

Greece

Portugal

Spain

1500

421

433

606

4 495

169

44 162

1600

615

725

814

7 029

250

65 640

1700

1 377

795

1 638

7 481

311

81 302

1820
1821
1822
1823
1824
1825
1826
1827
1828
1829
1830
1831
1832
1833
1834
1835
1836
1837
1838
1839
1840
1841
1842
1843
1844
1845
1846
1847
1848
1849
1850
1851
1852
1853
1854
1855
1856
1857
1858
1859
1860
1861
1862
1863
1864
1865
1866
1867
1868

6 231

1 482

3 043

12 299

628

160 145

2 484

3 524
3 793

16 066
16 311
17 053
17 192
17 506
18 391
17 892
17 489
17 902
18 700
19 336
19 595
19 729
20 190
20 206
19 586
20 612
20 566
18 490

1 050

261 598

Ireland

3 552

3 597

3 745
3 887
4 000
4 042

54

13 small WEC

29 WEC

1869-1918 (million 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) a Greece 9 619 3 218 Ireland 1869 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 a. GDP Levels in 4 West European Countries and Total WEC. 55 . thereafter only the Northern Ireland province.Western Europe. They are not included in the total because the UK figures already include the whole of Ireland for 1500-1920. 1500–2001 Table 1b. 5 280 6 704 11 891 8 635 Portugal 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 6 6 7 7 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 148 219 061 179 353 282 277 177 372 375 384 367 513 655 770 934 064 343 457 523 425 671 572 548 660 587 827 908 251 469 701 037 914 954 054 148 950 997 165 052 048 225 369 494 467 520 352 397 281 913 Spain 19 19 21 24 26 23 24 25 27 26 25 27 28 28 29 29 28 28 27 28 28 28 29 31 30 30 30 28 29 31 32 33 35 34 34 34 34 35 36 38 38 37 40 40 41 41 41 43 43 42 073 556 104 034 156 968 670 136 701 982 492 750 462 831 480 561 774 157 765 890 823 839 495 707 597 939 668 224 659 945 457 164 471 440 600 485 005 760 885 331 998 633 332 028 653 075 746 687 150 844 13 small WEC 29 WEC 1 495 367 591 2 253 536 938 2 862 675 923 3 3 3 3 3 3 902 341 843 594 673 822 732 634 Figures are shown here for Ireland 1500-1920 for information.

56 Spain 43 46 47 49 50 51 54 54 59 59 63 61 59 61 59 62 63 49 45 45 48 53 52 55 57 60 56 58 59 59 59 61 67 73 72 78 81 88 90 94 92 94 106 118 130 143 152 164 175 185 202 112 226 370 390 028 443 627 424 140 371 570 435 871 163 966 231 482 343 272 255 856 585 726 670 724 407 326 854 823 970 583 429 533 044 806 335 457 083 901 829 651 119 187 386 477 308 794 199 227 747 472 13 small WEC 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 10 10 11 11 12 13 446 523 346 843 780 072 278 317 503 694 810 719 462 615 470 647 837 061 311 438 743 663 753 713 729 499 798 544 801 114 517 880 746 180 436 647 001 427 752 966 279 487 876 269 756 165 877 398 862 261 144 29 WEC 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 814 883 875 942 993 005 054 097 130 111 057 030 065 108 153 189 245 277 352 335 347 339 340 288 120 066 136 215 310 396 478 532 611 699 805 888 971 018 114 250 370 486 603 761 877 983 088 252 438 443 586 828 562 948 600 398 217 656 672 490 213 268 175 584 456 144 258 535 018 238 725 124 245 180 456 828 187 407 188 599 433 339 722 779 452 596 551 619 549 583 946 774 481 269 130 548 072 238 .The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 1b. 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 8 8 8 9 9 9 8 8 8 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 14 14 14 15 16 17 b 841 800 760 720 680 640 845 058 294 480 716 508 294 562 812 056 716 965 955 028 135 043 991 985 912 025 196 643 148 231 488 753 043 142 432 283 266 034 481 127 706 120 741 279 528 652 521 804 815 Greece 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 13 14 14 13 14 15 16 16 16 19 18 18 16 13 11 9 8 6 10 13 13 14 14 15 15 18 18 20 21 23 24 25 26 28 29 32 35 38 40 43 46 50 196 565 947 341 748 169 603 864 696 342 746 912 784 173 846 907 307 901 875 183 796 588 683 129 865 284 272 936 679 489 765 878 053 615 022 731 147 218 107 195 492 562 567 243 553 907 152 027 585 Portugal 7 7 7 8 9 8 9 9 10 9 10 10 11 11 12 12 12 11 12 13 13 12 13 13 14 15 14 15 16 16 17 17 18 18 19 20 21 22 23 23 25 26 28 30 31 33 36 37 40 44 45 064 411 831 788 169 828 223 163 772 732 789 656 204 422 194 714 041 124 997 084 259 396 551 369 263 079 497 635 943 894 129 615 404 428 714 660 512 451 445 753 039 711 170 040 823 921 446 929 792 421 364 From 1921 the figures refer to the Irish Republic. GDP Levels in 4 West European Countries and Total WEC. 1919-1969 (million 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) Ireland 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 b.

1970-2001 (1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Ireland Greece Portugal Spain 18 289 18 923 20 151 21 103 22 002 23 246 23 571 25 506 27 340 28 180 29 047 30 013 30 698 30 624 31 957 32 943 32 802 34 331 36 123 38 223 41 459 42 259 43 672 44 848 47 429 52 163 56 207 62 295 67 658 74 999 83 596 89 113 54 609 58 496 65 775 68 355 65 868 69 853 74 296 76 843 81 989 85 015 86 505 86 553 86 895 87 244 89 645 92 442 93 941 93 507 97 670 101 425 101 452 104 597 105 329 103 644 105 717 107 937 110 482 114 500 118 351 122 405 127 681 132 916 49 498 52 781 57 011 63 397 64 122 61 334 65 566 69 239 71 189 75 203 78 655 79 928 81 634 81 492 79 961 82 206 85 610 91 073 97 894 102 922 107 427 110 047 112 134 110 593 113 328 116 640 120 722 125 505 131 220 135 886 140 901 143 234 214 070 226 319 245 019 266 896 286 732 296 824 309 546 321 868 332 597 337 333 344 987 346 768 352 979 361 902 367 170 374 627 386 998 409 027 431 389 454 166 474 366 485 126 488 459 482 776 493 643 507 054 519 223 540 520 563 844 587 169 611 000 627 733 57 13 small WEC 13 713 14 651 15 548 16 452 16 510 16 005 17 038 18 095 19 058 20 007 20 768 21 257 21 886 22 385 23 512 24 313 25 556 26 754 28 385 30 000 31 205 32 342 33 161 34 633 35 838 36 899 38 136 39 918 41 769 43 639 46 112 47 553 29 WEC 3 590 948 3 711 784 3 875 271 4 096 456 4 185 248 4 167 528 4 346 755 4 471 506 4 606 129 4 774 306 4 849 408 4 860 516 4 901 367 4 990 650 5 110 650 5 238 333 5 385 159 5 539 861 5 763 264 5 960 940 6 032 764 6 132 879 6 202 870 6 182 982 6 354 335 6 506 739 6 617 683 6 791 738 6 991 426 7 180 236 7 430 287 7 550 272 .Western Europe. GDP Levels in 4 West European Countries and Total WEC. 1500–2001 Table 1b.

Per Capita GDP in 12 West European Countries.The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 1c. 1500-1868 (1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) Austria Belgium Denmark Finland France Germany Italy 1500 707 875 738 453 727 688 1 100 1600 837 976 875 538 841 791 1 100 1700 993 1 144 1 039 638 910 910 1 100 1820 1821 1822 1823 1824 1825 1826 1827 1828 1829 1830 1831 1832 1833 1834 1835 1836 1837 1838 1839 1840 1841 1842 1843 1844 1845 1846 1847 1848 1849 1850 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1 218 1 319 781 1 117 1 354 1 135 1 225 1 176 1 213 1 246 1 191 1 223 1 197 1 190 1 221 1 191 1 208 1 312 1 288 1 290 1 333 1 311 1 329 1 387 1 336 1 428 1 456 1 418 1 487 1 533 1 480 1 478 1 635 1 529 1 572 1 597 1 568 1 664 1 578 1 648 1 617 1 686 1 779 1 900 1 774 1 892 1 769 1 914 1 973 1 988 1 924 1 934 1 813 1 982 1 077 1 399 1 274 1 320 1 327 1 308 1 328 1 322 1 324 1 349 1 357 1 324 1 330 1 318 1 354 1 336 1 397 1 377 1 367 1 392 1 390 1 395 1 428 1 414 1 407 1 476 1 527 1 551 1 569 1 547 1 612 1 691 1 767 1 662 1 702 1 692 1 681 1 843 1 716 1 722 1 688 1 778 1 741 1 747 1 779 1 869 1 833 1 875 1 859 1 840 1 853 1 515 1 650 1 778 1 694 1 762 1 754 1 790 1 847 1 886 1 924 1 962 2 070 2 071 2 170 2 211 2 212 2 197 2 293 2 310 2 354 2 404 2 466 2 448 2 503 2 497 2 569 911 959 958 896 958 969 951 958 886 1 003 58 1 328 1 428 1 408 1 426 1 413 1 443 1 420 1 531 1 594 1 574 1 565 1 639 1 583 1 645 1 749 1 780 1 770 1 771 1 766 1 861 1 350 1 447 1 482 1 442 1 474 1 499 1 559 1 421 1 479 .

1500-1868 (1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) Netherlands Norway Sweden 1500 761 640 695 632 714 798 1600 1 381 760 824 750 974 908 1700 2 130 900 977 890 1 250 1 033 1820 1821 1822 1823 1824 1825 1826 1827 1828 1829 1830 1831 1832 1833 1834 1835 1836 1837 1838 1839 1840 1841 1842 1843 1844 1845 1846 1847 1848 1849 1850 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1 838 1 885 1 874 1 931 1 969 1 938 1 928 2 001 2 079 2 104 2 013 1 997 2 116 2 140 2 124 2 131 2 165 2 223 2 262 2 273 2 283 2 305 2 289 2 241 2 231 2 234 2 228 2 237 2 261 2 314 2 371 2 410 2 413 2 373 2 421 2 455 2 470 2 496 2 440 2 364 2 377 2 397 2 413 2 481 2 553 2 605 2 656 2 660 2 621 1 104 1 198 1 247 1 217 1 243 1 270 1 262 1 135 1 169 1 266 1 210 1 175 1 122 1 185 1 229 1 220 1 231 1 235 1 183 1 110 1 216 1 231 1 179 1 167 1 205 1 297 1 212 1 176 1 242 1 306 1 335 1 289 1 232 1 229 1 216 1 322 1 377 1 322 1 354 1 445 1 493 1 488 1 382 1 439 1 471 1 544 1 472 1 468 1 431 1 476 1 090 1 706 1 245 1 488 1 514 1 606 1 546 1 365 1 586 1 575 1 700 2 133 2 016 1 745 1 859 1 989 1 978 1 862 2 010 1 980 1 731 2 033 1 749 1 811 1 774 1 774 1 828 1 906 1 957 1 912 1 996 2 069 1 990 1 930 1 869 1 886 1 981 2 067 2 185 2 213 2 272 2 334 2 330 2 451 2 480 2 555 2 602 2 571 2 730 2 757 2 742 2 790 2 830 2 884 2 880 2 881 2 935 3 001 3 023 2 968 3 037 1 188 1 362 1 373 1 402 1 388 59 Switzerland United Kingdom 12 WEC 1 661 . 1500–2001 Table 1c. Per Capita GDP in 12 West European Countries.Western Europe.

The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 1c. Per Capita GDP in 12 West European Countries. 1869-1918 (1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) 1869 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 Austria Belgium Denmark Finland France Germany Italy 1 863 1 979 1 976 1 913 1 981 1 973 2 000 2 050 2 100 2 068 2 079 2 145 2 140 2 209 2 248 2 215 2 268 2 404 2 379 2 337 2 443 2 506 2 535 2 525 2 645 2 688 2 701 2 730 2 855 2 886 2 882 2 864 2 945 2 941 2 956 3 090 3 176 3 338 3 320 3 276 3 290 3 365 3 505 3 465 2 876 2 653 2 628 2 586 2 555 2 663 2 692 2 682 2 824 2 820 2 890 2 861 2 875 2 884 2 942 2 945 3 065 3 070 3 136 3 145 3 136 3 138 3 153 3 250 3 247 3 379 3 428 3 395 3 442 3 455 3 468 3 512 3 551 3 586 3 615 3 656 3 731 3 719 3 739 3 772 3 821 3 882 3 917 3 932 3 933 3 971 4 064 4 148 4 206 4 220 3 923 3 858 4 080 3 519 2 861 1 940 2 003 1 993 2 087 2 057 2 096 2 112 2 130 2 046 2 102 2 149 2 181 2 183 2 240 2 299 2 285 2 274 2 336 2 395 2 389 2 400 2 523 2 555 2 598 2 629 2 657 2 770 2 836 2 863 2 870 2 952 3 017 3 104 3 141 3 290 3 326 3 346 3 402 3 486 3 552 3 643 3 705 3 857 3 812 3 912 4 110 3 778 3 891 3 617 3 459 1 101 1 140 1 127 1 145 1 193 1 204 1 211 1 259 1 211 1 173 1 167 1 155 1 110 1 203 1 230 1 219 1 231 1 276 1 276 1 302 1 327 1 381 1 350 1 280 1 341 1 399 1 492 1 570 1 624 1 668 1 607 1 668 1 636 1 591 1 686 1 731 1 742 1 794 1 834 1 829 1 884 1 906 1 939 2 022 2 111 2 001 1 882 1 893 1 581 1 370 2 006 1 876 1 899 2 078 1 922 2 157 2 219 2 028 2 127 2 091 1 953 2 120 2 194 2 288 2 288 2 253 2 207 2 237 2 249 2 269 2 322 2 376 2 432 2 493 2 535 2 626 2 569 2 685 2 639 2 760 2 911 2 876 2 826 2 775 2 831 2 847 2 894 2 943 3 070 3 045 3 167 2 965 3 250 3 514 3 485 3 236 3 248 3 463 2 979 2 396 1 860 1 839 1 817 1 931 1 999 2 124 2 112 2 071 2 033 2 103 2 029 1 991 2 025 2 044 2 143 2 178 2 216 2 211 2 275 2 341 2 379 2 428 2 397 2 469 2 565 2 598 2 686 2 740 2 775 2 848 2 905 2 985 2 871 2 893 3 008 3 083 3 104 3 152 3 245 3 254 3 275 3 348 3 408 3 524 3 648 3 059 2 899 2 935 2 952 2 983 1 486 1 499 1 506 1 475 1 524 1 513 1 550 1 506 1 493 1 506 1 514 1 581 1 467 1 584 1 568 1 566 1 584 1 643 1 678 1 662 1 579 1 667 1 651 1 548 1 609 1 576 1 592 1 627 1 545 1 672 1 700 1 785 1 890 1 821 1 893 1 896 1 984 2 042 2 254 2 288 2 444 2 332 2 461 2 465 2 564 2 543 2 810 3 139 3 301 3 392 60 .

Western Europe, 1500–2001

Table 1b. Per Capita GDP in 12 West European Countries, 1869-1918
(1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars)
Netherlands
1869
1870
1871
1872
1873
1874
1875
1876
1877
1878
1879
1880
1881
1882
1883
1884
1885
1886
1887
1888
1889
1890
1891
1892
1893
1894
1895
1896
1897
1898
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904
1905
1906
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918

2 672
2 757
2 734
2 771
2 853
2 727
2 880
2 890
2 927
2 991
2 778
3 046
3 074
3 117
3 305
3 328
3 362
3 374
3 467
3 544
3 502
3 323
3 224
3 240
3 236
3 273
3 334
3 166
3 436
3 460
3 465
3 424
3 440
3 543
3 562
3 535
3 594
3 669
3 622
3 577
3 660
3 789
3 888
3 955
4 049
3 868
3 926
3 956
3 627
3 352

Norway

Sweden

1 441
1 432
1 445
1 527
1 548
1 586
1 615
1 639
1 626
1 555
1 554
1 588
1 597
1 593
1 588
1 611
1 618
1 616
1 624
1 690
1 743
1 777
1 778
1 806
1 844
1 832
1 827
1 857
1 923
1 900
1 927
1 937
1 967
1 990
1 971
1 961
1 974
2 037
2 104
2 157
2 195
2 256
2 309
2 392
2 501
2 530
2 611
2 669
2 399
2 286

1 557
1 662
1 684
1 746
1 885
1 938
1 835
1 935
1 851
1 818
1 769
1 846
1 851
1 924
1 937
1 976
1 951
1 929
1 926
1 971
2 065
2 086
2 105
2 144
2 143
2 171
2 257
2 367
2 429
2 457
2 491
2 561
2 515
2 496
2 669
2 680
2 691
2 845
2 885
2 853
2 808
2 980
3 002
3 064
3 096
3 048
3 028
2 968
2 584
2 532

61

Switzerland
2 211
2 102
2 225
2 108
2 152
2 397
2 645
2 568
2 303
2 331
2 310
2 450
2 481
2 400
2 396
2 657
2 855
2 956
2 931
2 990
2 982
3 182
2 987
3 207
3 294
3 179
3 488
3 536
3 675
3 697
3 835
3 833
3 745
3 783
3 662
3 808
3 913
4 206
4 193
4 078
4 240
4 331
4 378
4 373
4 266
4 233
4 290
4 277
3 804
3 798

United Kingdom
3 031
3 190
3 332
3 319
3 365
3 386
3 434
3 430
3 425
3 403
3 353
3 477
3 568
3 643
3 643
3 622
3 574
3 600
3 713
3 849
4 024
4 009
3 975
3 846
3 811
4 029
4 118
4 249
4 264
4 428
4 567
4 492
4 450
4 525
4 440
4 428
4 520
4 631
4 679
4 449
4 511
4 611
4 709
4 762
4 921
4 927
5 288
5 384
5 421
5 459

12 WEC

2 088
2 124
2 192
2 195
2 291
2 323
2 265
2 270
2 281
2 218
2 298
2 326
2 392
2 422
2 425
2 420
2 446
2 503
2 553
2 601
2 643
2 634
2 630
2 671
2 742
2 789
2 863
2 867
2 973
3 058
3 077
3 044
3 051
3 094
3 122
3 180
3 252
3 354
3 308
3 381
3 380
3 503
3 605
3 688
3 440
3 502
3 633
3 534
3 431

The World Economy: Historical Statistics

Table 1c. Per Capita GDP in 12 West European Countries, 1919-1969
(1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars)

1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

Austria

Belgium

Denmark

Finland

France

Germany

Italy

2 259
2 412
2 650
2 877
2 842
3 163
3 367
3 413
3 505
3 657
3 699
3 586
3 288
2 940
2 833
2 852
2 907
2 995
3 156
3 559
4 096
3 959
4 217
3 983
4 065
4 152
1 725
1 956
2 166
2 764
3 293
3 706
3 959
3 967
4 137
4 555
5 053
5 397
5 716
5 907
6 051
6 519
6 827
6 950
7 186
7 567
7 734
8 112
8 297
8 621
9 131

3 389
3 962
4 056
4 413
4 533
4 638
4 666
4 784
4 923
5 139
5 054
4 979
4 860
4 607
4 681
4 624
4 894
4 913
4 961
4 832
5 150
4 562
4 358
3 997
3 907
4 112
4 333
4 574
4 800
5 024
5 193
5 462
5 747
5 668
5 818
6 029
6 280
6 422
6 495
6 442
6 608
6 952
7 253
7 583
7 862
8 341
8 559
8 776
9 072
9 416
10 018

3 860
3 992
3 826
4 166
4 559
4 528
4 378
4 598
4 658
4 785
5 075
5 341
5 359
5 169
5 291
5 402
5 480
5 575
5 668
5 762
5 993
5 116
4 574
4 629
5 080
5 543
5 066
5 777
6 035
6 133
6 494
6 943
6 936
6 955
7 292
7 371
7 395
7 439
7 965
8 095
8 637
8 812
9 312
9 747
9 732
10 560
10 953
11 160
11 437
11 837
12 531

1 658
1 846
1 884
2 058
2 187
2 224
2 328
2 392
2 557
2 707
2 717
2 666
2 581
2 550
2 702
2 988
3 093
3 279
3 441
3 589
3 408
3 220
3 322
3 327
3 697
3 685
3 450
3 683
3 717
3 957
4 143
4 253
4 571
4 674
4 652
5 002
5 197
5 295
5 490
5 474
5 754
6 230
6 658
6 819
6 994
7 307
7 670
7 824
7 947
8 093
8 878

2 811
3 227
3 075
3 610
3 754
4 179
4 166
4 249
4 154
4 431
4 710
4 532
4 235
3 959
4 239
4 192
4 086
4 244
4 487
4 466
4 793
4 042
3 309
2 981
2 860
2 422
2 573
3 855
4 138
4 393
4 946
5 271
5 553
5 659
5 783
6 020
6 312
6 568
6 890
6 988
7 116
7 546
7 875
8 232
8 536
9 005
9 361
9 750
10 123
10 493
11 127

2 586
2 796
3 078
3 331
2 750
3 199
3 532
3 605
3 941
4 090
4 051
3 973
3 652
3 362
3 556
3 858
4 120
4 451
4 685
4 994
5 406
5 403
5 711
5 740
5 890
6 084
4 514
2 217
2 436
2 834
3 282
3 881
4 206
4 553
4 905
5 247
5 797
6 177
6 492
6 737
7 177
7 705
7 952
8 222
8 386
8 822
9 199
9 388
9 397
9 864
10 440

2 845
2 587
2 528
2 631
2 763
2 765
2 921
2 926
2 838
3 016
3 093
2 918
2 877
2 948
2 906
2 894
3 148
3 130
3 319
3 316
3 521
3 505
3 432
3 369
3 039
2 463
1 922
2 502
2 920
3 063
3 265
3 502
3 738
3 997
4 260
4 449
4 676
4 859
5 118
5 360
5 653
5 916
6 373
6 827
7 262
7 487
7 598
7 942
8 454
9 105
9 566

62

Western Europe, 1500–2001

Table 1c. Per Capita GDP in 12 West European Countries, 1919-1969
(1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars)
Netherlands
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

4 122
4 220
4 431
4 599
4 635
4 895
5 031
5 358
5 504
5 720
5 689
5 603
5 185
5 035
4 956
4 805
4 929
5 190
5 433
5 250
5 544
4 831
4 531
4 107
3 981
2 649
2 686
4 457
5 048
5 490
5 880
5 996
6 032
6 084
6 543
6 907
7 326
7 499
7 614
7 482
7 737
8 287
8 202
8 639
8 832
9 437
9 798
9 936
10 341
10 894
11 462

Norway

Sweden

2 647
2 780
2 518
2 784
2 826
2 796
2 949
2 996
3 098
3 188
3 472
3 712
3 404
3 609
3 674
3 771
3 912
4 130
4 255
4 337
4 516
4 088
4 163
3 976
3 867
3 631
4 029
4 409
4 855
5 182
5 230
5 463
5 663
5 809
6 018
6 254
6 314
6 581
6 710
6 590
6 871
7 208
7 584
7 738
7 979
8 300
8 677
8 940
9 427
9 557
9 904

2 669
2 802
2 674
2 906
3 047
3 130
3 233
3 404
3 500
3 656
3 869
3 937
3 782
3 666
3 721
3 991
4 232
4 465
4 664
4 725
5 029
4 857
4 914
5 179
5 360
5 484
5 568
6 102
6 175
6 292
6 455
6 739
6 949
6 996
7 145
7 402
7 566
7 797
8 092
8 083
8 288
8 688
9 137
9 469
9 917
10 515
10 815
10 936
11 219
11 561
12 055

63

Switzerland
4 060
4 314
4 208
4 618
4 874
5 039
5 388
5 626
5 892
6 171
6 332
6 246
5 943
5 710
5 966
5 952
5 907
5 908
6 171
6 390
6 360
6 397
6 312
6 107
6 001
6 089
7 752
8 181
9 050
9 116
8 757
9 064
9 684
9 630
9 840
10 287
10 867
11 439
11 705
11 297
11 870
12 457
13 099
13 354
13 710
14 191
14 504
14 727
15 010
15 374
16 031

United Kingdom
4 870
4 548
4 439
4 637
4 760
4 921
5 144
4 936
5 315
5 357
5 503
5 441
5 138
5 148
5 277
5 608
5 799
6 035
6 218
6 266
6 262
6 856
7 482
7 639
7 744
7 405
7 056
6 745
6 604
6 746
6 956
6 939
7 123
7 091
7 346
7 619
7 868
7 929
8 017
7 966
8 240
8 645
8 857
8 865
9 149
9 568
9 752
9 885
10 049
10 410
10 552

12 WEC
3 245
3 305
3 313
3 582
3 513
3 771
3 951
3 974
4 132
4 293
4 387
4 289
4 041
3 896
4 023
4 167
4 326
4 512
4 717
4 818
5 071
4 984
5 050
4 996
4 994
4 778
4 154
3 921
4 133
4 388
4 718
5 018
5 272
5 428
5 684
5 959
6 302
6 535
6 780
6 886
7 184
7 607
7 914
8 191
8 469
8 886
9 160
9 404
9 654
10 099
10 583

The World Economy: Historical Statistics

Table 1c. Per Capita GDP in 12 West European Countries, 1970-2001
(1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars)
Austria

Belgium

Denmark

Finland

France

Germany

Italy

1970

9 747

10 611

12 686

9 577

11 664

10 839

9 719

1971

10 200

10 970

12 934

9 765

12 110

11 077

9 839

1972

10 771

11 503

13 538

10 448

12 539

11 481

10 060

1973

11 235

12 170

13 945

11 085

13 114

11 966

10 634

1974

11 658

12 643

13 751

11 361

13 409

12 063

11 046

1975

11 646

12 441

13 621

11 441

13 251

12 041

10 742

1976

12 201

13 122

14 466

11 358

13 773

12 684

11 385

1977

12 767

13 190

14 655

11 355

14 230

13 072

11 668

1978

12 731

13 554

14 826

11 559

14 566

13 455

12 064

1979

13 448

13 861

15 313

12 332

14 970

13 993

12 720

1980

13 759

14 467

15 227

12 949

15 106

14 114

13 149

1981

13 718

14 279

15 096

13 134

15 183

14 149

13 200

1982

13 962

14 474

15 563

13 485

15 483

14 040

13 252

1983

14 396

14 474

15 966

13 767

15 602

14 329

13 391

1984

14 442

14 833

16 676

14 107

15 746

14 783

13 719

1985

14 757

14 977

17 384

14 522

15 901

15 140

14 096

1986

15 086

15 195

17 993

14 819

16 215

15 469

14 496

1987

15 319

15 541

18 023

15 382

16 553

15 701

14 946

1988

15 762

16 252

18 224

16 088

17 205

16 160

15 523

1989

16 369

16 744

18 261

16 946

17 730

16 558

15 969

1990

16 905

17 197

18 452

16 866

18 093

15 929

16 313

1991

17 272

17 480

18 661

15 725

18 164

16 604

16 539

1992

17 290

17 690

18 837

15 120

18 330

16 847

16 637

1993

17 218

17 361

18 933

14 876

18 059

16 554

16 436

1994

17 570

17 825

19 956

15 398

18 332

16 884

16 754

1995

17 887

18 255

20 585

15 925

18 558

17 125

17 215

1996

18 213

18 438

20 981

16 511

18 686

17 212

17 377

1997

18 462

19 048

21 528

17 511

18 961

17 425

17 686

1998

19 075

19 443

21 981

18 401

19 542

17 764

17 990

1999

19 561

19 984

22 415

19 105

20 099

18 076

18 264

2000

20 097

20 742

23 010

20 235

20 808

18 596

18 740

2001

20 225

20 924

23 161

20 344

21 092

18 677

19 040

64

Western Europe, 1500–2001

Table 1c. Per Capita GDP in 12 West European Countries, 1970-2001
(1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars)
Netherlands

Norway

Sweden

1970

11 967

10 033

12 716

1971

12 319

10 423

12 748

1972

12 597

10 878

1973

13 081

1974

United Kingdom

12 WEC

16 904

10 767

10 959

17 381

10 941

11 216

13 002

17 774

11 294

11 589

11 247

13 494

18 204

12 025

12 156

13 497

11 758

13 885

18 414

11 859

12 344

1975

13 374

12 180

14 183

17 224

11 847

12 227

1976

13 885

12 949

14 282

17 170

12 115

12 736

1977

14 177

13 356

14 004

17 635

12 384

13 059

1978

14 424

13 909

14 207

17 662

12 828

13 414

1979

14 647

14 461

14 721

18 050

13 167

13 896

1980

14 705

15 129

14 937

18 779

12 931

14 057

1981

14 525

15 222

14 917

18 956

12 747

14 045

1982

14 291

15 193

15 058

18 560

12 955

14 130

1983

14 483

15 679

15 315

18 559

13 404

14 379

1984

14 900

16 553

15 908

19 036

13 720

14 728

1985

15 283

17 365

16 189

19 584

14 165

15 077

1986

15 617

17 925

16 521

19 784

14 742

15 465

1987

15 737

18 204

16 982

19 788

15 393

15 837

1988

16 044

18 086

17 283

20 239

16 110

16 388

1989

16 695

18 177

17 593

20 931

16 414

16 824

1990

17 262

18 466

17 695

21 482

16 430

16 872

1991

17 519

18 953

17 379

21 051

16 136

17 049

1992

17 747

19 460

17 017

20 788

16 088

17 153

1993

17 764

19 874

16 550

20 504

16 416

17 026

1994

18 209

20 846

17 139

20 452

17 082

17 438

1995

18 527

21 536

17 658

20 421

17 495

17 778

1996

18 992

22 477

17 785

20 393

17 891

17 994

1997

19 629

23 397

18 143

20 696

18 459

18 369

1998

20 353

23 826

18 787

21 145

18 925

18 820

1999

20 992

23 942

19 624

21 440

19 291

19 229

2000

21 591

24 364

20 321

22 025

19 817

19 806

2001

21 721

24 577

20 562

22 263

20 127

20 024

65

Switzerland

The World Economy: Historical Statistics

Table 1c. Per Capita GDP in 4 West European Countries and Average WEC, 1500-1868
(1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars)
Ireland a

Greece

Portugal

1500

526

433

606

661

612

771

1600

615

483

740

853

698

890

1700

715

530

819

853

789

998

1820
1821
1822
1823
1824
1825
1826
1827
1828
1829
1830
1831
1832
1833
1834
1835
1836
1837
1838
1839
1840
1841
1842
1843
1844
1845
1846
1847
1848
1849
1850
1851
1852
1853
1854
1855
1856
1857
1858
1859
1860
1861
1862
1863
1864
1865
1866
1867
1868

877

641

923

1 008

956

1 204

816

923
991

1 079
1 089
1 133
1 136
1 150
1 202
1 163
1 132
1 153
1 200
1 236
1 248
1 252
1 277
1 274
1 230
1 290
1 283
1 149

1 273

1 574

919

883

891
920
941
945

66

Spain

13 small WEC

29 WEC

thereafter only the Northern Ireland province. Per Capita GDP in 4 West European Countries and Average WEC. 1500–2001 Table 1c.Western Europe. 1 775 a Greece 880 1 178 1 351 2 736 Portugal 1 592 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 964 975 933 954 988 966 959 932 969 964 959 947 970 992 008 034 052 100 114 118 088 128 099 087 101 079 117 125 182 214 249 302 269 266 273 279 233 231 249 219 208 228 242 257 250 258 228 234 212 150 Spain 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 181 207 298 473 598 459 496 519 668 618 520 646 679 692 720 716 661 617 585 641 630 624 654 770 700 712 689 548 619 736 756 786 901 833 829 810 777 851 896 957 977 895 017 989 056 014 033 113 073 045 13 small WEC 29 WEC 1 602 1 960 2 028 2 490 2 361 2 893 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 458 830 639 687 788 712 633 Figures are shown here for Ireland 1500-1920 for information. 67 . 1869-1918 (1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) Ireland 1869 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 a. They are not included in the total because the UK figures already include the whole of Ireland for 1500-1920.

68 13 small WEC 2 490 2 536 2 402 2 749 2 696 2 894 3 032 3 049 3 171 3 294 3 366 3 291 3 101 3 198 3 087 3 198 3 320 3 462 3 620 3 697 3 891 3 824 3 874 3 834 3 832 3 666 3 188 3 009 3 171 3 367 3 620 3 846 3 722 3 964 4 090 4 178 4 375 4 604 4 737 4 796 4 923 4 988 5 169 5 361 5 585 5 779 6 135 6 379 6 579 6 739 7 154 29 WEC 3 130 3 372 3 314 3 539 3 706 3 723 3 880 4 013 4 111 4 014 3 793 3 675 3 779 3 909 4 045 4 162 4 317 4 399 4 624 4 548 4 589 4 544 4 542 4 361 3 806 3 628 3 824 4 039 4 319 4 579 4 816 4 963 5 186 5 437 5 740 5 962 6 181 6 282 6 530 6 896 7 203 7 483 7 767 8 167 8 441 8 686 8 936 9 355 9 825 . b 2 533 2 598 2 575 2 569 2 573 2 572 2 653 2 737 2 824 2 897 2 972 2 885 2 800 2 882 2 966 3 052 2 957 3 052 3 052 3 052 3 052 3 052 3 052 3 052 3 019 3 052 3 092 3 230 3 404 3 453 3 544 3 642 3 747 3 794 3 920 3 897 3 914 3 870 4 038 4 282 4 508 4 636 4 821 4 986 5 051 5 080 5 352 5 770 6 089 Greece Portugal Spain 1 918 1 963 1 988 2 057 2 140 2 180 2 220 2 234 2 342 2 258 2 134 2 289 2 395 2 418 2 480 2 455 2 769 2 677 2 638 2 223 1 874 1 579 1 327 1 116 938 1 386 1 763 1 798 1 869 1 915 2 062 2 053 2 309 2 358 2 514 2 706 2 859 2 963 3 040 3 146 3 393 3 499 3 841 4 141 4 509 4 749 4 951 5 266 5 766 1 173 1 229 1 290 1 430 1 473 1 401 1 446 1 419 1 648 1 470 1 610 1 571 1 631 1 643 1 732 1 784 1 669 1 523 1 757 1 747 1 749 1 615 1 747 1 708 1 806 1 893 1 804 1 928 2 071 2 046 2 057 2 086 2 168 2 161 2 298 2 393 2 475 2 564 2 659 2 672 2 794 2 956 3 119 3 330 3 504 3 718 3 992 4 164 4 481 4 873 4 987 2 044 2 177 2 212 2 284 2 290 2 331 2 451 2 417 2 600 2 584 2 739 2 620 2 529 2 559 2 486 2 556 2 583 2 072 1 808 1 790 1 915 2 080 2 030 2 126 2 188 2 271 2 102 2 179 2 198 2 186 2 155 2 189 2 386 2 558 2 528 2 696 2 778 2 978 3 046 3 150 3 050 3 072 3 436 3 800 4 151 4 515 4 762 5 060 5 334 5 588 6 032 From 1921 the figures refer to the Irish Republic.The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 1c. 1919-1969 (1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) Ireland 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 b. Per Capita GDP in 4 West European Countries and Average WEC.

1970-2001 (1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Ireland Greece Portugal Spain 6 199 6 354 6 663 6 867 7 042 7 316 7 302 7 795 8 250 8 366 8 541 8 716 8 821 8 740 9 056 9 306 9 265 9 698 10 234 10 880 11 818 11 969 12 277 12 538 13 198 14 445 15 472 16 978 18 233 19 981 22 015 23 201 6 211 6 624 7 400 7 655 7 350 7 722 8 105 8 255 8 695 8 904 8 971 8 896 8 876 8 860 9 058 9 304 9 425 9 357 9 763 10 086 9 988 10 172 10 170 9 952 10 105 10 290 10 511 10 870 11 212 11 571 12 044 12 511 5 473 5 871 6 355 7 063 7 048 6 517 6 814 7 166 7 340 7 733 8 044 8 114 8 280 8 255 8 089 8 306 8 641 9 185 9 868 10 372 10 826 11 095 11 310 11 136 11 385 11 700 12 097 12 557 13 106 13 548 14 022 14 229 6 319 6 618 7 099 7 661 8 149 8 346 8 599 8 833 9 023 9 068 9 203 9 186 9 293 9 478 9 571 9 722 9 998 10 520 11 046 11 582 12 055 12 294 12 351 12 183 12 437 12 756 13 045 13 562 14 129 14 696 15 269 15 659 69 13 small WEC 7 399 7 841 8 256 8 627 8 560 8 357 8 900 9 415 9 830 10 221 10 436 10 582 10 834 11 026 11 525 11 858 12 381 12 824 13 453 14 080 14 452 14 784 14 952 15 424 15 805 16 145 16 557 17 192 17 847 18 501 19 401 19 859 29 WEC 10 195 10 465 10 860 11 416 11 611 11 521 11 983 12 289 12 621 13 041 13 197 13 185 13 270 13 491 13 794 14 113 14 476 14 857 15 406 15 856 15 966 16 152 16 256 16 129 16 517 16 860 17 097 17 502 17 974 18 413 19 002 19 256 .Western Europe. 1500–2001 Table 1c. Per Capita GDP in 4 West European Countries and Average WEC.

The World Economy: Historical Statistics 70 .

1700-1870 Population (000) European Aboriginal GDP (million 1990 international $) Total European Aboriginal Total Per capita GDP (international $) European Aboriginal Average 1700 0 450 450 0 180 180 1820 34 300 334 53 120 173 1 559 400 400 400 518 1830 70 260 330 176 104 280 2 514 400 848 1840 190 230 420 485 92 577 2 553 400 1 374 1850 405 200 605 1 115 80 1 195 2 951 400 1 975 1860 1 146 180 1 326 3 766 72 3 838 3 349 400 2 894 1870 1 620 155 1 775 5 748 62 5 810 3 548 400 3 273 Table 2-2. and a willingness to use market forces. which were more favourable to growth than was the case of the Iberian offshoots in Latin America. 1700-1870 Population (000) European Indigenous Total and African GDP (million 1990 international $) Per capita GDP (international $) European Indigenous Total European Indigenous Average and African and African 1700 250 750 1 000 227 300 527 909 400 527 1820 9 656 325 9 981 12 418 130 12 548 1 286 400 1 257 1830 12 951 289 13 240 18 103 116 18 219 1 398 400 1 376 1840 17 187 257 17 444 27 591 103 27 694 1 605 400 1 588 1850 23 352 228 23 580 42 492 91 42 583 1 820 400 1 806 1860 31 636 203 31 839 69 265 81 69 346 2 189 400 2 178 1870 40 061 180 40 241 98 302 72 98 374 2 454 400 2 445 71 . They inherited institutional arrangements and traditions which gave them political stability. In 1820. Germany and the United Kingdom averaged 1. Their GDP increased 679–fold compared with 47–fold in Western Europe.Western Offshoots HS–2: W ESTERN O FFSHOOTS : 1500–2001 (Australia. relatively high levels of education.5 hectares compared to 240 hectares in the Western Offshoots. The disparity was due partly to huge differences in natural resource endowment. Western Europe’s from $1 204 to $19 256. foreign investment and distance from foreign wars. secure property rights. and the United States) These four countries have experienced much more rapid growth since 1820 than Western Europe or the rest of the world. Their growth was facilitated by large–scale immigration. Between 1820 and 2001 their combined population increased 35–fold. a fair degree of social mobility. Population and GDP of the United States. Table 2-1. New Zealand. land per head of population in France. Population and GDP of Australia. Canada. Average per capita GDP (in terms of 1990 international dollars) rose from $1 202 to $26 943. compared with less than 3–fold in Western Europe.

Australian Economic History Review. Queensland Calendar.G. Australia: Australia has a distinguished record of national income measurement. estimating what Noel Butlin called a “multicultural“ estimate of GDP. Investment and Foreign Borrowing 1861–1938/39. net domestic and net national product from 1861 to1938/9. Cambridge.41. Australian Domestic Product. 90–7 (see Table 2–4). Vamplew (ed. Noel Butlin (1921–91) published a continuous stream of studies on the quantitative economic history of Australia from 1946 onwards (see Graeme Snooks. “A Pioneer of National Income Estimates“. Where necessary. pp. 210. As a compromise. GNP. 1860–1 link derived by using the GDP deflator in W. 1820 to 1828 GDP movement was derived from N. The Aboriginal Population of Australia. As Butlin’s work covered the whole span of Australian history. It contained more than 200 pages describing his sources and estimating procedures. September 1991). Smith. 1828–60 annual GDP volume movement by eight industries of origin at 1848–50 prices from N. pp. improved on it in the 1951 edition. Discussion Paper 7701. 460–l.W. 453. and 274 tables. In 1938. government statistician for New South Wales who published estimates of the Wealth and Progress of New South Wales as well as a Statistical Abstract for the Seven Colonies of Australasia covering New Zealand and the six colonies which became the constituent states of Australia. Angus and Robertson. “Life and Work of Noel George Butlin“.G. They were started in 1886 by Timothy Coghlan (1857–1926). Cambridge. Fairfax. by 13 industries of origin in 1910/11 prices from N. Butlin. Investment in Australian Economic Development l861–1900. Economic Journal.). Australian Economic History Review. Broadway.R. Canberra. adjusted to a calendar year basis from 1870. p. Sept. pp. most measures of their performance have concentrated on the economies created by European settlement. 1940. 1988. For the indigenous economies the population figures are rough and the per capita GDP estimates are stylised. 84–5. 72 . 1987. Butlin. Colin Clark (1905–89) and John Crawford (1910-84) published estimates of income and product for the 1920s and 30s. 1938). Australians: Historical Statistics. It showed nominal and real value added by industry of origin at factor cost and market prices. Bryan Haig is the custodian of the Coghlan archive. Population 1788–1949 from Butlin (1988). 96–147. Butlin’s estimate of the pre–contact population is much higher than is conventional (1. December. 1950 onwards from OECD sources. p. p.The World Economy: Historical Statistics In the past. p. Reserve Bank of Australia.W. It was the first country with official estimates. I have attempted to provide a crude measure of this disruptive impact up to 1870. and disregarded the fact that they displaced and destroyed indigenous economies whose output and populations contracted. Annual GDP movement 1861–1938/9. ANU. Butlin. 1949). and official national accounts did not reappear until 1946. 1820–70 from L. Sydney. Butlin.G. p. 85. I assumed a pre– contact population of 450 000. A Preliminary Annual Database 1900/01 to 1973/ 74. pp. and rough estimates of productivity for some years back to 1886 (see their National Income of Australia. annual estimates of real income for 1914–39. I relied heavily on his estimates in Maddison (1995 and 2001). Clark used this material in the first edition of Conditions of Economic Progress. Publication was discontinued in 1905 when he accepted a diplomatic post as agent general for New South Wales in London. Butlin. pp. He was an admirer of Kuznets and much of his work is in the Kuznetsian tradition with meticulous indication of sources and transparent explanation of methodology. but his depopulation coefficient seems exaggerated. May 1977. GDP figures were adjusted to a calendar year basis. 1964. For the settler economies the estimates are at least as good as those for Western Europe.1 million instead of 300 000). His first major book (1962) provided annual estimates of GDP. and modified his estimates showing faster growth of real product for 1914–38 in the 1957 edition. 1962. 1986. and has written an as yet unpublished memoir on Coghlan’s work “The First Official National Accounting Estimates“ (see also Heinz Arndt. with revised deflator for 1911–1938/9 shown in M. His analysis of the destructive impact of white settlement makes it difficult to accept the conventional estimate. 1980. amended as indicated in N. “Contours of the Australian Economy 1788–1860“. 219.G. together with very detailed estimates of capital formation and the balance of payments on current and capital account. Butlin. 1938/9–1950 real expenditure aggregates in 1966/7 prices from M.. “Our 200 Years“. 140–1.

n.43 2.3 28.91 3. n.a.a.7 21. and “no useful research has been undertaken by academics on Australian price indices since Butlin produced his estimates“. n. but constructed ten special deflators for sectors of GDP. n.5 9.56 5.a.13 3. Economics Dept.39 3.1 291.54 -2.1 198. Butlin shows fiscal years (beginning July 1st) from 1901/2 onwards.81 3.7 49. and Australia seems better endowed with historical price statistics than many other countries (see Shergold’s chapter in Vamplew.0 -4.J. 1850–1914“ Working Paper 92–4.5 15. Haig’s second fundamental objection is that Butlin’s results are “unreasonable“ as they show contours of development which conflict with traditional views and generated a new interpretation of Australian economic history. It is up to those who disagree with Butlin to prove him wrong. n.38 2.0 60.a. wage rates and retail price indices“.Western Offshoots Recently.63 3.a.a.0 72.0 0. Butlin “relied on existing series of wholesale prices.00 2.8 12.a. Total Services Imputed Rent Unallocated 3. n.8 57.5 41. n.19 n.a. 28-34. 3.3 21.a.8 n.37 n.a. Table 2-3.13 3.2 40. University of Adelaide.67 n. 366. pp.62 2.0 18.99 1.a.a.0 1. n.7 15.1 159.55 4.2 7.5 10. n. 72. n.3 0.3 53.a.0 n.a. March 2001.73 2.7 11.a. n. 28-34.0 GDP GDP New South Wales GDP Victoria 3. Columns 2 and 6 from Haig.3 1. Bryan Haig rejected Butlin’s estimates en bloc (see his “New Estimates of Australian GDP: 1861–1948/49“.06 2.a.34 4.09 840.5 797.83 6. n.34 -0.9 1.27 n.a. n.21 2.4 3. n.a. pp.77 2.8 27.3 27. 10-11.93 2. 160-1. 1992). n.0 56.96 1. Columns 3 and 7 from Butlin.72 2. pp. Alternative Measures of Australian Sector Growth and Structure.60 2.a. He argues that Butlin’s approach (deflation of nominal estimates of value added by price indices) is “unworkable“ because of the weakness of existing price indices. I see no harm in this.a.9 22.a. 1861-1938/9 Confrontation of Butlin (1962) and Haig (2001) Estimates Annual Growth % 1891 level: 1861-1911 million 1891 pounds Annual Growth % 1938/9 level: 1911/12-1938/9 million 1938/9 pounds Butlin Haig Butlin Haig Butlin Haig Pastoral Agriculture Dairy Mining Manufacturing Construction Water Transport Public Undertakings Public services Finance Distribution Other services 4.a.0 Source: Butlin Haig Columns 1 and 5 from Butlin. 1–34). n. pp. n.6 6.58 2.35 2.01 0.8 52.a.9 157.0 29.3 6. and eight for components of capital investment.a.88 1.98 3.01 4.96 2. Australian Economic History Review. 177.1 n.33 3.a.8 91.16 4. 74.40 0.a.34 4.7 23. and the inherent difficulty of improving them. n.0 63. Butlin did not take his price indices from the shelf.0 65.33 3.9 45. n.8 8.a. 1911 calendar year for Butlin derived by averaging his estimates for 1910/11 and1911/12.1987).89 0. 29. Butlin’s deflators are imperfect but improvable.27 n. Columns 4 and 8 from Haig.20 2.69 1. Haig from 1911/2 onwards.0 21. n.30 3. Woodland “Consumer Prices in Australia. Australian academics have not abandoned the field (see Ian McLean and S.64 -0.39 1. 73 .5 6. pp. n.5 40.a.a.41 1.06 202.2 41.5 28. n. 1.81 3.a.

74 . For 1910/11. fiscal years (beginning July 1st) for 1911/12 onwards.The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 2-4. To make the link between his two temporal segments. pp. 28-30. He gives calendar year estimates for 1861-1911. Clark (1957). I used the 1910/11-1911/12 primary movement shown by Butlin. he presents no figures for the primary sector or GDP. Alternative Estimates of Australian Real GDP. 90-1. real product adjusted to calendar year basis. calendar years 1861-1900 (million 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 Source: Haig Butlin 4 453 4 625 4 750 4 867 5 132 5 539 5 515 5 929 6 101 5 898 6 210 6 484 6 656 7 187 7 398 7 593 7 796 7 976 8 249 8 421 8 929 9 702 10 694 11 132 11 296 11 702 12 265 12 546 13 702 13 772 13 890 13 640 13 663 13 819 14 015 14 288 15 147 15 749 16 592 17 186 4 188 4 133 4 271 4 739 4 711 5 014 5 621 5 896 5 951 6 392 6 144 6 805 7 522 7 770 8 624 8 596 8 954 9 809 9 946 10 470 11 241 10 608 12 178 12 233 13 032 13 197 14 603 14 685 15 953 15 402 16 586 14 547 13 748 14 217 13 418 14 437 13 638 15 760 15 760 16 697 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 Haig Butlin Clark 17 764 16 905 18 436 17 733 19 038 19 741 19 936 20 694 21 608 22 662 22 967 23 764 24 861 24 797 24 341 24 172 23 716 23 155 24 488 25 534 26 818 28 225 29 579 31 524 33 002 33 792 34 305 34 368 33 662 30 458 28 416 30 025 32 110 33 810 35 798 37 414 39 306 40 639 16 201 16 366 17 661 18 846 19 066 20 361 21 187 21 904 23 695 25 348 25 541 26 147 27 552 25 430 23 943 25 623 26 202 26 340 26 092 28 075 30 831 31 051 31 685 34 109 35 239 34 798 34 716 34 164 33 834 32 181 32 720 31 878 33 696 34 991 36 424 38 160 40 336 40 639 21 294 20 782 19 902 17 519 16 138 17 819 19 969 22 263 25 058 27 275 29 324 30 872 32 587 34 068 34 759 34 848 33 411 31 406 31 640 31 199 34 603 35 427 36 195 37 509 40 639 Haig. pp. I adjusted the latter to a calendar year basis.

acquired in 1949. 1975. Table 2–4 facilitates systematic confrontation of their sector growth rates and structure (Butlin’s value added and Coghlan’s gross output). All the above refers to the white settler economy. Australian Economic History Review. 1967. Historical Statistics of Canada. 1870–1926 GDP from M. “Canada’s Changing Economy in the Second Half of the 19th Century“.6 to include Newfoundland. 1850–1950 from M. NBER. 1. “Estimates of Australian Work Force and Employment. 11–12 and 24–5.C. Cambridge University Press. 1820–1948 GDP raised by 1. GDP for 1851. Haig relies heavily on measures for New South Wales and Victoria to fill gaps in information for Australia as a whole. For 1911–12 to 1938–39. 1860 and 1870 from O. showing his own employment estimates for Australian manufacturing and comparing them with those of Butlin (see Butlin and Dowie.J. 1861–1961“. 1965. Canada: GDP and population of French–Canadian settlers in 1700 derived from Morris Altman. His analysis of Aboriginal history was enlarged in Economics and the Dreamtime: A Hypothetical History. Indigenous population before 1820 from same sources as for the United States. 1993. In the 1980s Butlin made a major innovation in proposing a “multicultural“ estimate. Buckley. I have now adopted Haig’s estimates for 1911–38. Firestone. 1695–1739: Estimates and Analysis“. This is a point which Haig should have tackled more rigorously. This was similar in intent to studies by Borah and others on the impact of European conquest on the Americas. The Annual Estimates 1926–1974. “Economic Growth in Canada. p. He has quantity indicators for manufacturing from his “Manufacturing Output and Productivity. but for 1861–1911 Haig does not have quantitative measures for 70 per cent of GDP. Ottawa. Montreal. 1993. Urquhart and K. and uses employment (available in direct form only for NSW and Victoria) as a proxy.32 per cent and population by 2. Haig’s estimates are of better quality. He amalgamates his sector estimates using 1891 output weights which Coghlan published in 1893. 14. 176. appeared in 1994. 1910 to 1948/9“. with detailed specification of the different vectors of mortality. 0. Allen & Unwin. 1969). 1960 onwards from OECD sources. October 1988. Sydney and London) analysing the impact of white settlement on the Aboriginal population and its economy. Australian Economic History Review. 323. Australian Economic History Review. Gross National Product. 1975. Population 1820–50 supplied by Marvin McInnis.Western Offshoots A more legitimate objection is that Butlin probably exaggerated the long boom from 1861 to 1891 by understating manufacturing employment and output at the beginning of the period. ed. Urquhart and Associates. whereas Butlin covers a wider and perhaps more representative range of states. National Income and Expenditure Accounts. September. Cambridge University Press. but Butlin was much more rigorous. Haig’s estimates imply per capita growth of 1.. p. In 1983 he published a masterpiece of demographic modelling (Our Original Aggression. 1820–50 per capita product of non–indigenous population assumed to grow at the same rate as in the United States. p. 75 . William and Mary Quarterly. but would like to see more detail of his evidence before adopting his estimates for 1861–1911.57 per cent in Australia. Haig’s alternative to the Butlin approach is to use quantitative measures of output for seven sectors of GDP.H. The weights from his “1938/9 National Income Estimates“. McGill Queen’s University Press. New York. and 0.6 per cent a year in NSW. For the rest of the economy he was able to adjust his employment indicators for productivity change. Cambridge. Instead he presents a comparison for the state of Victoria. vol. 1926–60 from Statistics Canada. Canada 1870–1926: The Derivation of the Estimates.42 in Victoria. Although he makes a few comparisons between his results and those of Butlin they are limited and casual. This is a desirable crosscheck. pp. 1957. are also more satisfactory. A further problem is that Haig describes his estimating procedure parsimoniously in five pages whereas Butlin provided 200.A. For 1861– 1911.C. A further posthumous work Forming A Colonial Economy: Australia 1810–1850. September.

pp. Maori population 1820–1919 and non–Maoris 1820– 60 from G.). New York. Rankin. the average level for the whole population would have risen from $527 in 1700 to $1 257 in 1820. 1957. Per capita GDP of white settlers was assumed to have grown 0. London. import. pp. 1972.The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 2-5. Population and GDP of Canada and New Zealand. nominal money supply. Review of Income and Wealth. 76 . in L. Harper and Row. American Economic Growth: An Economist’s History of the United States. farm and non–farm) and population. pp. 1861–1919 non–Maoris from Rankin (1992). For 1820–70 I assumed per capita income of Maoris to have been 400 international 1990 dollars. United States: GDP Estimates 1700–1820: Robert Gallman. 1920–49 population from UN. Assuming an unchanged per capita income of $400 a year in the indigenous hunter–gatherer economy. third edition. pp.8 per cent a year from 1850 to 1870 (the rate shown by Rankin for 1859–70). 1950 onwards from OECD sources. “The Pace and Pattern of American Economic Growth“. The Making of New Zealand. Adjusting for the faster growth of their per capita income in 1820–40 (see below).R.42 per cent a year between 1710 and 1840 (taking the mid–point of the range he suggested for 1710). a variety of price indices (wholesale. March 1992. The Conditions of Economic Progress. His figures refer to the neo–European economy of the white and black population. Gallman’s estimate implies a per capita growth of about 0. These are proxy estimates based on regression involving assumptions about velocity of circulation. 60–1. Clark. Cambridge University Press. 10–11 and 20. Hawke. 1985. in 1910/11 prices from K. Macmillan. 1870–1939. estimated per capita growth in net national product of 0. 1700-1870 Population (000) European Indigenous GDP (million 1990 international $) Total European Indigenous Total Per capita GDP (international $) European Indigenous Average Canada 1700 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 15 741 1 101 1 636 2 430 3 319 3 736 185 75 68 61 55 50 45 200 816 1 169 1 697 2 485 3 369 3 781 12 708 1 142 1 948 3 282 4 867 6 389 74 30 27 24 22 20 18 86 738 1 169 1 972 3 304 4 887 6 407 800 955 1 038 1 191 1 351 1 466 1 710 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 430 904 1 000 1 162 1 330 1 451 1 695 3 080 3 553 3 633 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 1 144 2 212 3 100 New Zealand 1700 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 0 0 0 0 25 76 243 100 100 100 70 65 56 48 100 100 100 70 90 132 291 0 0 0 0 77 270 883 40 40 40 28 26 22 19 40 40 40 28 103 292 902 New Zealand: GNP. GDP estimates are for calendar years to 1939 and fiscal years starting April 1st thereafter. “New Zealand’s Gross National Product: 1859–1939. export. 1939–50 from C. 171–2 (which Clark derived by deflating official estimates in current prices). 148–50. Demographic Yearbook.29 per cent a year from 1700 to 1820 (from a level of $909 to $1 286). pp. 1960. 58–9. Davis and Associates (eds.

L. NBER. He had three variants of GNP with different assumptions about which products were intermediate.F. New York. of Commerce basis. 1947. 298–9. who used the same procedure for making commodity flow estimates of values as Kuznets (1938) did. together with very fully documented appendices with sources. The Kuznets estimates were published in transparent form with the full scholarly apparatus characteristic of the NBER. Kendrick. Productivity Trends in the United States.Western Offshoots P. Kuznets also derived estimates by category of expenditure for 1919 onwards by the “commodity flow“ method. Estimates in the same form can also be found (in an analytical context) in S. 1946 (but these referred to overlapping decades and were not annual). and determined what part represented the final flow to consumers and capital formation. It was therefore possible for John Kendrick (who in any case had access to the worksheets) to convert the Kuznets annual estimates of GNP (variant III) back to 1889 (with some minor adjustment) by type of expenditure to a Dept. given the huge change in the relative size of the neo–European and indigenous populations. He explained his disagreement with their procedures in S. he showed only 5–year moving averages back to 1871 (pp. This work was sponsored by the Committee on Credit and Banking which was interested in commodity flows as a counterpart to its interest in flows of financial resources. Kuznets had a poor opinion of these. NBER. 1952. New York. Kendrick used fixed 77 . Kuznets. 555–8) back to 1889. The US Department of Commerce did not adopt the Kuznets’ definitions of the scope of GNP. Shaw. March 1999.W. National Income and Its Composition 1919–38.e. Review of Economics and Statistics. Kuznets. He took over the NBER research in this field around 1930. Bowes and Bowes.H. These flows from producers were given distributive mark–ups to reflect final sales values. made a “multicultural“ estimate which shows much slower growth for the eighteenth century. and some clues for constructing estimates with limited information. This approach was further elaborated in S.F. NBER. Epstein and E. 559–64). Like Kuznets. The details of this approach are described in S. G. 1961. Kuznets. Jaszi. NBER. of Commerce in January 1934. Commodity Flow and Capital Formation. Schwartz. i. The final version of Kuznets’ massive work appeared in his Capital in the American Economy. They show no figures for total population or GDP. which were transmitted to the Finance Committee of the US Senate by the Dept. The expenditure estimates were extended back to 1869 in S. Denison and C. pp. he used census and other information on production. 1820–2001 Modern GDP estimation relies heavily on the massive contribution of Simon Kuznets. New York. 1938. and also prepared the first official estimates. 1941. Gilbert. E. Rougher estimates were made for services. As the underlying census information was inadequate before 1889. see J. NBER. They make no reference to the Gallman estimate I used. Value of Commodity Output Since 1869. Here he published annual estimates of GNP by type of expenditure in current and in 1929 dollars (pp. This study contains an annex on the estimates for 1800 to 1870 by Martin and King. which contained estimates (at current and 1929 prices) of the industrial distribution of different categories of income (wage. Kuznets. Princeton. The official side was not convinced by his arguments. Princeton. Income and Wealth of the United States: Trends and Structure. and although he did not produce alternative estimates. This extension back to 1869 relied very heavily on W. August 1948. “Was Econonomic Growth Likely in British North America?“. “Objectives of National Income Measurement: A Reply to Professor Kuznets“ in the same publication. This showed the flows of different categories of income broken down by industry together with corresponding employment estimates prepared by Robert Nathan. 1961. Jenks. Shaw also supplied price deflators. Kuznets. Journal of Economic History. National Product Since 1869. he gave a clear indication of the direction in which they were biased. Mancall and Weiss. so it is not possible to replicate their multicultural measure. New York. property. see M. NBER. A cost of living index was provided as a tentative deflator. National Income 1929–32. “Discussion of the New Department of Commerce Income Series“. and entrepreneurial). I consider their growth rate to be much too slow. Income and Wealth Series II.C. Cambridge.

. in R. 1986. 25. 1890–1929: GDP volume movement with 1929 weights from J. though the statistical basis for such estimates is better than elsewhere.16 per cent a year.68 for his fixed weight index for the private domestic economy (p. I assumed that productivity growth in the rest of the economy was faster (1 per cent a year). in D. Although service productivity growth is likely to have been modest. His aggregate (pp. and other information to construct his estimates of GNP by type of expenditure (four–way breakdown of consumption and three–way breakdown of capital formation) in 1860 prices.L. manufacturing and construction for benchmark years. “Gross National Product in the United States 1834–1909“. p. For 1869–1889 Kendrick presented only decade averages.44 per cent. 51. and which can be found in P.W. “The Estimation of Prewar Gross National Product: Methodology and New Evidence“.62 per cent a year from 1820–40. Kendrick (1961). p. in Parker. As both Kuznets and Kendrick thought their 1869 level (as described above) was too low.E. Fabricant and others) to show annual movements in output or value added on an annual basis back to 1869 in many cases. their average annual estimate for real GNP growth was 4. pp. minus intermediate products consumed) from M. Rasmussen. Balke and R. in S. NBER. He first estimated value added (in 1879 prices) for agriculture. Output. 1869–90: from N. 1839. Gallman. 1992. 1960. Chicago. as it seemed probable that they exaggerated growth. I used a variant of the Kuznets– David inferential approach.J. and one must still rely on the kind of reasoning which Kuznets (1952) first applied. p. David. Sokoloff found manufacturing productivity to have grown by 2. taking agricultural value added (output of crops and livestock products plus change in livestock inventories. 1966. 298–9. p. I calculated agricultural productivity 1820–40. (1960). Wallis. 327).N. and agricultural employment from Weiss (1992). Journal of Political Economy. February 1989. Employment and Productivity in the United States after 1800. using additional information on construction. American Economic Growth and Standards of Living Before the Civil War. Trends in the American Economy in the Nineteenth Century. 26.E. the Balke–Gordon estimate seems acceptable. which for 1889–1929 shows a growth rate of 3. transport and communications. and more recently in T.L. to provide annual estimates of nominal GNP. “Farm Gross Product and Gross Investment in the Nineteenth Century“. 302–3) covers 9 production sectors in combination with total private GDP by type of expenditure.The World Economy: Historical Statistics 1929 weights for his volume estimates. Parker. Gallman and J. 43. but he also gave a chain weighted alternative. Brady. 1849. Kendrick (1961) augmented the NBER sectoral production studies (by Barger.2 per cent a year. p. Towne and W. “The Growth of Real Product in the United States before 1840: New Evidence. mining. and 1859 and for overlapping decades from 1834–43 to 1899–1908. They revamped the Gallman–Kendrick–Kuznets commodity flow estimates. the assumption of faster growth in non–agriculture seems warranted as K. 1839–1899“. Agricultural productivity (thus measured) grew by . However. see R. in W. he did not construct an estimate of GDP by industry of origin. “Commodity Output. Engerman and R. Journal of Economic History. eds. ed. 1800–1860“. Long Term Factors in American Economic Growth. p.55 per cent of Kuznets. Controlled Conjectures“. For 1869–90. 1820–1860“. 84. University of Chicago Press. p.82 per cent a year compared with 3. 1844. The bulk of private service activity was derived as a residual.S. see his “Productivity Growth in Manufacturing During Early Industrialisation: Evidence from the American Northeast.A. “US Labor Force Estimates and Economic Growth. Gallman. New York.. Like Kuznets and David. 1820–40: For this period the evidence is still rather weak. and did not publish the full detail of his procedures. Even then his estimates were presented only for 10 benchmark years. 78 .E. 1854. 695.S.E. ed. or the 5. Princeton. Gordon.W. Unfortunately he provided figures only for five benchmark years. He used these results. Weiss. which is lower than the unpublished Kendrick figure of 5. 27. real GNP and a GNP deflator. Gallmann.J. NBER. see R. Thus we have the paradox that the United States is one of the few countries where the construction of historical accounts by industry of origin has been neglected. 1840–69: derived from Robert Gallman who revised and extended the Kuznets estimates backwards (variant I) using the same commodity flow approach and techniques of presentation. June 1967. census.D.

1975. BEA experimented with alternative weighting systems. US Bureau of the Census. 11.Western Offshoots 1929–50: GDP movement at 1987 prices as shown by the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) in National Income and Product Accounts of the United States. The settlement of the border with Canada brought in the territory which is now Idaho. March 1993 presented three alternative indices for 1959–92. 1. B. 1950–2001: 1950–59 from “GDP and other Major NIPA Series. August 1998. 1820–1949 increased by 0. The old fixed weight index showed a real GDP growth rate of 2. Population: Indigenous population before 1820 from R. 1998–2001 from E. Moyer and R.5 per cent a year for 1929–50. p. BEA did not present these three options for earlier years as it announced. pp. 1630–1949 from Historical Statistics of the United States. June 2000. which added 0. Time Series and Measures of Long Term Growth“. In 1820.S. one of which (a Laspeyres index) uses the prices of year t-1 as weights. The annual GDP volume change is measured by a Fisher index which is the geometric mean of two indices. Washington. pp. A.39 per cent to include Alaska and Hawaii. I added 325 000 for the indigenous population in 1820 and 180 000 for 1850.88 a year. (see Maddison. The figures refer to the present territory of the United States. The new measure shows a GDP growth of 3.C.P. “Improved Estimates of the National Income and Product Accounts for 1958–98: Results of the Comprehensive Revision“. Annual changes calculated this way are multiplied together to form a time series. of Commerce. 1976. US Dept. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. as indicated in Maddison (2001). Instead it made a sudden switch to chain indexation back to 1929. Quarterly Estimates for 1959–92“. 1929–97“. 232–3. p.294 per cent to 1960 GDP (see Survey of Current Business.H. California and other Western lands from Mexico between 1845 and 1853. the territory of the United States was half of what it is today. Before 1890 the censuses excluded those living in Indian territory or reservations.6 per cent. the annual Fisher chain index 3.S. American Indian Holocaust and Survival: A Population History Since 1492. Parker. vol. Three Recent Modifications in US Official Measures of GDP Annual Chain Indices for GDP: The official figures I use for 1950 onwards are based on a chain index as described in J. incorporated in l950.P. 46. University of Oklahoma. D. Survey of Current Business. and the other (a Paasche index) uses prices of year t. 1990–8 from S.E. February 1993. pp.K. In Maddison (1995) I used the third measure because it was closer to the procedure used in other OECD countries at that time. Yuscavage. 1959–90 GDP movement and 1990 level in 1990 prices from E. 661–6. December 1999. “Prehistoric New World Population Size: Historical Review and Current Appraisal of North American Estimates. The increase was due to the acquisition of Texas. Survey of Current Business. Oregon and Washington in 1846. 8 and 1168. Landefeld and R. Survey of Current Business. These territories were sparsely settled and consisted very largely of the indigenous population which was not separately specified in US censuses before 1860. McCulla. 97). August 2002. the traditional measure 2. 1995. Ubelaker. December 1980. White and black population. Figures for years before 1960 are adjusted to include Alaska and Hawaii. Seskin. This is a much bigger difference between fixed and chain weights than Young found for 1959–92 or Kendrick for 1889–1929. “BEA’s Chain Indexes.H. Acceptance of the new measure for this period would involve a major reinterpretation of American economic history. Survey of Current Business. “Annual Revision of the National Income and Product Accounts“. Survey of Current Business. Seskin and S. Colonial Times to 1970. This is an index where the weights change every year. 1950–2001 from International Programs Center. Young. 17). p. US Department of Commerce.P.C. Thornton. “Alternative Measures of Changes in Real Output and Prices.12 per cent and a Fisher index with weights changed every 5 years 3. “Improved Estimates of Gross Product by Industry for 1947–98“.. Survey of Current Business. 79 . This procedure is a sharp break with the tradition of the Department of Commerce which for six decades used a fixed weight for the whole period it covered (though the chosen year was changed quinquennially). May 1997.M. Lum. Before making the switch.16 a year. It implies a GDP level in 1929 16 per cent lower than the old index and would lower the level for earlier years. 1987 and D. p.

T. By the year 2000.S. and estimating price change by regression. the components of GDP deflated by this technique represented 18 per cent of the total (see J. but one can be a bit sceptical about the assumption that quality change was so large and monotonically positive. December 2000). However. This practice was introduced in 1999 and applied retrospectively to 1959. The new BEA index also changes the picture of the war and immediate postwar recovery. The change was recommended in the 1993 revision of the System of National Accounts of EU. It is also a little odd to treat this rapidly depreciating advance in knowledge as investment. it would mean that a consumer who spent $1 000 on a computer in 1990 and again in 2000. Treatment of Computer Software as Investment: A third innovation which raised the level of GDP modestly and raised the growth rate. Grimm. In addition.The World Economy: Historical Statistics If used as a link. it would imply a US level of labour productivity in 1913 below that in the United Kingdom. Landefeld and B. September 1999). This technique imputes quality improvements by specifying computing power in terms of several characteristics. If this rate had prevailed for the 1990s. One must also remember that no other country uses a chain index technique for such a long period in the past. Hedonic Indices for the New Economy: A major reason why BEA switched to chain indexation was its adoption of “hedonic“ price indices for computers and peripherals in 1985 and extended use of this type of measure back to 1959. the hallowed status of computer technology seems to be firmly esconced in most statistical offices. whilst ignoring the more durable impact of scientific academies. e. was the decision to treat computer software as investment rather than as an intermediate product. However. 80 . The manufacturers of computers were understandably helpful in suppying detail of these improved characteristics and the application of hedonic techniques to the measuerement of computer prices was in fact pioneered by IBM. IMF. Survey of Current Business. “A Note on the Impact of Hedonics and Computers on Real GDP“. hedonic techniques assume competitive markets where prices accurately reflect consumer utility. and has been adopted by other OECD countries. speed. there is an element of double– counting in the new procedure. would be getting sixteen times as much for his money in the latter year.) and computer output without considering the quality of the software that converts power to output. Hedonic weights (advocated since 1961 by Zvi Griliches) are perfectly respectable. memory etc. “Recognition of Software as Investment in the US National Accounts“. It seems hazardous to use it for 1929–50 without further investigation of the reasons why the new method had such a big impact. Given the fact that hedonic indexation already makes generous allowance for quality change in computers which derive in large part from improved software. The hedonic measure implied that prices dropped 32 per cent a year from 1994 onwards. The average service life for such investment is assumed (rather generously) to be 3–5 years (see BEA. One would like to see a more rigorous and detailed examination of alternatives and a smaller dose of euphoric reassurance that the results are robust. adoption of annual chain weights helped moderate the accelerative impact of hedonic indices on GDP growth.g. The hedonic techniques used by BEA imply a direct connection between computing power (speed. OECD Meeting of National Accounts Experts. but recent anti–trust cases suggest that this assumption may be unrealistic. OECD and World Bank. memory etc.

Western Offshoots Table 2a. Population of Western Offshoots. 1500-1899 (000 at mid-year) Australia New Zealand Canada United States 4 Western Offshoots 1500 450 100 250 2 000 2 800 1600 450 100 250 1 500 2 300 1700 450 100 200 1 000 1 750 1820 334 100 816 9 981 11 231 1830 330 100 1 169 13 240 14 839 1840 420 70 1 697 17 444 19 631 1850 605 90 2 485 23 580 26 760 1860 1 326 132 3 369 31 839 36 666 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1 775 1 675 1 722 1 769 1 822 1 874 1 929 1 995 2 062 2 127 2 197 2 269 2 348 2 447 2 556 2 650 2 741 2 835 2 932 3 022 3 107 3 196 3 274 3 334 3 395 3 460 3 523 3 586 3 642 3 691 291 306 320 335 367 406 434 450 467 494 520 539 555 574 598 614 626 640 649 656 665 674 686 705 722 735 748 764 779 794 3 781 3 801 3 870 3 943 4 012 4 071 4 128 4 184 4 244 4 312 4 384 4 451 4 503 4 560 4 617 4 666 4 711 4 760 4 813 4 865 4 918 4 972 5 022 5 072 5 121 5 169 5 218 5 269 5 325 5 383 40 241 41 098 42 136 43 174 44 212 45 245 46 287 47 325 48 362 49 400 50 458 51 743 53 027 54 311 55 595 56 879 58 164 59 448 60 732 62 016 63 302 64 612 65 922 67 231 68 541 69 851 71 161 72 471 73 781 75 091 46 088 46 880 48 048 49 221 50 413 51 596 52 778 53 954 55 135 56 333 57 559 59 002 60 433 61 892 63 366 64 809 66 242 67 683 69 126 70 559 71 992 73 454 74 904 76 342 77 779 79 215 80 650 82 090 83 527 84 959 81 .

The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 2a. 1900-1955 (000 at mid-year) Australia 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 3 741 3 795 3 850 3 896 3 946 4 004 4 062 4 127 4 197 4 278 4 375 4 500 4 661 4 821 4 933 4 971 4 955 4 950 5 032 5 193 5 358 5 461 5 574 5 697 5 819 5 943 6 064 6 188 6 304 6 396 6 469 6 527 6 579 6 631 6 682 6 732 6 783 6 841 6 904 6 971 7 042 7 111 7 173 7 236 7 309 7 389 7 474 7 578 7 715 7 919 8 267 8 511 8 691 8 858 9 064 9 277 New Zealand 807 824 844 867 893 919 946 969 996 1 024 1 045 1 067 1 092 1 122 1 143 1 152 1 155 1 152 1 156 1 195 1 241 1 275 1 304 1 326 1 350 1 382 1 412 1 437 1 454 1 471 1 493 1 514 1 527 1 540 1 552 1 562 1 573 1 587 1 604 1 627 1 636 1 629 1 639 1 633 1 654 1 688 1 759 1 797 1 833 1 871 1 908 1 947 1 995 2 047 2 093 2 136 82 Canada United States 4 Western Offshoots 5 457 5 536 5 650 5 813 5 994 6 166 6 282 6 596 6 813 6 993 7 188 7 410 7 602 7 852 8 093 8 191 8 214 8 277 8 374 8 548 8 798 9 028 9 159 9 256 9 394 9 549 9 713 9 905 10 107 10 305 10 488 10 657 10 794 10 919 11 030 11 136 11 243 11 341 11 452 11 570 11 688 11 818 11 969 12 115 12 268 12 404 12 634 12 901 13 180 13 469 14 011 14 331 14 786 15 183 15 636 16 050 76 391 77 888 79 469 80 946 82 485 84 147 85 770 87 339 89 055 90 845 92 767 94 234 95 703 97 606 99 505 100 941 102 364 103 817 104 958 105 473 106 881 108 964 110 484 112 387 114 558 116 284 117 857 119 502 120 971 122 245 123 668 124 633 125 436 126 180 126 978 127 859 128 681 129 464 130 476 131 539 132 637 133 922 135 386 137 272 138 937 140 474 141 940 144 688 147 203 149 770 152 271 154 878 157 553 160 184 163 026 165 931 86 396 88 043 89 813 91 522 93 318 95 236 97 060 99 031 101 061 103 140 105 375 107 211 109 058 111 401 113 674 115 255 116 688 118 196 119 520 120 409 122 278 124 728 126 521 128 666 131 121 133 158 135 046 137 032 138 836 140 417 142 118 143 331 144 336 145 270 146 242 147 289 148 280 149 233 150 436 151 707 153 003 154 480 156 167 158 256 160 168 161 955 163 807 166 964 169 931 173 029 176 458 179 667 183 025 186 273 189 819 193 395 . Population of Western Offshoots.

Western Offshoots Table 2a. Population of Western Offshoots. 1956-2003 (000 at mid-year) Australia 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 9 501 9 713 9 915 10 132 10 361 10 599 10 795 11 001 11 218 11 439 11 655 11 872 12 102 12 379 12 660 12 937 13 177 13 380 13 599 13 771 13 916 14 074 14 249 14 422 14 616 14 923 15 184 15 394 15 579 15 788 16 018 16 257 16 520 16 780 17 022 17 258 17 482 17 689 17 893 18 116 18 348 18 565 18 769 18 968 19 165 19 358 19 547 19 732 New Zealand 2 178 2 229 2 282 2 331 2 372 2 432 2 489 2 541 2 592 2 640 2 688 2 728 2 759 2 789 2 828 2 875 2 929 2 992 3 058 3 118 3 154 3 165 3 166 3 165 3 170 3 185 3 211 3 246 3 279 3 298 3 308 3 317 3 331 3 342 3 360 3 397 3 438 3 475 3 517 3 566 3 621 3 676 3 726 3 774 3 820 3 864 3 908 3 951 83 Canada United States 4 Western Offshoots 16 445 17 010 17 462 17 872 18 267 18 635 18 986 19 343 19 711 20 071 20 448 20 820 21 143 21 448 21 750 22 026 22 285 22 560 22 875 23 209 23 518 23 796 24 036 24 277 24 593 24 900 25 202 25 456 25 702 25 942 26 204 26 550 26 895 27 379 27 791 28 118 28 524 28 921 29 262 29 619 29 983 30 306 30 629 30 957 31 278 31 593 31 902 32 207 168 903 171 984 174 882 177 830 180 671 183 691 186 538 189 242 191 889 194 303 196 560 198 712 200 706 202 677 205 052 207 661 209 896 211 909 213 854 215 973 218 035 220 239 222 585 225 055 227 726 229 966 232 188 234 307 236 348 238 466 240 651 242 804 245 021 247 342 250 132 253 493 256 894 260 255 263 436 266 557 269 667 272 912 276 115 279 295 282 339 285 024 287 676 290 343 197 027 200 936 204 541 208 165 211 671 215 357 218 807 222 128 225 410 228 454 231 351 234 132 236 710 239 293 242 290 245 500 248 287 250 841 253 386 256 071 258 622 261 274 264 036 266 918 270 106 272 975 275 785 278 403 280 908 283 494 286 181 288 928 291 768 294 843 298 304 302 265 306 337 310 340 314 108 317 858 321 620 325 459 329 239 332 994 336 601 339 838 343 033 346 233 .

GDP Levels in Western Offshoots. 1500-1899 (million 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) Australia New Zealand Canada United States 4 Western Offshoots 1500 180 40 100 800 1 120 1600 180 40 100 600 920 1700 180 40 86 527 833 1820 173 40 738 12 548 13 499 1830 280 40 1 169 18 219 19 708 1840 577 28 1 972 27 694 30 271 1850 1 195 103 3 304 42 583 47 185 1860 3 838 292 4 887 69 346 78 363 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 5 810 5 525 6 119 6 764 6 987 7 755 7 730 8 052 8 820 8 944 9 415 10 108 9 539 10 951 11 000 11 719 11 867 13 131 13 205 14 345 13 850 14 914 13 081 12 362 12 784 12 066 12 982 12 264 14 172 14 172 902 965 1 127 1 283 1 411 1 497 1 572 1 792 1 994 1 763 1 948 2 029 2 023 2 006 2 214 2 203 2 255 2 307 2 307 2 428 2 497 2 515 2 607 2 671 2 584 2 677 2 983 3 018 3 104 3 208 6 407 6 669 6 599 7 263 7 437 7 263 6 774 7 228 6 948 7 612 7 961 9 078 9 497 9 532 10 300 9 672 9 776 10 091 10 824 10 894 11 697 11 976 11 906 11 837 12 395 12 256 11 941 13 233 13 757 15 049 98 374 102 289 106 360 110 593 114 994 119 571 124 330 129 278 134 423 139 772 145 335 151 119 157 133 163 387 169 889 176 651 183 681 190 991 198 592 206 496 214 714 224 027 245 757 233 857 227 131 254 552 249 379 273 178 278 869 304 221 111 493 115 448 120 205 125 903 130 829 136 086 140 406 146 350 152 186 158 091 164 659 172 334 178 193 185 876 193 403 200 244 207 579 216 519 224 928 234 163 242 758 253 432 273 352 260 726 254 894 281 551 277 285 301 693 309 903 336 650 84 .The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 2b.

GDP Levels in Western Offshoots.Western Offshoots Table 2b. 1900-1955 (million 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 Australia New Zealand Canada United States 4 Western Offshoots 15 014 14 568 14 717 15 881 16 947 17 145 18 309 19 052 19 697 21 307 22 793 22 967 23 764 24 861 24 797 24 341 24 172 23 716 23 155 24 488 25 534 26 818 28 225 29 579 31 524 33 002 33 792 34 305 34 368 33 662 30 458 28 416 30 025 32 110 33 810 35 798 37 414 39 306 40 639 40 749 43 422 48 271 53 837 55 738 53 809 51 109 49 291 50 503 53 754 57 308 61 274 63 892 64 470 66 481 70 614 74 471 3 469 3 480 3 746 4 099 4 081 4 457 4 879 5 174 4 816 4 885 5 556 5 862 5 689 5 781 5 931 5 960 5 914 5 769 5 677 6 313 7 001 6 538 6 313 6 822 6 943 7 313 6 926 6 729 7 475 7 741 7 405 6 775 6 608 7 047 7 400 7 747 9 186 9 683 10 365 10 510 10 308 9 984 11 082 11 313 11 360 11 695 12 597 14 100 12 701 14 071 16 136 14 904 15 552 16 084 18 298 18 639 15 887 17 144 18 820 19 378 19 658 21 962 24 162 25 559 24 336 26 920 29 225 31 215 33 275 34 916 32 577 34 672 38 163 39 734 37 186 34 357 33 973 30 307 34 741 36 801 37 360 41 445 43 680 48 010 52 269 52 199 50 454 42 667 39 630 36 801 40 712 43 994 46 368 50 733 52 060 55 167 62 744 71 508 84 182 87 988 91 305 88 477 87 569 91 445 93 121 95 146 102 164 107 960 115 816 121 228 120 390 131 633 312 499 347 681 351 303 368 377 363 720 390 624 435 636 442 362 406 146 455 814 460 471 475 475 497 722 517 383 477 545 490 996 558 774 544 804 593 956 599 130 593 438 579 986 612 064 692 776 713 989 730 545 778 144 785 905 794 700 843 334 768 314 709 332 615 686 602 751 649 316 698 984 798 322 832 469 799 357 862 995 929 737 1 098 921 1 318 809 1 581 122 1 713 572 1 644 761 1 305 357 1 285 697 1 334 331 1 339 505 1 455 916 1 566 784 1 625 245 1 699 970 1 688 804 1 808 126 346 869 382 873 388 586 407 735 404 406 434 188 482 987 492 147 454 995 508 927 518 044 535 519 560 450 582 941 540 849 555 969 627 023 614 024 659 973 664 288 659 946 643 650 681 343 765 978 789 816 812 305 862 542 874 948 888 812 936 936 856 631 787 191 691 948 678 710 731 237 786 523 891 290 932 191 902 421 969 421 1 046 211 1 228 684 1 467 911 1 736 162 1 870 047 1 796 042 1 454 814 1 441 744 1 493 907 1 506 030 1 635 490 1 753 540 1 821 083 1 903 763 1 898 106 2 032 869 85 .

The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 2b. GDP Levels in Western Offshoots. 1956-2001 (million 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Australia New Zealand Canada United States 4 Western Offshoots 77 034 78 577 82 351 87 421 91 085 91 713 97 444 103 413 110 488 116 131 119 363 127 422 134 913 143 118 152 220 158 992 163 453 172 314 176 586 181 367 188 678 190 653 196 184 206 515 210 642 218 780 218 512 218 539 233 618 245 444 250 539 262 925 274 737 286 820 291 180 288 661 296 225 307 489 322 819 336 990 350 470 362 601 382 147 399 670 412 813 423 596 19 605 20 165 20 957 22 449 22 449 23 704 24 215 25 749 27 004 28 724 30 536 29 142 29 095 32 099 31 644 33 285 34 711 37 177 39 390 38 937 39 887 37 944 38 097 38 874 39 141 41 041 41 809 42 955 45 072 45 420 46 372 46 564 46 435 46 850 46 729 45 908 46 304 48 654 51 554 53 599 55 368 57 083 56 761 59 173 61 156 62 282 142 282 146 402 149 021 155 062 159 880 164 598 176 130 185 041 197 098 210 203 223 832 230 647 242 703 255 497 262 098 276 694 291 314 312 176 324 928 332 269 350 467 362 245 376 894 392 561 397 814 410 164 397 671 409 246 432 711 456 107 468 055 487 138 510 815 523 177 524 475 514 459 519 148 531 096 556 209 571 447 580 590 605 162 630 306 664 021 694 308 704 594 1 843 455 1 878 063 1 859 088 1 997 061 2 046 727 2 094 396 2 220 732 2 316 765 2 450 915 2 607 294 2 778 086 2 847 549 2 983 081 3 076 517 3 081 900 3 178 106 3 346 554 3 536 622 3 526 724 3 516 825 3 701 163 3 868 829 4 089 548 4 228 647 4 230 558 4 336 141 4 254 870 4 433 129 4 755 958 4 940 383 5 110 480 5 290 129 5 512 845 5 703 521 5 803 200 5 775 948 5 952 089 6 110 061 6 356 710 6 526 361 6 759 427 7 046 304 7 349 878 7 651 223 7 941 969 7 965 795 2 082 376 2 123 207 2 111 417 2 261 993 2 320 141 2 374 411 2 518 521 2 630 968 2 785 505 2 962 352 3 151 817 3 234 760 3 389 792 3 507 231 3 527 862 3 647 077 3 836 032 4 058 289 4 067 628 4 069 398 4 280 195 4 459 671 4 700 723 4 866 597 4 878 155 5 006 126 4 912 862 5 103 869 5 467 359 5 687 354 5 875 446 6 086 756 6 344 832 6 560 368 6 665 584 6 624 976 6 813 766 6 997 300 7 287 292 7 488 397 7 745 855 8 071 150 8 419 092 8 774 087 9 110 246 9 156 267 86 .

1500-1899 (1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) Australia New Zealand Canada United States 4 Western Offshoots 1500 400 400 400 400 400 1600 400 400 400 400 400 1700 400 400 430 527 476 1820 518 400 904 1 257 1 202 1830 848 400 1 000 1 376 1 328 1840 1 374 400 1 162 1 588 1 542 1850 1 975 1 144 1 330 1 806 1 763 1860 2 894 2 212 1 451 2 178 2 137 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 3 273 3 299 3 553 3 824 3 835 4 138 4 007 4 036 4 277 4 205 4 285 4 455 4 063 4 475 4 304 4 422 4 329 4 632 4 504 4 747 4 458 4 666 3 995 3 708 3 766 3 487 3 685 3 420 3 891 3 840 3 100 3 155 3 523 3 831 3 843 3 688 3 623 3 982 4 271 3 569 3 747 3 765 3 646 3 495 3 703 3 587 3 602 3 604 3 554 3 701 3 755 3 731 3 801 3 788 3 579 3 642 3 988 3 950 3 985 4 041 1 695 1 755 1 705 1 842 1 854 1 784 1 641 1 727 1 637 1 765 1 816 2 040 2 109 2 090 2 231 2 073 2 075 2 120 2 249 2 239 2 378 2 409 2 371 2 334 2 420 2 371 2 288 2 512 2 583 2 796 2 445 2 489 2 524 2 562 2 601 2 643 2 686 2 732 2 780 2 829 2 880 2 921 2 963 3 008 3 056 3 106 3 158 3 213 3 270 3 330 3 392 3 467 3 728 3 478 3 314 3 644 3 504 3 769 3 780 4 051 2 419 2 463 2 502 2 558 2 595 2 638 2 660 2 712 2 760 2 806 2 861 2 921 2 949 3 003 3 052 3 090 3 134 3 199 3 254 3 319 3 372 3 450 3 649 3 415 3 277 3 554 3 438 3 675 3 710 3 963 87 .Western Offshoots Table 2c. Per Capita GDP in Western Offshoots.

1900-1955 (1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 Australia New Zealand Canada United States 4 Western Offshoots 4 013 3 839 3 823 4 076 4 295 4 282 4 507 4 616 4 693 4 981 5 210 5 104 5 098 5 157 5 027 4 897 4 878 4 791 4 602 4 716 4 766 4 911 5 064 5 192 5 417 5 553 5 573 5 544 5 452 5 263 4 708 4 354 4 564 4 842 5 060 5 318 5 516 5 746 5 886 5 846 6 166 6 788 7 505 7 703 7 362 6 917 6 595 6 664 6 967 7 237 7 412 7 507 7 418 7 505 7 791 8 027 4 298 4 223 4 438 4 727 4 570 4 850 5 158 5 340 4 835 4 770 5 316 5 494 5 209 5 152 5 189 5 174 5 120 5 008 4 911 5 283 5 641 5 128 4 841 5 144 5 143 5 292 4 905 4 683 5 141 5 262 4 960 4 475 4 327 4 576 4 768 4 959 5 840 6 102 6 462 6 460 6 300 6 129 6 762 6 928 6 868 6 928 7 161 7 846 6 929 7 521 8 456 7 653 7 796 7 856 8 743 8 725 2 911 3 097 3 331 3 334 3 280 3 562 3 846 3 875 3 572 3 850 4 066 4 213 4 377 4 447 4 025 4 233 4 646 4 801 4 441 4 019 3 861 3 357 3 793 3 976 3 977 4 340 4 497 4 847 5 172 5 065 4 811 4 004 3 671 3 370 3 691 3 951 4 124 4 473 4 546 4 768 5 368 6 051 7 033 7 263 7 443 7 133 6 931 7 088 7 065 7 064 7 291 7 533 7 833 7 984 7 699 8 201 4 091 4 464 4 421 4 551 4 410 4 642 5 079 5 065 4 561 5 017 4 964 5 046 5 201 5 301 4 799 4 864 5 459 5 248 5 659 5 680 5 552 5 323 5 540 6 164 6 233 6 282 6 602 6 576 6 569 6 899 6 213 5 691 4 908 4 777 5 114 5 467 6 204 6 430 6 126 6 561 7 010 8 206 9 741 11 518 12 333 11 709 9 197 8 886 9 065 8 944 9 561 10 116 10 316 10 613 10 359 10 897 4 015 4 349 4 327 4 455 4 334 4 559 4 976 4 970 4 502 4 934 4 916 4 995 5 139 5 233 4 758 4 824 5 373 5 195 5 522 5 517 5 397 5 160 5 385 5 953 6 024 6 100 6 387 6 385 6 402 6 673 6 028 5 492 4 794 4 672 5 000 5 340 6 011 6 247 5 999 6 390 6 838 7 954 9 400 10 971 11 676 11 090 8 881 8 635 8 791 8 704 9 268 9 760 9 950 10 220 10 000 10 512 88 . Per Capita GDP in Western Offshoots.The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 2c.

Western Offshoots Table 2c. 1956-2001 (1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Australia New Zealand Canada United States 4 Western Offshoots 8 108 8 090 8 305 8 628 8 791 8 653 9 027 9 400 9 849 10 152 10 241 10 733 11 148 11 561 12 024 12 290 12 404 12 878 12 985 13 170 13 559 13 546 13 769 14 320 14 412 14 660 14 391 14 197 14 995 15 546 15 641 16 173 16 630 17 093 17 106 16 727 16 945 17 383 18 042 18 602 19 101 19 531 20 361 21 070 21 540 21 883 9 000 9 045 9 185 9 630 9 465 9 745 9 731 10 132 10 418 10 879 11 362 10 682 10 545 11 511 11 189 11 576 11 850 12 424 12 879 12 489 12 648 11 989 12 034 12 284 12 347 12 884 13 022 13 234 13 746 13 772 14 017 14 037 13 939 14 020 13 909 13 514 13 470 14 001 14 657 15 031 15 290 15 528 15 233 15 679 16 010 16 118 8 652 8 607 8 534 8 676 8 753 8 833 9 277 9 566 9 999 10 473 10 946 11 078 11 479 11 912 12 050 12 562 13 072 13 838 14 205 14 316 14 902 15 223 15 680 16 170 16 176 16 472 15 779 16 076 16 836 17 582 17 862 18 348 18 993 19 108 18 872 18 297 18 201 18 364 19 008 19 293 19 364 19 968 20 579 21 450 22 198 22 302 10 914 10 920 10 631 11 230 11 328 11 402 11 905 12 242 12 773 13 419 14 134 14 330 14 863 15 179 15 030 15 304 15 944 16 689 16 491 16 284 16 975 17 567 18 373 18 789 18 577 18 856 18 325 18 920 20 123 20 717 21 236 21 788 22 499 23 059 23 201 22 785 23 169 23 477 24 130 24 484 25 066 25 819 26 619 27 395 28 129 27 948 10 569 10 567 10 323 10 866 10 961 11 025 11 510 11 844 12 357 12 967 13 624 13 816 14 320 14 657 14 560 14 856 15 450 16 179 16 053 15 892 16 550 17 069 17 803 18 233 18 060 18 339 17 814 18 333 19 463 20 062 20 531 21 067 21 746 22 250 22 345 21 918 22 243 22 547 23 200 23 559 24 084 24 799 25 571 26 349 27 065 26 943 89 . Per Capita GDP in Western Offshoots.

The World Economy: Historical Statistics 90 .

91 . 1820–2001 within their 1989 frontiers and 1990–2001 for the 22 successor states within their new boundaries. but 22 successor states have emerged.132 for East German population and GDP.Eastern Europe and Former USSR HS–3: A. Bulgaria: 1926–39 from A. p. 109–10. Occasional Papers 120 and 124. Review of Income and Wealth. 1960. E ASTERN E UROPE AND FORMER USSR Until 1990. Knipegraph. Svennilson. October 2002 revision. Geneva. 139–43 and in Maddison “Measuring the Performance of a Communist Command Economy: An Assessment of CIA Estimates for the USSR”. and 15 from USSR.P. Growth and Stagnation in the European Economy. They provide estimates adjusted throughout to 1978 frontiers. I. 1870– 1940 from I. GDP LEVELS: sources are indicated in the country notes below.P. Final Uses. Demographic Yearbook. Albania: 1950 and 1990 GDP levels from Maddison. New York. US Congress. Alton. October 1985. Joint Economic Committee. GDP movement 1990–2001 from Statistics Division. 1975–90 real GNP by industry of origin from T. Penguin. in Economic Developments in Countries of Eastern Europe. there are significant gaps in the GDP estimates for Eastern European countries. 1939–65 from T. London. In all cases the GDP estimates for the communist period have been adjusted to correspond to the norms of the UN standardised system of national accounts. p. Chakalov. 1965–75 from T. there were 8 countries in this group. Estimates for 1820–2001 POPULATION: 1950 onwards all countries of Eastern Europe and the former USSR from the International Programs Center of the US Bureau of the Census. The tables show GDP. 5 from Yugoslavia. 1954. Population 1820–50 from McEvedy and Jones (1978). 1995. 217. Joint Economic Committee. The National Income and Outlay of Bulgaria: 1924–1945 (in Bulgarian). Geneva. Economic Performance and Policy. “East European GNPs: Origins of Product. population and per capita GDP for the 8 countries. 1992 and 1993. 1870–1950 per capita GDP was assumed to move in the same proportion as the average for the other 6 East European countries. 1995. Alton and Associates. pp. I have therefore used the proxy estimates of Good and Ma (1999) to fill most of these gaps as indicated below. As the estimates for Germany in HS–1 include the area of the former DDR. Research Project on National Income in East Central Europe. pp.P. p. it is not shown here (see Maddison. 237 (adjusted to postwar frontiers). 1970. Sofia. September. “Economic Growth in Eastern Europe”. The former DDR (German Democratic Republic) lasted from 1946 to 1990. 1946. p. which makes it difficult to get meaningful group totals and averages. ECE. 1936–1993). in East European Economies: Slow Growth in the 1980s. Rates of Growth and International Comparisons”. 1941–9 from UN. For 1820–1913. New York. For 1820– 1949. Atlas of World Population History. US Congress. Sources for 1820–1949 are indicated in the country notes below. I have made some revisions and filled gaps from Colin McEvedy and Richard Jones (1978). Alton. The problems in doing this and the relevant sources are discussed in Maddison (1995). 46. when it was absorbed into the Federal Republic. “Economic Structure and Growth in Eastern Europe”. 5 still have the same frontiers. Economic Commission for Europe. 1998. 2 from Czechoslovakia. vol.

Research Project on East Central Europe. March 1971. Slovakia from Statistics Division. cit. op. London. London.. Thereafter from OECD sources.P. Pryor.2 to Yugoslavia. Akumulacja i spozycie w procesie uprzemyslowienia Polski Ludowej. Kausel. See “Die Verteilung des Volksvermögens und Volkseinkommens der Länder der ungarischen Heiligen Krone zwischen dem heutigen Ungarn und der Successions–Staaten”. 550. p.. 86–90 as cited by N.7 per cent of the national income. 46. Random House. World Tables. Economic Commission for Europe. Venitul National in Republica Socialista Romania. pp. 1920–39. Vinski. Population 1820– 1949 as for Bulgaria. 1955. Occasional Paper 43. 1956. 1937–65 from G. Grindea. cit. op. 59. 1965– 91 as for Bulgaria. Pryor. 302–3. 1913–49 as for Bulgaria. in Enciclopedia Romaniei.4 per cent of income went to an area which became part of Romania. 113. Hungary: 1870–1900 GDP from Max–Stephan Schulze. Per capita income was about 8 per cent higher in present–day Hungary than in the rest. Population 1820–1900 from McEvedy and Jones (1978).. 1965–90 as for Bulgaria. 941–966 as cited by N. Poland: 1929–38 from K. 20.7 per cent of the population (7 605 thousand out of a total 20 745) and 39. 221 1950–68 from T. 1913–37 GDP from F. “Patterns of Growth and Stagnation in the Late Nineteenth Century Habsburg Economy”. 1990–2001 from Statistics Division. various issues. p. 92 . and Serbia–Montenegro from Statistics Division. Economic Commission for Europe. Occasional Paper. Vienna. New York. Occasional Paper 26. 21. 2000.. 1938 and 1946–67”. Stiintifica. 1938–65 real GNP by industry of origin from L. thereafter as for Bulgaria. 54. Economic Commission for Europe. Beiträge zum Österreichischen Statistik. p. and wealth between present–day Hungary and other successor states of imperial Hungary for 1910. p. p. Ksiazka i Wiedza. series V. Slovenia. pp.P. vol. 46. July 1923. op. “Czechoslovak Gross National Product by Sector of Origin and Final Use. but the movement he shows is the best available proxy for development within present frontiers. M. 1969. Alton (1970). The State and Economic Development in Eastern Europe. Spulber.The World Economy: Historical Statistics Czechoslovakia: 1820–1913 growth rate of per capita GDP assumed to fall midway between those for Austria proper and for rest of Cisleithania in A. 1900–38 net national product within present frontiers from A. (1970).36.P. and 1948–65”. 1870–1949 as for Bulgaria. 1990–2001 GDP for Bosnia–Herczegovina. 1870–1910 supplied by David Good.9 to Czechoslovakia and 1. p. 1937. Population 1820–70 assumed to grow at the same pace as in imperial Hungary as shown in Kausel (1985). “Hungarian GNP by Sectors of Origin of Product and End Uses. p. New York. in P. and G. Population 1820–50 from McEvedy and Jones (1978). 1966. Yugoslavia: Movement of net domestic product adjusted to enhance international comparability 1909–12. ed. Review of Income and Wealth. Czirjak. Friedich von Fellner estimated the breakdown of population. pp. 1979. 1973. 1967. 1940. 1990 onwards from OECD sources. pp. 16. Laski. p. Z. in S.L. Stadnik. Bucharest. New York. op. Macedonia. Bowes and Bowes. Present–day Hungary had 36. ed. income. cit. 120. Bowes and Bowes. no. “Österreichs Volkseinkommen 1830 bis 1913”. Kuznets. Population 1820–70 from McEvedy and Jones (1978). 1938–50 from D.P. Bucharest. 1990– 2001 for Czech republic from OECD sources. 311–340. thereafter as for Bulgaria. Romania: 1926–38 from “Venitul National”. European Review of Economic History. 1975–90 as for Bulgaria. Geneva. Alton (1985). Alton. 1965–75 from T. “National Income and Capital Formation in Hungary. Income and Wealth. 4. p. pp. Series IX. in “Geschichte und Ergebnisse der zentralen amtlichen Statistik in Österreich 1829–1979”. cit. New York. “National Product and Fixed Assets in the Territory of Yugoslavia 1900–59”. Metron.8 per cent to present–day Austria. 1992. Eckstein. Alton and Associates. Lazarcik. Warsaw.J. Croatia. 1965–90 as for Bulgaria. 1975–90 from “Economic Growth in Eastern Europe 1975–91” in T. 175.P. 1937–65 from T. and 1947–50 from I. Income and Wealth. Staller “Czechoslovakia: Aggregate Production in the Inter–war Period”. 1950–65 from Alton (1970). Deane.. 4. Schulze’s estimates refer to imperial Hungary. 12. 1968–75 from World Bank. 1961. Spulber. Research Project on National Income in East Central Europe. Research Project on National Income in East Central Europe. 109–10. 1900–50”.

they seem plausible enough to fill gaps in the database until direct estimates become available. Russian National Income 1885–1913. 1820–1913 David Good and Tongshu Ma.2 for 1890. Butschek and G. US Congress. Princeton. Geneva. European Review of Economic History. 1946. 279. Princeton. 62 and 67. London. 1990.0 for 1913. 93 . ed. Growth of Industrial Production in the Soviet Union. For the Tsarist period to 1928 there are alternative estimates by P. transport and communication parallel to industry.2 and 100. 1890 and 1910 for Austria and 6 East European countries. This was an update of Measures of Soviet Gross National Product in 1982 Prices. p.W. 519. 2002. taking net agricultural product from S. F. 1870–1910”. Gregory’s two net national product alternatives average 42.Eastern Europe and Former USSR USSR: 1820–70 per capita GDP movement assumed to parallel the average for Eastern Europe. Population 1820–1900 from McEvedy and Jones.. Davies. Joint Economic Committee. in F. For 1913–28. “The Economic Growth of Tsarist Russia 1860–1913”. In 1998. The two methods concord well. 1962. Nutter. Macmillan. pp. ed. using 1900–1910 growth rates. 1870– 1989”. 1913–40 from F. Stuttgart.W. (1998). Bureau of National Affairs. March 29. Table 3–1 shows their proxies.3 for 1900 and 100. The industry of origin approach yields a GDP index of 43. Moorsteen and R. I used 1913 weights for the components from M. For the 1920s onwards they used Maddison (1995) estimates. 56–7. “The Economic Growth of Central and Eastern Europe. 1991. Virtually identical results are given in Good and Ma (1998). Nutter. Factor Cost Prices”. 184 and 339. Economica. Hirsch.9. Baltzarek. From Tsarism to the New Economic Policy. 150. Wheatcroft in R. Annual movement 1994–2002 from IMF. Washington DC. pp. and industrial output from G. Von der Theorie zur Wirtschaftspolitik–ein österreichische Weg. 1928–40 and 1945–50 gross national product at 1937 prices by industry of origin from R. 1946–9 movement from G. February 1968. Table 3–2 shows my estimates and my use of their proxies (in italics). 182.. 450.W. Proxy Estimates to Fill Gaps in GDP Estimates for Eastern Europe. pp. November 1990. 1950–90 from CIA. 1982.0 for these years. pp. Economic Development and Cultural Change. Gregory. I assumed forestry and fishing to move parallel to agriculture. Bolotin. 79 and 159–163. crude birth rate and the share of non–agricultural employment in the labour force). NBER. 66. Cambridge University Press. I used his estimates of crop and livestock output. Per capita proxies were multiplied by population to derive GDP. I used the same technique of estimation and weights. These estimates are shown as relatives to the United States. “New Estimates of Income levels in Central and Eastern Europe. government current spending. and 462–3. “Russia’s National Income 1913: A Revaluation”.G. pp. Tichy (eds. September. and investment) in current prices and deflates by price indices. they showed figures for 1880 and 1900. “Sector of Origin GNP for the Soviet Union. League of Nations. 1966. “The Former Soviet Union as Reflected in National Accounts Statistics”. The Growth of Industrial Production in the Soviet Union. 1962. 1870–1913 volume movement of GDP components from R.R. Their proxy estimates are derived by regression using three indicators (letters posted per capita. Illinois. I extrapolated the proxies to 1913. his industrial index and estimate for handicraft activity. The Soviet Capital Stock 1928–1962. construction. where they are shown as levels rather than relatives. The relationship of GDP per capita to this cocktail of indicators is tested for 12 countries deemed to have reasonably good national income data. Lorimer. He measures expenditure components (private consumption.W. The Population of the Soviet Union: History and Prospects. 361 with the 1939–40 increase reduced to offset the population increase due to territorial acquisitions at that time. 1990 breakdown of GDP level for the 15 successor republics derived from B. p. in S. but not the link with years after the first world war. Falkus. August 1999 provide proxy estimates of the level and movement of GDP per capita for the years 1870. p.). and my numeraire (1990 international Geary–Khamis dollars). Irwin.E. processed. 66. Powell. p. 1992. Goldsmith. April 1961. Memo 3:In Search of Answers in the Post–Soviet Era. 1973–93 GDP level for the fifteen successor states from Maddison (2001).M. World Economic Outlook. Lucius. Although I reject the proxies as a substitute for direct estimates.P.

Table 3-1. Poland and Romania. Proxies are in italics. I assumed slower per capita growth than in Western Europe at 0. Their estimates are likely to be less representative for Poland.111. except for Hungary 1820.The World Economy: Historical Statistics It should be noted that the Good and Ma proxies refer mostly to territory within the Austro– Hungarian empire where comparison was facilitated by the existence of a currency and customs union. As a proxy. Direct estimates of GDP movement for 1500–1820 are not available. p. Estimates for 1500–1820 Population 1500–1820 from McEvedy and Jones (1978). where only 15 per cent of the population lived within the borders of the Habsburg empire. using the Maddison (1995) estimates for the US shown above. Good and Ma Proxy Measures of Per Capita GDP (1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) 1870 1 892 Austria Bulgaria Czechoslovakia 1 509 Hungary 1890 1910 1920 1929 2 289 3 017 2 429 3 722 1 131 1 456 589 1 181 1 912 2 495 1 935 3 046 1 179 1 572 2 192 1 707 2 473 Poland 946 1 284 1 690 678 2 120 Romania 931 1 246 1 660 828 1 153 Yugoslavia 864 1 216 1 525 1 056 1 368 2 457 3 396 4 970 5 559 6 907 United States Source: Good and Ma (1999). For Yugoslavia I made the link at 1910 and adjusted the Good-Ma proxies for the difference in level in 1910. Proxies are in italics. I used the Good-Ma proxies without adjustment as they are benchmarked on my estimates for 1929. 94 . Maddison Estimates of Per Capita GDP and Proxies Derived from Good and Ma (1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) 1870 Austria 1 863 Bulgaria 1890 1910 1920 2 412 2 443 3 290 1 131 1 456 1 164 1 505 1 991 1 933 Hungary 1 092 1 473 2 000 1 709 946 1 284 1 690 Romania 931 1 246 1 660 Yugoslavia 599 843 1 057 Source: 3 699 1 180 Czechoslovakia Poland 1929 3 042 2 476 2 117 1 152 1 031 1 364 For Bulgaria. as noted above. I have unscrambled them. 1995). They show their proxies as relatives to the US level in the given year. Table 3-2.1 per cent per annum for 1500–1820 (as I did in Maddison.

95 . Europe 496 548 606 683 Russia 499 552 610 688 Source: see text. Eastern Europe and Russia (Former USSR area): Population and GDP. Europe 6 696 9 289 11 393 24 906 Russia 8 458 11 426 16 196 37 678 Per Capita GDP (1990 international $) Average E. 1500-1820 Population (000) Albania Bulgaria 1500 1600 1700 1820 200 200 300 437 800 1 250 1 250 2 187 3 000 4 500 4 500 7 657 Hungary 1 250 1 250 1 500 4 146 Poland 4 000 5 000 6 000 10 426 Czechoslovakia Romania 2 000 2 000 2 500 6 389 Yugoslavia 2 250 2 750 2 750 5 215 Total 13 500 16 950 18 800 36 457 Russia 16 950 20 700 26 550 54 765 GDP (million 1990 international $) Total E.Eastern Europe and Former USSR Table 3-3.

The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 3a. 1820-1949 (000 at mid-year) Albania Bulgaria Czechoslovakia Hungary Poland Romania 1820 437 2 187 7 657 4 146 10 426 6 389 5 215 36 457 54 765 1850 500 2 500 9 250 5 161 13 000 8 000 6 000 44 411 73 750 1870 603 2 586 10 155 5 917 16 865 9 179 8 252 53 557 88 672 1890 726 3 445 11 253 6 622 22 854 10 373 9 690 64 963 110 664 1900 1910 1913 800 874 898 4 000 4 520 4 720 12 142 12 984 13 245 7 127 7 644 7 840 24 750 26 644 26 710 11 000 11 866 12 527 11 174 13 052 13 590 70 993 77 584 79 530 124 500 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 932 937 942 947 952 956 962 967 972 977 982 988 993 998 1 003 1 009 1 014 1 030 1 040 1 070 1 088 1 100 1 117 1 119 1 122 1 138 1 154 1 175 1 192 1 209 5 072 5 148 5 255 5 365 5 476 5 590 5 705 5 798 5 873 5 950 6 027 6 106 6 186 6 267 6 349 6 415 6 469 6 514 6 564 6 614 6 666 6 715 6 771 6 828 6 885 6 942 7 000 7 064 7 130 7 195 12 979 13 008 13 159 13 293 13 413 13 537 13 644 13 728 13 807 13 884 13 964 14 052 14 138 14 216 14 282 14 339 14 387 14 429 14 603 14 683 14 713 14 671 14 577 14 538 14 593 14 152 12 916 12 164 12 339 12 339 7 950 8 029 8 103 8 173 8 232 8 299 8 383 8 454 8 520 8 583 8 649 8 723 8 785 8 848 8 919 8 985 9 046 9 107 9 167 9 227 9 287 9 344 9 396 9 442 9 497 9 024 9 042 9 079 9 158 9 250 23 968 24 330 24 935 25 569 25 992 26 425 26 815 27 148 27 509 27 856 28 204 28 615 29 022 29 421 29 771 30 129 30 471 30 791 31 062 31 365 30 021 12 340 12 479 12 666 12 843 13 020 13 209 13 399 13 574 13 760 13 952 14 141 14 355 14 554 14 730 14 924 15 069 15 256 15 434 15 601 15 751 15 907 15 774 15 839 15 840 15 946 15 929 15 971 15 849 15 893 16 084 12 422 12 607 12 796 12 987 13 180 13 378 13 578 13 780 13 986 14 194 14 407 14 618 14 819 15 022 15 228 15 439 15 651 15 860 16 084 16 305 75 663 76 538 77 856 79 177 80 265 81 394 82 486 83 449 84 427 85 396 86 374 87 457 88 497 89 502 90 476 91 385 92 294 93 165 94 121 95 015 154 607 152 836 152 403 153 055 155 581 158 983 162 621 166 117 169 269 172 017 174 212 175 987 176 807 177 401 178 453 179 636 181 502 184 626 188 498 192 379 195 970 15 596 15 817 16 040 84 661 85 509 86 527 23 959 23 734 23 980 24 410 96 Yugoslavia Total 7 EE USSR 156 192 173 900 174 000 175 100 177 500 . Population of Former Eastern Europe and USSR.

Eastern Europe and Former USSR Table 3a. 1950-2003 (000 at mid-year) 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Albania Bulgaria Czechoslovakia Hungary Poland Romania 1 227 1 254 1 283 1 315 1 353 1 392 1 434 1 477 1 521 1 571 1 623 1 677 1 728 1 780 1 832 1 884 1 933 1 984 2 039 2 100 2 157 2 209 2 264 2 296 2 348 2 401 2 455 2 509 2 563 2 618 2 671 2 724 2 780 2 837 2 896 2 957 3 015 3 075 3 137 3 196 3 258 3 238 3 175 3 172 3 198 3 237 3 280 3 318 3 367 3 443 3 490 3 510 3 545 3 582 7 251 7 258 7 275 7 346 7 423 7 499 7 576 7 651 7 728 7 798 7 867 7 943 8 013 8 078 8 144 8 201 8 258 8 310 8 370 8 434 8 490 8 536 8 576 8 621 8 679 8 721 8 755 8 797 8 803 8 812 8 844 8 869 8 892 8 910 8 928 8 944 8 959 8 972 8 982 8 990 8 894 8 772 8 659 8 441 8 360 8 272 8 181 8 085 7 985 7 889 7 797 7 707 7 621 7 538 12 389 12 532 12 683 12 820 12 952 13 093 13 229 13 358 13 474 13 565 13 654 13 779 13 858 13 948 14 052 14 147 14 224 14 277 14 323 14 284 14 319 14 381 14 456 14 549 14 658 14 772 14 884 14 990 15 089 15 182 15 255 15 312 15 352 15 388 15 423 15 455 15 481 15 511 15 537 15 559 15 572 15 587 15 619 15 650 15 676 15 687 15 686 15 685 15 684 15 682 15 680 15 679 15 679 15 679 9 338 9 423 9 504 9 595 9 706 9 825 9 911 9 839 9 882 9 937 9 984 10 029 10 063 10 091 10 124 10 153 10 185 10 223 10 264 10 303 10 337 10 365 10 394 10 426 10 471 10 532 10 589 10 637 10 673 10 698 10 711 10 712 10 706 10 689 10 668 10 649 10 631 10 613 10 443 10 398 10 372 10 365 10 349 10 329 10 313 10 296 10 274 10 245 10 211 10 174 10 139 10 106 10 075 10 045 24 824 25 262 25 731 26 221 26 715 27 221 27 744 28 235 28 693 29 152 29 590 29 979 30 330 30 662 30 976 31 262 31 532 31 785 32 035 32 281 32 526 32 778 33 040 33 331 33 643 33 969 34 299 34 621 34 929 35 257 35 578 35 902 36 227 36 571 36 904 37 226 37 504 37 741 37 867 37 970 38 119 38 253 38 371 38 469 38 551 38 603 38 633 38 656 38 664 38 658 38 646 38 634 38 625 38 623 16 311 16 464 16 630 16 847 17 040 17 325 17 583 17 829 18 056 18 226 18 403 18 567 18 681 18 813 18 927 19 027 19 141 19 285 19 721 20 010 20 253 20 470 20 663 20 828 21 029 21 245 21 446 21 659 21 832 22 001 22 130 22 257 22 357 22 407 22 454 22 521 22 600 22 686 22 769 22 852 22 866 22 826 22 797 22 769 22 739 22 693 22 628 22 562 22 509 22 459 22 411 22 364 22 318 22 272 97 Yugoslavia Total 7 EE 16 298 16 519 16 708 16 937 17 151 17 364 17 508 17 659 17 796 17 968 18 133 18 318 18 500 18 685 18 852 19 038 19 221 19 390 19 552 19 705 19 840 20 015 20 197 20 367 20 550 20 732 20 930 21 126 21 309 21 490 21 615 21 707 21 860 21 968 22 012 22 115 22 213 22 283 22 358 22 429 22 488 22 806 22 912 22 775 22 543 22 347 22 303 22 391 22 506 22 600 22 750 22 911 23 001 23 066 87 637 88 713 89 814 91 081 92 341 93 719 94 985 96 049 97 149 98 217 99 254 100 292 101 172 102 057 102 908 103 713 104 494 105 256 106 302 107 117 107 921 108 753 109 589 110 418 111 377 112 372 113 357 114 339 115 199 116 058 116 804 117 483 118 173 118 772 119 285 119 866 120 402 120 881 121 092 121 394 121 569 121 847 121 880 121 605 121 379 121 135 120 983 120 942 120 924 120 904 120 913 120 912 120 864 120 805 USSR 179 571 182 677 185 856 188 961 192 171 195 613 199 103 202 604 206 201 209 928 213 780 217 618 221 227 224 585 227 698 230 513 233 139 235 630 237 983 240 253 242 478 244 887 247 343 249 712 252 111 254 519 256 883 259 225 261 525 263 751 265 973 268 217 270 533 273 010 275 574 278 108 280 646 283 124 285 482 287 011 289 045 290 754 292 079 292 686 292 755 292 597 292 188 291 750 291 373 291 012 290 654 290 349 290 154 290 062 . Population of Former Eastern Europe and USSR.

1820-1949 a (million 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) Albania Czechoslovakia Hungary Poland Romania Yugoslavia Total 7 EE 1820 6 501 24 906 1850 9 981 38 593 1870 269 2 172 11 820 6 459 15 954 8 546 4 943 50 163 1890 434 3 896 16 936 9 751 29 345 12 925 8 169 81 456 1900 1910 1913 548 682 728 4 892 6 581 7 240 20 994 25 851 27 755 11 990 15 291 16 447 38 016 45 028 46 449 15 565 19 698 21 810 10 079 13 795 14 364 102 084 126 926 134 793 25 091 27 117 26 395 28 588 31 558 35 277 35 138 37 775 41 106 42 240 40 856 39 468 37 886 36 276 34 889 34 556 37 387 41 578 13 585 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 a) Bulgaria 905 4 976 5 156 6 671 7 274 7 160 7 023 7 741 8 876 8 933 9 084 8 308 7 928 9 659 10 204 10 470 10 599 10 319 10 520 10 018 10 334 9 551 7 447 38 108 40 218 15 740 18 914 18 125 18 914 20 576 21 250 20 789 19 786 19 260 21 003 21 135 22 204 23 684 23 158 24 342 26 184 24 391 24 539 25 773 58 980 56 247 52 177 48 107 46 771 47 439 48 107 49 504 58 980 67 788 15 559 16 102 20 148 21 776 16 850 16 850 16 850 16 079 17 235 17 640 16 657 17 447 17 640 18 026 18 218 17 447 19 375 12 975 proxies are shown in bold italics. 98 12 810 13 129 13 522 14 234 15 264 16 025 17 154 16 884 18 381 19 363 18 995 18 430 16 712 17 228 17 866 17 596 19 878 20 197 21 817 23 019 20 516 24 492 26 921 165 840 USSR 37 678 83 646 154 049 232 351 231 886 238 392 252 333 257 213 254 424 264 880 290 903 334 818 361 306 398 017 405 220 430 314 420 091 333 656 333 656 333 656 333 656 333 656 332 727 369 903 420 555 465 631 . GDP Levels in Former Eastern Europe and USSR.The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 3b.

Eastern Europe and Former USSR Table 3b. 1950-2002 (million 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Albania Bulgaria Czechoslovakia Hungary Poland 1 229 1 310 1 342 1 431 1 516 1 644 1 711 1 874 2 018 2 170 2 355 2 453 2 612 2 782 2 962 3 156 3 360 3 579 3 810 4 058 4 321 4 602 4 901 5 218 5 357 5 497 5 643 5 793 5 945 6 101 6 270 6 428 6 596 6 771 6 951 7 133 7 321 7 514 7 713 7 917 8 125 5 850 5 429 5 950 6 444 7 301 7 965 7 408 8 000 8 584 9 252 9 855 11 971 14 434 13 773 15 317 15 030 16 107 16 121 17 831 19 382 20 926 22 908 24 401 26 405 27 611 29 787 31 575 34 067 35 898 36 559 38 340 40 523 41 844 43 826 45 557 46 986 50 849 52 371 51 869 52 989 55 028 53 449 54 870 56 644 55 574 57 412 55 682 57 154 57 262 56 903 55 883 49 779 45 598 42 689 41 635 42 384 43 613 39 514 37 301 38 793 39 868 41 829 43 502 43 368 44 159 45 630 45 436 47 295 51 348 54 373 57 704 62 117 64 837 69 749 72 525 73 496 72 109 75 495 78 270 81 657 85 154 89 123 90 760 92 592 95 756 99 142 102 445 106 165 109 301 111 050 116 073 117 489 118 488 121 763 121 153 123 512 125 371 128 313 129 313 131 700 132 366 135 308 136 418 132 560 115 937 113 318 112 191 115 603 122 621 128 423 129 782 130 452 131 431 135 313 139 777 23 158 25 395 26 250 26 727 27 664 30 164 28 799 31 184 33 273 34 622 36 431 38 273 39 868 42 056 44 424 44 770 47 319 50 033 50 641 52 155 51 974 54 293 55 460 58 339 59 852 61 135 61 316 65 164 66 743 66 875 67 549 68 026 70 477 69 753 71 579 69 819 71 217 72 319 73 421 71 776 66 990 59 019 57 211 56 881 58 557 59 430 60 226 62 980 66 039 68 794 72 366 75 127 60 742 63 414 64 872 68 638 72 526 76 049 79 450 83 641 87 711 90 262 95 121 102 714 101 317 107 391 112 190 118 386 125 857 130 412 138 309 136 912 144 018 154 284 165 521 177 973 188 421 197 289 202 209 205 975 213 446 209 498 204 213 193 341 191 579 201 055 208 526 210 713 217 394 214 479 219 217 215 815 194 920 181 245 185 804 192 749 202 815 217 060 230 147 244 450 257 765 268 213 278 826 289 421 99 Romania 19 279 20 674 22 169 23 773 25 493 27 337 28 544 29 805 31 121 32 496 33 931 36 225 37 497 40 196 42 741 45 402 50 588 52 901 54 019 56 506 57 779 65 934 70 175 72 411 76 479 79 911 83 998 85 906 88 702 91 266 91 517 90 957 91 035 90 225 93 811 93 657 95 257 93 252 93 020 90 051 80 277 69 921 63 768 64 725 67 249 72 024 74 833 70 268 66 895 66 092 67 282 70 848 Yugoslavia Total 7 EE 25 277 26 284 24 200 27 823 29 362 31 208 30 495 35 573 37 014 41 574 44 190 46 190 47 057 51 967 56 919 58 458 61 605 62 668 63 983 71 131 74 489 83 078 85 945 88 813 100 269 100 269 103 375 110 901 117 014 125 043 131 058 133 156 134 359 135 576 138 682 139 885 145 690 143 997 141 983 140 179 129 953 112 710 91 392 76 268 79 190 83 343 87 483 92 850 95 527 92 675 96 878 100 262 185 023 195 670 198 236 209 145 218 886 233 857 239 494 257 611 272 635 286 886 304 685 322 781 328 253 344 112 364 518 380 016 404 452 420 645 436 444 449 862 465 695 499 790 524 971 550 756 583 528 604 251 619 961 641 681 662 328 672 299 675 819 667 932 674 202 684 326 705 274 706 201 725 733 721 188 727 564 718 039 662 604 590 280 559 611 550 399 572 242 605 392 628 591 645 039 663 471 675 657 701 746 728 792 USSR 510 243 512 566 545 792 569 260 596 910 648 027 710 065 724 470 778 840 770 244 843 434 891 763 915 928 895 016 1 010 727 1 068 117 1 119 932 1 169 422 1 237 966 1 255 392 1 351 818 1 387 832 1 395 732 1 513 070 1 556 984 1 561 399 1 634 589 1 673 159 1 715 215 1 707 083 1 709 174 1 724 741 1 767 262 1 823 723 1 847 190 1 863 687 1 940 363 1 965 457 2 007 280 2 037 253 1 987 995 1 863 524 1 592 084 1 435 008 1 231 738 1 163 401 1 125 992 1 149 255 1 124 868 1 171 952 1 264 526 1 343 230 1 405 639 . GDP Levels in Former Eastern Europe and USSR.

1820-1949 a (1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) Albania Czechoslovakia Hungary Poland Romania Yugoslavia Average 7 EE USSR 688 1820 849 683 1850 1 079 869 1870 446 840 1 164 1 092 946 931 599 937 1890 598 1 131 1 505 1 473 1 284 1 246 843 1 254 1900 1910 1913 685 780 811 1 223 1 456 1 534 1 729 1 991 2 096 1 682 2 000 2 098 1 536 1 690 1 739 1 415 1 660 1 741 902 1 057 1 057 1 438 1 636 1 695 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 709 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 a) Bulgaria 926 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 909 922 169 255 219 180 284 454 444 450 309 236 493 567 595 603 548 567 479 513 387 073 933 085 006 151 353 606 575 752 977 042 926 809 680 552 443 410 599 882 3 088 3 259 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 912 279 162 237 415 476 404 268 192 374 370 471 618 543 655 838 626 626 743 1 1 2 2 721 774 200 354 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 117 994 823 658 590 593 597 625 915 182 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 258 241 225 152 219 229 144 184 182 196 194 130 242 816 proxies are shown in bold italics.The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 3c. Per Capita GDP in Former Eastern Europe and USSR. 100 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 031 041 057 096 158 198 263 225 314 364 318 261 128 147 173 140 270 273 356 412 1 315 1 548 1 678 1 942 943 1 237 1 488 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 370 386 448 462 439 493 630 864 991 156 150 237 144 1 2 2 2 913 126 402 623 .

Eastern Europe and Former USSR Table 3c. 1950-2002 (1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Albania Bulgaria Czechoslovakia Hungary Poland 1 001 1 045 1 046 1 089 1 120 1 181 1 193 1 269 1 326 1 381 1 451 1 463 1 511 1 563 1 616 1 675 1 738 1 804 1 869 1 932 2 004 2 084 2 165 2 273 2 282 2 289 2 299 2 309 2 319 2 331 2 347 2 360 2 373 2 387 2 400 2 413 2 428 2 443 2 459 2 477 2 494 1 806 1 710 1 876 2 015 2 256 2 428 2 233 2 376 2 493 2 651 2 807 1 651 1 989 1 893 2 085 2 025 2 148 2 128 2 330 2 508 2 684 2 912 3 072 3 295 3 418 3 657 3 850 4 125 4 320 4 368 4 546 4 773 4 902 5 110 5 284 5 414 5 831 5 982 5 896 6 019 6 245 6 044 6 186 6 370 6 237 6 430 6 226 6 380 6 382 6 335 6 216 5 597 5 198 4 930 4 933 5 070 5 272 4 830 4 614 4 858 5 054 5 365 5 644 3 501 3 524 3 598 3 544 3 652 3 922 4 110 4 320 4 610 4 780 5 108 5 263 5 304 5 170 5 372 5 533 5 741 5 964 6 223 6 354 6 466 6 658 6 858 7 041 7 243 7 399 7 461 7 744 7 786 7 804 7 982 7 912 8 045 8 147 8 319 8 367 8 507 8 534 8 709 8 768 8 513 7 438 7 255 7 169 7 374 7 817 8 187 8 274 8 318 8 381 8 630 8 915 2 480 2 695 2 762 2 786 2 850 3 070 2 906 3 169 3 367 3 484 3 649 3 816 3 962 4 168 4 388 4 410 4 646 4 894 4 934 5 062 5 028 5 238 5 336 5 596 5 716 5 805 5 791 6 126 6 253 6 251 6 306 6 351 6 583 6 525 6 710 6 557 6 699 6 814 7 031 6 903 6 459 5 694 5 528 5 507 5 678 5 772 5 862 6 148 6 467 6 762 7 138 7 434 2 447 2 510 2 521 2 618 2 715 2 794 2 864 2 962 3 057 3 096 3 215 3 426 3 341 3 502 3 622 3 787 3 991 4 103 4 317 4 241 4 428 4 707 5 010 5 340 5 601 5 808 5 895 5 949 6 111 5 942 5 740 5 385 5 288 5 498 5 650 5 660 5 797 5 683 5 789 5 684 5 113 4 738 4 842 5 010 5 261 5 623 5 957 6 324 6 667 6 938 7 215 7 491 101 Romania 1 182 1 256 1 333 1 411 1 496 1 578 1 623 1 672 1 724 1 783 1 844 1 951 2 007 2 137 2 258 2 386 2 643 2 743 2 739 2 824 2 853 3 221 3 396 3 477 3 637 3 761 3 917 3 966 4 063 4 148 4 135 4 087 4 072 4 027 4 178 4 159 4 215 4 110 4 085 3 941 3 511 3 063 2 797 2 843 2 957 3 174 3 307 3 114 2 972 2 943 3 002 3 168 Yugoslavia 1 551 1 591 1 448 1 643 1 712 1 797 1 742 2 014 2 080 2 314 2 437 2 522 2 544 2 781 3 019 3 071 3 205 3 232 3 272 3 610 3 755 4 151 4 255 4 361 4 879 4 836 4 939 5 250 5 491 5 819 6 063 6 134 6 146 6 172 6 300 6 325 6 559 6 462 6 351 6 250 5 779 4 942 3 989 3 349 3 513 3 729 3 923 4 147 4 245 4 101 4 258 4 376 Average 7 EE USSR 2 111 2 206 2 207 2 296 2 370 2 495 2 521 2 682 2 806 2 921 3 070 3 218 3 244 3 372 3 542 3 664 3 871 3 996 4 106 4 200 4 315 4 596 4 790 4 988 5 239 5 377 5 469 5 612 5 749 5 793 5 786 5 685 5 705 5 762 5 913 5 892 6 028 5 966 6 008 5 915 5 450 4 844 4 591 4 526 4 714 4 998 5 196 5 333 5 487 5 588 5 804 6 027 2 841 2 806 2 937 3 013 3 106 3 313 3 566 3 576 3 777 3 669 3 945 4 098 4 140 3 985 4 439 4 634 4 804 4 963 5 202 5 225 5 575 5 667 5 643 6 059 6 176 6 135 6 363 6 454 6 559 6 472 6 426 6 430 6 533 6 680 6 703 6 701 6 914 6 942 7 031 7 098 6 878 6 409 5 451 4 903 4 207 3 976 3 854 3 939 3 861 4 027 4 351 4 626 4 844 . Per Capita GDP in Former Eastern Europe and USSR.

The World Economy: Historical Statistics 102 .

Eastern Europe and Former USSR HS–3: B. 7 S UCCESSOR S TATES OF F ORMER C ZECHOSLOVAKIA AND Y UGOSLAVIA 103 .

Population of Successor Republics of Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia.The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 3a. 1950-2003 (000 at mid-year) 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Bosnia Croatia 2 662 2 721 2 791 2 863 2 916 2 974 3 025 3 076 3 126 3 185 3 240 3 299 3 349 3 399 3 445 3 493 3 541 3 585 3 627 3 669 3 703 3 761 3 819 3 872 3 925 3 980 4 033 4 086 4 135 4 181 4 092 4 136 4 173 4 207 4 241 4 275 4 308 4 339 4 370 4 398 4 424 4 449 4 427 4 152 3 704 3 356 3 247 3 335 3 502 3 690 3 836 3 922 3 964 3 989 3 837 3 860 3 882 3 906 3 930 3 956 3 973 3 991 4 004 4 021 4 036 4 055 4 077 4 099 4 114 4 133 4 156 4 174 4 190 4 201 4 205 4 216 4 225 4 235 4 246 4 255 4 286 4 319 4 349 4 380 4 383 4 391 4 413 4 431 4 442 4 458 4 472 4 484 4 494 4 501 4 508 4 541 4 432 4 421 4 488 4 455 4 373 4 320 4 265 4 254 4 282 4 334 4 391 4 422 Macedonia Slovenia 1 225 1 256 1 272 1 299 1 325 1 340 1 340 1 345 1 345 1 354 1 366 1 382 1 401 1 422 1 445 1 470 1 490 1 512 1 533 1 554 1 574 1 596 1 618 1 639 1 662 1 684 1 706 1 728 1 747 1 768 1 792 1 808 1 827 1 838 1 848 1 859 1 868 1 878 1 884 1 891 1 893 1 903 1 929 1 962 1 983 1 986 1 993 2 002 2 015 2 032 2 041 2 046 2 055 2 063 Serbia/ Former Montenegro Yugoslavia 1 468 1 483 1 490 1 498 1 509 1 517 1 525 1 533 1 540 1 549 1 558 1 572 1 583 1 595 1 606 1 620 1 632 1 647 1 658 1 667 1 676 1 686 1 695 1 703 1 713 1 722 1 734 1 747 1 759 1 773 1 833 1 839 1 851 1 858 1 866 1 873 1 880 1 883 1 889 1 892 1 896 1 894 1 892 1 896 1 903 1 909 1 914 1 918 1 921 1 924 1 928 1 930 1 933 1 936 104 7 106 7 199 7 274 7 370 7 471 7 577 7 644 7 714 7 780 7 860 7 932 8 010 8 091 8 170 8 243 8 322 8 403 8 472 8 545 8 615 8 681 8 756 8 841 8 918 9 004 9 091 9 169 9 246 9 318 9 388 9 515 9 533 9 595 9 633 9 615 9 650 9 685 9 698 9 722 9 746 9 766 10 018 10 232 10 345 10 464 10 641 10 775 10 817 10 803 10 698 10 663 10 678 10 658 10 656 16 298 16 519 16 708 16 937 17 151 17 364 17 508 17 659 17 796 17 968 18 133 18 318 18 500 18 685 18 852 19 038 19 221 19 390 19 552 19 705 19 840 20 015 20 197 20 367 20 550 20 732 20 930 21 126 21 309 21 490 21 615 21 707 21 860 21 968 22 012 22 115 22 213 22 283 22 358 22 429 22 488 22 806 22 912 22 775 22 543 22 347 22 303 22 391 22 506 22 600 22 750 22 911 23 001 23 066 Czech Republic 8 925 9 023 9 125 9 221 9 291 9 366 9 442 9 514 9 575 9 619 9 660 9 587 9 620 9 666 9 726 9 777 9 815 9 835 9 851 9 807 9 795 9 825 9 862 9 912 9 976 10 042 10 105 10 162 10 213 10 260 10 289 10 298 10 304 10 307 10 309 10 310 10 309 10 312 10 314 10 314 10 310 10 305 10 316 10 327 10 331 10 325 10 313 10 301 10 291 10 281 10 272 10 264 10 257 10 249 Slovakia 3 463 3 509 3 558 3 599 3 661 3 727 3 787 3 844 3 900 3 946 3 994 4 192 4 237 4 282 4 326 4 370 4 409 4 442 4 472 4 478 4 524 4 557 4 593 4 637 4 682 4 730 4 779 4 828 4 876 4 923 4 966 5 014 5 048 5 081 5 114 5 145 5 172 5 199 5 223 5 245 5 263 5 282 5 303 5 324 5 345 5 362 5 373 5 384 5 393 5 401 5 408 5 415 5 422 5 430 Former Czechoslovakia 12 389 12 532 12 683 12 820 12 952 13 093 13 229 13 358 13 474 13 565 13 654 13 779 13 858 13 948 14 052 14 147 14 224 14 277 14 323 14 284 14 319 14 381 14 456 14 549 14 658 14 772 14 884 14 990 15 089 15 182 15 255 15 312 15 352 15 388 15 423 15 455 15 481 15 511 15 537 15 559 15 572 15 587 15 619 15 650 15 676 15 687 15 686 15 685 15 684 15 682 15 680 15 679 15 679 15 679 .

Per Capita GDP in Successor Republics of Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia. 1990-2001 (1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Bosnia Croatia 3 737 3 284 2 380 1 755 2 021 2 364 2 587 2 707 2 644 2 776 2 791 2 792 7 351 5 758 5 209 4 805 5 012 5 392 5 818 6 290 6 530 6 487 6 632 6 802 Macedonia Slovenia 3 905 3 644 3 358 3 055 2 967 2 930 2 954 2 983 3 065 3 169 3 297 3 154 Serbia/ Former Montenegro Yugoslavia 11 404 10 402 9 842 10 094 10 590 10 987 11 341 11 842 12 272 12 886 13 458 13 843 5 249 4 524 3 194 2 186 2 215 2 311 2 417 2 586 2 654 2 205 2 354 2 497 105 5 779 4 942 3 989 3 349 3 513 3 729 3 923 4 147 4 245 4 101 4 258 4 376 Czech Republic Slovakia 8 895 7 867 7 819 7 819 7 988 8 464 8 838 8 777 8 698 8 750 9 047 9 352 7 763 6 602 6 158 5 907 6 189 6 571 6 938 7 312 7 592 7 679 7 837 8 085 Former Czechoslovakia 8 513 7 438 7 255 7 169 7 374 7 817 8 187 8 274 8 318 8 381 8 630 8 915 . 1990-2001 (million 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) Bosnia 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 16 530 14 610 10 535 7 287 7 484 7 933 8 400 9 028 9 261 10 243 10 704 10 950 Croatia 33 139 26 147 23 088 21 241 22 494 24 023 25 441 27 171 27 850 27 599 28 400 29 479 Macedonia Slovenia 7 394 6 935 6 478 5 992 5 884 5 819 5 889 5 972 6 175 6 440 6 730 6 454 21 624 19 699 18 616 19 137 20 152 20 978 21 712 22 711 23 574 24 800 25 941 26 719 Serbia/ Former Montenegro Yugoslavia 51 266 45 319 32 675 22 611 23 176 24 590 26 041 27 968 28 667 23 593 25 103 26 660 129 953 112 710 91 392 76 268 79 190 83 343 87 483 92 850 95 527 92 675 96 878 100 262 Czech Republic Slovakia 91 706 81 068 80 662 80 743 82 520 87 388 91 146 90 417 89 512 89 960 92 929 95 995 40 854 34 869 32 656 31 448 33 083 35 233 37 277 39 365 40 940 41 471 42 384 43 782 Former Czechoslovakia 132 560 115 937 113 318 112 191 115 603 122 621 128 423 129 782 130 452 131 431 135 313 139 777 Table 3c.Eastern Europe and Former USSR Table 3b. GDP Levels in Successor Republics of Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia.

The World Economy: Historical Statistics 106 .

15 S UCCESSOR S TATES 107 OF F ORMER USSR .Eastern Europe and Former USSR HS–3: C.

The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 3a. Population of Successor Republics of USSR. 1950-2003 (000 at mid-year) Armenia 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 1 355 1 379 1 417 1 456 1 506 1 565 1 617 1 672 1 733 1 796 1 869 1 944 2 007 2 066 2 135 2 206 2 274 2 338 2 402 2 463 2 520 2 582 2 647 2 713 2 777 2 834 2 893 2 955 3 014 3 067 3 115 3 165 3 217 3 267 3 319 3 369 3 417 3 463 3 509 3 319 3 366 3 413 3 448 3 458 3 440 3 414 3 394 3 378 3 365 3 354 3 344 3 336 3 330 3 326 Azerbaijan 2 885 2 983 3 091 3 159 3 223 3 314 3 417 3 526 3 631 3 741 3 882 4 034 4 157 4 283 4 430 4 567 4 702 4 827 4 945 5 059 5 169 5 284 5 394 5 498 5 599 5 696 5 790 5 887 5 986 6 082 6 173 6 271 6 369 6 470 6 579 6 682 6 776 6 874 6 976 7 102 7 200 7 308 7 414 7 497 7 573 7 630 7 668 7 695 7 714 7 729 7 748 7 771 7 798 7 831 Belarus 7 722 7 742 7 698 7 667 7 699 7 781 7 857 7 913 7 983 8 075 8 168 8 263 8 365 8 439 8 502 8 591 8 694 8 787 8 865 8 946 9 027 9 101 9 169 9 236 9 304 9 360 9 406 9 457 9 520 9 582 9 644 9 713 9 779 9 845 9 914 9 982 10 044 10 097 10 150 10 184 10 215 10 245 10 306 10 361 10 388 10 404 10 409 10 404 10 394 10 382 10 367 10 350 10 335 10 322 Estonia 1 096 1 112 1 130 1 140 1 148 1 154 1 163 1 174 1 185 1 197 1 211 1 224 1 239 1 255 1 272 1 288 1 300 1 312 1 324 1 343 1 363 1 381 1 397 1 411 1 422 1 432 1 442 1 453 1 464 1 472 1 482 1 493 1 504 1 515 1 526 1 538 1 550 1 562 1 569 1 571 1 573 1 568 1 546 1 517 1 499 1 484 1 470 1 458 1 449 1 440 1 431 1 423 1 416 1 409 108 Georgia Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Latvia 3 516 3 579 3 628 3 687 3 760 3 827 3 887 3 937 3 995 4 071 4 147 4 211 4 279 4 344 4 407 4 465 4 518 4 565 4 607 4 650 4 694 4 742 4 786 4 826 4 865 4 898 4 930 4 963 4 991 5 019 5 048 5 078 5 109 5 141 5 174 5 208 5 237 5 260 5 343 5 424 5 457 5 478 5 466 5 422 5 359 5 287 5 216 5 154 5 100 5 055 5 020 4 989 4 961 4 934 6 693 6 936 7 123 7 261 7 517 7 977 8 414 8 710 9 063 9 500 9 982 10 467 10 946 11 312 11 602 11 902 12 180 12 452 12 692 12 900 13 106 13 325 13 542 13 754 13 972 14 157 14 304 14 455 14 624 14 804 14 994 15 192 15 389 15 582 15 775 15 966 16 154 16 349 16 478 16 568 16 708 16 855 16 985 17 016 16 990 16 943 16 882 16 824 16 779 16 749 16 733 16 731 16 742 16 764 1 739 1 767 1 787 1 817 1 858 1 901 1 939 1 976 2 027 2 096 2 171 2 255 2 333 2 413 2 495 2 573 2 655 2 737 2 818 2 896 2 964 3 029 3 095 3 161 3 232 3 301 3 367 3 432 3 496 3 559 3 623 3 690 3 763 3 842 3 924 4 006 4 089 4 176 4 244 4 304 4 390 4 468 4 532 4 552 4 544 4 535 4 537 4 552 4 581 4 626 4 685 4 753 4 822 4 893 1 936 1 951 1 964 1 976 1 991 2 002 2 026 2 056 2 072 2 089 2 115 2 146 2 173 2 199 2 227 2 254 2 279 2 301 2 322 2 342 2 361 2 382 2 401 2 421 2 442 2 462 2 477 2 491 2 505 2 514 2 525 2 538 2 554 2 572 2 591 2 610 2 631 2 654 2 670 2 674 2 672 2 663 2 631 2 586 2 552 2 523 2 496 2 470 2 447 2 426 2 405 2 385 2 367 2 349 .

Eastern Europe and Former USSR Table 3a. Population of Successor Republics of USSR. 1950-2003 (000 at mid-year) 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Lithuania Moldova 2 553 2 562 2 584 2 594 2 597 2 614 2 641 2 652 2 672 2 718 2 765 2 810 2 850 2 886 2 923 2 959 2 997 3 034 3 069 3 102 3 138 3 178 3 213 3 246 3 276 3 305 3 334 3 361 3 387 3 411 3 436 3 464 3 494 3 526 3 559 3 592 3 625 3 660 3 681 3 689 3 702 3 709 3 707 3 694 3 682 3 673 3 662 3 652 3 642 3 631 3 621 3 611 3 601 3 593 2 336 2 422 2 467 2 506 2 566 2 622 2 682 2 759 2 838 2 919 2 999 3 069 3 136 3 205 3 271 3 334 3 394 3 452 3 506 3 549 3 595 3 649 3 703 3 753 3 801 3 847 3 886 3 920 3 947 3 970 3 996 4 026 4 055 4 083 4 113 4 148 4 183 4 217 4 290 4 359 4 398 4 428 4 448 4 460 4 463 4 460 4 451 4 442 4 436 4 432 4 431 4 432 4 435 4 440 Russian Federation 101 937 103 507 105 385 107 303 109 209 111 125 112 859 114 555 116 259 117 957 119 632 121 324 122 878 124 277 125 522 126 541 127 415 128 184 128 876 129 573 130 245 130 977 131 769 132 556 133 379 134 293 135 269 136 264 137 246 138 164 139 045 139 913 140 841 141 888 142 955 143 978 145 013 146 013 146 926 147 419 148 082 148 460 148 587 148 479 148 300 148 115 147 757 147 364 146 964 146 516 146 001 145 470 144 979 144 526 Tajikistan 1 530 1 585 1 641 1 684 1 730 1 781 1 837 1 899 1 954 2 009 2 081 2 163 2 253 2 340 2 424 2 511 2 593 2 672 2 759 2 850 2 939 3 039 3 145 3 243 3 345 3 449 3 554 3 659 3 761 3 863 3 969 4 079 4 194 4 316 4 446 4 587 4 738 4 891 5 036 5 183 5 332 5 481 5 601 5 682 5 771 5 864 5 964 6 071 6 186 6 309 6 441 6 579 6 720 6 864 109 Turkmenistan 1 204 1 226 1 253 1 283 1 313 1 348 1 382 1 426 1 478 1 530 1 585 1 644 1 705 1 765 1 825 1 882 1 936 1 994 2 054 2 116 2 181 2 247 2 313 2 380 2 451 2 524 2 594 2 664 2 734 2 804 2 875 2 947 3 018 3 091 3 165 3 240 3 324 3 411 3 492 3 574 3 668 3 761 3 848 3 934 4 019 4 102 4 184 4 267 4 350 4 434 4 518 4 603 4 689 4 776 Ukraine Uzbekistan Former USSR 36 775 37 436 38 006 38 541 38 994 39 368 39 940 40 656 41 359 42 006 42 644 43 196 43 697 44 256 44 786 45 235 45 674 46 111 46 510 46 871 47 236 47 637 48 027 48 367 48 677 48 973 49 234 49 454 49 643 49 835 50 047 50 236 50 397 50 573 50 769 50 944 51 095 51 218 51 423 51 528 51 658 51 782 51 946 51 978 51 712 51 316 50 879 50 423 49 989 49 566 49 153 48 760 48 396 48 055 6 293 6 490 6 681 6 886 7 061 7 232 7 441 7 694 7 952 8 223 8 531 8 868 9 210 9 547 9 878 10 206 10 530 10 864 11 232 11 591 11 940 12 334 12 742 13 148 13 569 13 988 14 404 14 809 15 207 15 605 16 000 16 413 16 850 17 298 17 764 18 258 18 769 19 280 19 694 20 112 20 624 21 137 21 614 22 049 22 462 22 847 23 220 23 597 23 977 24 363 24 756 25 155 25 563 25 982 179 571 182 677 185 856 188 961 192 171 195 613 199 103 202 604 206 201 209 928 213 780 217 618 221 227 224 585 227 698 230 513 233 139 235 630 237 983 240 253 242 478 244 887 247 343 249 712 252 111 254 519 256 883 259 225 261 525 263 751 265 973 268 217 270 533 273 010 275 574 278 108 280 646 283 124 285 482 287 011 289 045 290 754 292 079 292 686 292 755 292 597 292 188 291 750 291 373 291 012 290 654 290 349 290 154 290 062 .

1973-2002 (1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Estonia Georgia Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Latvia 1973 6 152 4 434 5 233 8 657 5 932 7 625 3 727 7 846 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 6 086 5 297 3 055 2 776 2 942 3 169 3 376 3 640 3 920 4 062 4 319 4 745 5 112 4 639 4 537 3 463 2 632 2 093 1 832 1 847 1 947 2 136 2 290 2 538 2 758 2 965 7 184 7 076 6 359 5 849 5 308 4 749 4 331 5 438 5 895 6 103 6 466 6 742 6 988 10 794 9 744 8 488 7 916 7 850 8 274 8 680 9 605 10 112 10 112 10 894 11 505 12 087 7 573 5 954 3 286 2 343 2 124 2 209 2 474 2 755 2 864 2 976 3 054 3 211 3 343 7 319 6 457 6 066 5 503 4 817 4 429 4 468 4 532 4 458 4 586 5 041 5 707 6 159 3 596 3 253 2 766 2 326 1 869 1 772 1 895 2 076 2 105 2 162 2 250 2 336 2 404 9 886 8 888 5 863 5 071 5 171 5 189 5 418 5 944 6 236 6 359 6 776 7 351 7 780 110 . Per Capita GDP in Successor Republics of USSR.The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 3b. 1973-2002 (million 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Estonia Georgia Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Latvia 1973 16 691 24 378 48 333 12 214 28 627 104 875 11 781 18 998 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 20 483 18 077 10 534 9 602 10 121 10 819 11 457 12 294 13 191 13 626 14 443 15 830 17 025 33 397 33 159 25 673 19 736 15 848 13 978 14 160 14 981 16 479 17 698 19 663 21 433 23 126 73 389 72 491 65 534 60 596 55 142 49 408 45 079 56 581 61 277 63 361 67 036 69 784 72 227 16 980 15 280 13 118 12 010 11 770 12 276 12 755 14 005 14 649 14 561 15 595 16 375 17 111 41 325 32 612 17 961 12 704 11 383 11 679 12 905 14 196 14 607 15 045 15 331 16 021 16 582 122 295 108 830 103 024 93 636 81 838 75 045 75 421 76 246 74 797 76 817 84 345 95 478 103 117 15 787 14 537 12 533 10 590 8 493 8 035 8 597 9 448 9 646 10 003 10 544 11 102 11 591 26 413 23 666 15 426 13 117 13 196 13 090 13 522 14 685 15 258 15 425 16 295 17 534 18 411 Table 3c. GDP Levels in Successor Republics of USSR.

Per Capita GDP in Successor Republics of USSR.Eastern Europe and Former USSR Table 3b. GDP Levels in Successor Republics of USSR. 1973-2002 (million 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) Lithuania Moldova Russian Federation Tajikistan 1973 24 643 20 134 872 466 13 279 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 32 010 30 189 23 768 19 928 17 975 18 568 19 181 20 581 21 631 22 474 23 328 24 705 25 791 27 112 22 362 15 889 15 695 10 845 10 693 10 063 10 224 9 559 9 234 9 428 10 003 10 483 1 151 040 1 094 081 935 072 853 194 738 013 707 016 682 978 689 125 655 357 690 747 752 914 790 560 825 345 15 884 14 537 9 844 8 243 6 479 5 669 5 420 5 512 5 804 6 019 6 518 7 183 7 686 Turkmenistan Ukraine Uzbekistan Former USSR 11 483 238 156 67 012 1 513 070 13 300 12 673 10 778 10 935 9 043 8 392 7 863 6 975 7 463 8 695 10 260 12 363 12 863 311 112 284 003 255 602 219 457 169 201 148 559 133 703 129 692 127 228 126 974 134 465 146 701 153 743 87 468 87 027 77 328 75 565 72 391 70 174 72 888 74 710 77 922 81 273 84 361 88 158 90 538 1 987 995 1 863 524 1 592 084 1 435 008 1 231 738 1 163 401 1 125 992 1 149 255 1 124 868 1 171 952 1 264 526 1 343 230 1 405 639 Table 3c. 1973-2002 (1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) Lithuania Moldova 1973 7 593 5 365 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 8 646 8 139 6 412 5 395 4 881 5 055 5 237 5 636 5 940 6 189 6 443 6 842 7 162 6 165 5 051 3 572 3 519 2 430 2 398 2 261 2 302 2 155 2 083 2 128 2 257 2 364 Russian Federation Tajikistan Turkmenistan 6 582 4 095 4 826 4 924 5 097 6 059 7 773 7 370 6 293 5 746 4 976 4 773 4 622 4 676 4 459 4 714 5 157 5 435 5 693 2 979 2 652 1 758 1 451 1 123 967 909 908 938 954 1 012 1 092 1 144 3 626 3 370 2 801 2 780 2 250 2 046 1 879 1 635 1 716 1 961 2 271 2 686 2 743 6 023 5 485 4 921 4 222 3 272 2 895 2 628 2 572 2 545 2 562 2 736 3 009 3 177 4 241 4 117 3 578 3 427 3 223 3 071 3 139 3 166 3 250 3 336 3 408 3 505 3 542 6 878 6 409 5 451 4 903 4 207 3 976 3 854 3 939 3 861 4 027 4 351 4 626 4 844 111 Ukraine Uzbekistan Former USSR .

The World Economy: Historical Statistics 112 .

lima and string beans. Most of the continent was in process of attaining political independence. There was a reciprocal transfer of New World crops to Europe. bananas. The two advanced civilisations (Aztec in Mexico and Inca in Peru) were destroyed. The economy. European settlers had higher fertility. cabbages. The population was a third of that in Western Europe and the land area eleven times as large. rice. 113 . sheep. Asia and Africa– maize. Although the initial impact of conquest was massively destructive. lettuce. By 1820. asses and mules — along with wheeled vehicles and ploughs (which replaced digging sticks) were a major contribution to productive capacity. haricot. at the time of Spanish conquest. the long–term economic potential was greatly enhanced.Latin America HS–4: L ATIN A MERICA 1500–1820s: Impact of Conquest and Colonisation on Output and Population At the end of the fifteenth century. longer life expectation. sugar cane. The new animals for food were cattle. yams and coffee. Population and output recovered somewhat in the seventeenth century. manioc. There were no wheeled vehicles or draught animals. no metal tools. the Americas were thinly settled. Hunter–gatherer populations elsewhere were marginalised or exterminated. cocoa and tobacco–which enhanced the rest of the world’s production capacity and ability to sustain population growth. most of the inhabitants were hunter–gatherers. The Latin part of the continent was repopulated by shipment of 7. By the middle of the sixteenth century two thirds of them were wiped out. Mortality was twice that of Europe during the Black Death of the fourteenth century. and very much higher average incomes than African slaves and the indigenous population. 22 per cent of the population were white. compared to 3–fold in the former metropoles (Spain and Portugal). The new items were wheat. Population rose 24–fold. technology and economic institutions had been transformed. weapons or ploughs. The most densely populated areas (Mexico and Peru) had significant urban centres and a sophisticated vegetarian agriculture. sweet potatoes. pigs or hens. By 1820. The demographic catastrophe of the sixteenth century and the collapse of the indigenous economy had no parallel elsewhere. Capacity to support a bigger population was augmented by the introduction of new crops and animals. Growth accelerated in the eighteenth century. demographic expansion was the most dynamic aspect of Latin American development. vines. pineapples. tomatoes. chilis. American populations had no resistance to European (smallpox.5 million European settlers. Elsewhere. The introduction of transport and traction animals — horses. From 1820 to 2001. influenza and typhus) and African diseases (yellow fever and malaria).5 million African slaves and arrival of 1. Per capita performance was less impressive. potatoes. GDP per head rose 8–fold. groundnuts. 24 per cent black or mulatto. compared with 15–fold in the old metropoles and 22–fold in North America. The technological level was greatly inferior. measles. pigs. and average per capita income above the world average. The economy of these relatively empty lands was completely revamped. 37 per cent indigenous and 16 per cent mestizo. GDP was twice as big as in 1500. The experience of the Americas from 1500 to 1820 was very different from other continents. olives. There were no cattle. but in 1700 were still well below 1500 levels. Their populations were reduced to anomie and serfdom. chickens. oxen. sheep and goats.

$. 1500-2001 (population in 000. Five Regions. per capita GDP in 1990 int.The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 4-1. Caribbean) Population Per Capita GDP GDP 8 500 412 3 500 5 100 432 2 201 Population Per Capita GDP GDP 500 400 200 200 430 86 5 800 498 2 889 30 Caribbean Countries 500 650 325 7 691 683 5 255 212 919 5 663 1 205 630 2 920 636 1 857 38 650 4 373 169 032 4 507 646 2 912 177 753 5 570 990 076 10 797 1 231 13 286 316 617 27 384 8 670 389 21 705 692 15 024 531 201 5 811 3 086 936 Brazil Population Per Capita GDP GDP 1 000 400 400 800 428 342 1 250 459 574 United States and Canada Population Per Capita GDP GDP 2 250 400 900 1 750 400 700 1 200 511 613 Latin America Population Per Capita GDP GDP 17 500 416 7 288 8 600 438 3 763 12 050 527 6 346 114 . $) 1500 1600 1700 1820 2001 Mexico Population Per Capita GDP GDP 7 500 425 3 188 2 500 454 1 134 4 500 568 2 558 6 587 759 5 000 101 879 7 089 722 198 15 Other Spanish America (ex. GDP in million 1990 int. The Economies of the Americas.

1500-1870 (000) Brazil Spanish America Non-Spanish Caribbean United States Total Americas Source: 1500-1810 2 501 1811-1870 1 145 1500-1870 3 647 947 606 1 552 3 698 96 3 793 348 51 399 7 494 1 898 9 391 P. The Atlantic Slave Trade. Table 4-3. Madison. Ethnic Composition of the Americas in 1820 (000) Mexico Brazil Indigenous Mestizo 3 570 1 777 Black and Mulatto 500 Caribbean White Total 10 1 230 6 587 2 500 1 507 4 507 2 920 2 366 554 Other 4 000 1 800 400 1 491 7 691 Total Latin America 8 070 3 577 5 276 4 776 21 705 1 772 7 884 9 981 741 816 7 048 13 407 32 502 United States 325 Canada 75 Total Americas Source: 8 470 3 577 Maddison (2001).Latin America Table 4-2. 115 .D. 268. Curtin (1969). p. University of Wisconsin. Net Non-Slave Migration to the Americas. p. 1500-1998 (000) 1500-1820 1820-1998 Brazil 500 4 500 Spanish America 475 6 500 Caribbean 450 2 000 30 6 395 Canada United States Total Americas 718 53 150 2 173 72 545 Table 4-4. 250 amended (see text for Caribbean). Arrivals of African Slaves in the Americas.

converting and indoctrinating a conquered population. Land was allocated to a privileged elite of Spaniards. Spain concentrated its colonial activity in Mexico and Peru. nine new nations had emerged with a total area of 8. The prohibition of the slave trade and subsequent 116 .4 million square km. the Portuguese Queen and the Regent fled to Rio to escape the French invasion of the motherland. with much looser imperial control. It had the military know–how and organisation for conquest. This was not untypical of what happened elsewhere. Independence came very smoothly by Latin American standards. In Mexico there were five decades of political anarchy after independence. and per capita income was a good deal lower in 1870 than in 1820. It had several centuries of experience in reconquest of territory from the Moors. They brought 10 000 of the mainland establishment with them. and a population less than 700 000. They were worked to death after a few years of service. mulattos. Old gods. Islam and Judaism were proscribed in Spain. records. calendars. Output rose tenfold between the 1660s and the 1780. half the population were slaves. Brazil abolished slavery and became a republic in 1889. free blacks. giving them control of a traumatised Indian population. developing an export agriculture based on sugar plantations. The main agents of social control were the religious orders. The new states inherited the deep inequalities of the colonial period. These colonies were highly specialised in sugar production. Brazil became independent with an Emperor who was the son of the Portuguese monarch. There were rigid social distinctions between the ruling elite and the indigenous population which had no legal rights.The World Economy: Historical Statistics The striking differences between the growth trajectories of Latin and North America were due in significant degree to differences in the type of colonialism and their enduring impact on institutions and social structure. Between 1500 and 1870. Churches and convents were built on the ruins of Aztec and Inca temples. interruptions to trade during the Napoleonic wars. A privileged fraction of the white population enjoyed high incomes but the rest of the population (indigenous. the king being free to appoint bishops under a sixteenth century treaty with the Papacy. The main aim of this tribute imperialism was to transfer a fiscal surplus (in precious metals) to finance government aspirations in Europe. Portugal had much more pragmatic objectives in Brazil. just as the Aztec and Inca religions were extirpated in Mexico and Peru. By 1825. As indigenous labour was scarce. and the successful slave revolt in Haiti persuaded the planting lobby that their days were numbered and that it was in their interest to settle for compensation.8 million square km. half the land area was lost to the United States. A large part of the profits were siphoned off to absentee owners who preferred the healthier climate of the metropoles. At the end of the colonial period. In 1790. the American empire had collapsed and more than 14 million people were no longer Spanish. which was compelled to supply labour to mines and agriculture. In 1808. The Netherlands. property rights and indigenous institutions disappeared. and a church experienced in evangelising. The church was firmly under national control. they had imported 3. By 1820.7 million African slaves. Centuries of militant struggle had concentrated power and legitimacy on the monarchy as the ultimate arbiter. Five countries in Central America had formed a temporary union. which were the most densely populated at the time of conquest. it had covered 16 million square km.6 million were shipped to Brazil. against which rebellion even in very distant colonies was seldom imagined before the last quarter of the eighteenth century. and the process of state–formation was not smooth. A very unequal distribution of property buttressed a highly unequal distribution of income. In South America. relics. and fed on a crude diet of beans and jerked beef. Cuba and Puerto Rico were all that was left– with an area of 12 thousand square km. Independence was achieved by armed struggle. access to education or land. The Aztec and Inca elites and their priesthood were exterminated. The loss of privileged export markets in North America after 1776. Spain was well prepared to exercise this type of hegemony. importing most of their food. its labour force was composed largely of African slaves. After the Napoleonic wars. and large numbers of whites) were poor. the United Kingdom and France copied the Portuguese model in Caribbean islands they seized from Spain in the seventeenth century. Mexico had an area of 4. 3. Land–ownership was concentrated on slave owners.

p. pp. the Caribbean became an economic backwater. vol. but the average for the two combined was lower in earlier years when the non–indigenous proportion was smaller — see Maddison (2001).gov. Cheltenham. Borah and Cook (1963) estimated 25 million for central Mexico on the basis of ambiguous pictographs describing the incidence of Aztec fiscal levies. inferences on per capita GDP levels at the end of the period from G. with a stylised per capita GDP for the indigenous population ($400 international 1990 dollars for the hunter–gatherers and $425 for Mexico and Peru. exports fell from 41 to 15 per cent of GDP. 1990 benchmark GDP levels in 1990 international dollars from Maddison (2001). For the non–indigenous population. and there were two extreme schools of thought. all countries from US Bureau of the Census (http://www. London. 199. 191. I assumed the 1820 level of per capita GDP was valid for the whole period 1500–1820. III. PBI de Uruguay 1870–1936. CCD. 1830–1930: A Study in Economic Growth. October 2002. For Brazil and Mexico. GDP: I made a multicultural estimate. For the Caribbean. 117 . Peru. Brazil. p. Chile. Venezuela from Asdrubal Baptista. and estimated the pre–conquest population to have been 4. 1998. see Maddison 2001. Uruguay 1820 1949 from Bertola. 99. Updating 1998–2001 from IMF. the estimates for 1600–1820 were based largely on evidence about sugar production.Latin America abolition of slavery raised costs and weakened the competitive position of most Caribbean producers (in spite of the introduction of 700 000 indentured Asian workers between 1838 and 1913). 1820–1949. see Eltis. p. b) they assume that population did not recover its alleged pre–conquest levels until the twentieth century. Jamaica. General History of the Caribbean.A. Except for Cuba and Puerto Rico. Hofman. In 1787 the Caribbean accounted for 90 per cent of world sugar exports. Uruguay and Venezuela) Population: 1820–1949 generally as in Maddison (1995). p. For the British and French islands. Caracas. “The Slave Economies of the Caribbean. Sources for 1500–1820 Population: The size of the indigenous population at the time of the Spanish conquest was a matter of considerable controversy. They assumed a 95 per cent depopulation ratio for the indigenous population for 1519–1605. The Economic Development of Latin America in the Twentieth Century. World Economic Outlook. (June 1995) and. Sources for 1820–2001 Core Countries (Argentina. There are two reasons for scepticism about the Borah estimates for Mexico and Latin America as a whole: a) they assume very much higher disease mortality than European experience with the Black Death. p. There is a discussion of the subsequent literature and rationale for the estimates I adopted in Maddison (2001)./ ipc). Uruguay from Luis Bertola and Associates.W. and backcast Spanish estimates for 1605 by a multiplier of 25. in 1913 about a sixth. 1950 onwards. cit. 1991. Evolution and Significance”.143. Journal of Economic History. Performance. Manchester University Press. Eisner (1961). Montevideo. 1911–12 and 1914–20 movement in Mexico from A. pp. which had developed agriculture and urbanisation). Rosenblat (1945) made a careful survey of literary evidence. Real GDP per head fell by a quarter in Jamaica between 1832 and 1870. Mexico. 1901–12 Colombia and Peru interpolated with average per capita movement in Brazil and Chile. Elgar.5 million with a drop of less than 15 per cent in the sixteenth century. Bases de la Economia Venezolana 1830–1989. the per capita GDP level was about the same as in 1832. “The Total Product of Barbados. UNESCO. and the work of David Eltis and others on earlier development. 250. and supplementary information supplied by Luis Bertola. Colombia. Knight (1997).census. Rosenblat’s depopulation ratio is clearly too low. this experience was probably fairly typical. 2000. On the other hand. The income level for each group was assumed to be stable. GDP: movement 1820–1949 generally from Maddison (1995). 163–4. op. in F. 1664–1701”. In 1930. 232–236.

I used these official estimates for 1982–90. other countries generally from UN. pp. Series Historicas del Crecimiento de America Latina. Annual figures for 1871–1912 for thirteen countries are interpolations of estimates for benchmark years in Sanchez Albornoz (1986). 668 and 673 for Paraguay. Eisner’s estimates imply a 24 per cent fall in per capita GDP between 1820 and 1870 as Jamaica’s sugar economy decayed. 153. Trinidad and Tobago from Mitchell (1983). p. Oficina Nacional de Estadisticas. Guatemala. (1962) Cuadros del producto interno bruto a precios del mercado en dollares de 1950. 1913 and 1950. 122. Guatemala. I assumed that the 1820–70 per capita GDP movement in this group paralleled that in Jamaica. Revolutionary Cuba: The Challenge of Economic Growth with Equity. 1986. Honduras and Nicaragua. 238–9. Cuba and Puerto Rico from Shepherd and Beckles. 14–15. various issues. Ecuador (1939). p. p. vol. 15–16. pp. 1929–59 from ECLAC (1962). 1965–82 from J. which exaggerated growth. pp. but scaled down the year–to–year growth by a coefficient of the differential between them and those of Perez Lopez for the overlap years. 2002).The World Economy: Historical Statistics 15 Other Countries Population: Gaps in Maddison (2001) were filled as follows: 1820 from Cambridge History of Latin America. 119. p. Economic Survey of Latin America and the Caribbean: Current Conditions and Outlook (2001). eds. 1870 and 1913 generally from Maddison (2001). Latest Information on National Accounts of Developing Countries. Annual estimates 1920–49 from Bulmer–Thomas (1987) The Political Economy of Central America since 1920. p. 274 and 285 respectively. 2/2002. Guatemala. IV. 1950– 2000. Santiago (mimeo). and Paraguay (1939–49) from ECLAC (1978). updated to 2001 from IMF World Economic Outlook. pp. p. Panama (1945–9). Wiener. 245 and 258 for Haiti and Dominican republic.U. 308. 118 . p. 1950–98 from Maddison (2001) Appendix C. Honduras and Nicaragua. C. 417. p. 310 for Costa Rica. p. Boulder and London p. 1990–1998 from ECLAC. 1929–49 from CEPAL (ECLAC). Demographic Yearbook 1960. Preliminary Overview of the Economies of Latin America and the Caribbean. Honduras and Nicaragua from Bulmer–Thomas (1987). Measuring Cuban Economic Performance. OUP. Princeton. 1807–1834. 1950–2001 as for the 8 core countries. for Costa Rica. 1850 generally from Sanchez–Albornoz in Cambridge History of Latin America. GDP: I added estimates for Jamaica 1820–1930 from Eisner (1961). Perez Lopez (1987). 1998–2001 ECLAC. The Cuban Statistical Office published estimates of GDP by industry of origin for 1975–2000 (see Oficina Nacional de Estadisticas. average per capita GDP movement in these economies was assumed parallel to the average for the 8 core countries. Cuba 1900–28 derived from C. 1920–50. Jamaica. Estimates for Cuba are revised. p. Santiago (2002). Johns Hopkins University Press. 1870–1950 movement in Trinidad and Tobago assumed to be proportionately the same as in Jamaica. Havana. 1959–65 from OECD Development Centre. University of Texas Press. Havana.564 for Bolivia. linked to 1938–50 from Findlay and Wellisz (1999) The Political Economy of Poverty. (2000) Caribbean Slavery in the Atlantic World. Trinidad and Tobago from Higman (1984). Santiago. Equity and Growth: Five Small Open Economies. p. Austin. Cuadros del producto interno bruto. Brundenius (1984). 132–8 (with some interpolation for Haiti). Jamaica is the only Caribbean economy for which GDP estimates are available for this period. At that time Cuban national accounts were compiled according to UN standardised (SNA) procedures. For the benchmark years 1870. Where these estimates overlap with those of Perez Lopez (for 1975–82) they show a growth rate twice as fast. Annual GDP movement. p. Jamaica from Eisner (1961). p. El Salvador. 508 for Ecuador. After the revolution. vol. Westview Press. Cuba: Indicadores Seleccionados.478 for Costa Rica. Baltimore.P. Slave Populations of the British Caribbean. p. Derivation of 1990 benchmark levels from Maddison (2001). Haiti (1945–9). New York. 50. III.F. El Salvador. 199. 2001. Bolivia (1945–9). 140. 111 who recalculated Cuban GDP according to SNA concepts. 149. p. Cuba adopted the Soviet material product system (MPS). pp. El Salvador. Statistics Division. Jamaica from Eisner (1961). These ECLAC figures are based on official Cuban sources which now seem more acceptable as the estimating procedure has been revised to conform with the UN standardised system (see Anuario Estadistico de Cuba 2001. 134.

W. vol. updated and revised as shown in Table 4–5. London pp. 132–6. 1913 from League of Nations. Engerman and B. Antilles St. 192. 2002. updated from 1950 onwards from the International Programs Center. “The demographic situation of the Caribbean slave societies in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries”. Montserrat. Population: 1820–70 from S. Aruba. Demographic Yearbook 1960.) Martinique Neth. GDP: 1820 average per capita GDP level assumed equal to that of the 15 country group. Population from Maddison (2001). September. 1950 onwards from US Bureau of the Census estimates. St. October 2002. and British Virgin Islands. Higman (1997). Lucia St. GDP 1950–90 from Maddison (2001). 50–7 and Higman (1984). III. 16–17. October 2002. US Bureau of the Census. GDP and Population in 24 Small Caribbean Countries. World Economic Outlook. Kitts Nevis 24 countries Source: 1950–98 GDP from Maddison (2001). p.W. Vincent Suriname Total A (9 countries) Antigua & Barbuda Bermuda Guadeloupe Guyana (Fr. 1920–49 from UN. International Statistical Yearbook 1927. aggregate GDP movement assumed to be proportionate to that for the group A average. For countries for which estimates were not available. pp. 1950-2001 GDP in million 1990 international $ Population (000) 1950 1973 1990 2001 1950 1973 1990 2001 756 448 110 82 71 462 61 79 315 3 159 1 595 341 182 180 1 309 199 175 1 046 3 946 2 138 735 279 310 1 159 449 392 1 094 4 700 2 419 1083 352 459 2 080 532 545 1 099 70 211 66 51 76 428 79 66 208 182 244 130 74 97 755 109 90 384 257 263 191 73 92 742 140 107 395 293 275 253 71 89 698 158 116 432 2 384 8 186 10 502 13 269 1 255 2 065 2 260 2 385 82 65 359 138 293 393 61 328 238 1 568 238 1 568 1 097 215 413 310 1 801 516 1 857 980 233 535 1 057 402 46 39 208 26 217 110 44 68 53 329 53 332 165 45 63 58 378 116 374 189 41 67 63 431 178 418 212 39 Total B (7 countries) 1 391 5 252 6 110 8 315 690 1 045 1 219 1 408 Total C (8 countries) 298 926 1 441 1 809 117 197 250 298 4 073 14 364 18 053 23 393 2 062 3 308 3 727 4 091 Bahamas Barbados Belize Dominica Grenada Guyana St. pp. General History of the Caribbean.L. Table 4-5. Pierre and Miquelon. Geneva. updated to 2001 from IMF. 1870–1950 per capita GDP movement assumed to parallel that in the 8 core countries.Latin America 24 Small Caribbean Countries Estimates for this group are substantially revised for 1820–1913. UNESCO. Turks and Caicos Islands. Knight (ed. (1928). 119 . in F. The 8 countries in the third group are Anguilla. Cayman Islands. Virgin Islands.).

The World Economy: Historical Statistics 120 .

Population of 8 Latin American Countries. 1820-1913 (000s at mid-year) Argentina Brazil Chile Colombia Mexico Peru Uruguay Venezuela Total 1820 534 4 507 885 1 206 6 587 1 317 55 718 15 809 1850 1 100 7 234 1 443 2 065 7 662 2 001 132 1 324 22 961 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1 796 9 797 9 980 10 167 10 358 10 552 10 749 10 951 11 156 11 365 11 578 11 794 12 015 12 240 12 470 12 703 12 941 13 183 13 430 13 682 13 938 14 199 14 539 14 886 15 242 15 607 15 980 16 362 16 753 17 154 17 564 17 984 18 392 18 782 19 180 19 587 20 003 20 427 20 860 21 303 21 754 22 216 22 687 23 168 23 660 1 943 2 392 2 606 3 369 2 974 3 011 3 048 3 086 3 124 3 163 3 202 3 242 3 282 3 323 3 364 3 406 3 448 3 491 3 998 4 079 4 162 4 247 4 334 4 422 4 512 4 604 4 697 4 793 4 890 4 990 5 091 5 195 343 354 364 376 387 399 411 424 437 450 464 482 502 522 543 564 587 610 635 660 686 706 727 748 770 792 815 839 864 889 915 930 945 961 977 993 1 009 1 026 1 043 1 062 1 081 1 112 1 144 1 177 1 653 1 675 1 699 1 725 1 753 1 784 1 816 1 849 1 883 1 917 1 952 1 986 2 019 2 052 2 083 2 113 2 129 2 147 2 173 2 198 2 224 2 255 2 285 2 314 2 346 2 375 2 408 2 442 2 475 2 509 2 542 2 576 2 609 2 643 2 690 2 706 2 720 2 741 2 761 2 780 2 805 2 834 2 856 2 874 29 749 2 651 9 219 9 331 9 444 9 558 9 674 9 791 9 910 10 030 10 151 10 274 10 399 10 524 10 652 10 781 10 912 11 044 11 178 11 313 11 450 11 589 11 729 11 904 12 083 12 263 12 447 12 663 12 822 13 014 13 209 13 406 13 607 13 755 13 904 14 055 14 208 14 363 14 519 14 676 14 836 14 997 15 000 14 990 14 980 14 970 3 376 4 693 4 873 5 060 5 254 5 455 5 664 5 881 6 107 6 341 6 584 6 836 7 098 7 370 7 653 121 3 346 3 791 3 831 3 871 3 911 3 952 3 993 4 035 4 077 4 119 4 162 4 206 4 250 4 294 4 339 41 580 50 504 51 447 52 381 53 337 54 327 55 307 56 305 57 333 58 382 59 455 60 398 61 367 62 351 63 359 .Latin America Table 4a.

The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 4a. 1914-1949 (000s at mid-year) 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 Argentina Brazil Chile Colombia Mexico Peru Uruguay Venezuela Total 7 885 8 072 8 226 8 374 8 518 8 672 8 861 9 092 9 368 9 707 10 054 10 358 10 652 10 965 11 282 11 592 11 896 12 167 12 402 12 623 12 834 13 044 13 260 13 490 13 724 13 984 14 169 14 402 14 638 14 877 15 130 15 390 15 654 15 942 16 307 16 737 24 161 24 674 25 197 25 732 26 277 26 835 27 404 27 969 28 542 29 126 29 723 30 332 30 953 31 587 32 234 32 894 33 568 34 256 34 957 35 673 36 404 37 150 37 911 38 687 39 480 40 289 41 114 42 069 43 069 44 093 45 141 46 215 47 313 48 438 49 590 50 769 3 537 3 584 3 631 3 679 3 728 3 777 3 827 3 877 3 928 3 980 4 033 4 086 4 140 4 195 4 250 4 306 4 370 4 434 4 500 4 567 4 634 4 703 4 773 4 843 4 915 5 003 5 093 5 184 5 277 5 371 5 467 5 565 5 665 5 767 5 870 5 975 5 330 5 468 5 609 5 754 5 903 6 056 6 213 6 374 6 539 6 709 6 882 7 061 7 243 7 431 7 624 7 821 7 914 8 009 8 104 8 201 8 299 8 398 8 498 8 599 8 702 8 935 9 174 9 419 9 671 9 930 10 196 10 469 10 749 11 036 11 332 11 635 14 960 14 950 14 940 14 930 14 920 14 910 14 900 14 895 15 129 15 367 15 609 15 854 16 103 16 356 16 613 16 875 17 175 17 480 17 790 18 115 18 445 18 781 19 040 19 370 19 705 20 047 20 393 20 955 21 532 22 125 22 734 23 724 24 413 25 122 25 852 26 603 4 384 4 430 4 477 4 523 4 571 4 619 4 667 4 730 4 793 4 859 4 927 4 996 5 067 5 141 5 216 5 294 5 374 5 456 5 540 5 626 5 715 5 806 5 899 5 995 6 093 6 194 6 298 6 415 6 537 6 661 6 787 6 919 7 053 7 192 7 335 7 480 1 223 1 246 1 269 1 292 1 316 1 341 1 371 1 402 1 433 1 465 1 498 1 534 1 571 1 608 1 646 1 685 1 713 1 741 1 770 1 799 1 829 1 859 1 889 1 921 1 952 1 944 1 965 1 987 2 010 2 032 2 055 2 081 2 107 2 134 2 160 2 188 2 899 2 918 2 929 2 944 2 958 2 973 2 992 3 008 3 025 3 049 3 077 3 114 3 152 3 185 3 221 3 259 3 300 3 336 3 368 3 401 3 431 3 465 3 510 3 565 3 623 3 699 3 784 3 858 3 934 4 020 4 114 4 223 4 347 4 486 4 656 4 843 64 379 65 342 66 278 67 228 68 191 69 183 70 235 71 347 72 757 74 262 75 803 77 335 78 881 80 468 82 086 83 726 85 310 86 879 88 431 90 005 91 591 93 206 94 780 96 470 98 194 100 095 101 990 104 289 106 668 109 109 111 624 114 586 117 301 120 117 123 102 126 230 122 . Population of 8 Latin American Countries.

Latin America Table 4a. 1950-2003 (000s at mid-year) Argentina 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 17 17 17 18 18 18 19 19 19 20 20 20 21 21 21 22 22 22 23 23 23 24 24 25 25 26 26 26 27 27 28 28 29 29 30 30 31 31 32 32 33 33 33 34 34 35 35 36 36 37 37 37 38 38 150 517 877 231 581 928 272 611 947 281 616 951 284 616 949 283 612 934 261 600 962 364 780 210 646 082 531 984 440 902 370 863 341 802 236 675 146 621 091 559 022 492 959 412 864 311 754 203 644 074 498 917 331 741 Brazil 53 54 56 58 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 76 78 80 83 85 88 90 93 95 98 100 103 106 108 111 114 117 120 122 125 128 131 134 137 140 142 145 148 151 153 155 158 160 163 166 168 170 173 175 177 179 182 443 996 603 266 989 774 632 551 533 580 695 833 039 317 667 093 557 050 569 114 684 245 840 469 131 824 545 314 147 040 958 930 963 892 626 303 112 938 782 567 084 512 976 471 994 543 074 547 956 294 553 753 914 033 Chile 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 091 252 378 493 612 743 889 048 220 400 585 773 961 147 330 510 686 859 030 199 369 540 718 897 077 252 432 600 760 923 094 282 487 687 879 067 260 463 678 901 128 353 573 788 000 205 404 599 789 974 154 328 499 665 Colombia 11 592 11 965 12 351 12 750 13 162 13 588 14 029 14 486 14 958 15 447 15 953 16 476 17 010 17 546 18 090 18 646 19 202 19 764 20 322 20 869 21 430 21 993 22 543 23 069 23 593 24 114 24 620 25 094 25 543 26 031 26 583 27 159 27 765 28 389 29 028 29 678 30 327 30 964 31 589 32 217 32 859 33 519 34 203 34 897 35 589 36 281 36 971 37 658 38 340 39 016 39 686 40 349 41 008 41 662 Mexico 28 29 30 31 31 32 33 35 36 37 38 39 41 42 43 45 46 47 49 51 52 54 56 57 59 60 62 63 65 67 68 70 71 73 74 76 78 79 81 82 84 86 87 89 90 92 94 95 97 98 100 101 103 104 485 296 144 031 959 930 946 016 142 328 579 836 121 434 775 142 538 996 519 111 775 434 040 643 240 828 404 981 554 123 686 321 910 435 945 475 035 623 231 840 446 055 667 280 888 488 080 667 245 807 350 879 400 908 123 Peru 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 11 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 14 15 15 15 16 16 17 17 18 18 19 19 20 20 21 21 21 22 23 23 24 24 25 25 26 26 27 27 27 28 633 826 026 232 447 672 905 146 397 658 931 218 517 826 144 467 796 132 476 829 193 568 955 350 753 161 573 990 414 849 295 755 234 706 171 624 073 531 000 487 989 501 015 531 047 556 058 556 049 535 013 484 950 410 Uruguay Venezuela 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 194 223 253 284 317 353 389 425 460 495 531 564 598 632 664 693 721 749 777 802 824 826 830 834 838 842 857 874 889 905 920 936 954 973 990 008 027 045 064 084 106 128 149 171 193 215 237 260 284 309 334 360 387 413 5 009 5 217 5 440 5 674 5 919 6 170 6 431 6 703 6 982 7 268 7 556 7 848 8 143 8 444 8 752 9 068 9 387 9 710 10 041 10 389 10 758 11 152 11 516 11 893 12 281 12 675 13 082 13 504 13 931 14 355 14 768 15 166 15 621 16 084 16 545 16 998 17 450 17 910 18 379 18 851 19 325 19 801 20 266 20 704 21 135 21 556 21 969 22 374 22 773 23 162 23 543 23 917 24 288 24 655 Total 131 135 139 142 146 151 155 159 164 169 174 179 184 189 195 200 206 212 217 223 229 236 242 248 254 260 267 273 279 286 292 299 306 312 319 325 332 339 345 352 358 365 371 378 384 391 397 403 410 416 422 427 433 439 597 292 070 961 985 158 493 985 639 457 446 498 674 963 370 903 499 193 994 913 994 122 220 365 559 777 046 340 678 128 673 412 275 968 420 828 430 095 813 505 959 358 808 255 711 155 547 865 079 170 131 987 777 487 . Population of 8 Latin American Countries.

Population of 15 Latin American Countries. 1820-1949 (000s at mid-year) Bolivia Costa Rica Cuba Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Haiti 1820 1 100 63 605 89 500 248 595 723 1850 1 374 101 1 186 146 816 366 850 938 1870 1 495 137 1 331 242 1 013 492 1 080 1 150 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1 696 1 710 1 723 1 737 1 751 1 765 1 779 1 793 1 808 1 822 1 837 1 851 1 866 1 881 1 915 1 951 1 986 2 023 2 060 2 098 2 136 2 161 2 186 2 212 2 237 2 263 2 289 2 316 2 343 2 370 2 397 2 425 2 453 2 482 2 511 2 540 2 569 2 599 2 629 2 659 2 690 2 721 2 753 2 785 2 817 2 850 2 883 2 916 2 950 2 984 297 310 320 320 330 340 340 350 350 360 363 366 369 372 390 390 400 400 410 420 420 430 430 440 450 460 470 470 480 490 500 510 520 530 540 550 560 580 590 610 620 630 650 660 680 700 710 730 750 770 1 658 1 716 1 775 1 837 1 879 1 927 1 979 2 034 2 092 2 154 2 219 2 287 2 358 2 431 2 507 2 585 2 664 2 746 2 828 2 912 2 997 3 083 3 170 3 257 3 345 3 432 3 519 3 606 3 693 3 742 3 837 3 910 3 984 4 060 4 137 4 221 4 289 4 357 4 428 4 497 4 566 4 635 4 704 4 779 4 849 4 932 5 039 5 152 5 268 5 386 515 530 546 562 578 595 613 631 649 668 688 708 729 750 767 785 803 821 840 859 879 912 946 981 1 017 1 054 1 092 1 131 1 172 1 213 1 256 1 300 1 345 1 391 1 438 1 484 1 520 1 558 1 596 1 634 1 674 1 715 1 757 1 800 1 844 1 889 1 935 1 982 2 031 2 080 1 400 1 420 1 441 1 462 1 483 1 505 1 527 1 549 1 571 1 594 1 617 1 641 1 665 1 689 1 703 1 717 1 731 1 746 1 760 1 774 1 790 1 805 1 820 1 835 1 850 1 865 1 881 1 896 1 912 1 928 1 944 1 995 2 050 2 095 2 140 2 196 2 249 2 298 2 355 2 412 2 466 2 541 2 575 2 641 2 712 2 781 2 853 2 936 3 017 3 104 766 782 799 816 834 851 869 888 907 926 946 966 987 1 008 1 030 1 052 1 074 1 098 1 121 1 145 1 170 1 190 1 220 1 240 1 270 1 300 1 330 1 350 1 390 1 410 1 440 1 460 1 470 1 490 1 510 1 530 1 550 1 570 1 590 1 610 1 630 1 650 1 680 1 690 1 720 1 740 1 760 1 780 1 810 1 840 1 300 1 313 1 327 1 341 1 355 1 369 1 383 1 397 1 412 1 426 1 441 1 456 1 470 1 486 1 501 1 517 1 533 1 549 1 565 1 581 1 597 1 614 1 631 1 648 1 665 1 682 1 699 1 717 1 735 1 753 1 771 1 810 1 860 1 910 1 940 1 980 2 020 2 070 2 110 2 150 2 200 2 250 2 300 2 340 2 390 2 440 2 500 2 570 2 640 2 720 1 560 1 583 1 607 1 631 1 655 1 680 1 705 1 730 1 756 1 782 1 809 1 836 1 863 1 891 1 923 1 955 1 988 2 021 2 055 2 089 2 124 2 152 2 181 2 209 2 239 2 268 2 298 2 328 2 359 2 390 2 422 2 453 2 485 2 517 2 549 2 582 2 615 2 648 2 682 2 716 2 751 2 786 2 820 2 856 2 892 2 928 2 961 2 994 3 028 3 062 124 .The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 4a.

1820-1949 (000s at mid-year) Honduras Jamaica Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Puerto Rico Trinidad and Tobago Total 1820 135 401 186 – 143 248 60 5 096 1850 350 399 300 135 350 495 80 7 886 1870 404 499 337 176 384 645 124 9 509 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 500 511 522 533 545 556 568 581 593 606 619 632 646 660 668 677 685 694 702 711 720 740 770 800 820 850 880 890 910 930 950 970 990 1 010 1 020 1 040 1 060 1 080 1 100 1 120 1 150 1 170 1 200 1 210 1 240 1 260 1 290 1 320 1 350 1 390 720 728 737 745 754 763 772 781 790 799 808 818 827 837 840 842 845 847 850 852 855 860 879 891 900 910 930 946 966 985 1 009 1 039 1 061 1 082 1 098 1 113 1 130 1 142 1 163 1 191 1 212 1 230 1 254 1 249 1 259 1 266 1 298 1 327 1 350 1 374 478 485 492 499 507 514 522 529 537 545 553 561 570 578 580 595 604 613 622 631 640 640 650 650 660 660 670 670 670 680 680 690 690 700 710 730 750 770 780 810 830 840 860 880 900 920 950 980 1 000 1 030 263 269 275 281 287 293 299 306 312 319 326 333 341 348 365 383 402 422 442 464 487 489 491 493 495 497 499 502 504 506 515 527 543 559 576 592 608 623 640 656 697 720 773 795 784 791 788 804 822 838 440 450 461 472 483 494 505 517 529 542 554 567 580 594 608 622 637 652 667 683 699 715 732 749 767 785 803 822 841 860 880 901 922 944 966 988 1 012 1 036 1 061 1 086 1 111 1 137 1 164 1 191 1 219 1 247 1 275 1 305 1 335 1 366 959 974 990 1 006 1 022 1 039 1 056 1 073 1 090 1 108 1 126 1 144 1 162 1 181 1 199 1 217 1 235 1 254 1 273 1 292 1 312 1 336 1 359 1 383 1 407 1 431 1 455 1 478 1 502 1 526 1 552 1 584 1 615 1 647 1 679 1 710 1 743 1 777 1 810 1 844 1 880 1 935 1 987 2 033 2 062 2 099 2 141 2 162 2 187 2 197 268 274 279 285 291 298 304 310 317 324 331 338 345 352 357 362 367 373 378 383 389 367 371 376 379 382 385 388 392 398 405 412 417 422 428 435 442 450 458 466 476 492 510 525 536 547 561 583 600 616 12 820 13 055 13 294 13 527 13 754 13 989 14 221 14 469 14 713 14 975 15 237 15 504 15 778 16 058 16 353 16 650 16 954 17 259 17 573 17 894 18 215 18 494 18 836 19 164 19 501 19 839 20 200 20 510 20 869 21 181 21 558 21 986 22 405 22 839 23 242 23 691 24 117 24 558 24 992 25 461 25 953 26 452 26 987 27 434 27 904 28 390 28 944 29 541 30 138 30 757 125 .Latin America Table 4a. Population of 15 Latin American Countries.

1950-2003 (000s at mid-year) Bolivia 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 766 824 883 945 009 074 142 212 284 358 434 513 594 678 764 853 945 041 139 241 346 455 566 680 796 914 956 080 205 327 441 545 642 737 834 935 041 156 283 423 574 731 893 055 217 377 536 693 849 002 153 300 445 586 Costa Rica 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 867 895 926 959 994 032 072 112 154 200 248 297 345 393 440 488 538 589 638 687 736 786 835 886 937 992 049 108 192 260 299 357 424 494 568 644 723 800 875 951 027 101 173 244 315 384 452 518 583 647 711 773 835 896 Cuba 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 785 892 008 129 254 381 513 641 763 901 027 134 254 415 612 810 985 139 284 421 543 670 831 001 153 290 421 538 634 710 653 712 789 886 982 079 162 240 334 439 545 643 724 789 846 900 952 003 051 098 142 184 224 263 Dominican Republic 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 353 419 491 569 651 737 828 923 023 126 231 341 453 569 687 806 926 049 173 298 423 547 671 796 922 048 176 303 431 562 697 832 968 105 241 378 516 655 796 937 076 213 347 472 595 722 851 979 105 230 354 475 596 716 126 Ecuador 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 370 458 549 643 740 842 949 058 172 291 416 546 682 822 968 118 273 432 597 766 939 117 299 485 676 872 073 279 489 704 920 141 366 593 826 062 301 545 794 048 317 566 819 077 337 599 862 126 391 656 920 184 447 710 El Salvador Guatemala 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 940 990 043 099 159 221 287 356 428 503 582 665 748 836 924 018 128 233 347 469 604 710 791 878 972 071 175 283 396 508 566 515 475 521 588 664 751 842 930 016 100 186 275 370 467 568 674 783 895 008 123 238 354 470 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 11 12 12 12 13 13 13 969 056 146 239 335 434 536 641 749 861 976 091 209 330 454 582 713 849 989 135 289 454 625 803 988 180 378 583 795 012 235 489 714 904 124 358 601 856 118 384 654 931 216 510 814 127 449 781 121 467 820 179 542 909 Haiti 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 097 148 201 257 316 376 441 508 577 648 723 800 880 964 050 137 227 318 412 507 605 653 701 748 795 839 882 925 970 017 056 091 149 248 355 469 588 710 833 955 075 174 272 388 500 614 727 837 952 066 177 288 405 528 . Annual Estimates. Population of 15 Latin American Countries.The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 4a.

Population of 15 Latin American Countries.Latin America Table 4a. 1950-2003 (000s at mid-year) Honduras 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 431 474 517 562 611 662 715 770 829 889 952 017 082 151 224 299 375 453 534 618 683 767 864 964 066 152 240 331 431 528 635 756 861 963 072 186 301 417 505 634 757 878 009 148 293 443 594 747 902 044 201 358 514 670 Jamaica 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 385 406 426 446 468 489 510 535 566 599 632 648 665 698 739 777 820 861 893 920 944 967 998 036 071 105 133 157 179 207 229 258 298 323 347 371 394 413 428 444 463 485 505 525 547 569 589 608 624 639 653 666 680 696 Nicaragua 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 098 131 166 202 239 277 317 359 402 446 493 541 591 642 695 750 807 865 926 988 053 120 183 247 320 394 473 554 608 688 804 900 978 047 119 188 258 334 415 502 643 817 947 055 164 274 384 493 600 706 813 918 024 129 Panama 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 893 916 940 962 985 011 037 064 085 115 148 181 216 251 288 326 365 405 447 489 531 573 616 659 706 748 790 840 873 915 956 996 036 077 120 164 208 252 297 342 388 434 480 524 568 615 663 705 745 792 836 879 920 961 127 Paraguay 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 476 515 556 597 640 683 727 771 816 862 910 959 010 062 115 170 228 288 349 412 477 545 614 692 773 850 919 984 051 119 193 276 366 463 564 668 776 887 000 117 236 359 484 612 744 878 015 154 296 440 586 734 884 037 Puerto Rico 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 218 235 227 204 214 250 249 260 299 322 358 403 448 497 552 597 627 649 674 722 722 766 847 863 887 935 026 081 118 168 210 239 279 316 350 382 413 444 475 506 537 562 585 615 649 683 725 759 781 800 816 840 863 886 Trinidad and Tobago 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 632 649 663 678 698 721 743 765 789 817 841 861 887 904 924 939 953 960 963 963 955 962 975 985 995 007 021 039 056 073 091 102 116 133 150 166 180 191 198 200 198 193 184 175 167 160 151 141 136 131 125 118 112 104 Total 32 33 33 34 35 36 37 37 38 39 40 41 43 44 45 46 47 49 50 51 52 54 55 56 58 59 60 62 63 64 65 67 68 69 71 72 74 75 77 78 80 82 83 85 87 88 90 92 94 95 97 99 100 102 279 008 743 492 311 192 064 974 935 939 969 997 064 213 437 671 912 132 365 636 849 091 416 725 057 399 711 085 430 799 986 210 463 811 239 713 216 743 282 898 591 272 915 560 222 912 623 328 032 727 428 135 846 561 .

The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 4a. 1820-1949 (000s at mid-year) Total 8 core countries Total 15 countries Total 24 small Caribbean countries Total 47 countries 1820 15 809 5 096 800 21 705 1850 22 961 7 886 946 31 793 1870 29 749 9 509 1 141 40 399 1890 41 580 10 859 1 383 53 822 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 50 504 51 447 52 381 53 337 54 327 55 307 56 305 57 333 58 382 59 455 60 398 61 367 62 351 63 359 64 379 65 342 66 278 67 228 68 191 69 183 70 235 71 347 72 757 74 262 75 803 77 335 78 881 80 468 82 086 83 726 85 310 86 879 88 431 90 005 91 591 93 206 94 780 96 470 98 194 100 095 101 990 104 289 106 668 109 109 111 624 114 586 117 301 120 117 123 102 126 230 12 820 13 055 13 294 13 527 13 754 13 989 14 221 14 469 14 713 14 975 15 237 15 504 15 778 16 058 16 353 16 650 16 954 17 259 17 573 17 894 18 215 18 494 18 836 19 164 19 501 19 839 20 200 20 510 20 869 21 181 21 558 21 986 22 405 22 839 23 242 23 691 24 117 24 558 24 992 25 461 25 953 26 452 26 987 27 434 27 904 28 390 28 944 29 541 30 138 30 757 1 440 1 446 1 452 1 458 1 464 1 470 1 475 1 481 1 488 1 494 1 500 1 506 1 512 1 518 1 531 1 543 1 556 1 569 1 582 1 596 1 609 1 622 1 635 1 649 1 663 1 677 1 690 1 705 1 719 1 733 1 747 1 762 1 777 1 791 1 806 1 821 1 836 1 852 1 867 1 883 1 898 1 914 1 930 1 946 1 962 1 978 1 995 2 011 2 028 2 045 64 764 65 948 67 127 68 322 69 545 70 766 72 001 73 283 74 583 75 924 77 135 78 377 79 641 80 935 82 263 83 535 84 788 86 056 87 346 88 673 90 059 91 463 93 228 95 075 96 967 98 851 100 771 102 683 104 674 106 640 108 615 110 627 112 613 114 635 116 639 118 718 120 733 122 880 125 053 127 439 129 841 132 655 135 585 138 489 141 490 144 954 148 240 151 669 155 268 159 032 128 . Population of 47 Latin American Countries.

Population of 47 Latin American Countries.Latin America Table 4a. 1950-2003 (000s at mid-year) Total 8 core countries 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 131 135 139 142 146 151 155 159 164 169 174 179 184 189 195 200 206 212 217 223 229 236 242 248 254 260 267 273 279 286 292 299 306 312 319 325 332 339 345 352 358 365 371 378 384 391 397 403 410 416 422 427 433 439 597 292 070 961 985 158 493 985 639 457 446 498 674 963 370 903 499 193 994 913 994 122 220 365 559 777 046 340 678 128 673 412 275 968 420 828 430 095 813 505 959 358 808 255 711 155 547 865 079 170 129 987 777 487 Total 15 countries 32 33 33 34 35 36 37 37 38 39 40 41 43 44 45 46 47 49 50 51 52 54 55 56 58 59 60 62 63 64 65 67 68 69 71 72 74 75 77 78 80 82 83 85 87 88 90 92 94 95 97 99 100 102 279 008 743 492 311 192 064 974 935 939 969 997 064 213 437 671 912 132 365 636 849 091 416 725 057 399 711 085 430 799 986 210 463 811 239 713 216 743 282 898 591 272 915 560 222 912 623 328 032 727 428 135 846 561 129 Total 24 small Caribbean countries Total 47 countries 2 062 2 111 2 161 2 211 2 267 2 323 2 378 2 435 2 494 2 555 2 614 2 662 2 711 2 781 2 841 2 900 2 959 3 014 3 071 3 121 3 164 3 215 3 264 3 308 3 341 3 348 3 351 3 366 3 385 3 399 3 410 3 435 3 466 3 499 3 534 3 569 3 602 3 632 3 663 3 694 3 727 3 757 3 790 3 824 3 857 3 890 3 923 3 956 3 983 4 019 4 055 4 091 4 128 4 164 165 938 170 411 174 975 179 664 184 563 189 673 194 935 200 395 206 069 211 951 218 029 224 157 230 450 236 957 243 648 250 474 257 370 264 339 271 430 278 670 286 007 293 427 300 900 308 399 315 957 323 524 331 109 338 791 346 493 354 326 362 069 370 057 378 204 386 279 394 193 402 110 410 248 418 470 426 758 435 097 443 276 451 387 459 512 467 639 475 790 483 957 492 093 500 150 508 094 515 916 523 612 531 213 538 751 546 212 .

The World Economy: Historical Statistics 130 .

Latin America GDP L EVELS IN L ATIN A MERICA 131 .

1820-1913 (million 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) Argentina Brazil 1820 2 912 1850 4 959 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 2 354 7 265 12 932 14 036 13 746 15 722 17 407 19 703 20 691 21 127 23 190 24 353 26 125 26 590 28 770 29 060 6 985 7 154 7 327 7 504 7 686 7 872 8 062 8 257 8 457 8 662 8 871 9 086 9 306 9 531 9 761 9 998 10 240 10 487 10 741 11 001 11 267 11 232 10 865 9 474 9 695 12 519 11 616 11 712 12 300 12 347 12 201 13 425 13 425 13 693 13 961 14 365 15 735 15 754 15 639 16 886 17 078 18 959 18 747 19 188 Chile Colombia Mexico Peru Uruguay Venezuela 5 000 11 275 6 214 11 860 14 337 5 798 5 992 6 196 6 400 6 622 6 844 7 076 7 317 7 557 7 687 8 317 8 243 9 160 9 261 3 891 4 169 4 245 4 374 4 503 4 656 4 977 5 069 5 148 5 421 5 682 5 993 6 292 6 420 18 585 20 167 18 741 20 840 21 203 23 407 23 147 24 495 24 469 25 195 25 403 25 584 25 740 25 921 132 Total 3 096 3 287 3 310 3 379 3 446 3 530 3 732 3 767 3 789 3 950 4 101 4 284 4 453 4 500 748 771 958 978 896 775 865 900 982 877 966 931 1 044 1 251 1 262 1 449 1 531 1 383 1 726 1 594 1 473 1 617 1 668 1 823 2 046 2 034 2 155 2 092 1 944 2 010 2 030 2 077 2 431 2 513 2 579 2 318 2 556 2 829 3 101 3 140 3 390 3 288 4 013 3 896 941 22 273 2 087 2 053 2 233 2 414 2 357 2 329 2 173 2 173 2 322 2 405 2 484 2 655 2 747 3 172 60 619 65 206 64 327 69 334 72 078 77 152 80 087 82 530 85 216 89 036 92 580 95 596 99 922 101 419 .The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 4b. GDP Levels in 8 Latin American Countries.

1914-1949 (million 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 Argentina Brazil Chile Colombia Mexico Peru 26 038 26 183 25 428 23 364 27 665 28 683 30 775 31 559 34 059 37 837 40 772 40 597 42 544 45 567 48 414 50 623 48 531 45 160 43 678 45 712 49 344 51 524 51 873 55 650 55 883 58 004 58 963 61 986 62 712 62 218 69 280 67 042 73 029 81 136 85 641 84 478 18 844 19 688 20 263 21 664 21 223 24 024 26 393 26 944 28 801 30 454 30 434 30 556 31 210 33 476 37 333 37 415 35 187 34 401 35 599 38 374 41 585 42 722 46 824 48 355 50 376 50 876 51 381 54 981 52 944 60 317 62 562 64 236 71 013 73 523 79 157 84 239 8 632 8 020 9 511 10 280 10 299 8 141 9 298 8 002 8 558 10 651 11 614 11 753 11 456 10 984 13 327 14 624 13 735 10 345 10 234 12 114 13 790 14 050 14 587 15 698 15 430 15 902 16 596 16 615 17 532 18 263 18 523 20 199 21 449 20 014 22 339 22 200 6 199 6 173 6 854 7 434 7 391 7 588 7 797 7 999 8 206 8 420 8 637 8 860 9 707 10 581 11 357 11 768 11 666 11 595 12 243 12 930 12 661 14 080 14 824 15 055 16 038 17 020 17 386 17 681 17 713 17 790 18 991 19 883 21 681 22 535 23 235 24 519 26 095 26 270 26 446 26 624 26 803 26 983 27 164 27 346 27 994 28 953 28 487 30 250 32 064 30 664 30 846 29 653 27 787 28 720 24 417 27 191 29 031 31 183 33 671 34 786 35 356 37 248 37 767 40 851 43 754 45 387 49 094 50 623 53 967 55 807 58 114 61 303 4 063 4 315 5 620 5 418 5 274 6 088 6 209 4 378 4 959 6 403 6 493 5 782 6 443 7 249 7 757 8 572 7 613 6 700 6 362 8 572 10 016 10 291 10 750 10 984 10 705 11 668 11 483 12 815 11 483 10 943 12 455 13 872 14 430 14 858 15 357 16 446 133 Uruguay Venezuela 3 246 3 078 3 183 3 511 3 721 4 204 3 666 3 857 4 411 4 644 5 089 4 890 5 338 6 106 6 429 6 483 7 368 6 094 5 657 4 948 5 891 6 238 6 534 6 651 7 176 7 177 7 193 7 317 6 709 6 768 7 613 7 832 8 603 9 203 9 515 9 854 2 773 2 858 2 697 3 147 3 128 2 922 3 509 3 651 3 753 4 330 5 016 6 481 7 839 8 794 9 847 11 167 11 367 9 187 8 800 9 628 10 275 11 021 12 106 13 889 15 015 15 926 15 307 15 056 13 166 14 371 17 727 21 547 25 855 30 925 34 427 36 534 Total 95 890 96 586 100 002 101 442 105 504 108 632 114 811 113 737 120 740 131 691 136 541 139 169 146 603 153 420 165 312 170 305 163 253 152 202 146 991 159 469 172 594 181 108 191 168 201 068 205 978 213 820 216 077 227 302 226 013 236 058 256 245 265 235 290 028 308 001 327 784 339 572 . GDP Levels in 8 Latin American Countries.Latin America Table 4b.

1950-2001 (million 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) Argentina 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 85 524 88 866 84 333 88 866 92 528 99 125 101 856 107 087 113 655 106 303 114 614 122 809 120 833 117 927 130 074 141 960 142 919 146 755 153 002 166 080 174 972 183 458 189 183 200 720 213 739 211 850 211 327 224 084 214 233 229 547 232 802 219 434 212 518 220 016 224 491 209 641 224 985 230 797 226 438 212 373 212 518 233 770 254 575 269 341 291 696 282 653 295 090 318 698 334 314 322 947 320 364 308 510 Brazil 89 342 93 608 99 181 103 957 110 836 118 960 120 674 130 717 142 577 154 538 167 397 179 951 190 932 192 912 199 423 203 444 216 181 224 877 244 921 266 292 292 480 322 159 356 880 401 643 433 322 455 918 498 823 522 154 548 342 587 289 639 093 611 007 614 538 593 575 625 438 675 090 729 252 753 685 751 910 776 547 743 765 751 203 748 949 782 652 831 176 866 086 891 202 925 068 926 918 934 333 975 444 990 076 Chile 23 274 24 274 25 663 27 006 27 117 27 080 27 238 30 090 30 915 30 748 32 767 34 341 35 971 38 240 39 092 39 407 43 797 45 223 46 844 48 585 49 586 54 022 53 373 50 401 50 891 44 316 45 881 50 401 54 540 59 060 63 654 67 192 57 634 57 245 60 875 62 366 65 895 69 674 74 814 82 269 84 038 90 173 100 092 106 698 112 139 122 344 130 786 139 941 144 279 142 836 149 121 153 296 Colombia 24 955 25 726 27 350 29 026 31 042 32 242 33 539 34 766 35 639 38 207 39 831 41 847 44 120 45 571 48 389 50 136 52 806 55 028 58 398 62 116 66 308 70 250 75 637 80 728 85 370 87 347 91 488 95 283 103 366 108 906 113 375 115 789 116 938 118 806 123 037 127 076 134 844 142 086 147 896 152 686 159 042 161 587 167 889 175 444 186 496 196 567 200 695 203 706 205 132 196 722 202 230 205 263 Mexico 67 368 72 578 75 481 75 688 83 258 90 307 96 502 103 812 109 333 112 599 121 723 126 365 132 039 141 839 157 312 167 116 177 427 188 258 201 669 213 924 227 970 237 480 257 636 279 302 296 370 312 998 326 267 337 499 365 340 398 788 431 983 469 972 466 649 446 602 462 678 475 505 457 655 466 148 471 953 491 767 516 692 538 508 558 049 568 934 594 054 557 419 586 144 625 759 655 910 679 523 724 371 722 198 134 Peru 17 270 18 669 19 848 20 901 22 246 23 317 24 316 25 936 25 805 26 737 30 017 32 226 34 922 36 217 38 580 40 501 43 921 45 581 45 734 47 448 50 229 52 331 53 838 56 713 61 969 64 075 65 334 65 600 65 784 69 609 72 723 76 035 76 147 66 567 69 650 71 247 77 857 84 237 77 285 68 399 64 979 66 603 66 004 69 766 79 254 86 070 88 050 95 622 95 718 96 579 99 573 99 773 Uruguay Venezuela 10 224 11 015 11 167 11 736 12 488 12 593 12 807 12 932 13 292 12 125 12 554 12 912 12 624 12 686 12 940 13 088 13 536 12 975 13 181 13 984 14 638 14 498 13 992 14 098 14 541 15 406 16 026 16 205 17 058 18 110 19 205 19 575 17 724 16 688 16 505 16 746 18 231 19 676 19 676 19 930 20 105 20 687 22 218 22 907 24 166 23 683 24 867 26 112 27 313 26 548 26 203 25 391 37 377 39 979 43 472 45 147 49 820 53 991 58 677 67 414 68 540 72 658 72 889 70 643 73 762 77 134 83 688 89 240 90 842 96 334 102 916 106 612 114 807 116 494 117 982 126 364 129 038 132 728 142 978 151 927 155 528 156 752 149 735 149 253 146 150 140 665 142 664 144 843 152 244 157 698 166 879 152 577 160 648 177 516 189 942 189 182 182 183 192 931 192 160 204 843 204 433 191 963 198 105 203 454 Total 355 334 374 715 386 495 402 327 429 335 457 615 475 609 512 754 539 756 553 915 591 792 621 094 645 203 662 526 709 498 744 892 781 429 815 031 866 665 925 041 990 990 1 050 692 1 118 521 1 209 969 1 285 240 1 324 638 1 398 124 1 463 153 1 524 191 1 628 061 1 722 570 1 728 257 1 708 298 1 660 164 1 725 338 1 782 514 1 860 963 1 924 001 1 936 851 1 956 548 1 961 787 2 040 047 2 107 718 2 184 924 2 301 164 2 327 753 2 408 994 2 539 749 2 594 017 2 591 451 2 695 411 2 707 961 .The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 4b. GDP Levels in 8 Latin American Countries.

GDP Levels in 15 Latin American Countries.Latin America Table 4b. 1820-1949 (million 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) Bolivia Costa Rica Cuba Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Haiti 1820 1850 1870 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 4 816 4 902 4 987 5 095 5 202 682 668 727 672 769 766 847 769 809 775 813 803 739 880 776 840 896 1 045 1 107 1 139 1 093 1 224 1 097 1 095 992 1 130 1 249 1 486 1 571 1 635 6 132 5 776 4 853 3 894 4 213 4 948 5 788 6 747 7 753 6 012 6 345 5 516 7 410 6 214 6 889 7 907 8 759 9 541 10 925 9 706 10 547 3 137 3 344 3 361 3 502 3 946 3 998 4 014 4 492 4 991 5 673 5 776 135 1 091 1 094 1 159 1 208 1 292 1 203 1 422 1 250 1 466 1 468 1 505 1 349 1 210 1 374 1 419 1 562 1 527 1 672 1 554 1 667 1 811 1 772 1 925 2 087 1 980 1 898 1 928 2 425 3 090 2 806 2 032 2 231 2 106 2 316 2 504 2 456 2 480 2 643 2 702 3 016 3 145 2 933 2 567 2 593 2 933 3 390 4 657 4 567 4 693 5 282 6 033 6 356 6 439 4 293 4 162 4 226 5 006 5 076 5 248 5 741 3 059 3 085 3 137 3 168 3 202 .

The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 4b. 1820-1949 (million 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) Honduras Jamaica Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Puerto Rico Trinidad and Tobago Total 1820 281 1850 217 1870 267 4 620 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 509 16 670 917 927 1 008 1 002 936 1 130 1 140 1 252 1 408 1 394 1 485 1 517 1 359 1 275 1 235 1 180 1 201 1 148 1 215 1 249 1 334 1 331 1 217 1 219 1 247 1 536 1 653 1 760 1 797 1 822 1 131 1 217 1 436 2 141 2 007 3 240 809 840 769 823 872 963 837 841 1 065 1 190 962 900 810 1 019 925 940 748 811 839 1 042 1 139 1 246 1 200 1 316 1 303 1 309 1 422 1 426 1 550 1 522 1 671 1 698 1 769 1 664 1 702 136 2 057 1 947 1 979 2 095 2 139 2 185 2 108 2 314 2 012 2 035 2 377 . GDP Levels in 15 Latin American Countries.

GDP Levels in 15 Latin American Countries.Latin America Table 4b. 1950-2001 (million 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Bolivia Costa Rica Cuba Dominican Republic Ecuador 5 309 5 683 5 855 5 301 5 412 5 698 5 360 5 183 5 306 5 289 5 516 5 631 5 945 6 327 6 632 6 958 7 461 7 928 8 604 8 989 9 459 9 820 10 321 11 030 11 598 12 364 13 118 13 670 14 128 14 125 13 995 14 124 13 508 12 905 13 034 12 943 12 530 12 858 13 348 13 735 14 446 15 226 15 485 16 135 16 910 17 705 18 484 19 408 20 417 20 499 20 991 21 243 1 702 1 747 1 958 2 256 2 275 2 538 2 466 2 676 3 007 3 118 3 389 3 530 3 746 4 067 4 265 4 651 5 013 5 320 5 730 6 111 6 515 6 945 7 556 8 145 8 583 8 755 9 231 10 055 10 677 11 207 11 290 11 035 10 266 10 551 11 379 11 475 12 107 12 683 13 114 13 867 14 370 14 686 15 729 16 641 17 357 17 739 17 899 18 901 20 489 22 415 22 908 23 114 11 837 12 818 13 257 11 647 12 238 12 794 13 967 15 980 15 980 14 263 14 419 14 625 14 845 15 064 15 296 15 529 16 380 18 294 17 230 17 018 16 380 17 656 18 507 20 209 21 272 22 336 22 974 24 038 25 527 26 165 25 527 27 654 28 292 29 104 30 146 30 694 30 714 30 468 31 022 31 128 31 087 27 481 23 689 19 898 20 296 20 986 22 812 23 565 23 871 25 494 26 896 27 703 2 416 2 701 2 921 2 884 3 049 3 237 3 562 3 787 3 989 4 012 4 209 4 114 4 815 5 129 5 472 4 791 5 434 5 617 5 628 6 244 6 906 7 637 8 581 9 617 10 171 10 659 11 377 11 930 12 207 12 733 13 511 14 069 14 324 14 959 14 999 14 620 15 057 16 189 16 300 18 377 17 503 17 643 18 772 19 148 19 971 20 870 22 373 24 230 25 998 28 078 30 600 30 943 6 278 6 346 7 129 7 279 7 867 8 074 8 373 8 751 9 007 9 490 10 106 10 360 10 911 11 189 11 977 13 131 13 475 14 188 14 973 15 792 16 899 17 872 18 972 21 337 22 585 23 772 26 075 27 731 29 664 31 274 32 706 34 041 34 421 33 702 35 081 36 570 37 648 35 288 39 060 39 123 40 267 42 280 43 549 44 507 46 465 47 859 48 816 50 476 50 678 46 978 40 059 50 750 137 El Salvador Guatemala 2 888 2 945 3 166 3 392 3 431 3 608 3 891 4 098 4 187 4 375 4 553 4 713 5 276 5 504 6 017 6 340 6 794 7 164 7 396 7 653 7 881 8 245 8 712 9 084 9 675 10 193 10 572 11 189 11 935 11 744 10 748 9 869 9 324 9 386 9 595 9 819 9 926 10 193 10 384 10 491 10 805 11 108 11 918 12 681 13 442 14 275 14 532 15 157 15 732 16 268 16 626 16 925 6 190 6 277 6 408 6 643 6 767 6 934 7 565 7 992 8 365 8 778 8 992 9 378 9 709 10 635 11 128 11 613 12 255 12 757 13 877 14 532 15 364 16 221 17 412 18 593 19 779 20 164 21 654 23 344 24 511 25 667 26 632 26 804 25 858 25 193 25 321 25 167 25 199 26 094 27 110 28 179 29 050 30 125 31 601 32 865 34 212 35 923 37 000 38 518 40 482 42 020 43 533 44 317 Haiti 3 254 3 302 3 489 3 378 3 654 3 507 3 814 3 587 3 871 3 688 3 926 3 767 4 128 3 860 3 772 3 813 3 790 3 713 3 860 3 986 4 174 4 445 4 603 4 810 5 114 4 995 5 422 5 448 5 710 6 127 6 591 6 410 6 191 6 238 6 256 6 269 6 261 6 214 6 263 6 329 6 323 6 329 5 456 5 336 4 893 5 138 5 349 5 493 5 614 5 765 5 817 5 718 .

GDP Levels in 15 Latin American Countries.The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 4b. 1950-2001 (million 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Honduras Jamaica Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Puerto Rico Trinidad and Tobago Total 1 880 1 982 2 058 2 220 2 094 2 149 2 322 2 429 2 506 2 569 2 728 2 798 2 959 3 069 3 229 3 509 3 713 3 922 4 154 4 187 4 296 4 462 4 635 4 866 4 826 4 949 5 467 6 047 6 662 6 976 7 014 7 196 7 078 7 030 7 312 7 640 7 710 8 167 8 571 8 894 8 898 9 138 9 668 10 355 10 158 10 534 10 913 11 459 11 791 11 567 12 134 12 449 1 837 1 985 2 145 2 446 2 727 3 008 3 307 3 789 3 849 4 064 4 330 4 453 4 533 4 681 5 050 5 456 5 695 5 915 6 218 6 681 7 481 7 481 7 706 8 411 8 095 8 093 7 603 7 443 7 496 7 363 6 957 7 142 7 237 7 405 7 343 7 003 7 119 7 668 7 889 8 428 8 890 8 917 9 140 9 304 9 481 9 642 9 497 9 355 9 317 9 308 9 411 9 693 1 774 1 894 2 215 2 268 2 480 2 646 2 645 2 868 2 877 2 920 2 960 3 182 3 529 3 912 4 370 4 786 4 944 5 288 5 360 5 716 5 771 6 055 6 248 6 566 7 505 7 493 7 880 8 556 7 884 5 785 6 043 6 367 6 312 6 609 6 474 6 204 6 077 6 035 5 367 5 296 5 297 5 281 5 323 5 302 5 514 5 762 6 033 6 340 6 600 7 889 7 500 7 725 1 710 1 695 1 787 1 895 1 963 2 077 2 185 2 414 2 432 2 589 2 744 3 040 3 295 3 606 3 761 4 091 4 395 4 762 5 109 5 507 5 839 6 312 6 645 7 052 7 221 7 338 7 458 7 546 8 285 8 651 9 961 10 367 10 939 11 013 10 963 11 480 11 857 12 150 10 256 10 215 10 688 11 650 12 605 13 273 13 685 13 945 14 280 14 908 15 504 16 000 16 400 16 450 2 338 2 383 2 343 2 410 2 452 2 564 2 672 2 795 2 952 2 944 2 970 3 111 3 330 3 421 3 569 3 773 3 815 4 058 4 202 4 365 4 636 4 839 5 088 5 487 5 945 6 328 6 758 7 478 8 297 9 215 10 549 11 458 11 058 10 724 11 061 11 501 11 486 11 988 12 764 13 509 13 923 14 271 14 514 15 094 15 547 16 247 16 458 16 886 16 819 16 903 16 835 16 970 4 755 4 929 5 214 5 445 5 669 5 961 6 388 6 708 6 901 7 521 8 066 8 835 9 500 10 488 11 232 12 254 13 119 13 944 14 606 15 899 17 280 18 375 19 732 20 908 20 919 20 388 21 464 22 867 24 379 25 868 26 263 26 544 25 734 25 855 27 747 28 319 30 630 32 136 34 228 35 919 37 277 38 136 39 877 41 729 43 475 45 453 46 953 48 549 50 103 52 207 53 826 55 494 2 322 2 526 2 612 2 682 2 730 3 111 3 756 4 088 4 423 4 692 5 258 5 488 5 781 6 076 6 283 6 603 6 891 7 035 7 400 7 604 7 873 7 954 8 414 8 553 9 011 9 181 10 059 10 698 11 947 12 500 13 501 14 096 13 271 12 231 12 967 12 436 12 028 11 473 11 027 10 937 11 110 11 499 11 372 11 236 11 708 12 188 12 651 13 043 13 669 14 598 15 299 15 988 56 490 59 213 62 557 62 146 64 808 67 906 72 273 77 145 79 652 80 312 84 166 87 025 92 302 97 028 102 053 107 298 113 174 119 905 124 347 130 284 136 754 144 319 153 132 164 668 172 299 177 008 187 112 198 040 209 309 215 400 221 288 227 176 223 813 222 905 229 678 232 140 236 349 239 604 246 703 254 427 259 934 263 770 268 698 273 504 283 114 294 266 304 050 316 288 327 084 335 989 338 835 355 482 138 .

GDP Levels in 47 Latin American Countries. 1820-1949 (million 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) Total 8 core countries 1820 Total 15 countries Total 24 small Caribbean countries Total 47 countries 11 275 3 240 509 15 024 1870 22 273 4 620 626 27 519 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 60 619 65 206 64 327 69 334 72 078 77 152 80 087 82 530 85 216 89 036 92 580 95 596 99 922 101 419 95 890 96 586 100 002 101 442 105 504 108 632 114 811 113 737 120 740 131 691 136 541 139 169 146 603 153 420 165 312 170 305 163 253 152 202 146 991 159 469 172 594 181 108 191 168 201 068 205 978 213 820 216 077 227 302 226 013 236 058 256 245 265 235 290 028 308 001 327 784 339 572 9 974 1 217 71 810 16 670 1 782 119 871 1850 139 .Latin America Table 4b.

1950-2001 (million 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) Total 8 core countries 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 355 334 374 715 386 495 402 327 429 335 457 615 475 609 512 754 539 756 553 915 591 792 621 094 645 203 662 526 709 498 744 892 781 429 815 031 866 665 925 041 990 990 1 050 692 1 118 521 1 209 969 1 285 240 1 324 638 1 398 124 1 463 153 1 524 191 1 628 061 1 722 570 1 728 257 1 708 298 1 660 164 1 725 338 1 782 514 1 860 963 1 924 001 1 936 851 1 956 548 1 961 787 2 040 047 2 107 718 2 184 924 2 301 164 2 327 753 2 408 994 2 539 749 2 594 017 2 591 451 2 695 411 2 707 961 Total 15 countries Total 24 small Caribbean countries 56 490 59 213 62 557 62 146 64 808 67 906 72 273 77 145 79 652 80 312 84 166 87 025 92 302 97 028 102 053 107 298 113 174 119 905 124 347 130 284 136 754 144 319 153 132 164 668 172 299 177 008 187 112 198 040 209 309 215 400 221 288 227 176 223 813 222 905 229 678 232 140 236 349 239 604 246 703 254 427 259 934 263 770 268 698 273 504 283 114 294 266 304 050 316 288 327 084 335 989 338 835 355 482 4 083 4 313 4 556 4 813 5 083 5 370 5 671 5 991 6 328 6 685 7 060 7 458 7 878 8 321 8 790 9 285 9 808 10 359 10 942 11 558 12 210 12 897 13 544 14 392 14 585 14 783 14 983 15 187 15 392 15 601 15 812 16 026 16 243 16 462 16 686 16 912 17 142 17 374 17 611 17 851 18 094 18 545 19 007 19 481 19 966 20 464 20 975 21 497 22 033 22 634 22 846 23 563 140 Total 47 countries 415 907 438 241 453 608 469 286 499 226 530 891 553 553 595 890 625 736 640 912 683 018 715 577 745 383 767 875 820 341 861 475 904 411 945 295 1 001 954 1 066 883 1 139 954 1 207 908 1 285 197 1 389 029 1 472 124 1 516 429 1 600 219 1 676 380 1 748 892 1 859 062 1 959 670 1 971 459 1 948 354 1 899 531 1 971 702 2 031 566 2 114 454 2 180 979 2 201 165 2 228 826 2 239 815 2 322 362 2 395 423 2 477 909 2 604 244 2 642 483 2 734 019 2 877 534 2 943 134 2 950 074 3 057 092 3 087 006 .The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 4b. GDP Levels in 47 Latin American Countries.

Latin America P ER C APITA GDP IN 141 LATIN A MERICA .

The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 4c. Per Capita GDP in 8 Latin American Countries. 1820-1913 (1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) Argentina Brazil 1820 646 1850 686 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1 311 2 152 2 756 2 880 2 717 2 992 3 191 3 479 3 518 3 459 3 657 3 699 3 822 3 746 3 904 3 797 713 717 721 724 728 732 736 740 744 748 752 756 760 764 768 773 777 781 785 789 794 773 730 622 621 783 710 699 717 703 678 730 715 714 713 718 770 755 734 776 769 836 809 811 Chile Colombia Mexico Peru Uruguay Venezuela 759 713 674 1 011 1 132 1 949 1 990 2 033 2 074 2 120 2 164 2 210 2 257 2 303 2 313 2 472 2 420 2 656 2 653 973 1 022 1 020 1 030 1 039 1 053 1 103 1 101 1 096 1 131 1 162 1 201 1 236 1 236 1 366 1 466 1 348 1 483 1 492 1 630 1 594 1 669 1 649 1 680 1 694 1 707 1 718 1 732 142 Average 817 858 855 864 872 884 925 924 920 949 975 1 008 1 037 1 037 2 181 2 178 2 632 2 601 2 315 1 942 2 105 2 123 2 247 1 949 2 082 1 932 2 080 2 397 2 324 2 569 2 608 2 267 2 718 2 415 2 147 2 290 2 294 2 437 2 657 2 568 2 644 2 493 2 250 2 261 2 219 2 233 2 572 2 615 2 640 2 334 2 533 2 757 2 973 2 957 3 136 2 957 3 508 3 310 569 749 821 797 856 913 876 861 799 793 841 865 886 937 962 1 104 1 200 1 267 1 228 1 300 1 327 1 395 1 422 1 439 1 460 1 498 1 533 1 558 1 603 1 601 .

Per Capita GDP in 8 Latin American Countries. 1914-1949 (1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 Argentina Brazil Chile Colombia 3 302 3 244 3 091 2 790 3 248 3 307 3 473 3 471 3 636 3 898 4 055 3 919 3 994 4 156 4 291 4 367 4 080 3 712 3 522 3 621 3 845 3 950 3 912 4 125 4 072 4 148 4 161 4 304 4 284 4 182 4 579 4 356 4 665 5 089 5 252 5 047 780 798 804 842 808 895 963 859 1 009 1 046 1 024 1 007 1 008 1 060 1 158 1 137 1 048 1 004 1 018 1 076 1 142 1 150 1 235 1 250 1 276 1 263 1 250 1 307 1 229 1 368 1 386 1 390 1 501 1 518 1 596 1 659 2 440 2 238 2 620 2 794 2 763 2 155 2 430 2 064 2 179 2 676 2 880 2 876 2 767 2 618 3 136 3 396 3 143 2 333 2 274 2 652 2 976 2 987 3 056 3 241 3 139 3 178 3 259 3 205 3 322 3 400 3 388 3 630 3 786 3 470 3 806 3 715 1 163 1 129 1 222 1 292 1 252 1 253 1 255 1 255 1 255 1 255 1 255 1 255 1 340 1 424 1 490 1 505 1 474 1 448 1 511 1 577 1 526 1 677 1 744 1 751 1 843 1 905 1 895 1 877 1 832 1 792 1 863 1 899 2 017 2 042 2 050 2 107 Mexico 1 744 1 757 1 770 1 783 1 796 1 810 1 823 1 836 1 850 1 884 1 825 1 908 1 991 1 875 1 857 1 757 1 618 1 643 1 373 1 501 1 574 1 660 1 768 1 796 1 794 1 858 1 852 1 949 2 032 2 051 2 159 2 134 2 211 2 221 2 248 2 304 143 Peru 927 974 1 255 1 198 1 154 1 318 1 331 926 1 035 1 318 1 318 1 157 1 272 1 410 1 487 1 619 1 417 1 228 1 148 1 524 1 753 1 772 1 822 1 832 1 757 1 884 1 823 1 998 1 757 1 643 1 835 2 005 2 046 2 066 2 094 2 199 Uruguay 2 654 2 470 2 508 2 717 2 828 3 135 2 674 2 751 3 078 3 170 3 397 3 188 3 398 3 797 3 906 3 847 4 301 3 500 3 196 2 750 3 221 3 356 3 459 3 462 3 676 3 692 3 661 3 682 3 338 3 331 3 705 3 764 4 083 4 313 4 405 4 504 Venezuela 956 980 921 1 069 1 057 983 1 173 1 214 1 241 1 420 1 630 2 081 2 487 2 761 3 057 3 426 3 444 2 754 2 613 2 831 2 995 3 181 3 449 3 896 4 144 4 305 4 045 3 903 3 347 3 575 4 309 5 102 5 948 6 894 7 394 7 544 Average 1 489 1 478 1 509 1 509 1 547 1 570 1 635 1 594 1 659 1 773 1 801 1 800 1 859 1 907 2 014 2 034 1 914 1 752 1 662 1 772 1 884 1 943 2 017 2 084 2 098 2 136 2 119 2 180 2 119 2 164 2 296 2 315 2 473 2 564 2 663 2 690 .Latin America Table 4c.

Per Capita GDP in 8 Latin American Countries.The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 4c. 1950-2001 (1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Argentina Brazil Chile 4 987 5 073 4 717 4 874 4 980 5 237 5 285 5 461 5 698 5 241 5 559 5 862 5 677 5 455 5 926 6 371 6 321 6 399 6 578 7 037 7 302 7 530 7 635 7 962 8 334 8 122 7 965 8 304 7 807 8 227 8 206 7 603 7 243 7 383 7 425 6 834 7 224 7 299 7 056 6 523 6 436 6 980 7 497 7 827 8 367 8 005 8 253 8 803 9 123 8 711 8 544 8 137 1 672 1 702 1 752 1 784 1 848 1 926 1 896 1 994 2 111 2 221 2 335 2 437 2 511 2 463 2 472 2 448 2 527 2 554 2 704 2 860 3 057 3 279 3 539 3 882 4 083 4 190 4 472 4 568 4 681 4 892 5 198 4 852 4 765 4 500 4 646 4 917 5 205 5 273 5 158 5 227 4 923 4 893 4 802 4 939 5 163 5 296 5 366 5 488 5 422 5 392 5 556 5 570 3 821 3 883 4 024 4 159 4 101 4 016 3 954 4 269 4 282 4 155 4 320 4 418 4 518 4 694 4 693 4 631 5 042 5 105 5 188 5 281 5 293 5 663 5 492 5 093 5 050 4 323 4 398 4 755 5 069 5 407 5 738 5 956 5 017 4 898 5 125 5 168 5 375 5 590 5 901 6 377 6 402 6 753 7 374 7 738 8 010 8 612 9 080 9 586 9 756 9 539 9 841 10 001 Colombia 2 153 2 150 2 214 2 277 2 358 2 373 2 391 2 400 2 383 2 473 2 497 2 540 2 594 2 597 2 675 2 689 2 750 2 784 2 874 2 976 3 094 3 194 3 355 3 499 3 618 3 622 3 716 3 797 4 047 4 184 4 265 4 263 4 212 4 185 4 239 4 282 4 446 4 589 4 682 4 739 4 840 4 821 4 909 5 028 5 240 5 418 5 428 5 409 5 350 5 042 5 096 5 087 Mexico 2 365 2 477 2 504 2 439 2 605 2 742 2 843 2 965 3 025 3 016 3 155 3 172 3 211 3 343 3 594 3 702 3 813 3 922 4 073 4 185 4 320 4 363 4 597 4 845 5 003 5 146 5 228 5 275 5 573 5 941 6 289 6 683 6 489 6 082 6 174 6 218 5 865 5 854 5 810 5 936 6 119 6 258 6 366 6 372 6 536 6 027 6 230 6 541 6 745 6 877 7 218 7 089 144 Peru 2 263 2 385 2 473 2 539 2 634 2 689 2 731 2 836 2 746 2 768 3 023 3 154 3 321 3 345 3 462 3 532 3 723 3 757 3 666 3 698 3 807 3 857 3 858 3 952 4 200 4 226 4 195 4 103 4 008 4 131 4 205 4 283 4 176 3 559 3 633 3 631 3 879 4 103 3 680 3 183 2 955 2 960 2 868 2 965 3 296 3 505 3 514 3 742 3 675 3 640 3 686 3 630 Uruguay 4 659 4 955 4 957 5 139 5 391 5 352 5 360 5 333 5 402 4 860 4 960 5 036 4 858 4 820 4 858 4 860 4 974 4 721 4 747 4 991 5 184 5 130 4 945 4 974 5 123 5 421 5 608 5 639 5 903 6 234 6 577 6 668 6 000 5 614 5 520 5 567 6 023 6 461 6 422 6 462 6 474 6 614 7 055 7 224 7 567 7 365 7 681 8 009 8 317 8 024 7 859 7 557 Venezuela Average 7 462 7 663 7 992 7 956 8 417 8 750 9 124 10 058 9 816 9 997 9 646 9 002 9 058 9 134 9 562 9 841 9 677 9 922 10 249 10 262 10 672 10 446 10 245 10 625 10 507 10 472 10 929 11 251 11 164 10 920 10 139 9 841 9 356 8 745 8 623 8 521 8 725 8 805 9 080 8 094 8 313 8 965 9 373 9 137 8 620 8 950 8 747 9 155 8 977 8 288 8 415 8 507 2 700 2 770 2 779 2 814 2 921 3 027 3 059 3 205 3 278 3 269 3 392 3 460 3 494 3 488 3 632 3 708 3 784 3 841 3 976 4 131 4 309 4 450 4 618 4 872 5 049 5 080 5 236 5 353 5 450 5 690 5 886 5 772 5 578 5 305 5 401 5 471 5 598 5 674 5 601 5 550 5 465 5 584 5 669 5 776 5 982 5 951 6 060 6 289 6 326 6 227 6 385 6 327 .

1820-1949 (1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) Bolivia Costa Rica Cuba Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Haiti 1820 1850 1870 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1 690 1 700 1 710 1 727 1 743 1 624 1 553 1 691 1 527 1 709 1 665 1 802 1 636 1 685 1 582 1 626 1 575 1 421 1 660 1 437 1 527 1 600 1 802 1 876 1 867 1 763 1 943 1 688 1 659 1 459 1 614 1 759 2 036 2 095 2 123 1 639 1 505 1 241 977 1 038 1 982 1 371 1 573 1 779 1 358 1 411 1 208 1 599 1 321 1 442 1 631 1 776 1 893 2 121 1 842 1 958 1 301 1 356 1 323 1 360 1 494 1 474 1 443 1 574 1 700 1 880 1 861 145 932 919 950 974 1 017 925 1 069 926 1 055 1 041 1 045 924 823 922 940 1 021 985 1 065 977 1 035 1 111 1 074 1 146 1 235 1 151 1 091 1 095 1 362 1 707 1 525 1 272 1 382 1 291 1 405 1 504 1 460 1 460 1 539 1 557 1 720 1 776 1 620 1 380 1 358 1 512 1 712 2 305 2 206 2 224 2 457 2 742 2 825 2 800 1 835 1 741 1 732 2 002 1 975 1 988 2 111 1 045 1 042 1 048 1 046 1 046 . Per Capita GDP in 15 Latin American Countries.Latin America Table 4b.

The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 4b. 1820-1949 (1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) Honduras Jamaica Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Puerto Rico Trinidad and Tobago Total 1820 700 1850 522 1870 535 486 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 620 1 038 1 274 1 253 1 309 1 253 1 141 1 329 1 295 1 407 1 547 1 499 1 563 1 564 1 373 1 262 1 211 1 135 1 133 1 063 1 105 1 115 1 160 1 138 1 014 1 007 1 006 1 219 1 281 1 333 1 331 1 311 972 970 1 150 1 649 1 512 636 1 264 1 313 1 183 1 266 1 321 1 459 1 249 1 255 1 590 1 750 1 415 1 304 1 174 1 456 1 303 1 288 997 1 053 1 076 1 286 1 372 1 483 1 395 1 495 1 448 1 423 1 497 1 455 1 550 1 478 2 113 2 155 2 200 2 024 2 031 146 1 894 1 752 1 741 1 800 1 796 1 792 1 690 1 815 1 542 1 524 1 740 . Per Capita GDP in 15 Latin American Countries.

Latin America Table 4b. Per Capita GDP in 15 Latin American Countries. 1950-2001 (1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) Bolivia 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 1 919 2 013 2 031 1 800 1 799 1 853 1 706 1 614 1 616 1 575 1 606 1 603 1 654 1 720 1 762 1 806 1 891 1 962 2 079 2 120 2 176 2 204 2 260 2 357 2 418 2 516 2 647 2 691 2 715 2 652 2 572 2 547 2 394 2 249 2 234 2 181 2 074 2 089 2 124 2 138 2 197 2 262 2 246 2 287 2 343 2 400 2 453 2 523 2 601 2 562 2 575 2 559 Costa Rica Cuba Dominican Republic Ecuador 1 963 1 951 2 114 2 353 2 289 2 460 2 301 2 406 2 605 2 598 2 715 2 723 2 785 2 919 2 961 3 127 3 258 3 349 3 497 3 622 3 754 3 889 4 118 4 319 4 430 4 396 4 506 4 769 4 870 4 959 4 911 4 681 4 235 4 230 4 432 4 340 4 446 4 530 4 561 4 698 4 747 4 736 4 957 5 129 5 237 5 242 5 186 5 372 5 718 6 146 6 174 6 126 2 046 2 176 2 207 1 900 1 957 2 005 2 145 2 406 2 363 2 067 2 052 2 050 2 046 2 032 2 009 1 988 2 051 2 248 2 080 2 021 1 917 2 037 2 096 2 245 2 324 2 404 2 439 2 520 2 650 2 695 2 644 2 847 2 890 2 944 3 020 3 045 3 022 2 975 3 002 2 982 2 948 2 582 2 209 1 844 1 871 1 925 2 083 2 142 2 160 2 297 2 414 2 477 1 027 1 117 1 172 1 123 1 150 1 183 1 260 1 296 1 320 1 284 1 302 1 232 1 394 1 437 1 484 1 259 1 384 1 387 1 349 1 453 1 561 1 680 1 837 2 005 2 067 2 111 2 198 2 250 2 248 2 289 2 372 2 413 2 400 2 450 2 403 2 292 2 311 2 432 2 399 2 649 2 474 2 446 2 555 2 563 2 629 2 703 2 850 3 037 3 208 3 412 3 663 3 651 1 863 1 835 2 009 1 998 2 103 2 101 2 121 2 156 2 159 2 211 2 289 2 279 2 331 2 320 2 411 2 566 2 556 2 612 2 675 2 739 2 845 2 922 3 012 3 290 3 383 3 459 3 687 3 810 3 961 4 060 4 129 4 181 4 114 3 922 3 975 4 036 4 048 3 697 3 988 3 894 3 903 4 002 4 025 4 018 4 099 4 126 4 115 4 163 4 090 3 712 3 101 3 849 147 El Salvador Guatemala 1 489 1 480 1 550 1 616 1 589 1 624 1 701 1 740 1 725 1 748 1 764 1 769 1 920 1 941 2 058 2 101 2 172 2 216 2 210 2 206 2 187 2 222 2 298 2 342 2 436 2 504 2 532 2 613 2 715 2 605 2 354 2 186 2 084 2 076 2 091 2 105 2 089 2 105 2 106 2 092 2 119 2 142 2 259 2 362 2 459 2 564 2 561 2 621 2 669 2 708 2 716 2 713 2 085 2 054 2 037 2 051 2 029 2 019 2 140 2 195 2 231 2 273 2 262 2 292 2 307 2 456 2 498 2 534 2 600 2 631 2 782 2 830 2 905 2 974 3 096 3 204 3 303 3 263 3 395 3 546 3 607 3 661 3 681 3 579 3 352 3 187 3 117 3 011 2 930 2 947 2 973 3 003 3 009 3 034 3 093 3 127 3 164 3 229 3 232 3 269 3 340 3 370 3 396 3 363 Haiti 1 051 1 049 1 090 1 037 1 102 1 039 1 108 1 023 1 082 1 011 1 055 991 1 064 974 931 922 897 860 875 884 906 955 979 1 013 1 066 1 032 1 111 1 106 1 149 1 221 1 304 1 259 1 202 1 189 1 168 1 146 1 120 1 088 1 074 1 063 1 041 1 025 870 835 753 777 795 803 808 816 810 785 .

Per Capita GDP in 15 Latin American Countries.1950-2001 (1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) Honduras 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 1 313 1 344 1 356 1 421 1 300 1 293 1 354 1 372 1 370 1 360 1 398 1 387 1 421 1 427 1 452 1 526 1 563 1 599 1 639 1 599 1 601 1 613 1 618 1 642 1 574 1 570 1 687 1 815 1 942 1 977 1 930 1 916 1 833 1 774 1 795 1 825 1 793 1 849 1 903 1 919 1 871 1 873 1 930 2 011 1 919 1 935 1 951 1 994 1 998 1 914 1 957 1 958 Jamaica Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Puerto Rico 1 327 1 412 1 504 1 691 1 858 2 020 2 190 2 468 2 458 2 541 2 654 2 702 2 722 2 757 2 904 3 070 3 129 3 178 3 284 3 480 3 849 3 803 3 858 4 130 3 908 3 845 3 564 3 451 3 439 3 336 3 121 3 162 3 150 3 188 3 128 2 953 2 973 3 178 3 249 3 449 3 609 3 588 3 648 3 684 3 722 3 753 3 668 3 588 3 550 3 526 3 548 3 636 1 616 1 674 1 900 1 888 2 002 2 072 2 008 2 111 2 052 2 019 1 983 2 065 2 219 2 382 2 578 2 734 2 736 2 835 2 783 2 875 2 812 2 856 2 862 2 921 3 236 3 129 3 187 3 350 3 023 2 152 2 155 2 195 2 119 2 169 2 076 1 946 1 865 1 810 1 571 1 512 1 454 1 384 1 348 1 308 1 324 1 348 1 376 1 411 1 435 1 676 1 558 1 571 1 916 1 851 1 901 1 969 1 993 2 055 2 108 2 270 2 241 2 322 2 391 2 574 2 710 2 882 2 920 3 085 3 219 3 388 3 531 3 699 3 814 4 012 4 111 4 250 4 232 4 198 4 167 4 102 4 424 4 518 5 091 5 194 5 372 5 301 5 172 5 306 5 370 5 394 4 465 4 361 4 476 4 786 5 083 5 259 5 329 5 333 5 363 5 512 5 647 5 731 5 782 5 715 1 584 1 573 1 506 1 509 1 495 1 523 1 547 1 578 1 625 1 581 1 555 1 588 1 657 1 659 1 687 1 739 1 712 1 774 1 789 1 810 1 872 1 902 1 946 2 038 2 144 2 220 2 315 2 506 2 719 2 954 3 304 3 498 3 285 3 097 3 104 3 135 3 042 3 085 3 191 3 282 3 287 3 274 3 237 3 273 3 277 3 331 3 282 3 276 3 176 3 107 3 014 2 959 2 144 2 205 2 341 2 471 2 561 2 649 2 840 2 968 3 002 3 239 3 421 3 677 3 881 4 201 4 401 4 719 4 993 5 264 5 463 5 840 6 349 6 642 6 930 7 302 7 247 6 946 7 093 7 422 7 819 8 164 8 183 8 195 7 848 7 797 8 283 8 373 8 974 9 330 9 850 10 246 10 539 10 706 11 123 11 542 11 913 12 341 12 606 12 914 13 251 13 738 14 106 14 452 148 Trinidad and Tobago 3 674 3 894 3 941 3 954 3 914 4 316 5 059 5 344 5 609 5 743 6 251 6 371 6 514 6 718 6 801 7 030 7 234 7 327 7 684 7 897 8 244 8 272 8 628 8 685 9 053 9 118 9 847 10 296 11 319 11 649 12 380 12 794 11 888 10 794 11 273 10 664 10 192 9 631 9 202 9 112 9 271 9 641 9 603 9 560 10 032 10 503 10 989 11 426 12 036 12 908 13 598 14 295 Total 1 750 1 794 1 854 1 802 1 835 1 876 1 950 2 032 2 046 2 011 2 054 2 072 2 143 2 195 2 246 2 299 2 362 2 440 2 469 2 523 2 588 2 668 2 763 2 903 2 968 2 980 3 082 3 190 3 300 3 324 3 354 3 380 3 269 3 193 3 224 3 193 3 185 3 163 3 192 3 225 3 225 3 206 3 202 3 197 3 246 3 310 3 355 3 426 3 478 3 510 3 478 3 586 .The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 4b.

1820-1949 (1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) Average 8 core countries Average 15 countries Average 24 small Caribbean countries Average 47 countries 713 636 636 692 1870 749 486 549 681 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1 200 1 267 1 228 1 300 1 327 1 395 1 422 1 439 1 460 1 498 1 533 1 558 1 603 1 601 1 489 1 478 1 509 1 509 1 547 1 570 1 635 1 594 1 659 1 773 1 801 1 800 1 859 1 907 2 014 2 034 1 914 1 752 1 662 1 772 1 884 1 943 2 017 2 084 2 098 2 136 2 119 2 180 2 119 2 164 2 296 2 315 2 473 2 564 2 663 2 690 778 880 1 110 1 038 1 174 1 481 1820 1850 149 . Per Capita GDP in 47 Latin American Countries.Latin America Table 4c.

Per Capita GDP in 47 Latin American Countries.The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 4c. 1950-2001 (1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) Average 8 core countries 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2 700 2 770 2 779 2 814 2 921 3 027 3 059 3 205 3 278 3 269 3 392 3 460 3 494 3 488 3 632 3 708 3 784 3 841 3 976 4 131 4 309 4 450 4 618 4 872 5 049 5 080 5 236 5 353 5 450 5 690 5 886 5 772 5 578 5 305 5 401 5 471 5 598 5 674 5 601 5 550 5 465 5 584 5 669 5 776 5 982 5 951 6 060 6 289 6 326 6 223 6 378 6 314 Average 15 countries 1 750 1 794 1 854 1 802 1 835 1 876 1 950 2 032 2 046 2 011 2 054 2 072 2 143 2 195 2 246 2 299 2 362 2 440 2 469 2 523 2 588 2 668 2 763 2 903 2 968 2 980 3 082 3 190 3 300 3 324 3 354 3 380 3 269 3 193 3 224 3 193 3 185 3 163 3 192 3 225 3 225 3 206 3 202 3 197 3 246 3 310 3 355 3 426 3 478 3 510 3 478 3 586 150 Average 24 small Caribbean countries 1 980 2 043 2 109 2 177 2 242 2 311 2 385 2 460 2 537 2 616 2 701 2 801 2 905 2 992 3 094 3 201 3 315 3 437 3 563 3 703 3 859 4 012 4 150 4 350 4 366 4 415 4 471 4 512 4 547 4 589 4 636 4 665 4 686 4 704 4 721 4 738 4 759 4 784 4 808 4 833 4 855 4 937 5 016 5 095 5 177 5 261 5 347 5 434 5 532 5 632 5 634 5 759 Average 47 countries 2 506 2 572 2 592 2 612 2 705 2 799 2 840 2 974 3 037 3 024 3 133 3 192 3 234 3 241 3 367 3 439 3 514 3 576 3 691 3 828 3 986 4 117 4 271 4 504 4 659 4 687 4 833 4 948 5 047 5 247 5 412 5 327 5 152 4 918 5 002 5 052 5 154 5 212 5 158 5 123 5 053 5 145 5 213 5 299 5 474 5 460 5 556 5 753 5 793 5 718 5 838 5 811 .

Misstatement is not deliberate. Benchmark 1990 levels in international Geary–Khamis dollars were derived as shown in Maddison (2001). Paris. Estimates for 1973–2001 are shown in HS–3. 16 East Asian Countries Population: 1820–1949 as in Maddison (2001) and Maddison (1995). US Bureau of the Census (October 2002). The second group consists of 26 East Asian countries. One also finds frequent references to 151 . It is not possible to construct satisfactory GDP estimates for this area before 1973. China: Population and GDP 1820–1998 from Maddison (1998). except as specified below. 174. Beijing. pp. Chinese official statisticians adopted SNA norms several years ago. Iran. World Economic Outlook. 1933 GDP level from Maddison (1998). Updating to 2001 from China Statistical Yearbook. and annual volume movement 1929–38 from Maddison (1995). but is a transitional problem in moving away from a detailed reporting practice inherited from the long period in which the norms of the Soviet material product system (MPS) prevailed. Maddison (1998). p.3 per cent of Asian population in 2001. except for China. The first consists of 16 East Asian countries which produced 88 per cent of Asian GDP and had 89 per cent of Asian population in 2001. The third group consists of 15 West Asian countries. because the problem of disaggregating the former USSR is compounded by the difficulty of converting from an MPS to an SNA basis. which produced 1. Inclusion of the 8 new states would have added 1. April 2002. pp. p. provides a detailed examination of these problems and makes adjustments to provide a close approximation to Western SNA accounting practice. (2001) with adjustment of growth rate to conform to SNA measurement procedure as indicated in Maddison (2001). 158. and a third of the GDP of the Russian Federation is generated in Asia. Chinese Economic Performance in the Long Run. 158. and Saudi Arabia. Eight independent Asian countries emerged from the collapse of the former Soviet Union in 1991. which produced about 10 per cent of Asian GDP and had 6. and described in detail in Maddison (1998). in terms of GDP are Turkey. 219–20. 202. except as specified below. For these countries the GDP estimates are well documented and of reasonable quality for 1950 onwards and scholars have been active in developing historical accounts for earlier years.9 per cent to our Asian GDP for 2001. p. India and Indonesia where estimates were derived from sources specified below. 1950 onwards revised and updated from International Programs Center. Unfortunately the IMF and many journalists continue to cite the official growth rates or levels without caveat or correction. The biggest countries in this group. GDP: 1820–1993 movement from Maddison (2001) revised and updated to 2001 from IMF. OECD.6 per cent of Asian GDP and had 4. 167–170.5 per cent of Asian population in 2001.Asia HS–5: Asia Estimates for Asia are shown in three groups. 155–9. There have been major problems for China where official estimates of GDP exaggerate growth and understate its level.

Estimates include East Timor. 397–8. 62-3. The following table shows the population breakdown for India. Census of India 1941.V. vol. Pakistan as in the prepartition total for Punjab (province. Ye Yanfei and Derek Blades (2000). Annual GDP estimates 1911–90 supplied by Pierre van der Eng. 1820-1946 (000s) Undivided India Indian Union Bangladesh Pakistan 1820 209 000 175 349 20 000 13 651 1870 253 000 212 189 24 721 16 090 1913 303 700 251 906 31 786 20 008 1929 333 100 275 861 34 427 22 812 1941 391 700 321 565 41 966 28 169 1946 415 200 340 857 41 660 32 683 Source: Maddison (1995). 1968. National Accounts of West Malaysia. Malaysia: The estimates refer to modern Malaysia (old federated and unfederated Malay states. Population of Undivided India. 1913–49 by Pierre van der Eng. pp. Paris and Maddison (1998). forthcoming. National Accounts for China: Sources and Methods. are under preparation by a research team at the Asia–Europe Institute. 204). 2002/2. and to the Indian Union since 1947. 1700–1938”. Tables. Bangladesh assumed to move (with intercensal interpolation) as in prepartition Bengal (plus native states and agencies). Bangladesh and Pakistan. Delhi. pp. July 2002. OUP. The National Income of India in the Twentieth Century. Sind and North West Frontier Province. Rough estimates 1946 for areas of Bangladesh and Pakistan when they were “wings” of undivided Pakistan from 20 Years of Pakistan in Statistics1947-1967.W. GDP movement 1820–1900 from Maddison 2001. adjusted to include Sabah and Sarawak. p. 204–7.The World Economy: Historical Statistics Japan being the world’s second biggest economy. and 672 in Pakistan. The Sources of Economic Growth in India. Kuala Lumpur. updated from his posthumous work. Oxford University Press. 1943. Part I. 1870–1993 supplied by Pierre van der Eng (see Maddison. Indonesia: Population and GDP 1820–70 from Maddison (1989) “Dutch Income in and from Indonesia. University of Malaya. Karachi. Table 5-1. They are an extension of the estimates by industry of origin for West Malaysia of V.M Yeatts. Delhi. vol. Heinemann. pp. Per capita GDP in 1946 in undivided India was 622 in 1990 Geary–Khamis dollars. Population 1820–1913 supplied by Don Hoerr. Quarterly National Accounts. 1983. Bhanoji Rao. My estimates show a GDP growth rate for China about threequarters the official estimate and a GDP level about 70 per cent higher than in Japan (when converted by purchasing power parity rather than exchange rates). 2001. OECD. revised and updated 1990–2001 from OECD. pp. pp.. vol. Japan: GDP 1820–1990 from Maddison (2001). New estimates for West Malaysia. states. 645–70. See Xu Xianchun. 152 . Bangladesh and Pakistan for 1820–1946. Delhi. 1947–1971. Cambridge Economic History of India. etc. Population figures for 1932–46 were misplaced in Maddison (2001). Figures are for 1st October. Modern Asian Studies. 1950 to 1999. India: 1900–1990 real GDP and population from Siva Sivasubramonian. pp. 203 and have been corrected. Sabah and Sarawak) excluding Brunei and Singapore. 114-5. 1.). The present estimates refer to undivided India until 1946. The GDP and population estimates are centred on October 1st (the middle of the fiscal year). 1976. Population of Bangladesh and Pakistan for benchmark year 1941 from M. and 232. 566 in Bangladesh. 109. 2. The preliminary results for 1900– 1939 were presented by HRH Raja Nazrin at the International Economic History Congress in Buenos Aires. by type of expenditure. 624 in the Indian Union. in Kumar and Desai. 2000. p. eds. 202–3. annual movement 1884–99 from Alan Heston. the midpoint of the fiscal year.

p. 1970–90 from OECD National Accounts 1960–97.S. They are a substantially revised version of R. Yale. Kwon and Shin show a higher level than Suh. pp. 1990–2001 from OECD Quarterly National Accounts. 1820–1990. 1910–1940.R. vol. Sarkar. The Demography of Ceylon. 1999.linked to 1820-1910 population movement from Kwon and Shin (1977).Asia Philippines: GDP movement 1902–50 from unpublished estimates of Richard Hooley. Population of Korea. for the whole of Korea from T.. p. 1392–1910”. 22–4. He draws to some extent on the statistical appendix in D. vol. 2002/2.375 per cent of total population. 1820-1950 (000s) Korea South North 1820 13 740 9 395 4 345 1870 14 264 9 753 4 511 1910 14 766 10 096 4 670 1913 15 486 10 589 4 897 1925 19 020 13 005 6 014 1930 20 438 13 900 6 537 1935 22 280 15 020 7 187 1940 23 547 15 627 7 920 1944 25 133 16 574 8 558 1950 30 317 20 846 9 471 Source: 1910-44 total from Suh (1978). Thailand: GDP movement 1870–1951 from Maddison (2001). but there is substantial new research. I assumed this ratio applied for 1820–1924. and on N. with slight revision. Suh. 328 linked to 1910–44 level estimates of S. 205. Hitotsubashi University. 158–9. His GDP estimates are by industry of origin for 11 major sectors. were supplied by Pierre van der Eng. p. pp. GDP movement 1950–90 from the National Statistical Coordination Board. with considerable commodity detail for agriculture.–C.K. 1944–49 from UN Demographic Yearbook 1960. Growth and Structural Change in the Korean Economy. Hooley. 14. and a much more complete annual coverage. see Maddison (2001). Suh used the population censuses which began in 1925. Tong–a Munhwa. Ho. 1820–1910. p. 146. 1820–1949. Table 5-2. Sri Lanka: New annual estimates of population. 1953–70 from National Income in Korea 1975. 1977. Taiwan: GDP movement 1912–90 from expenditure estimates of Toshiyuki Mizoguchi. as the basis of his estimates. in 1925. Manila. 208 and 298. Suh. and GDP. but this should not affect their 1820-1910 growth rate. GDP movement from 1990 onwards from ADB. Illinois. 132 gives a breakdown of population in the North and South for 1925–44. North and South. 1978.–H. Ceylon: An Export Economy in Transition. updated from Asian Development Bank (ADB) Key Indicators. 1978. pp. For the overlap year. 1999. GDP movement 1911–53 from Maddison (1995). 1945–9 interpolated assuming equal percentage growth each year. 298–9. Shin. 41. p.W. Long Term Economic Statistics of Taiwan 1905–1990. 153 .P. Irwin. 328.H. pp. Kwon and Y. 1910. Colombo. South Korea: Population movement. 142–3. Bank of Korea. Key Indicators. p. Institute of Economic Research. significant revision. p. Harvard. Snodgrass. I assume that their upward adjustment was too big. “Long term Growth of the Philippine Economy 1902– 1961”. 1966. 142.1. 41. “On Population Estimates of the Yi Dynasty. The Philippine Economic Journal (1968). Paris. The latter estimates are an upward adjustment of the old household registers.1860–1970. South Korea had 68. the 1939–45 gap in these estimates was filled by Hsing’s figures as cited by S. Economic Development of Taiwan. pp. 1957.

Vanuatu. As the objective is to provide a picture for the world as a whole. Sri Lanka and Thailand. South Korea. I assumed the 1913–50 per capita GDP movement in Hong Kong was parallel to that in Singapore. For Hong Kong and Singapore I assumed 1870–1913 per capita GDP movement was proportionately the same as in Japan. and 0. there were eight gaps. it was necessary to fill gaps in the dataset by conjectures (see Table 5–3). 1820-1913 GDP (million international $) Burma HongKong 1820 1870 1 767 2 139 12 84 1913 GDP Per Capita (1990 int. 16 East Asian Countries: GDP Conjectures and Estimates. Nepal. Wallis and Futuna. 1870 and 1913. Palau. For 1870. Conjectures to Fill Gaps in the Estimates: There are no gaps for population for benchmark years 1820. Population from US Bureau of the Census (October 2002). Guam. Average per capita GDP movement for the other six countries was assumed to be parallel to that in Japan. and Western Samoa). 4 per cent in 1870. Philippines and Taiwan). 1/ 2002 wherever possible. but several countries for which GDP estimates are not available. Northern Mariana Islands. Solomon Islands. Micronesia. Burma. Table 5-3. Fiji. the proxy estimates represented 3. with consolidated figures for the other 14 (American Samoa. In the basic tables the proxy entries are shown in italics.6 per cent in 1913. there were two gaps. Malaysia. Other East Asian Countries GDP for 1950 onwards from Maddison (2001) updated from IMF. Revisions and updating for 6 of the small countries (Bhutan. Macao. there were nine gaps. Marshall Islands. Nepal. Per capita GDP in Burma and Nepal was assumed to have been stagnant between 1820 and 1870 as it was in India. Per capita GDP in Korea was taken to be the same as in China. Brunei. Pakistan. For 1820. $) 1820 1870 504 504 623 615 682 603 663 3 039 397 397 173 530 Nepal 1 541 1 865 Philippines 1 532 3 929 704 776 Malaysia Singapore South Korea Taiwan Thailand Total Conjectures 1913 Population (000) 1820 1870 3 506 4 245 1 279 20 123 287 800 539 3 881 4 698 2 176 5 063 18 57 615 682 30 84 5 637 5 891 600 604 9 395 9 753 998 1 290 499 550 2 000 2 345 3 014 14 693 646 15 785 3 661 567 1913 487 5 639 4 665 582 598 25 960 27 111 6 126 East Asia Sample 372 323 375 428 608 413 581 550 680 640 140 682 920 895 121 16 East Asia Total 387 016 391 213 612 074 581 551 679 666 100 710 031 901 247 For 1913. Kiribati.8 per cent of the total GDP of the 16 countries. For 1820. and Singapore: as indicated in Maddison (2001). in Nepal parallel to India. 154 . per capita GDP was assumed to move parallel to the average 1870–1913 for Indonesia. For the other six countries (Burma. Tonga.The World Economy: Historical Statistics Bangladesh. French Polynesia. World Economic Outlook. Maldives and Papua New Guinea) are shown in Table 5–4. Hong Kong. New Caledonia.

No estimates were available for the West Bank and Gaza where the assumed volume increase 1998/9 was the same as 1997–8. $) 1820 1870 1913 1820 1870 1913 1820 1870 1913 3 280 2 090 470 619 1 798 8 257 4 207 2 340 755 668 1 903 9 873 5 730 3 070 1 387 725 2 237 13 149 4 591 5 282 9 796 556 535 745 4 345 6 551 10 896 4 511 10 528 15 039 4 670 19 339 24 009 2 607 3 453 6 060 2 725 5 321 8 046 3 829 14 062 17 891 600 527 556 604 505 535 820 727 745 19 153 24 912 37 158 10 651 13 328 27 687 556 535 745 For 1820–1913. thereafter from IMF. where I used Maks Banens’ provisional estimate for 1913. 1820-1913 Population (000) Afghanistan Cambodia Laos Mongolia 20 Small Countries Total North Korea Vietnam North Korea+Vietnam Grand Total GDP (million international $) Per Capita GDP (1990 int. National Accounts Bulletin. (November. 26 East Asian Countries: Conjectures and Estimates for GDP. provisional estimates of Vietnamese GDP volume movement were supplied by Jean–Pascal Bassino. 2/2002. Population 1950 onwards from US Bureau of the Census (October 2002). I assumed the average per capita GDP. for the whole group was the same as the average for North Korea and Vietnam (see Table 5–5). with 1820–1913 population movement from McEvedy and Jones. 21. No. World Economic Outlook. 1950–2001 Population (000 at mid–year) GDP (million 1990 international dollars) 1950 1973 1990 2001 1950 1973 1990 2001 Bhutan Brunei Macao Maldives Total 4 Countries 734 45 205 79 1 063 1 111 145 259 126 1 641 1 598 258 352 216 2 424 2 049 344 454 311 3 158 369 224 127 43 763 645 1 156 735 107 2 641 1 407 1 663 3 078 497 6 645 2 511 2 030 4 935 993 10 469 Fiji Papua New Guinea 14 Other Pacific Islands 16 Pacific Islands Total 287 1 412 649 2 279 556 2 477 1 210 4 104 738 3 825 1 782 6 164 844 5 049 2 014 7 924 851 1 356 875 3 082 2 348 4 847 2 296 9 491 3 440 5 865 3 496 12 711 4 961 8 893 4 729 18 582 20 Small Countries 3 342 5 748 8 588 11 082 3 845 11 952 19 356 29 051 Table 5-5. and 20 per cent falls in 2001 and 2002. 155 . Population levels from McEvedy and Jones (1978). 1989–2000.Asia Table 5-4. North Korea was assumed to have the same per capita GDP as South Korea. Iran and Israel from IMF. 2002). with no change between 1999–2000. For other countries no GDP estimates were available. 1820– 1913. except for Vietnam. West Asian Countries GDP for 1950 onwards from Maddison (2001) updated for 1993–2002 for 11 countries from ESCWA. Beirut. Population and GDP in 20 Small East Asian Countries. Turkey 1991–2000 from OECD National Accounts. See Table 5–5.

1870 and 1913 population figures shown in Table 5–6 are from Colin McEvedy and Richard Jones. but production did not start until the inter–war period. otherwise derived from Sevket Pamuk (2001). 133-154. which I assumed valid for Lebanon as well. 156 . in the nineteenth century there was significant income from trade in the Persian Gulf. Population from McEvedy and Jones (1978) pp. pp. Table 5-6. Sevket Pamuk has recently made tentative estimates of per capita GDP for several countries which permit estimates for the region much better than those in Maddison (2001). Yemen was a major exporter of coffee. Penguin (1978). His estimate for Jordan was taken to be valid for Iraq and Iran.e. 210–215. Kuwait. pp. For the countries in Arabia no GDP estimates are available before the second world war. 1820-1913 GDP (million international $) Per Capita GDP (1990 int. The second group consists of five more prosperous countries (Iraq. i. $) 1820 Population (000) 1870 1913 1820 1870 1913 1820 1870 1913 Gulf Coast (a) Oman Saudi Arabia Yemen Total Arabia (a) 200 318 2 091 2 593 5 202 200 367 2 338 2 840 5 745 254 444 2 676 3 284 6 658 2 861 3 303 3 995 550 575 600 Iraq Jordan Palestine-Israel Syria Lebanon Total 5 countries 1 093 217 332 1 337 332 3 311 1 580 266 429 1 582 476 4 333 2 613 348 700 1 994 649 6 304 643 128 204 880 218 2 073 1 136 191 322 1 335 402 3 386 2 613 348 875 2 692 876 7 404 588 588 613 658 658 626 719 719 750 844 844 781 1 000 1 000 1 250 1 350 1 350 1 174 Iran Turkey 6 560 10 074 8 415 11 793 10 994 15 000 3 857 6 478 6 050 9 729 10 994 18 195 588 643 719 825 1 000 1 213 Grand Total 25 147 30 286 38 956 15 269 22 468 40 588 607 742 1 042 a) Source: Includes Bahrain. Turkish GDP as shown below.The World Economy: Historical Statistics Before the First World War. Oman controlled large trading territories on the East African littoral. Africa and Europe. I assumed a modest increase in per capita income from $550 to $600 between 1820 and 1913. I used his estimate for Palestine. Qatar and UAE. However. The other 11 million lived in Iran. GDP and Per Capita GDP. Pamuk provides per capita estimates for Syria. He linked them to the Maddison (2001) estimates for later years and used the same numeraire. Southern Arabia and the Red Sea coast. 133–154. as world trade expanded. Table 5–6 contains estimates for three groups of countries in the region. See Pamuk. Atlas of World Population History. They were derived from a variety of evidence in Ottoman archives and other research material on the region. Palestine. West Asian Population. European Historical Economics Society Conference. For this group. They have now been transformed by the discovery and development of oil resources. most of this area was part the Ottoman Empire. Oxford. Jordan. 1990 international Geary– Khamis dollars. September 2001. The 1820. It accounted for 28 million of the 1913 population. “Economic Growth in Southeastern Europe and the Middle East since 1820”. Syria and Lebanon) with an ancient history as sophisticated traders with East Asia.

1974.Asia For Turkey see Table 5–7. 219. p. Is Bank. His major source was V. Y. $) 1820 10 074 6 478 643 1870 11 793 9 729 825 1913 15 000 18 195 1 213 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 13 877 13 968 14 059 14 151 14 250 14 476 14 705 14 928 15 174 15 414 15 658 15 906 16 158 16 434 16 725 17 016 17 517 17 821 18 011 18 203 18 396 18 592 18 790 19 235 19 690 20 156 20 634 21 122 9 882 11 819 13 159 15 275 13 886 15 388 17 842 18 649 19 763 18 568 21 007 21 491 21 927 26 093 26 965 29 338 31 776 29 855 27 158 28 337 25 721 24 623 21 297 27 514 29 064 33 003 31 340 34 279 712 846 936 1 079 974 1 063 1 213 1 249 1 302 1 205 1 342 1 351 1 357 1 588 1 612 1 724 1 814 1 675 1 508 1 557 1 398 1 324 1 133 1 430 1 476 1 637 1 519 1 623 157 . 1820-1950 Population (000s) GDP (million 1990 int.S. Istanbul. GDP volume movement for 1948 onwards from OECD National Accounts. Tezel and N. Eldem. Yilderim. Turkish Population. GDP and Per Capita GDP. Ankara. Population is from McEvedy and Jones (1978). Table 5-7. with 1913 per capita GDP assumed to be the same as in 1929. Osmanli Imparatorlugunun Iktisadi sartlari Hakkinda Bir Tetkik (A Study of Economic Conditions in the Ottoman Empire). various issues. Bulutay. (1970). 1923–48 from T. $) Per Capita GDP (1990 int. I linked the 1913 level to the per capita volume movement for 1820–1913 shown in Pamuk (2001). Turkiye Milli Geliri 1923–48. The GDP benchmark for 1990 is from Maddison (2001).

GDP and Per Capita GDP. $) 1820 1870 1913 1820 1870 1913 16 East Asia 666 100 710 031 901 247 387 016 391 213 26 East Asia 19 153 24 912 37 158 10 651 15 West Asia 25 147 30 286 38 956 710 400 765 229 977 361 57 Asia Per Capita GDP (1990 int. Table 5-8.The World Economy: Historical Statistics Summary Totals for Asia. 1820–1913. $) 1820 1870 1913 612 074 581 551 679 13 328 27 687 556 535 745 15 269 22 468 40 588 607 742 1 042 412 936 427 009 680 349 581 558 696 158 . Total Asian Population. 1820-1913 Population (000s) GDP (million 1990 int. Estimates for 1700 and earlier years in Maddison (2001) are unchanged (see tables in HS–8). 1820–1913 Table 5–8 shows the regional components and the totals for the 57 Asian countries.

GDP L EVELS AND 159 P ER C APITA GDP IN A SIA .Asia P OPULATION .

The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 5a. Population of 16 East Asian Countries. 1820-1913 (000 at mid-year) China India Indonesia Japan 1820 381 000 209 000 17 927 31 000 2 176 9 395 4 665 2 000 1850 412 000 235 800 22 977 32 000 3 612 9 545 5 230 2 200 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 358 000 358 988 359 978 360 971 361 967 362 966 363 967 364 971 365 978 366 988 368 000 369 183 370 369 371 560 372 754 373 952 375 154 376 359 377 569 378 783 380 000 381 979 383 969 385 969 387 979 390 000 391 980 393 970 395 970 397 980 400 000 402 243 404 498 406 766 409 047 411 340 413 646 415 965 418 297 420 642 423 000 427 662 432 375 437 140 253 000 253 417 253 834 254 253 254 672 255 091 255 512 255 933 256 354 256 777 257 200 259 359 261 536 263 732 265 946 268 179 270 430 272 700 274 990 277 298 279 626 280 110 280 594 281 079 281 565 282 052 282 540 283 029 283 518 284 009 284 500 286 200 288 000 289 700 291 500 293 300 295 100 296 900 298 700 300 500 302 100 303 100 303 400 303 700 28 922 29 463 30 060 30 555 30 962 31 197 31 394 31 740 32 035 32 293 32 876 33 213 33 394 33 816 34 162 34 790 35 402 35 898 36 345 36 662 37 579 37 792 38 288 38 263 38 782 39 476 39 936 40 620 41 316 42 025 42 746 43 275 43 810 44 352 44 901 45 457 45 993 46 535 47 085 47 642 48 206 48 778 49 358 49 934 34 437 34 648 34 859 35 070 35 235 35 436 35 713 36 018 36 315 36 557 36 807 37 112 37 414 37 766 38 138 38 427 38 622 38 866 39 251 39 688 40 077 40 380 40 684 41 001 41 350 41 775 42 196 42 643 43 145 43 626 44 103 44 662 45 255 45 841 46 378 46 829 47 227 47 691 48 260 48 869 49 518 50 215 50 941 51 672 5 063 9 753 5 775 2 345 6 476 9 848 6 670 2 500 7 324 7 465 7 609 7 755 7 904 8 056 8 211 8 369 8 530 8 694 8 861 9 032 9 206 9 384 9 896 7 320 7 413 7 507 7 602 7 699 7 797 7 896 7 996 8 098 8 201 8 305 8 431 8 559 8 689 2 864 2 903 2 942 2 982 3 022 3 085 3 140 3 172 3 200 3 232 3 275 3 334 3 402 3 469 160 Philippines South Korea Thailand 10 096 10 258 10 422 10 589 Taiwan .

1820-1913 (000 at mid-year) Bangladesh Burma Hong Kong Malaysia Nepal Pakistan Singapore Sri Lanka 16 country Total 1820 3 506 20 287 3 881 30 1 213 666 100 1850 3 932 33 530 4 352 56 2 217 734 484 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 4 245 123 800 4 698 84 710 031 7 489 214 1 585 5 192 157 10 174 10 490 10 642 10 796 10 953 11 112 11 273 11 437 11 603 11 771 11 942 12 115 12 220 12 326 306 2 232 2 288 2 345 2 404 2 467 2 532 2 601 2 672 2 745 2 821 2 893 2 967 3 025 3 084 5 283 215 5 639 323 2 786 2 820 2 842 2 863 2 885 2 908 2 930 2 952 2 975 2 998 3 021 3 044 3 073 3 107 3 144 3 170 3 194 3 221 3 261 3 311 3 343 3 404 3 470 3 524 3 584 3 626 3 693 3 752 3 820 3 874 3 912 4 031 4 071 4 156 4 233 4 383 4 458 4 467 4 520 4 585 4 668 4 757 4 784 4 811 487 161 780 756 804 251 901 247 . Population of 16 East Asian Countries.Asia Table 5a.

1914-1949 (000 at mid-year) China 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 441 958 446 829 451 753 456 732 461 766 466 855 472 000 473 673 475 352 477 037 478 728 480 425 482 128 483 837 485 552 487 273 489 000 492 640 496 307 500 000 502 639 505 292 507 959 510 640 513 336 516 046 518 770 521 508 524 261 527 028 529 810 532 607 535 418 538 244 541 085 543 941 India 304 000 304 200 304 500 304 800 305 100 305 300 305 600 307 300 310 400 313 600 316 700 319 900 323 200 326 400 329 700 333 100 336 400 341 000 345 800 350 700 355 600 360 600 365 700 370 900 376 100 381 400 386 800 391 700 396 300 400 900 405 600 410 400 415 200 346 000 350 000 355 000 Indonesia Japan 50 517 51 108 51 705 52 083 52 334 53 027 53 723 54 367 55 020 55 683 56 354 57 036 57 727 58 429 59 140 59 863 60 596 61 496 62 400 63 314 64 246 65 192 66 154 67 136 68 131 69 145 70 175 71 316 72 475 73 314 73 565 73 332 74 132 75 146 76 289 77 654 52 396 53 124 53 815 54 437 54 886 55 253 55 818 56 490 57 209 57 937 58 686 59 522 60 490 61 430 62 361 63 244 64 203 65 205 66 189 67 182 68 090 69 238 70 171 71 278 71 879 72 364 72 967 74 005 75 029 76 005 77 178 76 224 77 199 78 119 80 155 81 971 162 Philippines 9 565 9 749 9 937 10 128 10 323 10 522 10 725 10 932 11 143 11 358 11 577 11 800 12 026 12 305 12 543 12 890 13 194 13 507 13 829 14 158 14 497 14 843 15 199 15 563 15 934 16 275 16 585 16 902 17 169 17 552 17 887 18 228 18 775 19 338 19 918 20 516 South Korea 10 764 10 911 11 086 11 263 11 443 11 627 11 804 12 040 12 281 12 526 12 777 13 005 13 179 13 356 13 535 13 716 13 900 14 117 14 338 14 562 14 789 15 020 15 139 15 260 15 381 15 504 15 627 15 859 16 094 16 332 16 574 17 917 19 369 19 886 20 027 20 208 Thailand 8 822 8 957 9 094 9 232 9 418 9 608 9 802 10 000 10 202 10 435 10 673 10 916 11 165 11 419 11 734 12 058 12 392 12 735 13 087 13 399 13 718 14 045 14 379 14 721 14 980 15 244 15 513 15 787 16 060 16 462 16 868 17 284 17 710 18 148 18 569 19 000 Taiwan 3 528 3 562 3 583 3 621 3 658 3 692 3 736 3 797 3 870 3 940 4 009 4 095 4 195 4 289 4 388 4 493 4 614 4 742 4 867 4 995 5 128 5 255 5 384 5 530 5 678 5 821 5 987 6 163 6 339 6 507 6 520 6 533 6 546 6 346 6 697 7 280 . Population of 16 East Asian Countries.The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 5a.

Asia Table 5a. 1914-1949 (000 at mid-year) Bangladesh 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 Burma 12 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 16 16 17 17 17 17 17 18 433 541 650 760 871 893 096 212 351 491 633 776 921 067 215 364 515 667 870 075 283 494 708 925 145 368 594 824 727 908 090 272 454 636 818 000 Hong Kong Malaysia 507 528 550 573 597 622 648 625 638 668 696 725 710 725 753 785 821 840 901 923 944 966 988 1 282 1 479 1 750 1 786 1 639 1 1 1 1 550 750 800 857 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 Nepal 144 207 271 337 404 473 545 618 698 779 863 949 038 128 221 316 413 513 604 697 793 890 993 099 207 317 434 554 592 630 668 707 746 786 922 061 Pakistan Singapore 331 341 351 360 370 380 391 418 436 458 469 492 511 532 553 575 596 563 580 515 525 572 603 651 710 728 751 769 938 961 979 163 Sri Lanka 16 country Total 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 838 905 971 040 109 179 250 304 367 426 452 505 545 591 730 669 707 748 788 825 872 897 943 989 045 095 134 169 191 296 442 650 854 037 244 455 . Population of 16 East Asian Countries.

Population of 16 East Asian Countries. 1950-2003 (000 at mid-year) China 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 546 557 568 581 595 608 621 637 653 666 667 660 665 682 698 715 735 754 774 796 818 841 862 881 900 916 930 943 956 969 981 993 000 023 036 051 066 084 101 118 135 150 164 178 191 204 217 230 242 252 264 275 815 480 910 390 310 655 465 408 235 005 070 330 770 335 355 185 400 550 510 025 315 105 030 940 350 395 685 455 165 005 235 861 281 288 825 040 790 035 630 650 185 780 970 440 835 855 550 075 700 704 093 392 India 359 365 372 379 386 393 401 409 418 426 434 444 454 464 474 485 495 506 518 529 541 554 567 580 593 607 620 634 648 664 679 692 708 723 739 755 771 788 805 822 839 856 872 891 908 927 943 959 975 991 1 007 1 023 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 691 702 590 Indonesia 79 80 82 83 85 86 88 90 91 93 95 97 99 101 103 105 107 109 111 113 116 118 121 124 127 130 133 137 140 143 147 150 153 157 160 164 166 169 172 176 179 182 185 188 191 194 198 201 204 207 210 214 043 525 052 611 196 807 456 124 821 565 254 085 028 009 031 093 197 343 532 765 044 368 282 271 338 485 713 026 425 912 490 657 894 204 588 047 976 959 999 094 248 223 259 359 524 755 025 350 390 429 875 303 Japan 83 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 103 104 105 107 108 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 120 121 122 122 123 123 123 124 124 125 125 125 125 126 126 126 126 127 127 164 805 164 459 655 754 815 766 563 389 297 092 943 832 812 826 883 790 825 961 172 345 697 188 707 162 573 775 872 913 890 807 648 455 270 035 754 492 091 613 108 537 946 329 668 014 341 645 956 246 494 700 892 066 214 Philippines South Korea Thailand 21 21 22 23 23 24 25 26 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 43 44 45 46 48 49 50 52 53 54 55 57 58 60 61 62 64 65 67 68 70 71 73 75 76 78 79 81 82 84 131 775 439 122 827 553 301 072 867 685 529 410 325 273 254 268 304 357 424 507 604 718 850 998 162 337 574 851 172 537 940 195 457 698 964 288 649 018 385 814 318 789 186 611 112 717 386 013 576 134 740 370 995 620 20 20 20 21 21 21 22 22 23 23 24 25 26 27 27 28 29 30 30 31 32 32 33 34 34 35 35 36 37 37 38 38 39 39 40 40 41 41 42 42 42 43 43 44 44 45 45 46 46 46 47 47 47 48 846 876 948 060 259 552 031 612 254 981 784 614 420 211 984 705 436 131 838 544 241 883 505 073 692 281 860 436 019 534 124 723 326 910 406 806 214 622 031 449 869 313 795 279 758 236 695 131 535 903 261 619 963 289 20 20 21 21 22 23 24 25 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 47 48 49 50 51 52 52 53 54 55 55 56 57 58 58 59 60 61 61 62 63 63 64 042 653 289 964 685 451 244 042 845 667 513 376 263 174 107 062 036 024 028 050 091 202 276 302 306 272 221 148 057 004 026 941 837 709 553 367 160 946 725 493 250 982 718 449 173 894 608 311 003 684 352 007 645 265 Taiwan 7 8 8 8 9 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 11 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 14 14 15 15 15 16 16 16 17 17 17 18 18 18 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 21 21 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 981 251 550 850 160 486 825 164 500 853 209 563 919 277 631 978 321 649 962 282 598 918 226 526 824 122 450 785 112 450 848 177 501 803 083 337 556 758 976 208 279 493 687 883 088 283 449 629 823 993 151 304 454 603 .The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 5a.

Asia Table 5a. 1950-2003 (000 at mid-year) Bangladesh 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 45 46 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 58 59 60 61 62 64 65 67 69 70 72 74 76 77 80 82 85 88 90 93 95 97 99 101 103 105 107 109 111 113 115 117 119 121 123 125 127 130 132 135 138 646 152 887 660 603 602 478 365 399 485 622 741 839 226 403 332 548 822 133 483 403 227 759 471 679 253 928 428 936 492 077 666 074 384 612 753 769 764 771 807 897 936 705 448 280 186 189 315 573 943 407 975 657 448 Burma 19 19 20 20 20 21 21 21 22 22 22 23 23 24 24 24 25 25 26 26 27 27 28 29 29 30 30 31 32 32 33 33 34 35 35 36 36 37 37 38 38 38 39 39 39 40 40 40 41 41 41 42 42 42 488 788 093 403 721 049 385 732 088 456 836 229 634 053 486 933 394 870 362 867 386 919 466 227 799 357 929 514 024 611 283 884 490 103 699 257 783 277 735 152 526 855 073 336 750 166 539 876 193 491 772 035 282 511 Hong Kong 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 237 015 126 242 365 490 615 736 854 967 075 168 305 421 505 598 630 723 803 864 959 045 116 213 320 396 518 584 668 930 063 183 265 345 398 456 525 585 628 661 688 752 834 944 083 247 420 607 813 992 116 211 303 394 Malaysia 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 14 14 15 15 15 16 16 17 17 17 18 18 19 19 20 20 20 21 21 22 22 23 434 582 748 929 118 312 520 739 966 196 428 663 906 148 397 648 900 155 409 662 910 171 441 712 986 267 554 845 139 444 764 097 442 793 157 545 941 332 729 118 504 906 320 748 180 611 045 476 912 354 793 229 662 093 Nepal 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 14 15 15 15 16 16 17 17 17 18 18 19 19 20 20 21 21 22 23 23 24 24 25 25 26 990 086 183 280 379 479 580 682 789 906 035 176 332 500 677 862 057 262 473 692 919 155 413 685 973 278 599 933 280 641 016 403 796 200 613 038 472 917 374 843 325 819 326 846 373 907 450 001 560 127 702 284 874 470 165 Pakistan 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 49 50 51 53 54 55 57 59 60 62 63 65 67 69 71 72 74 76 78 80 82 85 88 91 93 96 99 101 104 107 110 113 117 118 121 123 126 129 132 135 138 141 144 147 150 448 382 347 342 372 434 536 680 869 104 387 719 101 524 988 495 046 642 282 970 706 491 326 121 912 712 456 153 051 374 219 417 257 720 284 053 955 893 863 883 975 001 975 009 858 630 538 485 471 496 554 617 663 695 Singapore 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 022 068 127 192 248 306 372 446 519 587 646 702 750 795 842 887 934 978 012 043 075 113 152 193 230 263 293 325 354 384 414 533 647 681 732 736 733 775 846 931 016 097 179 268 367 481 610 741 871 008 152 300 453 609 Sri Lanka 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 16 17 17 17 17 18 18 18 18 18 19 19 19 19 19 533 752 982 221 457 679 898 129 362 610 879 152 422 687 942 202 470 737 010 275 532 776 017 246 450 660 887 117 371 649 900 152 410 618 810 021 256 495 735 971 193 391 587 826 075 304 510 699 885 065 239 409 577 742 16 country Total 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 269 292 318 344 373 401 430 462 495 525 543 555 580 617 653 691 731 772 814 858 904 951 998 043 088 130 170 210 250 293 336 376 413 464 507 551 596 643 691 738 784 830 871 916 959 004 046 088 130 175 211 252 461 551 140 923 454 669 473 494 757 365 360 872 848 447 429 130 464 067 741 201 127 789 048 683 182 651 444 473 684 856 207 537 132 726 760 498 270 467 040 182 811 283 942 114 469 613 659 664 552 945 608 537 . Population of 16 East Asian Countries.

1950-2003 (000 at mid-year) Bahrain 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 115 118 120 123 127 130 134 139 144 150 157 164 172 179 186 191 197 202 208 214 220 225 231 239 248 259 274 297 323 336 348 363 378 393 408 424 440 455 469 485 500 515 529 544 558 573 586 599 611 623 634 645 656 667 Iran 16 16 17 17 18 18 19 19 20 20 21 22 22 23 24 25 25 26 27 28 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 39 41 43 44 46 48 50 51 53 55 57 59 60 61 61 61 62 63 64 65 66 66 67 68 357 809 272 742 226 729 249 792 362 958 577 214 874 554 264 000 764 538 321 119 933 763 614 491 412 379 381 473 634 963 548 270 016 764 542 344 162 983 650 355 551 590 800 001 133 925 768 655 487 240 006 791 538 279 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 14 14 15 15 16 16 17 17 18 17 17 18 18 19 20 20 21 22 22 23 24 24 Iraq Israel 163 300 442 589 743 903 073 249 433 625 822 026 240 468 711 971 240 519 808 106 414 732 062 402 754 118 494 883 317 768 233 703 173 652 161 694 247 543 038 568 135 472 862 405 970 557 162 776 398 031 676 332 002 683 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 286 490 621 667 712 772 850 944 025 082 141 217 311 407 498 578 641 694 747 817 903 997 096 197 286 354 424 496 570 653 737 801 858 927 005 075 137 203 272 344 512 756 937 062 185 305 420 531 639 743 842 938 030 117 166 Jordan Kuwait 561 584 608 633 659 687 716 747 779 813 849 887 934 975 017 061 107 255 383 454 503 556 614 674 738 803 870 938 007 077 163 254 347 440 533 628 724 820 917 019 262 631 867 984 082 202 364 526 686 843 999 153 307 460 145 152 160 168 177 187 197 213 235 262 292 325 358 394 433 476 523 575 632 690 748 793 842 894 948 007 072 140 214 292 370 432 497 566 637 733 811 891 973 057 142 954 418 484 551 621 693 765 836 905 974 042 112 183 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 Lebanon 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 364 401 440 479 519 561 604 647 692 739 786 836 887 940 996 058 122 187 254 320 383 529 680 825 988 098 119 116 109 099 086 081 087 090 090 088 087 089 096 107 147 193 220 252 291 335 382 430 479 529 578 628 678 728 Oman Qatar 489 498 508 517 528 539 550 562 573 586 599 614 628 645 662 679 697 715 735 756 779 803 829 857 884 913 956 005 059 116 175 238 301 363 424 482 538 594 652 712 773 843 915 989 059 131 206 284 364 447 533 622 713 807 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 49 53 58 64 70 77 85 94 103 113 122 132 142 153 165 177 189 202 216 231 242 252 284 315 345 375 402 430 457 481 505 529 557 585 613 641 667 694 719 744 769 793 817 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 .The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 5a. Population of 15 West Asian Countries.

Population of 15 West Asian Countries.Asia Table 5a. 1950-2003 (000 at mid-year) Saudi Arabia 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 11 11 12 13 13 14 15 15 15 16 16 17 17 18 19 19 20 21 22 22 23 24 860 932 006 082 160 243 329 420 514 614 718 828 943 065 192 327 469 618 775 939 109 287 473 667 868 199 608 108 680 307 949 565 179 822 502 208 858 461 055 631 847 075 692 324 970 632 290 946 620 311 024 757 513 294 Syria 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 14 15 15 15 16 16 17 17 495 577 662 750 842 938 041 150 268 395 533 681 835 993 157 326 500 681 867 059 258 479 701 931 169 416 670 933 203 484 774 073 410 757 114 481 857 243 632 018 436 849 219 579 939 310 691 081 481 889 306 729 156 586 Turkey UAE Yemen 21 21 22 22 23 24 24 25 26 27 28 29 29 30 31 31 32 33 34 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 63 64 65 66 67 68 72 73 75 77 80 83 86 89 93 98 103 109 116 124 133 144 157 172 191 218 249 288 336 391 453 523 598 684 779 884 000 100 204 316 438 570 714 778 839 897 951 002 049 093 136 176 216 254 293 331 369 407 446 485 4 777 4 869 4 964 5 061 5 162 5 265 5 380 5 498 5 619 5 744 5 872 5 994 6 120 6 248 6 378 6 510 6 625 6 741 6 859 6 978 7 098 7 251 7 407 7 580 7 755 7 934 8 171 8 404 8 641 8 883 9 133 9 390 9 658 9 936 10 229 10 540 10 870 11 219 11 591 11 986 12 416 12 882 13 368 13 886 14 395 14 859 15 327 15 826 16 352 16 905 17 479 18 078 18 701 19 350 122 669 236 831 464 145 877 671 506 356 217 030 789 509 227 951 678 411 165 952 758 580 493 503 513 530 485 404 317 223 121 222 329 440 554 669 780 881 966 031 085 135 179 213 221 189 128 048 946 820 667 494 309 109 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 167 West Bank and Gaza 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 017 022 031 040 049 054 061 070 078 101 113 110 133 156 182 211 236 143 000 006 032 060 090 124 167 201 228 261 296 330 360 389 426 475 525 576 630 691 758 821 897 997 105 216 346 502 666 826 932 041 152 269 390 512 Total 59 61 63 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 81 83 85 88 90 93 95 98 100 103 106 109 112 116 119 123 127 131 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 171 176 181 186 192 195 200 204 208 212 217 222 226 231 235 240 245 250 847 522 172 792 482 271 184 230 361 563 825 083 392 716 101 554 033 535 038 731 500 467 598 918 336 899 525 330 349 631 226 126 116 225 477 856 230 255 339 488 136 399 689 589 421 929 539 216 816 376 983 655 344 077 .

Population of 26 East Asian Countries. 1950-2003 (000 at mid-year) Afghanistan 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 14 14 15 15 14 14 13 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 14 16 18 20 21 22 23 24 24 25 26 27 28 150 284 425 573 728 891 062 241 429 625 829 043 267 501 744 998 262 538 825 123 431 749 079 421 772 132 501 880 269 556 985 087 645 709 826 898 936 071 326 635 750 939 589 840 319 489 429 234 065 961 889 813 756 717 Cambodia 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 13 163 266 371 478 589 702 827 956 088 224 364 511 761 914 071 232 396 565 738 917 984 011 110 205 294 188 915 679 472 436 586 801 064 347 535 695 965 277 599 930 271 622 068 569 950 240 510 754 982 208 433 660 890 125 Laos 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 886 921 957 995 035 077 121 166 213 261 309 359 409 460 512 565 619 674 730 787 845 904 964 027 092 161 176 208 248 268 293 337 411 495 577 657 762 869 980 094 210 331 454 581 712 846 971 099 229 362 498 636 778 922 Mongolia 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 779 789 801 814 828 844 862 882 904 929 955 982 010 031 061 090 119 150 181 214 248 283 321 360 403 446 487 528 572 617 662 709 756 805 856 908 961 015 071 159 216 268 313 349 383 421 459 495 531 566 601 637 674 712 168 North Korea 9 9 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 13 14 14 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 17 17 17 17 18 18 18 19 19 19 20 20 20 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 22 22 471 162 865 580 572 839 116 411 727 054 392 651 917 210 528 869 232 617 024 455 912 365 781 161 501 801 069 325 580 840 114 384 648 918 196 481 772 068 371 688 019 361 711 064 340 562 649 585 455 445 648 940 215 466 Vietnam 25 25 26 26 27 27 28 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 57 58 59 61 62 63 65 66 68 69 70 71 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 348 794 247 724 210 738 327 999 775 683 656 701 796 932 099 258 378 464 512 542 577 614 655 736 902 075 273 534 663 668 661 792 972 204 466 730 006 320 630 206 637 008 321 633 935 172 341 448 487 497 518 544 577 625 20 small countries 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 342 401 461 530 599 675 755 833 922 013 106 205 315 434 547 670 799 923 055 186 332 483 617 748 866 999 131 270 417 571 733 893 060 240 425 608 796 986 177 378 588 798 014 233 453 676 901 131 365 602 841 082 326 571 26 country Total 53 53 54 54 55 56 58 59 61 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 81 83 85 87 89 91 93 95 97 99 101 102 104 105 106 108 110 112 115 117 120 123 125 128 132 137 141 144 147 149 152 154 157 160 163 166 139 617 127 695 561 766 070 488 059 788 612 453 476 482 562 683 807 930 065 223 327 410 528 658 831 802 553 425 220 956 034 002 556 718 880 977 199 606 153 090 692 326 470 270 091 406 260 745 113 640 426 312 217 138 .The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 5a.

Asia Table 5a. Population of 57 Asian Countries. 1820-2001 (000 at mid-year) 16 East Asia 26 East Asia 15 West Asia Total 57 Asia 1820 666 100 19 153 25 147 710 400 1870 710 031 24 912 30 286 765 229 1900 804 251 32 972 36 101 873 324 1913 901 247 37 158 38 956 977 361 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 1 269 461 1 292 551 1 318 140 1 344 923 1 373 454 1 401 669 1 430 473 1 462 494 1 495 757 1 525 365 1 543 360 1 555 872 1 580 848 1 617 447 1 653 429 1 691 130 1 731 464 1 772 067 1 814 741 1 858 201 1 904 127 1 951 789 1 998 048 2 043 683 2 088 182 2 130 651 2 170 444 2 210 473 2 250 684 2 293 856 2 336 207 2 376 537 2 413 132 2 464 726 2 507 760 2 551 498 2 596 270 2 643 467 2 691 040 2 738 182 2 784 811 2 830 283 2 871 942 2 916 114 2 959 469 3 004 613 3 046 659 3 088 664 3 130 552 3 175 945 3 211 608 3 252 537 53 139 53 617 54 127 54 695 55 561 56 766 58 070 59 488 61 059 62 788 64 612 66 453 68 476 70 482 72 562 74 683 76 807 78 930 81 065 83 223 85 327 87 410 89 528 91 658 93 831 95 802 97 553 99 425 101 220 102 956 104 034 105 002 106 556 108 718 110 880 112 977 115 199 117 606 120 153 123 090 125 692 128 326 132 470 137 270 141 091 144 406 147 260 149 745 152 113 154 640 157 426 160 312 59 847 61 522 63 172 64 792 66 482 68 271 70 184 72 230 74 361 76 563 78 825 81 083 83 392 85 716 88 101 90 554 93 033 95 535 98 038 100 731 103 500 106 467 109 598 112 918 116 336 119 899 123 525 127 330 131 349 135 631 140 226 145 126 150 116 155 225 160 477 165 856 171 230 176 255 181 339 186 488 192 136 195 399 200 689 204 589 208 421 212 929 217 539 222 216 226 816 231 376 235 983 240 655 1 382 447 1 407 689 1 435 439 1 464 409 1 495 497 1 526 707 1 558 727 1 594 212 1 631 177 1 664 717 1 686 796 1 703 409 1 732 716 1 773 645 1 814 092 1 856 366 1 901 303 1 946 533 1 993 844 2 042 155 2 092 954 2 145 665 2 197 174 2 248 260 2 298 349 2 346 352 2 391 522 2 437 228 2 483 253 2 532 444 2 580 468 2 626 665 2 669 803 2 728 669 2 779 117 2 830 331 2 882 699 2 937 328 2 992 532 3 047 760 3 102 638 3 154 008 3 205 102 3 257 972 3 308 981 3 361 948 3 411 457 3 460 624 3 509 481 3 561 961 3 605 017 3 653 504 169 .

The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 5b. 1820-1913 (million 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) China 1820 228 600 1850 247 200 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 189 740 205 304 218 074 241 344 India Indonesia Japan 111 417 10 970 20 739 1 532 134 882 18 929 19 021 19 158 19 660 20 162 20 481 21 028 21 302 21 028 21 439 21 758 23 218 22 443 22 214 24 495 24 815 24 678 24 951 25 179 25 316 24 815 25 362 26 411 27 187 27 643 28 281 28 099 28 509 28 874 30 608 31 748 31 352 30 904 32 637 33 314 33 823 34 869 35 698 35 800 37 659 40 180 42 442 42 818 45 152 25 393 25 709 26 005 26 338 26 644 28 698 28 019 28 910 28 825 30 540 31 779 30 777 31 584 31 618 31 872 33 052 35 395 36 982 35 310 37 016 40 556 38 621 41 200 41 344 46 288 46 933 44 353 45 285 53 883 49 870 52 020 53 883 51 089 54 671 55 101 54 170 61 263 63 198 63 628 63 556 64 559 68 070 70 507 71 653 3 929 146 409 151 985 148 134 155 899 158 358 155 063 163 341 148 317 160 224 164 280 166 799 162 696 150 699 178 236 178 599 164 690 170 466 173 957 188 504 191 141 192 060 188 587 193 979 182 234 184 844 210 241 210 439 209 354 208 946 204 242 170 Philippines South Korea Thailand Taiwan 5 637 3 014 998 5 891 4 112 1 290 5 229 5 320 6 450 5 979 5 979 6 322 6 648 6 834 6 944 7 984 8 539 8 969 9 877 7 966 8 148 8 678 7 304 2 456 2 591 . GDP Levels in 16 East Asian Countries.

GDP Levels in 16 East Asian Countries. 1820-1913 (million 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) Bangladesh 1820 Burma 1 767 Hong Kong Malaysia 12 173 Nepal 1 541 Pakistan Singapore Sri Lanka 16 country Total 18 1850 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 597 387 016 1 250 2 139 84 530 1 865 57 7 332 6 385 7 348 8 445 623 2 376 2 486 2 776 3 039 171 413 2 372 2 332 2 230 2 257 2 235 2 270 2 311 2 341 2 135 2 307 2 509 2 699 2 874 2 925 2 844 2 670 2 588 3 044 3 004 2 985 3 494 3 529 3 651 3 709 3 739 3 934 4 018 4 221 4 461 4 779 5 048 4 804 4 785 5 093 5 144 5 167 5 307 5 509 5 520 5 286 5 639 5 519 5 533 5 938 391 213 500 686 612 075 .Asia Table 5b.

GDP Levels in 16 East Asian Countries. 1914-1949 (million 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) China 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 273 991 277 467 280 292 289 200 289 200 263 996 285 300 303 324 295 937 288 549 India 215 400 210 110 216 245 212 341 185 202 210 730 194 051 208 785 217 594 210 511 220 763 223 375 230 410 230 426 232 745 242 409 244 097 242 489 245 209 245 433 247 712 245 361 254 896 250 768 251 375 256 924 265 455 270 531 269 278 279 898 276 954 272 503 258 164 213 680 215 927 221 631 Indonesia 45 076 45 647 46 350 46 513 47 597 51 402 50 779 51 212 52 033 52 858 55 683 57 610 60 781 64 989 68 099 70 015 70 525 65 218 64 461 64 035 64 400 66 674 71 517 78 485 80 044 80 861 86 682 89 316 61 872 Japan 69 503 75 952 87 703 90 641 91 573 100 959 94 654 105 043 104 757 104 828 107 766 112 209 113 212 114 860 124 246 128 116 118 801 119 804 129 835 142 589 142 876 146 817 157 493 165 017 176 051 203 781 209 728 212 594 211 448 214 457 205 214 102 607 111 492 120 377 138 290 147 534 172 Philippines South Korea 9 713 9 017 10 332 11 924 13 649 13 400 13 826 16 361 17 170 17 732 18 483 19 363 19 478 19 481 21 154 20 628 21 567 18 730 21 373 23 335 24 252 26 130 26 326 12 131 16 922 19 772 21 022 9 276 10 535 10 743 11 498 12 435 12 201 11 914 12 654 12 496 12 904 13 095 13 216 13 685 14 500 14 171 13 902 14 179 13 980 14 570 16 670 16 488 18 648 19 915 22 614 22 440 20 115 22 536 22 848 22 718 23 048 22 050 11 029 11 984 12 886 13 867 14 917 Thailand 9 568 12 380 Taiwan 2 634 2 725 3 449 3 826 3 384 3 624 3 581 3 316 3 793 4 046 4 110 4 502 4 314 4 337 5 315 5 149 5 073 5 055 5 747 5 288 5 677 6 807 6 639 6 986 7 395 8 094 8 064 8 871 9 524 6 492 4 459 4 849 5 274 5 736 6 238 6 784 .The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 5b.

GDP Levels in 16 East Asian Countries.Asia Table 5b. 1914-1949 (million 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) Bangladesh 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 Burma 10 405 9 392 11 326 13 235 13 167 11 942 25 197 23 266 Hong Kong Malaysia Nepal Pakistan 2 893 3 007 3 258 3 449 3 300 4 020 3 936 3 889 4 259 4 194 4 095 4 743 5 316 5 165 5 865 7 261 7 219 6 988 6 431 6 762 7 380 6 672 7 380 6 672 7 089 8 557 6 945 6 878 9 354 6 186 7 017 9 277 23 477 23 764 173 Singapore Sri Lanka 16 country Total 5 853 5 574 5 829 6 137 5 658 6 041 5 733 5 617 5 831 5 782 6 148 6 534 7 022 7 053 7 202 7 571 7 220 6 914 6 604 6 699 7 397 6 982 6 981 7 466 7 407 7 230 7 673 7 875 8 189 8 085 7 437 7 420 7 199 7 554 8 397 8 939 .

The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 5b. 1950-2001 (million 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) China 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 239 903 267 228 305 742 321 919 332 326 350 115 384 842 406 222 452 654 464 006 448 727 368 021 368 032 403 732 452 558 505 099 553 676 536 987 525 204 574 669 640 949 671 780 691 449 740 048 752 734 800 876 793 092 844 157 935 884 1 007 734 1 046 781 1 096 587 1 192 494 1 294 304 1 447 661 1 599 201 1 703 671 1 849 563 2 000 236 2 044 100 2 109 400 2 232 306 2 444 569 2 683 336 2 950 104 3 196 343 3 433 255 3 657 242 3 873 352 4 082 513 4 329 913 4 569 790 India 222 222 227 362 234 148 248 963 259 262 265 527 280 978 277 924 299 137 305 499 326 910 336 744 344 204 361 442 389 262 373 814 377 207 408 349 418 907 446 872 469 584 474 338 472 766 494 832 500 146 544 683 551 402 593 834 625 695 594 510 637 202 675 882 697 705 753 942 783 042 814 344 848 990 886 154 978 822 1 043 912 1 098 100 1 112 340 1 169 301 1 238 272 1 328 047 1 425 623 1 537 439 1 610 621 1 716 369 1 825 709 1 924 297 2 003 193 Indonesia 66 358 71 304 74 679 78 394 83 283 85 571 86 700 92 631 89 293 93 129 97 082 103 446 103 332 99 371 103 043 104 070 104 089 101 739 111 662 125 408 138 612 146 200 162 748 186 900 196 374 196 374 213 675 230 338 240 853 253 961 275 805 294 768 283 922 295 296 315 677 323 451 342 452 359 323 379 917 414 090 450 901 473 680 524 482 560 544 602 585 651 997 704 156 735 844 639 448 644 564 675 503 697 794 Japan 160 966 181 025 202 005 216 889 229 151 248 855 267 567 287 130 303 857 331 570 375 090 420 246 457 742 496 514 554 449 586 744 649 189 721 132 813 984 915 556 1 013 602 1 061 230 1 150 516 1 242 932 1 227 706 1 265 661 1 315 966 1 373 741 1 446 165 1 525 477 1 568 457 1 618 185 1 667 653 1 706 380 1 773 223 1 851 315 1 904 918 1 984 142 2 107 060 2 208 858 2 321 153 2 393 300 2 415 691 2 425 642 2 450 521 2 487 838 2 574 912 2 619 694 2 592 327 2 609 742 2 669 450 2 624 523 174 Philippines South Korea Thailand Taiwan 22 616 25 054 26 609 28 988 31 168 33 331 35 670 37 599 38 900 41 548 42 114 44 480 46 603 49 893 51 613 54 331 56 736 59 756 62 712 65 632 68 102 71 799 75 710 82 464 85 398 90 150 98 090 103 585 108 942 115 086 121 012 125 154 129 648 132 115 122 440 113 493 117 371 122 432 130 699 138 809 143 025 142 191 142 668 145 704 152 115 159 264 168 507 177 264 176 200 182 191 190 207 196 294 16 375 17 532 18 503 20 542 20 381 22 162 22 540 22 792 23 616 26 457 29 665 31 210 33 636 36 360 38 841 41 933 46 654 50 552 54 695 58 980 62 842 65 886 68 666 75 511 78 894 82 799 90 391 99 304 109 112 114 828 120 116 127 211 134 020 141 504 149 644 156 598 165 264 180 996 205 047 230 043 255 732 277 618 300 059 325 215 354 484 387 097 409 936 404 197 361 756 377 673 395 046 402 157 7 378 8 179 9 093 10 092 10 927 11 853 12 481 13 360 14 510 15 871 16 725 17 931 19 453 22 150 24 971 26 688 29 378 32 688 35 447 38 651 43 509 49 591 57 358 63 519 62 384 63 818 75 108 84 267 94 833 101 759 104 753 113 222 119 254 132 294 148 650 156 878 177 721 190 493 192 229 195 311 200 477 215 622 230 203 244 747 262 124 278 900 295 913 315 739 330 263 348 097 368 635 361 631 16 045 14 810 15 772 20 345 21 539 22 708 22 815 24 575 25 863 26 865 27 398 28 782 29 654 32 268 35 054 37 166 41 641 44 670 50 371 58 007 62 988 82 932 85 811 96 794 104 605 111 548 124 664 137 531 150 442 161 172 156 846 166 581 179 220 199 828 217 167 231 386 258 122 287 854 320 301 340 751 373 150 407 899 429 817 453 340 490 762 534 599 570 952 599 285 559 190 620 135 677 871 698 721 . GDP Levels in 16 East Asian Countries.

GDP Levels in 16 East Asian Countries. 1950-2001 (million 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) Bangladesh 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 24 628 24 974 25 706 26 072 26 581 25 177 27 821 27 231 26 702 28 126 29 733 31 421 31 258 34 573 34 939 36 647 37 115 36 302 39 678 40 227 42 403 40 552 35 732 35 997 40 817 40 308 42 098 42 525 45 657 47 846 48 239 49 877 50 487 52 961 55 833 57 519 60 011 62 521 64 329 65 948 70 320 72 629 76 245 79 722 83 309 87 308 91 674 96 532 102 324 107 850 113 890 119 242 Burma 7 711 8 834 9 028 9 265 8 690 9 822 10 472 11 089 10 785 12 457 12 871 13 183 14 332 14 737 14 999 15 379 14 737 15 151 16 148 16 815 17 575 18 149 18 284 18 352 19 323 20 125 21 350 22 625 24 086 25 222 27 381 28 930 30 499 31 827 33 397 34 349 33 986 32 624 28 921 29 989 30 834 30 633 33 593 35 622 38 044 40 783 43 394 45 867 48 527 53 817 56 508 59 220 Hong Kong Malaysia 4 962 4 626 5 054 5 515 6 021 6 564 7 136 7 729 8 345 8 981 9 637 10 276 12 072 13 968 15 165 17 360 17 659 17 959 18 557 20 652 22 548 24 144 26 639 29 931 30 629 30 729 35 718 39 908 43 300 48 289 53 177 58 066 59 662 63 055 69 340 69 639 77 122 87 099 94 083 96 478 99 770 104 858 111 343 118 227 124 611 129 471 135 297 142 062 134 533 138 569 152 980 153 286 10 032 9 478 9 930 9 977 10 607 10 677 11 320 11 257 11 256 12 026 12 899 13 794 14 578 15 271 16 235 17 405 18 278 18 587 20 217 21 382 22 684 24 359 26 195 29 982 32 222 32 489 36 536 39 513 42 970 46 469 50 333 53 901 57 102 60 588 65 290 64 617 65 434 68 898 74 982 81 996 89 823 97 545 105 151 113 927 124 408 136 600 150 260 161 229 149 298 158 406 171 553 172 411 Nepal Pakistan 4 462 4 591 4 748 5 038 5 145 5 248 5 484 5 484 5 792 5 957 6 091 6 238 6 385 6 537 6 689 6 849 7 331 7 216 7 265 7 590 7 787 7 693 7 934 7 894 8 393 8 518 8 893 9 161 9 563 9 790 9 563 9 563 10 749 10 433 11 441 12 146 12 664 13 164 14 199 14 525 15 609 16 603 17 285 17 950 19 425 20 099 21 170 22 025 22 435 23 175 24 681 25 989 25 366 24 534 24 625 26 983 27 603 28 238 29 069 30 339 30 762 31 095 32 621 34 602 37 111 39 439 42 417 44 307 47 919 49 718 53 195 56 642 62 522 62 824 63 323 67 828 70 141 73 043 76 898 79 951 86 406 89 580 98 907 106 753 114 852 122 649 127 518 138 632 147 421 155 994 166 031 174 001 182 014 192 138 206 957 211 653 220 966 231 793 238 515 242 808 250 335 260 599 271 805 281 590 175 Singapore Sri Lanka 16 country Total 2 268 2 406 2 569 2 758 2 896 3 078 3 200 3 352 3 485 3 470 3 803 4 123 4 411 4 848 4 680 5 033 5 593 6 255 7 123 8 098 9 209 10 362 11 752 13 108 13 994 14 549 15 588 16 797 18 245 19 932 21 865 23 960 25 601 27 695 30 006 29 451 29 975 32 817 36 491 39 857 43 330 45 832 49 399 55 622 61 963 66 920 72 073 78 271 78 193 83 588 92 198 90 354 9 438 10 025 10 485 10 688 10 979 11 621 11 698 11 869 12 214 12 385 12 841 13 104 13 575 13 856 14 515 14 971 14 804 16 157 17 362 18 053 18 912 18 752 19 147 19 922 20 570 21 047 21 669 23 082 24 523 26 125 27 550 29 302 30 788 32 366 33 951 35 381 37 163 37 529 38 520 39 543 42 089 44 118 46 050 49 235 51 992 54 852 56 936 60 580 63 427 66 155 70 124 69 142 840 730 901 962 978 696 1 042 428 1 086 559 1 140 547 1 219 793 1 270 583 1 357 171 1 419 442 1 484 207 1 477 601 1 536 378 1 644 959 1 799 430 1 887 796 2 022 006 2 123 218 2 252 527 2 473 234 2 703 828 2 830 591 2 974 030 3 206 014 3 244 330 3 396 717 3 521 138 3 740 319 4 006 676 4 187 780 4 367 987 4 577 942 4 783 656 5 057 237 5 384 280 5 688 400 5 982 285 6 351 603 6 831 867 7 158 211 7 525 727 7 859 312 8 302 813 8 758 758 9 315 460 9 889 487 10 504 389 10 969 260 11 097 977 11 582 783 12 184 661 12 525 337 .Asia Table 5b.

GDP Levels in 15 West Asian Countries.The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 5b. 1950-2002 (million 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) Bahrain 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 242 257 273 290 309 328 349 371 394 419 445 474 504 536 571 607 646 688 732 779 832 898 969 1 046 1 136 1 015 1 180 1 322 1 424 1 419 1 525 1 568 1 669 1 785 1 860 1 854 1 897 1 935 2 003 2 053 2 054 2 148 2 316 2 508 2 502 2 600 2 707 2 791 2 924 3 050 3 212 3 341 3 454 Iran Iraq Israel 28 128 28 128 28 128 28 156 28 156 28 156 30 659 34 939 39 013 42 360 46 467 50 405 51 389 57 043 61 178 68 688 75 579 84 102 96 759 109 304 120 865 135 829 157 909 171 466 186 655 195 684 229 241 226 315 199 481 182 267 156 643 151 918 175 826 199 031 202 379 207 245 187 780 184 939 174 532 181 227 199 819 220 999 234 472 239 395 244 901 252 983 267 403 280 773 285 827 296 117 312 995 328 019 347 044 7 041 7 661 8 470 11 899 14 145 13 568 14 511 14 370 16 039 16 715 18 658 20 806 21 841 21 447 24 024 26 206 27 593 26 953 31 740 32 818 32 691 34 712 33 430 39 042 41 133 47 977 57 735 59 320 70 127 86 258 84 392 69 078 68 501 62 544 62 699 61 714 61 073 62 812 49 540 45 160 44 583 16 540 21 370 21 370 20 306 18 475 20 799 19 996 22 993 24 948 27 692 30 185 32 297 3 623 4 707 4 910 4 852 5 776 6 558 7 142 7 761 8 319 9 370 9 986 11 077 12 171 13 461 14 780 16 171 16 349 16 758 19 320 21 755 23 520 26 107 29 342 30 839 32 941 34 038 34 480 34 480 36 144 38 416 41 053 43 173 43 948 45 496 45 905 47 489 49 760 53 344 54 417 54 895 58 511 61 848 66 051 68 298 74 172 79 215 82 938 85 675 88 246 87 903 94 408 93 558 92 155 176 Jordan 933 990 1 049 1 112 1 178 1 116 1 532 1 571 1 729 1 858 1 977 2 381 2 446 2 582 3 032 3 379 3 474 3 839 3 696 4 031 3 600 3 682 3 800 3 999 4 355 4 657 5 789 6 166 7 462 8 142 9 689 10 147 10 897 11 115 12 071 12 493 13 626 13 997 13 853 12 387 12 371 12 656 14 807 15 666 16 445 17 495 17 861 18 409 18 950 19 530 20 288 20 896 21 732 Kuwait 4 181 4 532 4 804 5 280 5 882 6 020 6 464 6 693 7 024 7 747 8 420 8 495 9 474 9 984 10 962 11 205 12 584 12 885 14 089 14 474 22 944 24 537 25 503 23 847 20 799 18 287 19 466 18 722 20 072 22 827 18 178 14 737 13 006 14 039 14 775 14 148 15 352 14 733 15 247 16 389 13 111 7 735 13 723 18 416 19 970 20 186 19 518 19 708 19 354 19 173 20 151 20 654 21 068 Lebanon 3 313 2 972 3 157 3 634 4 171 4 506 4 399 4 476 3 840 4 164 4 274 4 555 4 731 4 771 5 059 5 569 5 950 5 668 6 381 6 520 6 950 7 590 8 514 8 915 10 465 10 724 10 989 11 260 11 539 10 873 10 879 10 366 9 680 9 584 9 786 10 028 9 581 6 705 6 099 6 106 6 099 8 429 8 808 9 425 10 179 10 841 11 274 11 725 12 077 12 198 12 198 12 442 12 753 Oman Qatar 304 324 344 366 389 413 439 467 496 528 560 567 681 711 712 715 752 1 250 2 274 2 858 2 957 2 983 3 262 2 809 3 132 3 897 4 397 4 410 4 326 4 511 4 784 5 599 6 245 7 288 8 507 9 697 9 906 10 699 11 018 11 481 11 487 12 176 13 211 14 017 14 556 15 259 15 700 16 671 17 121 16 954 17 462 18 161 18 796 763 827 876 963 1 073 1 099 1 180 1 223 1 282 1 415 1 496 1 497 1 555 1 657 1 712 1 837 2 493 3 014 3 474 3 706 3 756 4 665 5 263 6 228 5 661 5 823 6 263 5 586 6 114 6 364 6 816 5 834 4 731 4 246 4 143 3 699 3 130 3 192 3 240 3 275 3 276 3 263 3 566 3 552 3 635 3 742 3 922 4 865 5 275 5 443 5 987 6 359 6 740 .

1950-2002 (million 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) Saudi Arabia 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 8 610 9 334 9 893 10 875 12 115 12 399 13 312 13 785 14 465 15 955 17 548 19 632 21 974 23 885 25 986 29 137 33 374 36 310 39 547 42 578 46 573 53 289 61 469 73 601 84 700 84 924 92 251 106 191 112 511 120 028 132 160 142 630 144 989 129 404 129 258 120 605 113 260 118 495 122 284 126 701 144 438 156 571 160 955 159 989 160 811 161 564 163 815 167 106 169 987 168 674 176 233 182 402 186 961 Syria Turkey 8 418 8 098 10 202 11 566 13 266 11 970 14 175 15 051 12 972 13 460 13 704 14 832 18 351 18 342 18 755 18 704 17 265 18 696 19 394 23 031 22 155 24 352 30 447 27 846 34 563 41 306 45 834 45 254 49 202 50 986 57 097 62 527 63 857 64 766 62 131 65 928 62 670 63 865 72 342 65 860 70 894 75 927 81 318 89 938 96 821 102 698 109 904 112 640 121 201 119 012 121 988 126 258 130 046 34 279 38 667 43 295 48 128 46 757 50 528 52 173 56 321 58 892 61 600 63 417 64 480 68 422 74 866 77 951 80 008 89 366 93 377 99 650 104 929 110 071 120 046 127 931 133 858 144 829 157 855 171 601 179 005 184 113 182 536 181 165 189 014 198 495 205 811 217 637 228 744 244 752 266 108 276 460 279 614 305 395 308 227 326 672 352 945 333 688 357 688 382 743 411 555 424 282 404 302 433 220 401 162 416 807 UAE Yemen West Bank and Gaza Total 1 130 1 225 1 298 1 427 1 590 1 628 1 749 1 812 1 902 2 097 2 312 2 526 2 809 3 097 3 414 3 762 4 147 4 570 5 037 5 554 6 123 7 147 8 343 9 739 12 894 13 307 15 308 17 978 17 557 21 926 27 717 28 492 26 145 24 833 25 893 25 287 19 919 20 631 20 580 22 766 25 496 25 547 26 237 26 001 28 228 30 459 32 356 34 517 35 916 37 296 39 233 39 626 40 577 4 353 4 468 4 584 4 708 4 831 4 959 5 091 5 228 5 367 5 510 5 660 5 810 5 970 6 148 6 307 6 486 6 674 6 868 7 052 7 260 8 731 10 253 11 070 12 431 13 152 14 152 16 363 18 167 19 711 20 805 20 918 22 191 22 563 23 856 24 778 24 578 25 115 26 135 27 249 28 203 28 212 28 297 29 683 30 544 31 205 34 594 36 631 39 592 41 532 43 067 45 229 46 889 48 862 965 1 009 1 055 1 104 1 157 1 206 1 260 1 321 1 380 1 462 1 534 1 588 1 683 1 783 1 891 2 010 2 130 2 045 1 859 1 931 2 044 2 169 2 306 2 455 2 632 2 797 2 958 3 137 3 332 3 531 3 732 3 940 4 176 4 465 4 769 5 094 5 446 5 834 6 265 6 706 7 222 7 853 8 555 9 308 10 189 11 234 12 381 13 573 14 807 16 153 16 153 12 922 10 338 106 283 113 196 122 340 134 360 140 794 144 454 154 435 165 389 173 113 184 660 196 458 209 125 223 998 240 313 256 333 274 485 298 375 317 024 351 005 381 528 413 812 458 258 509 558 548 120 599 047 636 442 713 856 737 313 743 114 760 889 756 749 761 214 794 728 808 263 826 592 838 601 823 267 853 424 855 130 862 823 932 968 948 217 1 011 745 1 061 372 1 067 608 1 119 033 1 179 952 1 239 596 1 280 492 1 273 820 1 346 449 1 342 874 1 389 630 177 .Asia Table 5b. GDP Levels in 15 West Asian Countries.

GDP Levels in 26 East Asian Countries. 1950-2001 (million 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Afghanistan Cambodia Laos Mongolia North Korea Vietnam 20 small countries 26 country Total 5 255 5 408 5 591 5 933 6 059 6 180 6 458 6 458 6 821 7 016 7 268 7 331 7 457 7 594 7 741 7 914 7 993 8 214 8 508 8 645 8 819 8 398 8 240 9 181 9 680 10 184 10 694 9 959 10 752 10 715 10 427 10 547 10 726 11 157 11 336 11 299 12 161 10 064 9 228 9 284 8 861 8 932 9 021 8 741 8 479 10 700 11 342 12 023 12 744 13 508 13 508 12 157 2 155 2 228 2 368 2 392 2 670 2 614 2 963 3 163 3 322 3 646 3 863 3 827 4 139 4 451 4 331 4 538 4 744 4 988 5 214 5 292 4 785 4 546 4 301 5 858 5 007 4 342 4 650 5 016 5 484 5 593 5 705 5 774 6 218 6 660 7 106 7 554 7 998 7 839 8 035 8 233 8 235 8 860 9 482 9 870 10 258 10 940 11 543 11 846 11 998 12 826 13 518 14 235 1 156 1 192 1 229 1 267 1 306 1 347 1 388 1 431 1 476 1 521 1 568 1 617 1 667 1 718 1 772 1 826 1 883 1 941 2 001 2 063 2 127 2 193 2 261 2 331 2 403 2 477 2 554 2 633 2 714 2 798 2 885 2 974 3 066 3 161 3 258 3 359 3 463 3 570 3 681 3 795 3 912 4 031 4 245 4 674 4 964 5 230 5 355 5 636 5 806 6 096 6 450 6 785 339 353 370 387 406 426 448 473 499 528 559 592 627 660 699 740 782 828 876 927 982 1 041 1 103 1 170 1 243 1 319 1 396 1 479 1 567 1 661 1 758 1 905 2 064 2 184 2 314 2 446 2 675 2 768 2 909 3 031 2 954 2 681 2 426 2 354 2 408 2 560 2 620 2 726 2 821 2 821 2 821 2 821 7 293 6 496 6 675 8 288 8 683 9 316 9 444 10 230 10 816 11 260 11 483 11 972 12 249 13 295 14 445 15 370 17 308 18 711 21 268 24 743 27 184 36 229 37 854 43 072 44 038 44 891 45 652 46 379 47 104 47 842 48 621 49 388 50 138 50 905 51 695 52 505 53 331 54 172 55 033 55 934 56 874 57 846 53 391 53 552 39 468 32 758 27 091 25 249 25 130 25 310 25 310 25 310 16 681 17 445 18 209 19 034 19 920 20 806 21 631 22 486 23 372 24 289 25 297 26 554 29 917 30 821 32 322 32 666 32 975 28 829 28 329 30 702 31 295 32 889 35 815 38 238 36 744 34 130 39 879 41 343 41 622 41 873 40 671 42 103 45 526 48 042 52 355 55 481 57 056 59 127 62 685 65 615 68 959 72 963 79 312 85 718 93 292 102 192 111 736 120 845 127 851 133 221 140 548 147 154 3 845 3 987 4 225 4 316 4 471 4 636 4 820 5 012 5 200 5 403 5 640 5 938 6 130 6 496 6 794 7 172 7 561 7 854 8 347 8 750 9 581 10 376 10 939 11 952 12 594 12 765 13 181 13 403 14 102 15 175 14 880 14 965 15 226 15 662 15 899 16 565 17 368 17 984 18 633 19 306 19 356 20 212 21 107 22 041 23 016 24 034 25 098 26 208 26 662 28 797 28 820 29 051 36 724 37 109 38 667 41 617 43 515 45 325 47 152 49 253 51 506 53 663 55 678 57 831 62 186 65 035 68 104 70 226 73 246 71 365 74 543 81 122 84 773 95 672 100 513 111 802 111 709 110 108 118 006 120 212 123 345 125 657 124 947 127 656 132 964 137 771 143 963 149 209 154 052 155 524 160 204 165 198 169 151 175 525 178 984 186 950 181 885 188 414 194 785 204 533 213 012 222 579 230 975 237 513 178 .The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 5b.

Asia Table 5b. GDP Levels in 57 Asian Countries. 1820-2001 (million 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) 16 East Asia 26 East Asia 1820 387 016 10 651 15 269 412 936 1870 391 213 13 328 22 468 427 009 1900 500 686 22 224 33 935 556 845 1913 612 074 27 687 40 588 680 349 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 840 901 978 042 086 140 219 270 357 419 484 477 536 644 799 887 022 123 252 473 703 830 974 206 244 396 521 740 006 187 367 577 783 057 384 688 982 351 831 158 525 859 302 758 315 889 504 969 097 582 184 525 36 724 37 109 38 667 41 617 43 515 45 325 47 152 49 253 51 506 53 663 55 678 57 831 62 186 65 035 68 104 70 226 73 246 71 365 74 543 81 122 84 773 95 672 100 513 111 802 111 709 110 108 118 006 120 212 123 345 125 657 124 947 127 656 132 964 137 771 143 963 149 209 154 052 155 524 160 204 165 198 169 151 175 525 178 984 186 950 181 885 188 414 194 785 204 533 213 012 222 579 230 975 237 513 106 283 113 196 122 340 134 360 140 794 144 454 154 435 165 389 173 113 184 660 196 458 209 125 223 998 240 313 256 333 274 485 298 375 317 024 351 005 381 528 413 812 458 258 509 558 548 120 599 047 636 442 713 856 737 313 743 114 760 889 756 749 761 214 794 728 808 263 826 592 838 601 823 267 853 424 855 130 862 823 932 968 948 217 1 011 745 1 061 372 1 067 608 1 119 033 1 179 952 1 239 596 1 280 492 1 273 820 1 346 449 1 342 874 983 737 1 052 267 1 139 703 1 218 405 1 270 868 1 330 326 1 421 380 1 485 225 1 581 790 1 657 765 1 736 343 1 744 557 1 822 562 1 950 307 2 123 867 2 232 507 2 393 627 2 511 607 2 678 075 2 935 884 3 202 413 3 384 521 3 584 101 3 865 936 3 955 086 4 143 267 4 353 000 4 597 844 4 873 135 5 074 326 5 249 683 5 466 812 5 711 348 6 003 271 6 354 835 6 676 210 6 959 604 7 360 551 7 847 201 8 186 232 8 627 846 8 983 054 9 493 542 10 007 080 10 564 953 11 196 934 11 879 126 12 413 389 12 591 481 13 079 182 13 762 085 14 105 724 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 10 11 11 12 12 730 962 696 428 559 547 793 583 171 442 207 601 378 959 430 796 006 218 527 234 828 591 030 014 330 717 138 319 676 780 987 942 656 237 280 400 285 603 867 211 727 312 813 758 460 487 389 260 977 783 661 337 179 15 West Asia Total 57 Asia .

The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 5c. Per Capita GDP in 16 East Asian Countries. 1820-1913 (1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) China India 1820 600 533 612 669 704 600 646 499 1850 600 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 530 533 654 646 637 643 651 657 670 671 656 664 662 699 672 657 717 713 697 695 693 691 660 671 690 711 713 716 704 702 699 728 743 724 705 736 742 744 758 767 760 790 834 870 867 904 737 742 746 751 756 810 785 803 794 835 863 829 844 837 836 860 916 952 900 933 1 012 956 1 013 1 008 1 119 1 123 1 051 1 062 1 249 1 143 1 180 1 206 1 129 1 193 1 188 1 157 1 297 1 325 1 318 1 301 1 304 1 356 1 384 1 387 776 604 712 550 540 545 552 551 567 548 572 576 559 584 529 571 584 592 577 533 630 630 580 599 608 655 660 659 643 657 614 619 700 697 691 689 673 Indonesia Japan 180 Philippines South Korea Thailand Taiwan 784 699 832 756 742 770 794 801 799 901 945 974 1 053 777 782 820 841 722 747 .

Per Capita GDP in 16 East Asian Countries. 1820-1913 (1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) Bangladesh 1820 Burma 504 Hong Kong Malaysia 615 603 Nepal 397 Pakistan Singapore 615 1850 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 Sri Lanka 16 country average 492 581 564 504 685 683 1 279 663 801 822 900 397 539 181 682 1 279 851 827 785 788 775 781 789 793 718 770 831 887 935 941 905 842 810 945 921 902 1 045 1 037 1 052 1 052 1 043 1 085 1 088 1 125 1 168 1 234 1 290 1 192 1 175 1 225 1 215 1 179 1 190 1 233 1 221 1 153 1 208 1 160 1 157 1 234 551 623 679 .Asia Table 5c.

Per Capita GDP in 16 East Asian Countries.The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 5c. 1914-1949 (1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) China 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 562 567 569 583 578 525 565 597 580 562 India Indonesia 709 691 710 697 607 690 635 679 701 671 697 698 713 706 706 728 726 711 709 700 697 680 697 676 668 674 686 691 679 698 683 664 622 618 617 624 892 893 896 893 909 969 945 942 946 949 988 1 010 1 053 1 112 1 151 1 170 1 164 1 061 1 033 1 011 1 002 1 023 1 081 1 169 1 175 1 169 1 235 1 252 797 Japan 1 327 1 430 1 630 1 665 1 668 1 827 1 696 1 860 1 831 1 809 1 836 1 885 1 872 1 870 1 992 2 026 1 850 1 837 1 962 2 122 2 098 2 120 2 244 2 315 2 449 2 816 2 874 2 873 2 818 2 822 2 659 1 346 1 444 1 541 1 725 1 800 Philippines South Korea 1 015 925 1 040 1 177 1 322 1 274 1 289 1 387 1 428 1 441 1 474 1 502 1 476 1 442 1 530 1 457 1 488 1 262 1 406 1 499 1 522 1 606 1 587 646 875 993 1 025 182 862 966 969 1 021 1 087 1 049 1 009 1 051 1 018 1 030 1 025 1 016 1 038 1 086 1 047 1 014 1 020 990 1 016 1 145 1 115 1 242 1 315 1 482 1 459 1 297 1 442 1 441 1 412 1 411 1 330 616 619 648 692 738 Thailand 793 826 Taiwan 747 765 963 1 057 925 982 959 873 980 1 027 1 025 1 099 1 028 1 011 1 211 1 146 1 099 1 066 1 181 1 059 1 107 1 295 1 233 1 263 1 302 1 390 1 347 1 439 1 502 998 684 742 806 904 931 932 .

Asia Table 5c. 1914-1949 (1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) Bangladesh 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 Burma 823 711 814 902 838 740 Hong Kong Malaysia Nepal 920 938 996 1 034 969 1 158 1 110 1 075 1 152 1 110 1 060 1 201 1 316 1 251 1 389 1 682 1 636 1 548 1 397 1 440 1 540 1 364 1 478 1 308 1 361 1 609 1 278 1 238 1 673 Pakistan Singapore Sri Lanka 16 country average 1 210 1 136 1 173 1 218 1 107 1 166 1 092 1 059 1 086 1 066 1 128 1 187 1 266 1 261 1 257 1 336 1 265 1 203 1 141 1 150 1 260 1 184 1 175 1 247 1 225 1 186 1 251 1 277 1 323 1 284 1 154 1 116 1 050 1 073 1 159 1 199 1 069 1 185 1 531 183 . Per Capita GDP in 16 East Asian Countries.

The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 5c. 1950-2001 (1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) China 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 439 479 537 554 558 575 619 637 693 697 673 557 553 592 648 706 753 712 678 722 783 799 802 839 836 874 852 895 979 1 040 1 067 1 103 1 192 1 265 1 396 1 522 1 597 1 706 1 816 1 827 1 858 1 940 2 098 2 277 2 475 2 653 2 820 2 973 3 117 3 259 3 425 3 583 India 619 623 629 657 672 676 701 680 716 717 753 758 758 779 821 771 762 807 809 845 868 856 834 853 843 897 889 937 966 895 938 977 985 1 043 1 060 1 079 1 101 1 125 1 216 1 270 1 309 1 299 1 341 1 390 1 463 1 538 1 630 1 679 1 760 1 841 1 910 1 957 Indonesia 840 885 910 938 978 986 980 1 028 972 995 1 019 1 066 1 043 984 1 000 990 971 930 1 001 1 102 1 194 1 235 1 342 1 504 1 542 1 505 1 598 1 681 1 715 1 765 1 870 1 957 1 845 1 878 1 966 1 972 2 051 2 114 2 196 2 352 2 516 2 599 2 831 2 976 3 146 3 348 3 556 3 655 3 129 3 107 3 203 3 256 Japan 1 921 2 126 2 336 2 474 2 582 2 771 2 948 3 136 3 289 3 554 3 986 4 426 4 777 5 129 5 668 5 934 6 506 7 152 7 983 8 874 9 714 10 040 10 734 11 434 11 145 11 344 11 669 12 064 12 585 13 163 13 428 13 754 14 078 14 307 14 773 15 331 15 679 16 251 17 185 17 942 18 789 19 309 19 430 19 457 19 602 19 849 20 494 20 798 20 534 20 631 21 069 20 683 Philippines South Korea 1 070 1 151 1 186 1 254 1 308 1 358 1 410 1 442 1 448 1 501 1 476 1 512 1 537 1 595 1 600 1 633 1 654 1 690 1 722 1 750 1 764 1 808 1 853 1 964 1 979 2 033 2 152 2 211 2 262 2 323 2 376 2 398 2 425 2 415 2 188 1 981 2 001 2 040 2 129 2 210 2 224 2 161 2 123 2 124 2 170 2 221 2 296 2 363 2 301 2 332 2 385 2 412 184 770 709 753 966 1 013 1 054 1 036 1 087 1 112 1 120 1 105 1 124 1 122 1 186 1 253 1 295 1 415 1 483 1 633 1 839 1 954 2 522 2 561 2 841 3 015 3 162 3 476 3 775 4 064 4 294 4 114 4 302 4 557 5 007 5 375 5 670 6 263 6 916 7 621 8 027 8 704 9 417 9 814 10 238 10 965 11 818 12 495 12 991 12 016 13 222 14 343 14 673 Thailand 817 849 869 935 898 945 930 910 914 992 1 078 1 100 1 149 1 205 1 249 1 308 1 412 1 486 1 561 1 636 1 694 1 725 1 748 1 874 1 910 1 959 2 091 2 249 2 422 2 496 2 554 2 653 2 744 2 847 2 960 3 049 3 168 3 418 3 817 4 222 4 629 4 959 5 290 5 661 6 094 6 573 6 877 6 702 5 930 6 123 6 336 6 383 Taiwan 924 991 1 063 1 140 1 193 1 250 1 270 1 314 1 382 1 462 1 492 1 551 1 632 1 804 1 977 2 056 2 205 2 395 2 539 2 706 2 980 3 324 3 767 4 091 3 942 3 958 4 566 5 020 5 542 5 831 5 869 6 229 6 446 7 036 7 790 8 113 9 088 9 641 9 623 9 665 9 886 10 522 11 128 11 720 12 430 13 104 13 796 14 598 15 134 15 827 16 642 16 214 . Per Capita GDP in 16 East Asian Countries.

1950-2001 (1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Bangladesh Burma 540 541 548 547 547 508 551 530 510 526 544 564 550 594 588 607 603 578 619 614 629 586 505 497 547 529 540 529 551 560 548 550 542 555 572 577 590 603 608 612 640 649 671 691 710 733 756 783 815 843 873 897 396 446 449 454 419 467 490 510 488 555 564 568 606 613 613 617 580 586 613 626 642 650 642 628 648 663 690 718 752 773 823 854 884 907 936 947 924 875 766 786 800 788 860 906 957 1 015 1 070 1 122 1 178 1 297 1 353 1 409 Hong Kong Malaysia 2 218 2 295 2 377 2 460 2 546 2 636 2 729 2 825 2 924 3 027 3 134 3 244 3 652 4 083 4 327 4 825 4 865 4 824 4 880 5 345 5 695 5 968 6 473 7 105 7 091 6 991 7 906 8 707 9 277 9 796 10 503 11 202 11 333 11 797 12 846 12 763 13 960 15 597 16 716 17 043 17 541 18 230 19 084 19 889 20 486 20 726 21 075 21 503 19 748 19 819 21 499 21 259 1 559 1 440 1 471 1 440 1 490 1 460 1 505 1 455 1 413 1 467 1 530 1 592 1 637 1 669 1 728 1 804 1 846 1 830 1 942 2 005 2 079 2 180 2 289 2 560 2 688 2 648 2 910 3 076 3 271 3 457 3 657 3 824 3 954 4 096 4 307 4 157 4 105 4 219 4 482 4 790 5 132 5 447 5 740 6 077 6 486 6 965 7 496 7 874 7 139 7 418 7 872 7 756 Nepal Pakistan 496 505 517 543 549 554 572 566 592 601 607 613 618 623 626 631 663 641 633 649 653 633 639 622 647 642 654 657 670 669 637 621 680 644 689 713 725 735 773 771 808 838 850 861 909 917 943 958 952 961 999 1 028 643 608 596 637 636 635 638 650 643 633 647 669 699 723 758 771 812 820 854 885 952 931 913 954 962 978 1 006 1 023 1 079 1 087 1 161 1 207 1 259 1 309 1 324 1 400 1 446 1 487 1 539 1 569 1 597 1 642 1 740 1 749 1 784 1 830 1 841 1 833 1 848 1 882 1 920 1 947 185 Singapore 2 219 2 253 2 280 2 314 2 320 2 358 2 333 2 318 2 295 2 186 2 310 2 422 2 520 2 701 2 541 2 667 2 891 3 163 3 540 3 965 4 439 4 904 5 460 5 977 6 276 6 430 6 797 7 224 7 752 8 362 9 058 9 460 9 674 10 330 10 982 10 764 10 966 11 827 12 821 13 599 14 365 14 801 15 537 17 018 18 404 19 225 19 963 20 921 20 198 20 854 22 207 21 011 Sri Lanka 16 country average 1 253 1 293 1 314 1 300 1 298 1 339 1 315 1 300 1 305 1 289 1 300 1 291 1 303 1 297 1 326 1 336 1 291 1 377 1 446 1 471 1 509 1 468 1 471 1 504 1 529 1 541 1 560 1 635 1 706 1 783 1 849 1 934 1 998 2 072 2 147 2 208 2 286 2 275 2 302 2 330 2 448 2 537 2 618 2 762 2 876 2 997 3 076 3 240 3 359 3 470 3 645 3 562 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 662 698 742 775 791 814 853 869 907 931 962 950 972 017 088 116 168 198 241 331 420 450 488 569 554 594 622 692 780 826 870 926 982 052 147 229 304 403 539 614 702 777 891 004 148 291 448 551 545 647 794 851 .Asia Table 5c. Per Capita GDP in 16 East Asian Countries.

The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 5c. Per Capita GDP in 15 West Asian Countries. 1950-2002 (1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) Bahrain 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2 104 2 185 2 267 2 351 2 436 2 518 2 599 2 674 2 739 2 796 2 843 2 882 2 931 2 994 3 073 3 173 3 283 3 402 3 520 3 646 3 788 3 983 4 198 4 376 4 574 3 922 4 313 4 444 4 415 4 222 4 388 4 313 4 414 4 542 4 557 4 374 4 316 4 257 4 267 4 235 4 104 4 170 4 374 4 611 4 481 4 540 4 619 4 663 4 787 4 899 5 065 5 177 5 262 Iran Iraq Israel 1 720 1 673 1 629 1 587 1 545 1 503 1 593 1 765 1 916 2 021 2 154 2 269 2 247 2 422 2 521 2 748 2 934 3 169 3 542 3 887 4 177 4 564 5 158 5 445 5 759 5 862 6 668 6 380 5 445 4 801 3 961 3 681 4 087 4 446 4 348 4 287 3 743 3 558 3 253 3 274 3 472 3 709 3 856 3 924 4 006 4 085 4 260 4 411 4 432 4 539 4 742 4 911 5 138 1 364 1 445 1 557 2 129 2 463 2 298 2 389 2 300 2 493 2 523 2 735 2 961 3 017 2 872 3 115 3 288 3 349 3 164 3 604 3 604 3 473 3 567 3 323 3 753 3 825 4 315 5 023 4 992 5 693 6 756 6 377 5 041 4 833 4 269 4 136 3 932 3 759 3 797 2 908 2 571 2 458 947 1 196 1 161 1 070 945 1 032 962 1 075 1 132 1 221 1 294 1 346 2 817 3 159 3 029 2 910 3 374 3 701 3 860 3 992 4 109 4 501 4 663 4 996 5 267 5 593 5 916 6 272 6 190 6 222 7 033 7 723 8 101 8 711 9 478 9 645 10 025 10 148 10 071 9 863 10 125 10 515 10 984 11 357 11 390 11 586 11 461 11 654 12 028 12 691 12 739 12 637 12 968 13 003 13 380 13 492 14 305 14 932 15 302 15 489 15 649 15 307 16 159 15 756 15 284 186 Jordan Kuwait Lebanon Oman 1 663 1 695 1 726 1 757 1 787 1 625 2 139 2 104 2 220 2 287 2 330 2 685 2 620 2 649 2 981 3 183 3 137 3 059 2 674 2 773 2 395 2 366 2 355 2 388 2 506 2 583 3 096 3 182 3 718 3 919 4 480 4 502 4 643 4 556 4 767 4 754 5 002 4 963 4 750 4 103 3 792 3 486 3 829 3 932 4 029 4 164 4 093 4 067 4 044 4 033 4 059 4 055 4 095 28 878 29 777 30 023 31 361 33 200 32 257 32 876 31 447 29 907 29 568 28 813 26 112 26 443 25 331 25 303 23 533 24 050 22 409 22 300 20 963 30 695 30 930 30 291 26 689 21 934 18 162 18 166 16 417 16 539 17 675 13 271 10 290 8 685 8 966 9 024 8 165 8 475 7 789 7 727 7 968 6 121 8 108 9 677 12 412 12 872 12 454 11 529 11 164 10 542 10 063 10 210 10 115 9 977 2 429 2 121 2 193 2 457 2 745 2 886 2 744 2 717 2 269 2 395 2 393 2 482 2 507 2 459 2 534 2 706 2 804 2 592 2 831 2 810 2 917 3 001 3 177 3 155 3 503 3 461 3 524 3 614 3 711 3 508 3 526 3 364 3 136 3 102 3 167 3 247 3 104 2 170 1 970 1 965 1 938 2 640 2 735 2 898 3 093 3 251 3 333 3 418 3 471 3 457 3 409 3 430 3 468 623 650 677 707 736 766 799 831 866 900 935 923 1 084 1 103 1 075 1 053 1 080 1 749 3 094 3 782 3 799 3 716 3 934 3 279 3 541 4 267 4 597 4 390 4 086 4 044 4 072 4 523 4 800 5 346 5 976 6 545 6 442 6 712 6 670 6 708 6 479 6 606 6 898 7 048 7 071 7 161 7 117 7 300 7 242 6 928 6 893 6 926 6 927 Qatar 30 387 30 550 30 161 31 002 32 418 31 277 31 933 31 547 31 620 33 161 33 104 30 737 29 362 28 505 26 799 26 132 32 239 35 393 36 982 35 884 33 160 38 182 39 933 43 806 36 914 35 198 35 424 29 562 30 278 29 491 29 552 24 061 18 750 14 955 13 163 10 718 8 345 7 938 7 540 7 173 6 804 6 467 6 737 6 377 6 210 6 103 6 123 7 290 7 605 7 567 8 042 8 268 8 496 .

1950-2002 (1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) Saudi Arabia 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2 231 2 374 2 470 2 664 2 912 2 922 3 075 3 119 3 204 3 458 3 719 4 066 4 445 4 715 5 005 5 469 6 102 6 463 6 848 7 170 7 624 8 475 9 497 11 040 12 333 11 797 12 126 13 097 12 963 12 897 13 284 13 500 12 969 10 946 10 339 9 131 8 173 8 194 8 122 8 106 9 115 9 740 9 643 9 235 8 949 8 671 8 492 8 378 8 244 7 915 8 002 8 015 7 951 Syria Turkey UAE Yemen West Bank and Gaza 2 409 2 264 2 786 3 084 3 453 3 039 3 508 3 627 3 039 3 062 3 023 3 168 3 796 3 673 3 637 3 512 3 139 3 291 3 306 3 801 3 540 3 759 4 544 4 017 4 821 5 570 5 976 5 705 5 998 6 010 6 508 6 891 6 786 6 638 6 143 6 290 5 772 5 681 6 219 5 480 5 701 5 909 6 152 6 623 6 946 7 177 7 481 7 469 7 829 7 490 7 481 7 547 7 580 1 623 1 784 1 947 2 108 1 993 2 093 2 097 2 194 2 222 2 252 2 247 2 221 2 297 2 454 2 496 2 504 2 735 2 795 2 917 3 002 3 078 3 282 3 412 3 477 3 665 3 895 4 136 4 221 4 250 4 128 4 015 4 089 4 194 4 249 4 392 4 514 4 727 5 032 5 123 5 081 5 445 5 395 5 615 5 961 5 541 5 846 6 161 6 528 6 635 6 237 6 597 6 033 6 192 15 798 16 709 17 246 18 418 19 884 19 683 20 377 20 282 20 372 21 426 22 433 23 180 24 250 25 025 25 676 26 164 26 483 26 610 26 374 25 495 24 552 24 806 24 806 24 887 28 449 25 465 25 598 26 296 22 545 24 802 27 709 25 894 21 721 18 870 18 007 16 104 11 624 11 601 11 189 12 003 13 070 12 764 12 806 12 420 13 216 13 995 14 604 15 312 15 666 16 001 16 560 16 460 16 589 911 918 924 930 936 942 946 951 955 959 964 969 975 984 989 996 1 007 1 019 1 028 1 040 1 230 1 414 1 495 1 640 1 696 1 784 2 003 2 162 2 281 2 342 2 290 2 363 2 336 2 401 2 422 2 332 2 311 2 329 2 351 2 353 2 272 2 197 2 220 2 200 2 168 2 328 2 390 2 502 2 540 2 548 2 588 2 594 2 613 949 987 1 024 1 061 1 103 1 144 1 187 1 234 1 280 1 328 1 378 1 431 1 485 1 542 1 600 1 660 1 724 1 790 1 858 1 919 1 980 2 046 2 116 2 184 2 256 2 329 2 408 2 488 2 571 2 656 2 744 2 837 2 929 3 028 3 128 3 231 3 340 3 450 3 564 3 683 3 806 3 932 4 065 4 200 4 344 4 490 4 644 4 803 5 050 5 312 5 124 3 953 3 050 187 15 country Average 1 776 1 840 1 937 2 074 2 118 2 116 2 200 2 290 2 328 2 412 2 492 2 579 2 686 2 804 2 910 3 031 3 207 3 318 3 580 3 788 3 998 4 304 4 649 4 854 5 149 5 308 5 779 5 791 5 658 5 610 5 397 5 245 5 294 5 207 5 151 5 056 4 808 4 842 4 716 4 627 4 856 4 853 5 041 5 188 5 122 5 255 5 424 5 578 5 646 5 505 5 706 5 580 5 664 .Asia Table 5c. Per Capita GDP in 15 West Asian Countries.

Per Capita GDP in 57 Asian Countries. 1820-2001 (1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) 16 East Asia 26 East Asia 15 West Asia Average 57 Asia 1820 581 556 607 581 1870 551 535 742 558 1910 623 674 940 638 1913 679 745 1 042 696 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 662 698 742 775 791 814 853 869 907 931 962 950 972 1 017 1 088 1 116 1 168 1 198 1 241 1 331 1 420 1 450 1 488 1 569 1 554 1 594 1 622 1 692 1 780 1 826 1 870 1 926 1 982 2 052 2 147 2 229 2 304 2 403 2 539 2 614 2 702 2 777 2 891 3 004 3 148 3 291 3 448 3 551 3 545 3 647 3 794 3 851 691 692 714 761 783 798 812 828 844 855 862 870 908 923 939 940 954 904 920 975 994 1 095 1 123 1 220 1 191 1 149 1 210 1 209 1 219 1 220 1 201 1 216 1 248 1 267 1 298 1 321 1 337 1 322 1 333 1 342 1 346 1 368 1 351 1 362 1 289 1 305 1 323 1 366 1 400 1 439 1 467 1 482 1 854 1 926 2 030 2 175 2 214 2 217 2 302 2 398 2 437 2 521 2 602 2 688 2 799 2 923 3 033 3 153 3 339 3 453 3 720 3 932 4 146 4 421 4 781 4 972 5 241 5 381 5 880 5 882 5 732 5 689 5 453 5 310 5 344 5 276 5 235 5 132 4 884 4 936 4 782 4 680 4 911 4 903 5 084 5 211 5 066 5 148 5 273 5 398 5 407 5 417 5 426 5 435 712 748 794 832 850 871 912 932 970 996 1 029 1 024 1 052 1 100 1 171 1 203 1 259 1 290 1 343 1 438 1 530 1 577 1 631 1 720 1 721 1 766 1 820 1 887 1 962 2 004 2 034 2 081 2 139 2 200 2 287 2 359 2 414 2 506 2 622 2 686 2 781 2 848 2 962 3 072 3 193 3 330 3 482 3 587 3 588 3 672 3 817 3 861 188 .The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 5c.

It does not seem to have crossed the Sahara. by 1820. all of North Africa was under Roman rule. the population of the North had increased by a third (with many intervening setbacks). four–fifths in the south. In terms of per capita real income. The partial Islamisation of black Africa increased the sophistication and organisational ability of the ruling elites in the Sahel and savannah lands of West Africa south of the Sahara. the south clearly had the edge. a significant industrial and 189 . more sophisticated economic and political institutions in the North than in the South. Egypt In the first century AD. and without water for up to 15 days. b) before the eighth century. There seem to be three reasons for this: a) in Egypt and the Maghreb. The greater demographic dynamism of the south is surprising.Africa HS–6: A FRICA Contours of African Development As the long–term economic development of Africa is difficult to quantify with any precision. The proportion of agriculturalists and pastoralists with iron–age tools and weapons increased dramatically. it is useful to consider the broad contours and salient features I had in mind when making conjectures about the development of per capita income. with a relatively large urban population. they had been pushed aside and were a fraction of the population. The Mediterranean was a Roman lake with magnificent ports in Italy and Alexandria and substantial flows of trade between Africa. South of the Sahara. there was virtually no contact between North and South. Between the first century AD and 1820. Knowledge of the South is based on archaeological or linguistic evidence until the ninth century when written evidence of northern visitors becomes available. Two thousand years ago. go without food for several days. For most of the past two millennia. In terms of extensive growth (i. capacity to accommodate population increase). Egypt was the most prosperous area. The growth in trade benefitted both parties. Over the long run. By 1820. a sedentary agriculture. it seems likely that the average Northern level was lower in 1820 than in the first century. population growth was much more dynamic South of the Sahara. They could carry about a third of a ton of freight. Two thousand years ago. Possibilities for trade across the Sahara were revolutionised by the introduction of camels between the fifth and eighth centuries. In the South it increased nearly eightfold (see Table 6–1). because of its substantial losses from the slave trade. a substantially monetised economy. Europe and the Middle East. much of black Africa was inhabited by hunter–gatherers using stone–age technology. Land productivity was also helped by the introduction and gradual diffusion of maize. it is probable that it increased modestly (see Table 6–2). cassava and sweet potatoes from the Americas from 1500 onwards. there were higher levels of income and urbanisation. There is a marked difference between the historical experience of the lands North of the Sahara and the rest of the continent. c) probably the most important was the spread of improved agricultural technology and new crops.e. about half lived in the north. plague seems to have been endemic from the sixth to the early nineteenth century. North African history is reasonably well documented because there are substantial written records.

Foreign rule generally impeded trade through the Red Sea to the Indian Ocean which had flourished in the first and second centuries. Sahel includes Chad. W. Central African Rep. African Population. Other East Africa includes Burundi. Gambia. São Tomé & Principe. Mali. Kenya. Uganda. Reunion. From the first to the tenth century. Zimbabwe Mozambique South Africa. Ghana. Nigeria. Djibouti. it was redirected by the authorities in Damascus then Baghdad. 190 . Guinea Bissau. Virtually all trade with Europe disappeared from the fourth until the twelfth century. Indian Ocean includes Comoros.. Zambia. 1-2001 AD (000) 1 1000 1500 1600 1700 1820 2001 Egypt Morocco Algeria Tunisia Libya Total North Africa 4 000 1 000 2 000 800 400 8 200 5 000 2 000 2 000 1 000 500 10 500 4 000 1 500 1 500 800 500 8 300 5 000 2 250 2 250 1 000 500 11 000 4 500 1 750 1 750 800 500 9 300 4 194 2 689 2 689 875 538 10 985 71 902 30 645 31 736 9 705 5 241 149 229 Sahel Other West Africa Total West Africa 1 000 3 000 4 000 2 000 7 000 9 000 3 000 11 000 14 000 3 500 14 000 17 500 4 000 18 000 22 000 4 887 20 777 25 664 32 885 218 393 251 278 Ethiopia and Eritrea Sudan Somalia Other East Africa Total East Africa 500 2 000 200 300 3 000 1 000 3 000 400 3 000 7 400 2 000 4 000 800 6 000 12 800 2 250 4 200 800 7 000 14 250 2 500 4 400 950 8 000 15 850 3 154 5 156 1 000 10 389 19 699 68 208 36 080 7 489 103 338 215 115 Angola. Sahara. The entrepot trade.The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 6-1. Rwanda. Niger. Other West Africa includes Senegal. Seychelles. Agricultural productivity was high because of the abundant and reliable flow of Nile water and the annual renewal of topsoil in the form of silt. but in 1516 Egypt became a provincial backwater under a Turkish viceroy. Tanzania. it was siphoned off. Liberia. Under the Fatimid. manufactured exports and population of Alexandria withered away. Burkina Faso. Equatoria includes Cameroon. Togo. one could sail upstream and float downstream. Egypt produced a surplus that the Pharoahs and the Ptolemies used to support a brilliant civilisation. Equatorial Guinea. paying tribute to the Ottoman sultan. Mayotte. then to Constantinople. Guinea. Its natural waterways lowered the cost of transporting freight and passengers through its most densely populated area. 2001 from US Bureau of Census. Benin. and was restored from the tenth to the fifteenth century. Zaire. Mauritania. Swaziland and Lesotho Namibia and Botswana Madagascar Indian Ocean Southern Africa Total Africa Source: 1-1820 from McEvedy and Jones (1978). Gabon. and a very long history as an organised state. After the Muslim conquest. Mauritius. tribute ceased. first to Rome. Côte d'Ivoire. commercial sector. Sierra Leone. Cape Verde. Congo. As the prevailing winds blew from the North. Ayyubid and Mamluk regimes. Equatoria 1 000 4 000 8 000 8 500 9 000 10 757 87 235 75 50 500 300 1 000 1 000 1 100 1 250 1 200 1 500 1 345 2 096 33 452 17 142 100 75 0 0 300 300 100 200 0 1 400 600 200 700 10 3 510 700 200 800 20 4 070 1 000 200 1 000 30 4 930 1 550 219 1 683 238 7 131 45 562 3 444 15 983 2 648 118 231 16 500 32 300 46 610 55 320 61 080 74 236 821 088 Malawi.

6 52.4 5. In the first century AD. North Africa belonged to the Roman Empire.0 100.3 14.0 5.5 Total North Africa 49. 191 . permitting a rise in per capita income in Morocco.e.0 100.9 30.6 Other North Africa 19.5 17.9 3. and was generally siphoned off as tribute by Roman and Arab rulers.9 15.Africa Table 6-2.0 100.2 4. Western Europe trebled its per capita income and increased its population more than fivefold.5 48. which had yielded a large surplus for governance and monuments in Pharaonic times. Egypt was the richest part of the Roman world because of the special character of its agriculture. camel transport permitted trade across the Sahara.1 6.0 6.0 Rest of Africa 24.6 100. GDP is derivative (i.2 48. Roman settlement was essentially coastal except in Tunisia where large irrigated estates were worked mainly by tenant farmers.6 36. There was no contact then with black Africa which I assume had an average income only slightly above subsistence ($400 in my numeraire).0 31. Roman economic activity in Morocco was vestigial. the Sahel and West Africa. the Egyptian population was below its level in the eleventh century and the same is likely to have been true for per capita income. 1-1820 AD 1 1000 1500 1600 1700 1820 (per cent of African Population) Egypt 24. Exports from these provinces were heavily concentrated on grain shipped to Italy from Carthage and olive oil from Tripolitania.7 50. Roman ships did not venture beyond Cape Bojador (just south of the Canary Islands). Tentative Conjectures for African Per Capita GDP and GDP.6 Morocco Sahel and West Africa 24. Overland trade between the western provinces of Africa and the lands to the south was negligible.8 34. The rationale for the conjectures is derived from the analysis of main currents in African history in the following text. Libya and most of the Maghreb (except Morocco) had a prosperous and urbanised coastal fringe in Roman times. I assume that the gradual transition within Black Africa from a hunter-gatherer to an agricultural mode of production permitted greatly increased density of settlement with higher per capita labour inputs.0 7.2 27. After the Arab conquest of North Africa in the seventh century. per capita conjectures are multiplied by population estimates in Table 6-1).7 32.2 3.7 6.8 5.0 Total (Conjectured per capita GDP in 1990 international $) Egypt 500 500 475 475 475 475 Morocco 400 430 430 430 430 430 Other North Africa 430 430 430 430 430 430 447 Average North Africa 460 463 452 451 452 Sahel and West Africa 400 415 415 415 415 415 Rest of Africa 400 400 400 415 415 415 430 425 414 422 421 420 Average Africa (Estimated GDP in million 1990 international $) Egypt 2 000 2 500 1 900 2 375 2 138 1 992 400 860 645 968 753 1 156 Other North Africa 1 376 1 505 1 204 1 613 1 312 1 764 Total North Africa 3 776 4 865 3 749 4 956 4 203 4 912 Sahel and West Africa 1 600 3 735 5 810 7 263 9 130 10 650 Rest of Africa 1 720 5 120 9 724 11 130 12 359 15 599 Total Africa 7 096 13 720 19 283 23 349 25 692 31 161 Morocco Source: The stylised conjectures are for per capita income in each of the five regions at different points of time.1 39. The Maghreb In West Africa.1 2.8 6. with Berber tribes between them and the Sahara.4 10.6 9.2 15.0 100. but had little impact on per capita income. because the prevailing winds made it impossible for them to make the return journey.0 100. By 1820.5 8. In the same period.8 19.

and transported south by camel. The goldfield was at Bambuk. cut into large blocks. iron hoes for tillage. with land being left fallow for a decade or more after the first crops. Algeria. 192 . Some of the salt came from maritime sources on the Atlantic coast. somewhat further south. Bigger profits could be derived from the gold trade with ancient Ghana (about 800 kilometres north–west of modern Ghana. Mali and Songhay were able to emerge as powerful states. the agriculture of black Africa contrasted sharply with that of Egypt. Further east. There was also a lively exchange between trading centres within the Sahel and West Africa. Until the twelfth century most of the output circulated within the Muslim world. Kanem was the main centre of the slave trade. Gold production increased steadily in West Africa from the eighth century onwards. There was an abundance of land in relation to population. pressure of demand was such that production was started further south at the Akan mines (in present–day Ghana). It made it possible for them to import horses and weapons and maintain cavalry forces. salt was very scarce. windmills or other instruments of water management. Muslim merchants on these new routes were active in making converts to Islam. Florence and Marseilles. mainly from Genoa. From the eighth to the twelfth century. which had a lengthy history as state before the Arabs established contact in the early eighth century. They had only minimal contact with African gold producing areas until the second half of the fifteenth century when Portugal gained access to the West African coast. There were no ploughs (except in Ethiopia) and virtually no use of traction animals in agriculture. but its exact whereabouts was kept secret. Nomadic pastoralists were generally transhumant over wide areas for the same reason — poor soils. In the eleventh and twelfth centuries. In the Sahel region. Pisa. Muslim countries were the only ones to mint gold coins. Early in the eleventh century. Income from gold produced an economic surplus which allowed the rulers to maintain the attributes of power. Mining wealth was the main reason why ancient Ghana. Florence in 1252. there was an extensive. where it was mined by slave labour. As a consequence. the area which received the greatest stimulus from the new contacts with black Africa. just inside the southern boundary of modern Mauretania). and Venice in 1284. European traders conducted their operations in Muslim ports on the Mediterranean coast. and were not regenerated by manure. but from then onwards there was increasing demand from Europe. but soils were poor. From the eleventh to the sixteenth century. but was a necessity for people doing heavy work. Tunisia and Egypt and from Mediterranean ports to European customers. particularly in kola nuts — the African equivalent of coffee or tobacco. Venice. shifting cultivation. Most exports were in the form of gold dust which was melted and moulded into ingots. Marseilles first issued them in 1227. between the Senegal and Niger rivers. But it was much easier to transport rock salt. Black Africa In spite of the advance beyond hunter–gatherer techniques. axes and machetes for clearing trees and bush. In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries the main trading centre for gold was Timbuktu in the empire of Songhay. In the fourteenth century. The main agricultural implements were digging sticks. Salt was not the only trade item in this north–south trade. no water mills. At a later stage there was a diversity of gold routes to Morocco. natural or human provision of irrigation. The most direct route was through Morocco. crop rotation. the main source was in the Sahara at Taghaza. They established camel caravan routes from Tunisia and Libya deep into the Sahara to places where it was possible to trade horses for black slaves. the main market for Muslim traders was Awdaghast in Ghana. The main barter transactions between the Maghreb and black Africa were exchange of salt for gold. There were no wheeled vehicles. ancient Ghana was the first of the black African states to convert to Islam.The World Economy: Historical Statistics When the Arabs conquered the Maghreb they severed the Mediterranean trading links which had previously existed and explored new opportunities across the desert.

Thus there was a gradual spread of hybrid Islam in black Africa from the eleventh century onwards. stateless. Camels thrived in the dry heat of the desert but could not function further south. was universal illiteracy and absence of written languages (except in Ethiopia). They included sophisticated members of the Muslim intelligentsia (ulama). whilst most of their subjects continued to be animists.Africa There were no individual property rights in land. but river traffic moved in rather primitive paddle–boats made of hollowed–out tree trunks and the frequency of cataracts meant that merchandise frequently had to be trans–shipped by head porterage. The traffic was organised by Muslim traders from the North. Black African traders also saw the advantages of conversion. They saw clear advantages in Islamisation which helped them build bigger empires and acquire stronger instruments of coercion. Slave traders were generally the most Islamised. at a later stage. European merchants were able to buy Asian spices in Alexandria and African gold on the Tunisian coast until the Ottomans captured Egypt and most of North Africa early in the sixteenth century. Transport facilities in black Africa were poor. They were used almost exclusively for military and prestige purposes by the ruling groups and their lightly armed cavalry (horses and riders wore padded armour as a defence against arrows). There were two reasons for this. and an evangelising bent. land taxes. and least Islamised groups. Muslim visitors were generally peaceful and posed no threat to African chiefs and rulers. Hence there was a substantial beggar–your–neighbour element in inter–group relations. European contact with Africa took place in the Mediterranean. and in Egypt there was substantial and relatively safe travel on the sailing boats of the Nile. 193 . The Arabs who came as traders had a written language. Chiefs and rulers did not collect rents. This made it difficult to transmit knowledge across generations and between African societies. water. the Senegal and Gambia. Their main instrument of exploitation was slavery. Conversion had its main effect on the ruling groups whose insignia and sanctions of power were a mix of Islam and tradition. The flow from north to south was negligible. They were able to exchange gold and slaves for horses and weapons (steel sword blades and tips for spears. The European Encounter with Africa Between the eleventh and the fourteenth centuries. particularly the Niger. The Muslim states tended to have the most powerful armed forces. It is not clear how widespread slavery was before contact with Muslim Africa. slave drivers and other passengers. Slaves tended to be taken from the acephalous. guns and gunpowder). but the contact certainly reinforced the institution because it made it possible to derive a substantial income from export of slaves across the Sahara. Tribes. Slaves usually walked through the desert with a caravan of camels carrying food. there were partially navigable rivers. kin–groups or other communities had customary rights to farm or graze in the areas where they lived. Analysts of state formation in black Africa make a distinction between complex and acephalous groups (see Goody. and. Muslim Africa had ships which could navigate and trade in the Mediterranean. and they generally avoided enslaving Muslims. 1971). Slaves were generally acquired by raids on neighbouring groups. A striking feature of black Africa before contact with the Islamic world. Contact with Islam brought obvious advantages. The differentiation grew wider as a result of the varying degree of contact with Islam. because of the climate and the fact that they were highly sensitive to tsetse flies. and techniques of governance as well cutting business deals. Horses were very expensive and had a short life expectation. but collective property rights and boundaries were vague. law. who were able to promote knowledge of property institutions. or feudal levies. In the Sahel and West Africa. There were a great variety of polities within black Africa. Before the Moroccan conquest of Songhay in 1591. As converts (dyulas) they became members of an œcumene with free access to markets well beyond their previous horizons.

However.085 6.161 0.859 62.527 Note: There are 32 150 fine ounces in a metric ton.4 million compared to more than 11 here.296 0. 163-6.000 2. 6.206 38.000 2.623 140.047 152. CUP. 194 .000 0.161 0.650 Exports to Maghreb 0.F.450 1.215 Asia 3.498 0. Part of the difference is that Curtin shows arrivals whereas Lovejoy does not allow for deaths in transit.150 3. Slave Exports from Black Africa.855 49. Transformations in Slavery.849 61. Akan (Ghanaian) Gold Production and Exports.250 Exports to Europe 0.080 0.463 Europe 4.379 8. Source: T.900 104.100 2.466 2. The difference is also due to Lovejoy’s use of the Du Bois archive in Harvard. World Gold Output by Major Region. Rigway.153 6. US Dept of Commerce. So far.480 6.E.430 5.550 1. Portuguese innovations in the design of ships and navigational instruments made it possible to circumnavigate Africa and trade directly with India and other Asian destinations from 1497 onwards. It captured Ceuta.968 28.350 2. Source: R. Table 6-5. 650-1900. 1929.810 200.658 Australasia Other 1. without the meticulously documented description of the source material which Curtin provided. pp. by Destination (000) 650-1500 Americas 1500-1800 1800-1900 650-1900 81 7 766 3 314 11 159 Trans-Sahara 4 270 1 950 1 200 7 420 Asia 2 200 1 000 934 4 134 6 551 10 716 5 448 22 713 Total Source: P. Longman. p.034 17.014 22.758 3. Garrard. Summarised Data of Gold Production.700 4. Akan Weights and the Gold Trade. 19. 1400-1900 (million fine ounces) 1400-1500 1501-1600 1601-1700 1701-1800 1801-1900 Production 1. but Moroccan forces recaptured these in 1541 and in 1578 annihilated a Portuguese invasion force. His figures for the Americas are bigger than those of Curtin (see Table 4-4). 1493-1925 (million fine ounces) 1493-1600 1601-1700 1701-1800 1801-50 1851-1900 1901-25 Africa 8. Portugal attacked Morocco in 1415 with intent to conquer and get access to African gold. 1980. this appears to be available only as a CDROM. pp.750 1.043 52. Table 6-4.976 19.036 336. London.200 3. 142 and 147. 26.231 477. established several bases on its Atlantic coast.650 Note: There are 32 150 fine ounces in a metric ton.025 23.800 0.210 Americas 8. Lovejoy (2000).986 World 22.H. 47. and. Curtin’s total for 1500-1870 is 9.The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 6-3.150 51. by 1521.

In 1663–82. Criminals of various kinds were a steady source.4 in 1733–75. horses. it became more profitable and healthier for Europeans to expand sugar production in Brazil than in Africa. the Persian Gulf. In the 1850s half the people in the caliphate of Sokoto in northern Nigeria 195 . British and French.5 million slaves had been shipped from black Africa across the Sahara.Africa They created a trading base at Arquim on the Mauretanian coast in 1445. slaves were acquired in several ways. at the end of the nineteenth century. mainly from the Gold Coast. The Portuguese discovered quickly that the disease environment in sub–Saharan Africa was very hostile to European settlement.29 in Asia. CUP. Portuguese slaving activity in Africa met fierce competition from the Dutch. trinkets and salt for gold. African income from slavery therefore appears to have risen more than 40–fold from the end of the seventeenth to the end of the eighteenth century. Klein (1999). In the majority of cases. but Africans were not particularly susceptible to European diseases. pp. The flow across the Atlantic rose from an average of 9 000 a year in 1662–80 to a peak of 76 000 in 1760–89. and a much larger proportion of the captives were absorbed within Africa. With the discovery of the Americas. H. central and Nilotic Sudan were slaves. 125. The British exported more than 2. in the late eighteenth century. Lovejoy shows the average price per slave in constant (1601) prices for 1663–1775. In the course of the seventeenth century. African traders controlled the slaves until the moment of sale. the average price was £2. buying and selling between African coastal markets. the reverse of the situation in the Americas.S.2 million from the Senegal–Gambia region and the Dutch about half a million. 6. they did not invent African slavery. There was large–scale raiding of poorly armed tribes without strong central authorities. and kidnapping of individual victims. However the Atlantic trade led to a massive increase in enslavement. The disruption caused by slavery reduced income in the areas from which slaves were seized. in fact. Between 650 and 1500. Slavery within black Africa rose substantially after the abolition movement reduced the Atlantic flow and the price of slaves dropped. most of them from Sierra Leone and the Guinea coast. and got smaller amounts in East Africa from Mutapa in Northern Zimbabwe. Their total shipments from 1500 to 1870 were about 4. weapons. Some were the offspring of slaves.9 and £15. Although the Portuguese pioneered the export of African slaves for plantation agriculture in the Americas. It was. The momentum of enslavement continued. on the coast of present day Ghana.16 per cent a year compared with 0. a strongly fortified base was created at Elmina. suggests that it probably represented less than 5 per cent of West African income. 30–50 per cent of the population of the western. A large proportion were captured in wars or were supplied as tribute by subject or dependent tribes. They succeeded in diverting a substantial part of West African gold exports from the Maghreb (see Table 6–4). to Arabia. The French took 1. They brought them to the coast or the riverbanks where they were sold to European traders. At their peak. The Atlantic Slave Trade. tobacco and alcohol. Europeans had very high mortality from African diseases. Population growth in black Africa was certainly reduced by slave exports. Portuguese also acted as intermediaries in the slave trade. The demographic losses were concentrated on tribes and people who were least able to protect themselves. p. they included Indian textiles made specially for the West African market. In the eighteenth century. which gave better access to the Ashanti gold mines. where they exchanged cloth. and India (see Table 6–5). where sugar production was developed with slave labour. bar iron. Within Africa. The trade goods which slave exporters received in exchange raised consumption but had little impact on production potential. In 1482. The Portuguese were driven out of these regions and concentrated on shipments from Angola to Brazil and Spanish America. jewellery. Between 1500 and 1820 it grew about 0. Portugal created an island settlement at São Tomé (in the Bight of Guinea). Lovejoy (2000). Portugal became the major slave–trader across the Atlantic.5 million.5 million slaves. gunpowder and cowrie shells from the Maldives.26 in Western Europe and 0. 191–210 estimates that.

The situation changed in the nineteenth century. In 1820. the traditional millet and sorghum 47 per cent. and the north American colonies from the beginning of the seventeenth century. development of alphabets etc. The most striking example of deficient property rights was slavery itself. The most important for the food supply and capacity to expand population were roots and tubers. which was closely linked with the polgygamous family structure and limitation on the rights of women. It could be left in reserve. European countries did nothing to transmit technical knowledge to Africa. nor did they attempt to promote education. tobacco and cocoa. By the seventeenth century it was present in Senegal. was the fragility of the states which emerged in the Muslim world (a point which applies a fortiori to black Africa). though Africans were not particularly susceptible to European diseases. In the Belgian Congo. the number of European origin in Africa rose to 2. the Niger delta and the Bight of Benin early in the sixteenth century. Cassava flour could be made into cakes for long distance travel and was a staple food for slaves in transit across the Atlantic. for long periods in good condition after ripening. There was a large increase of slave employment in peasant and plantation agriculture producing palm oil products. Maize (15 million tons) represented a third of black Africa’s cereal output. whose de facto situation was equivalent to slavery. with a servile labour force. The power elite were autocratic and predatory. Southeast and South Africa there was a rapid expansion of mining activity at the end of the century. These two institutions were probably the major impediment to physical and human capital formation. coffee. Mexico in 1539. Goitein’s (1967–93) detailed scrutiny of the Cairo Geniza archive led him to be very upbeat about the emergence of a commercial business class in Fatimid Egypt. We should note some African institutions which hindered development. Bananas and plantains were Asian crops widely diffused in East Africa before the Portuguese arrived.5 million in 1913. One of these. China had printing in the ninth century. which inhibited accumulation of capital and willingness to take business risks. but were not due to European influence. on which Ibn Khaldun commented at length. In Zanzibar. drought resistant and easy to cultivate. but freedom of enterprise was snuffed out in later dynasties. South Africa and Zanzibar. threequarters (43 million tons) of African output of roots and tubers came from cassava and sweet potatoes (see FAO. Western Europe from 1453. Peru 1584. peanuts. 1966). was rich in starch. It had high yields. Over the centuries these crops were widely diffused.The World Economy: Historical Statistics were slaves. Africa had diseases which caused very high rates of mortality to Europeans. He demonstrated the persistence of tribal affiliations and lineages. He stressed the cyclical rise and fall of Muslim regimes and saw no measure of progress from the seventh to the fourteenth century in which he lived. An important result of Portuguese contact with black Africa was the introduction of crops from the Americas. iron and vitamin C. In the mid–1960s. This was very obvious in the Mamluk regime in Egypt. Production Yearbook. there were only 50 thousand people of European descent in Africa (half of them at the Cape). compared to 13. 196 . transport (steamboats and railways) and medicine (quinine). rice 12 per cent and other cereals 8 per cent. African societies failed to secure property rights. Cassava (manioc) was brought from Brazil to the Congo. peanuts. It was a perennial plant. calcium. There were few countervailing forces in African societies. and the continuence of nomadic traditions destructive of attempts to develop sedentary agriculture and urban civilisation. tolerant of a wide variety of soils. The first printing press in Africa was established in Cairo in 1822. unharvested. tea. Due to improvements in European weaponry. Maize was an American crop which the Portuguese introduced on the west and east African coasts. Other significant American plants which were important in the long term were beans. Africans had much better weapons to defend themselves than the indigenous population of the Americas. rubber and cloves were later introductions from Asia. Sweet potatoes were another significant addition to Africa’s food supply. the slave population rose from 15 000 in 1818 to 100 000 in the 1860s. the Congo basin. printing. invulnerable to locusts. cloves and cotton for export.4 million in the Americas.

no. 3 for 1913–39. Illinois. Hansen and G. His 1886/7 level seems implausibly low. Sources for the sample countries were as follows: Egypt: Population to 1870 from McEvedy and Jones (1978). where his measures covered 1910–55 and 1920–55 respectively. given the substantial expansion in agricultural output. New York. I followed a similar procedure for Tunisia and Morocco. p. 561–79. Table 6-6. Paris. Tunisian 1820–1913 and Moroccan 1820–1870 from McEvedy and Jones (1978). 223. p. “Income and Consumption in Egypt. 104–5. I have added Algeria and Tunisia. Amsterdam.C. p. The last column of Table 6–6 compares my results with the proxy estimates of Tarik Yousef (2002). 10. $) 1 992 475 Yousef Proxy per capita GDP (1990 int. 1886–1945 from D.A.286. I linked his GDP volume movement to my estimate of the 1955 level in 1990 international dollars. Ghana. Mead (1967). pp.Africa Evidence and Conjectures on the Pace of Development. 1820-2001 Population (000) 1820 4 194 GDP (million 1990 int. 1820–1950 Six Country Sample: Maddison (2001) contained pre–1950 estimates for Egypt. International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies. 1886/1887 to 1937”. Yousef cites a miscellany of sources (including those I have used) to show that the broad contours of his proxy estimates are congruent with direct estimates for the first half of the twentieth century. 318 for 1939–45. $) Per capita GDP (1990 int. For Algeria. Hansen (1979). p. 6. North Holland. He derives nominal GDP by a regression procedure using the money supply and assumed velocity of its circulation. 48/4 December. Marzouk (1965) Development and Economic Policy in the UAR (Egypt). 1886/ 7–1912 movement of per capita GDP from B. Irwin. GDP and Per Capita GDP. 1929–39 GDP movement from B. Algerian population 1820–1930. exports and infrastructure investment between 1820 and the 1880s (which he acknowledges at the beginning of his article). Equity and Growth: Egypt and Turkey. pp. He deflates it with a price index and divides by population. p. The Political Economy of Poverty. 1913–45 from B. “Egypt’s Growth Performance under Economic Liberalism: A Reassessment with New GDP Estimates. GDP 1945– 50 from Mead. Amin’s estimates cover benchmark years between 1880 and 1955. pp. and extended the estimates for Egypt and Ghana. 1870 per capita GDP derived by logarithmic interpolation between his 1880 estimate and my conjecture for 1820. Morocco and Tunisia: GDP from Samir Amin (1966). I show his per capita GDP movement linked to my estimate of the 1945 level. l’Économie du Maghreb. Per capita estimate for 1870 derived by logarithmic interpolation between the 1886/7 estimate and my conjecture for 1820. 1913 by interpolation between his figures for 1910 and 1920. Egyptian Population. Morocco and South Africa. Editions de Minuit. Hansen (1991). However. Growth and Structural Change in the Egyptian Economy. p. 295 and 302. $) 1870 7 049 4 573 649 1886/7 7 572 5 443 719 452 1913 12 144 10 950 902 825 1929 14 602 12 744 873 828 1939 16 588 14 790 892 812 1945 18 460 14 790 801 801 1950 21 198 19 288 910 2001 71 902 215 109 2 992 Algeria. 1886–1945”. there is a big discrepancy between his 1886–1913 per capita movement and mine. OUP. 29. 197 . Review of Income and Wealth.

He assumed the traditional sector expanded in line with population from 1891–1911 and rose about half in per capita terms from 1911 to 1960. 1820-2001 Population (000) GDP (million 1990 int. in 1891 to 89 million in 1911. 1913 GDP is an extrapolation of his 1901–11 sector growth rates. $) 1820 1 374 570 415 1870 1 500 693 462 1891 1 650 798 484 1901 1 800 960 533 1911 2 000 1 393 697 1913 2 043 1 595 781 1950 5 297 5 943 1 122 1960 6 958 9 591 1 378 2001 19 843 26 012 1 311 Szereszewski distinguished between the traditional and modern sectors. Structural Changes in the Economy of Ghana. Szereszewski (1965).The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 6. $) Per Capita GDP (1990 int. 1820-2001 Population (000) GDP (million 1990 int. pp. Table 6-8. Weidenfeld and Nicolson. Cocoa exports rose from 80 lbs. Algerian Population. 74.7. 245. $) 1820 2 689 1 157 430 1870 3 776 2 700 715 1880 4 183 3 312 792 1910 5 378 6 040 1 123 1913 5 497 6 395 1 163 1920 5 785 7 307 1 263 1930 6 507 8 963 1 377 1950 8 893 12 136 1 365 1955 9 842 14 224 1 445 2001 31 736 89 286 2 813 Ghana: R. To a large degree the cocoa boom was sustained by more intensive use of land and previously underemployed rural labour. 198 . 92–3. Ghanaian Population. $) Per Capita GDP (1990 int. The new components rose nearly 8 per cent a year in the two decades he scrutinised in detail. and 149 presents detailed estimates of GDP and population for 1891–1911. 126. and 1960. Table 6–8 links his GDP movement to the 1960 level in 1990 international dollars. London. when 600 thousand acres and 185 thousand man–years were absorbed in its production. the 1870 per capita level an interpolation between 1891 and my conjecture for 1820. GDP and Per Capita GDP. p. Population 1820-1870 derived from McEvedy and Jones (1978). GDP and Per Capita GDP.

Africa The second dynamic element was gold. The chief beneficiaries were white settlers. Although direct GDP estimates are not available. the Orange Free State and Transvaal. The discovery of huge reserves in South Africa in 1886 sparked an analogous euphoria and investment boom in Ghana. By 1913. Fourie. Macmillan. taken the best land and water supplies from Xhosa. processed. By 1901. Zulu and other indigenous groups and exploited various forms of semi–servile labour. investment in modern port facilities in Secondi and Accra. 42 companies were operating. The main benefits of growth were felt by the locals. “Contribution of Factors of Production and Productivity to South African Economic Growth” IARIW. There were also improvements in transport facilities from Accra to its cocoa– growing hinterland. and by 1911. 1870-1913 (kilometres per million population) 1870 Algeria 1913 70 632 168 359 Ghana 0 165 Morocco 0 84 Tunisia 0 1 105 South Africa 0 2 300 Argentina 408 4 374 Australia 861 6 944 Egypt India United Kingdom United States Source: 38 184 685 715 2 117 9 989 International Historical Statistics: Africa and Asia. 64. 199 . In the next twenty years the discovery of diamonds and gold created a boom in investment and immigration. Pretoria. It had been exported for centuries.3 million whites (22 per cent of the population). 1960. it seems clear that South Africa was the most dynamic of the sample countries from 1820 to 1913. The export ratio rose from 8 to 19 per cent of GDP between 1891 and 1911. and development of internal river transport by steam launches. Table 6–9 on the expansion of the rail network per head of population provides a clue to the comparative dynamics of African development. By 1870 there were quarter of a million whites who had fanned out East and North into Natal. p. South Africa: GDP movement 1912–20 from Bureau of Census and Statistics. Union Statistics for Fifty Years. 1971. In 1820 they were 30 000 (2 per cent of the population) displacing relatively weak and thinly settled indigenous herdsmen and hunters (Khoisan) in the Cape settlement which was then mainly a staging post for trade with Asia. London. with an elaborate system of social segregation to buttress their privileged position.1 per cent of the population). In Algeria at that time there were three–quarters of a million European settlers (about 14 per cent of the total). and in the 1870s there was a beginning of modern operations. 1920–50 from L. 1982 and Maddison. Table 6-9. 1870 per capita GDP level was derived by interpolation of the direct estimate for 1913 and my conjecture for 1820. a railway connection had been built from the coast to Kumasi through the gold mining areas. In 1911 there were 2 245 Europeans (about 0. there were 1. 1995.J. Length of Railway Line in Service.

Non–sample per capita GDP in 1870 is an interpolation between the conjecture for 1820 and that for 1913. 1. it was more than three times as high. and in 2001. Average per capita income in the sample countries in 1950 was more than twice the level in the rest of Africa. 200 . the total for the non–sample countries and for Africa as a whole. was about twice as fast in the sample as in the other countries. African GDP and Population Movement. as can be seen from the bottom panel. Table 6-10. The pace of population growth.19 per cent a year compared with 0. 1820–1950. Per capita income was assumed to increase at the same pace in the non–sample as the average for the sample countries between 1913 and 1950.77 per cent.The World Economy: Historical Statistics The top panel of Table 6–10 shows population in the 6 sample countries 1820–2001. 1820-2001 a Population (000) 1820 1870 1913 1950 2001 Algeria Egypt Ghana Morocco Tunisia South Africa 6 country total 2 689 4 194 1 374 2 689 875 1 550 13 371 3 776 7 049 1 500 3 776 1 176 2 547 19 824 5 497 12 144 2 043 5 111 1 870 6 153 32 818 8 893 21 198 5 297 9 343 3 517 13 596 61 844 31 736 71 902 19 843 30 645 9 705 42 573 206 404 51 other countries 60 865 70 642 91 879 165 489 614 684 African Total 74 236 90 466 124 697 227 333 821 088 GDP (million 1990 international Geary-Khamis $) Algeria Egypt Ghana Morocco Tunisia South Africa 6 country total 1 157 1 992 570 1 156 376 643 5 894 2 700 4 573 693 2 126 744 2 185 13 021 6 395 10 950 1 595 3 630 1 651 9 857 34 078 12 136 19 288 5 943 13 598 3 920 34 465 89 350 89 286 215 109 26 012 82 255 45 714 179 162 637 538 51 other countries 25 267 32 213 45 408 113 781 585 038 African Total 31 161 45 234 79 486 203 131 1 222 577 Per Capita GDP (1990 international Geary-Khamis $) a) Algeria Egypt Ghana Morocco Tunisia South Africa 6 country average 430 475 415 430 430 415 441 715 649 462 563 633 858 657 1 163 902 781 710 883 1 602 1 038 1 365 910 1 122 1 455 1 115 2 535 1 445 2 813 2 992 1 311 2 782 4 710 4 208 3 089 51 other countries 415 456 494 688 952 African Average 420 500 637 894 1 489 Conjectures are in italics.

Burundi (from $3 520 to $3 879). It seceded in 1991. adjusted to a 1990 basis. pp. 2 from their January 1995 diskette.1 (October 2002) and raised the 1990 GDP level for Burkina Faso (from $5 482 to $6 748 million). Ethiopia and Eritrea (from $18 964 to $29 593). Col. and Zaire from ($17 304 to $19 922). Eritrea became part of a federation with Ethiopia in 1952. Table 6-11.econ.gov).census. p. As some of the changes are very large. as PWT 5.1 estimates for Burkina Faso. PWT Version 6. 31 855 8 531 6 173 5 314 7 671 83 696 139 453 5 040 12 139 3 021 2 181 13 199 35 312 10 684 20 391 This table compares three sets of PWT estimates with ICP5 results (which are available for only 22 African countries). 6. Eritrean population was 6. Egypt (from $112 873 to $143 000). Lesotho (from $1 828 to $2 033). and in Maddison (2001) I updated using the volume movement of GDP. 2000.a. Egypt. and independence was approved in a 1993 referendum.1. Equatorial Guinea. 310–327. Summers and A.5 per cent of the total for the two countries in 1950. 1994. Ten years later it was annexed as a province. In some cases PWT 5. Center for International Comparisons at the University of Pennsylvania (CICUP). Helena. n. and the change in the US GDP deflator between that year and 1990.1 estimates are lower than those of 5.6. 201 .2 per cent in 2001.S.a. Robert Summers and Bettina Aten. I have used the new PWT 6. May 1991. Burundi. “The Penn World Table (Mark 5): An Expanded Set of International Comparisons. Quarterly Journal of Economics. São Tomé & Principe. October 2002 (USBC at www. I have adopted 6. September.6 estimates seemed implausibly low. Sahara.Africa Updates for 1950–2001 Annual estimates for 1950–2001 are an update and revision of those for 1950–1998 in Maddison (2001). Col. ICP 5 from UN/Eurostat. Although some PWT 6. I also made proxy estimates for Libya. World Economic Outlook. There was a border war 1998–2000.5 PWT 5. Col. I prefer to wait until a further PWT round is available before adopting the new African estimates en bloc. 1990 benchmark GDP levels in million 1990 international Geary–Khamis dollars were derived from Penn World Tables version 5. 1950– 1988”. Ethiopia and Eritrea.a. October 2002 (http://pwt. 1 from annex to R.edu). GDP volume movement 1950–2001 revised and updated for 1993 onwards from IMF. I amalgamated Eritrea and Ethiopia. Lesotho and Zaire. US Bureau of the Census. Population 1950–2001 is from International Programs Center.6 in Maddison (2001). 5. Heston.6 PWT 6. World Comparisons of Real GDP and Purchasing Power 1985.upenn. Italics indicate countries where the GDP level has been raised. St. Mayotte. Alternative Estimates of African 1990 GDP Levels by ICP and PWT (million international Geary-Khamis dollars) Benin Botswana Cameroon Congo Côte d'Ivoire Egypt Ethiopia Gabon Guinea Kenya Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritius Morocco Nigeria Rwanda Senegal Sierra Leone Swaziland Tanzania Tunisia Zambia Zimbabwe Source: PWT 5.1 ICP 5 5 248 5 479 17 115 5 972 14 568 105 684 17 891 3 639 3 087 26 028 9 093 4 840 5 059 7 211 60 193 96 521 5 360 9 351 4 041 1 580 14 676 26 421 6 935 14 913 5 347 4 178 14 393 5 394 16 330 112 873 18 964 4 500 3 304 26 093 9 210 5 146 6 040 7 652 64 082 107 459 6 125 10 032 4 325 2 154 13 852 27 387 6 432 13 766 4 333 6 382 21 881 3 578 20 009 143 000 26 496 7 736 13 351 24 354 8 949 4 719 5 878 8 646 72 464 94 572 6 050 10 298 4 571 n. Here (see Table 6–11). New York. Other striking cases are a 63 percent rise for South Africa and a 47 percent rise for Algeria. 3 from Alan Heston. and W.6 referred to a year before 1990. the overall result for the 45 countries now available is to raise African GDP by 28 percent. with detail for another nine countries. 11 043 35 131 7 879 24 712 6 629 5 662 41 534 5 358 18 528 194 267 18 622 n.

Population of 57 African Countries. 1950-2003 (000 at mid-year) 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Algeria Angola Benin Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi 8 893 9 073 9 280 9 532 9 611 9 842 10 057 10 271 10 485 10 696 10 909 11 122 11 001 11 273 11 613 11 963 12 339 12 760 13 146 13 528 13 932 14 335 14 761 15 198 15 653 16 140 16 635 17 153 17 703 18 266 18 862 19 484 20 132 20 803 21 488 22 182 22 844 23 485 24 102 24 722 25 341 25 958 26 570 27 176 27 775 28 364 28 946 29 521 30 088 30 646 31 194 31 736 32 278 32 819 4 118 4 173 4 232 4 294 4 358 4 423 4 491 4 561 4 636 4 715 4 797 4 752 4 826 4 920 5 026 5 135 5 201 5 247 5 350 5 472 5 606 5 751 5 891 6 021 5 978 5 879 5 938 6 161 6 279 6 450 6 736 6 877 7 020 7 143 7 256 7 399 7 544 7 669 7 805 7 919 8 049 8 237 8 472 8 689 8 894 9 218 9 443 9 560 9 736 9 922 10 132 10 342 10 554 10 766 1 673 1 705 1 738 1 773 1 809 1 846 1 885 1 925 1 967 2 010 2 055 2 102 2 152 2 203 2 256 2 311 2 368 2 427 2 489 2 553 2 620 2 689 2 761 2 836 2 914 2 996 3 080 3 168 3 260 3 355 3 444 3 540 3 641 3 748 3 861 3 980 4 104 4 234 4 371 4 513 4 662 4 817 4 976 5 140 5 309 5 484 5 664 5 848 6 037 6 230 6 428 6 630 6 835 7 041 430 436 442 448 455 461 468 475 482 489 497 505 513 521 530 538 546 554 562 572 584 600 620 645 675 709 748 789 832 874 914 950 986 1 023 1 063 1 103 1 145 1 189 1 232 1 273 1 312 1 349 1 384 1 418 1 451 1 481 1 509 1 533 1 554 1 569 1 578 1 581 1 579 1 573 4 376 4 423 4 470 4 518 4 566 4 614 4 664 4 713 4 764 4 814 4 866 4 920 4 978 5 041 5 109 5 182 5 261 5 344 5 434 5 529 5 626 5 726 5 833 5 947 6 069 6 199 6 336 6 478 6 626 6 780 6 942 7 111 7 288 7 474 7 670 7 876 8 072 8 275 8 517 8 799 9 090 9 390 9 701 10 005 10 302 10 608 10 922 11 242 11 564 11 889 12 217 12 549 12 887 13 228 2 363 2 403 2 445 2 487 2 531 2 575 2 619 2 665 2 712 2 760 2 812 2 890 2 957 3 003 3 083 3 164 3 247 3 323 3 393 3 451 3 513 3 587 3 520 3 529 3 583 3 664 3 736 3 821 3 915 4 013 4 138 4 214 4 344 4 531 4 668 4 809 4 952 5 110 5 284 5 459 5 285 5 393 5 478 5 590 5 761 5 392 5 366 5 405 5 487 5 603 5 714 5 838 5 965 6 096 202 Cameroon Cape Verde 4 888 4 947 5 009 5 074 5 141 5 211 5 284 5 360 5 439 5 522 5 609 5 699 5 794 5 892 5 996 6 104 6 217 6 336 6 460 6 590 6 727 6 870 7 021 7 179 7 346 7 522 7 721 7 960 8 207 8 451 8 748 9 024 9 251 9 522 9 816 10 130 10 457 10 779 11 096 11 390 11 685 12 006 12 323 12 635 12 942 13 245 13 547 13 853 14 162 14 475 14 792 15 110 15 428 15 746 146 151 155 160 164 169 174 180 185 191 197 203 210 217 224 232 239 247 254 262 269 273 275 277 279 280 283 286 289 292 296 300 305 309 314 319 325 331 337 343 349 356 362 368 373 379 384 388 393 397 401 405 409 412 .The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 6a.

Chad 1 260 1 275 1 292 1 309 1 328 1 348 1 370 1 392 1 416 1 441 1 467 1 495 1 523 1 553 1 585 1 628 1 683 1 729 1 756 1 785 1 827 1 869 1 910 1 945 1 983 2 031 2 071 2 111 2 153 2 197 2 244 2 291 2 338 2 385 2 451 2 516 2 556 2 600 2 654 2 728 2 803 2 882 2 964 3 053 3 139 3 204 3 262 3 322 3 383 3 442 3 501 3 562 3 623 3 684 2 608 2 644 2 682 2 722 2 763 2 805 2 849 2 895 2 942 2 991 3 042 3 095 3 150 3 208 3 271 3 345 3 420 3 496 3 573 3 650 3 731 3 814 3 899 3 989 4 082 4 180 4 282 4 389 4 499 4 544 4 542 4 648 4 877 5 074 5 125 5 170 5 316 5 502 5 678 5 834 6 030 6 242 6 443 6 675 6 912 7 138 7 374 7 619 7 875 8 144 8 419 8 693 8 971 9 253 Comoros 148 151 154 157 160 164 167 171 175 179 183 187 192 196 201 206 212 217 223 230 236 243 250 257 265 273 281 305 314 324 334 341 349 357 366 375 385 395 406 417 429 441 454 468 482 497 512 528 544 561 578 596 614 633 Congo 768 781 794 809 824 840 856 874 892 911 931 952 974 996 1 020 1 044 1 070 1 097 1 124 1 153 1 183 1 214 1 246 1 279 1 314 1 360 1 409 1 461 1 515 1 571 1 629 1 691 1 755 1 822 1 901 1 955 2 010 2 067 2 123 2 181 2 240 2 298 2 356 2 415 2 474 2 532 2 590 2 647 2 703 2 757 2 809 2 860 2 908 2 954 Côte d'Ivoire 2 860 2 918 2 977 3 037 3 099 3 164 3 231 3 300 3 374 3 463 3 576 3 700 3 832 3 985 4 148 4 327 4 527 4 745 4 984 5 235 5 504 5 786 6 072 6 352 6 622 6 889 7 151 7 419 7 692 7 973 8 261 8 558 8 866 9 185 9 517 9 864 10 221 10 585 10 956 11 361 11 901 12 421 12 775 13 185 13 669 14 115 14 503 14 830 15 119 15 475 15 866 16 234 16 598 16 962 203 Djibouti Egypt 60 62 63 65 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 84 90 96 103 111 119 128 137 147 158 169 179 189 198 208 217 229 248 263 279 294 306 316 289 297 304 311 327 350 366 375 384 393 403 409 414 418 422 427 431 438 447 457 21 198 21 704 22 223 22 755 23 299 23 856 24 426 25 010 25 608 26 220 26 847 27 523 28 173 28 821 29 533 30 265 30 986 31 681 32 338 32 966 33 574 34 184 34 807 35 480 36 216 36 952 37 737 38 784 40 020 41 258 42 634 44 196 45 682 47 093 48 550 50 052 51 593 52 799 54 024 55 263 56 694 58 139 59 402 60 677 61 983 63 322 64 705 66 134 67 602 69 067 70 492 71 902 73 313 74 719 Eritrea and Ethiopia 21 577 21 939 22 314 22 703 23 107 23 526 23 961 24 412 24 880 25 364 25 864 26 380 26 913 27 464 28 034 28 621 29 228 29 839 30 480 31 154 31 826 32 519 33 257 34 028 34 838 35 673 36 588 37 443 38 084 38 568 38 967 39 555 40 463 41 565 42 815 43 448 44 434 45 816 47 439 49 174 50 902 53 199 55 240 56 537 57 967 59 511 61 042 62 536 64 004 65 502 66 895 68 208 69 560 70 920 Gabon 416 418 421 423 426 429 432 435 438 442 446 450 456 461 468 474 482 489 497 504 515 526 538 561 597 648 688 706 726 722 714 731 754 779 805 833 859 881 900 919 938 961 987 1 014 1 041 1 070 1 099 1 129 1 160 1 191 1 223 1 255 1 288 1 322 .Africa Table 6a. 1950-2003 (000 at mid-year) 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Central African Rep. Population of 57 African Countries.

1950-2003 (000 at mid-year) Gambia 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 271 278 284 291 299 306 315 323 332 342 352 363 374 386 399 412 426 440 454 469 485 501 517 534 552 570 589 608 628 649 671 693 716 739 767 796 827 858 891 926 962 999 1 036 1 075 1 115 1 156 1 197 1 238 1 281 1 324 1 367 1 411 1 456 1 501 Ghana 5 297 5 437 5 581 5 731 5 887 6 049 6 217 6 391 6 573 6 761 6 958 7 154 7 355 7 564 7 782 8 010 8 245 8 490 8 744 9 009 8 789 9 066 9 354 9 650 9 905 10 119 10 333 10 538 10 721 10 878 11 016 11 177 11 401 12 157 12 829 13 228 13 778 14 170 14 569 14 977 15 400 15 837 16 278 16 784 17 272 17 668 18 046 18 419 18 795 19 159 19 509 19 843 20 163 20 468 Guinea Guinea Bissau 2 586 2 625 2 664 2 705 2 745 2 787 2 831 2 877 2 925 2 975 3 028 3 083 3 140 3 199 3 259 3 321 3 385 3 451 3 519 3 589 3 661 3 735 3 811 3 890 3 970 4 053 4 139 4 227 4 318 4 411 4 508 4 607 4 710 4 816 5 046 5 327 5 504 5 650 5 800 5 955 6 280 6 727 6 988 7 194 7 429 7 682 7 949 8 048 8 176 8 434 8 642 8 717 8 816 9 030 573 577 581 584 588 592 596 601 606 611 617 622 628 634 610 604 598 601 611 616 620 623 625 633 640 681 733 745 758 771 789 807 826 846 865 886 906 928 950 973 996 1 020 1 051 1 084 1 116 1 142 1 165 1 193 1 221 1 250 1 278 1 306 1 333 1 361 204 Kenya 6 121 6 289 6 464 6 646 6 836 7 034 7 240 7 455 7 679 7 913 8 157 8 412 8 679 8 957 9 248 9 549 9 864 10 192 10 532 10 888 11 272 11 685 12 126 12 594 13 090 13 615 14 171 14 762 15 386 16 045 16 698 17 369 18 059 18 769 19 499 20 247 21 006 21 761 22 504 23 229 23 934 24 670 25 524 26 269 26 852 27 463 28 074 28 681 29 266 29 811 30 310 30 777 31 223 31 639 Lesotho Liberia 726 737 749 761 773 786 800 813 828 843 859 875 893 912 932 952 974 996 1 019 1 043 1 067 1 092 1 117 1 142 1 169 1 195 1 223 1 252 1 281 1 312 1 344 1 377 1 412 1 447 1 484 1 521 1 559 1 596 1 631 1 664 1 693 1 718 1 740 1 760 1 778 1 794 1 807 1 820 1 830 1 840 1 847 1 853 1 858 1 862 824 843 863 884 906 928 952 976 1 001 1 028 1 055 1 083 1 113 1 144 1 175 1 209 1 243 1 279 1 317 1 356 1 397 1 439 1 483 1 528 1 575 1 624 1 675 1 727 1 780 1 835 1 892 1 951 2 011 2 074 2 138 2 205 2 274 2 345 2 418 2 493 2 189 1 892 1 985 2 063 2 057 1 980 2 025 2 296 2 655 2 974 3 149 3 206 3 262 3 317 Madagascar 4 620 4 690 4 763 4 839 4 919 5 003 5 090 5 182 5 277 5 378 5 482 5 590 5 703 5 821 5 944 6 070 6 200 6 335 6 473 6 616 6 766 6 920 7 082 7 250 7 424 7 604 7 805 8 007 8 217 8 442 8 677 8 920 9 171 9 432 9 702 9 981 10 270 10 569 10 877 11 194 11 522 11 860 12 210 12 573 12 950 13 340 13 746 14 165 14 598 15 045 15 506 15 983 16 473 16 980 . Population of 57 African Countries.The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 6a.

Population of 57 African Countries. 1950-2003 (000 at mid-year) Malawi 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2 817 2 866 2 918 2 972 3 029 3 088 3 152 3 221 3 295 3 370 3 450 3 532 3 629 3 726 3 816 3 914 4 023 4 147 4 264 4 379 4 489 4 606 4 731 4 865 5 031 5 268 5 473 5 637 5 792 5 956 6 129 6 311 6 503 6 703 6 909 7 124 7 391 7 817 8 327 8 800 9 215 9 549 9 871 9 997 9 767 9 656 9 855 10 103 10 356 10 613 10 874 11 134 11 393 11 651 Mali 3 688 3 761 3 835 3 911 3 988 4 067 4 148 4 230 4 314 4 399 4 486 4 576 4 668 4 763 4 862 4 963 5 068 5 177 5 289 5 405 5 525 5 649 5 777 5 909 6 046 6 188 6 334 6 422 6 517 6 620 6 731 6 849 6 975 7 110 7 255 7 408 7 569 7 738 7 884 8 050 8 228 8 412 8 565 8 719 8 911 9 157 9 452 9 746 10 054 10 360 10 665 10 980 11 300 11 626 Mauritania Mauritius 1 006 1 014 1 023 1 032 1 042 1 053 1 065 1 077 1 090 1 103 1 117 1 132 1 147 1 162 1 178 1 195 1 212 1 231 1 249 1 269 1 289 1 311 1 333 1 356 1 380 1 404 1 430 1 457 1 485 1 516 1 550 1 585 1 622 1 662 1 703 1 747 1 793 1 841 1 892 1 937 1 984 2 041 2 119 2 205 2 279 2 342 2 389 2 445 2 515 2 591 2 668 2 747 2 829 2 913 481 499 517 536 554 572 592 610 628 645 663 681 701 715 736 756 774 789 804 816 830 841 851 861 873 885 898 913 929 947 964 979 992 1 002 1 012 1 022 1 032 1 043 1 052 1 063 1 074 1 085 1 096 1 107 1 118 1 129 1 139 1 150 1 160 1 169 1 179 1 190 1 200 1 210 Morocco Mozambique 9 343 9 634 9 939 10 206 10 487 10 782 11 089 11 406 11 735 12 074 12 423 12 736 13 057 13 385 13 722 14 066 14 415 14 770 15 137 15 517 15 909 16 313 16 661 16 998 17 335 17 687 18 043 18 397 18 758 19 126 19 487 19 846 20 199 20 740 21 296 21 857 22 422 22 987 23 555 24 122 24 686 25 244 25 798 26 351 26 901 27 447 27 990 28 530 29 066 29 597 30 122 30 645 31 168 31 689 205 6 250 6 346 6 446 6 552 6 664 6 782 6 906 7 038 7 177 7 321 7 472 7 628 7 789 7 957 8 127 8 301 8 486 8 681 8 884 9 093 9 304 9 539 9 810 10 088 10 370 10 433 10 770 11 128 11 466 11 828 12 103 12 364 12 588 12 775 12 926 13 065 13 143 12 889 12 517 12 467 12 649 12 912 13 149 13 638 14 663 15 522 15 898 16 184 16 453 16 704 16 934 17 142 17 324 17 479 Namibia 464 475 486 497 509 522 535 548 562 576 591 606 621 637 654 671 689 707 725 745 765 786 808 831 854 879 905 923 935 955 975 988 1 011 1 045 1 080 1 116 1 154 1 196 1 256 1 339 1 409 1 450 1 491 1 532 1 575 1 618 1 661 1 704 1 746 1 787 1 826 1 863 1 897 1 927 Niger 2 482 2 538 2 597 2 659 2 723 2 790 2 859 2 931 3 007 3 085 3 168 3 253 3 343 3 437 3 533 3 633 3 735 3 842 3 951 4 064 4 182 4 303 4 429 4 559 4 695 4 836 4 984 5 139 5 294 5 459 5 629 5 806 5 988 6 189 6 389 6 589 6 802 7 016 7 237 7 428 7 630 7 844 8 069 8 307 8 557 8 819 9 085 9 345 9 611 9 888 10 174 10 465 10 760 11 059 Nigeria 31 797 32 449 33 119 33 809 34 632 35 464 36 311 37 178 38 068 38 981 39 920 40 884 41 876 42 897 43 946 45 025 46 143 47 305 48 515 49 776 51 113 52 495 53 914 55 415 57 084 58 916 60 819 62 822 64 953 67 224 69 629 72 092 74 538 75 901 77 544 79 884 81 971 84 505 87 115 89 801 92 566 95 390 98 270 101 227 104 260 107 372 110 552 113 787 117 072 120 397 123 750 127 120 130 500 133 882 .Africa Table 6a.

1950-2003 (000 at mid-year) 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Reunion Rwanda 244 251 258 266 274 286 296 309 318 327 338 348 359 371 384 393 403 414 425 436 445 453 462 469 475 481 487 492 497 502 507 512 518 523 533 542 551 562 574 585 597 610 622 635 647 660 672 685 697 709 721 733 744 755 2 439 2 486 2 535 2 587 2 641 2 698 2 759 2 822 2 889 2 959 3 032 3 046 3 051 3 129 3 184 3 265 3 358 3 451 3 548 3 657 3 769 3 880 3 992 4 110 4 226 4 357 4 502 4 657 4 819 4 976 5 139 5 311 5 510 5 705 5 868 6 023 6 186 6 375 6 584 6 781 6 962 7 150 7 328 7 489 6 441 5 723 6 008 7 199 7 159 7 291 7 405 7 532 7 668 7 810 Senegal 2 654 2 703 2 756 2 810 2 867 2 927 2 989 3 055 3 123 3 195 3 270 3 348 3 430 3 516 3 636 3 744 3 857 3 966 4 074 4 193 4 318 4 450 4 589 4 727 4 872 4 989 5 101 5 232 5 365 5 501 5 640 5 783 5 930 6 082 6 239 6 400 6 568 6 740 6 918 7 137 7 362 7 592 7 821 8 050 8 284 8 525 8 774 9 022 9 273 9 527 9 784 10 046 10 311 10 580 Seychelles 33 33 33 34 35 36 38 38 39 40 42 43 44 45 47 48 49 50 51 53 54 56 57 58 59 61 62 63 64 65 66 68 68 69 70 71 71 72 72 73 73 74 75 76 76 77 78 78 78 79 79 80 80 80 206 Sierra Leone Somalia 2 087 2 115 2 143 2 172 2 202 2 233 2 264 2 296 2 328 2 362 2 396 2 432 2 468 2 505 2 543 2 582 2 622 2 662 2 704 2 746 2 789 2 834 2 879 2 925 2 974 3 027 3 083 3 141 3 201 3 263 3 327 3 394 3 465 3 538 3 615 3 696 3 781 3 870 3 963 4 061 4 226 4 340 4 270 4 229 4 332 4 507 4 633 4 727 4 895 5 053 5 203 5 388 5 565 5 733 2 438 2 482 2 527 2 574 2 623 2 673 2 726 2 780 2 837 2 895 2 956 3 017 3 080 3 145 3 213 3 283 3 354 3 429 3 506 3 585 3 667 3 752 3 840 3 932 4 027 4 128 4 238 4 354 4 678 5 309 5 791 5 825 5 829 6 003 6 207 6 446 6 700 6 922 6 900 6 748 6 675 6 448 6 100 6 060 6 178 6 291 6 461 6 634 6 843 7 044 7 253 7 489 7 753 8 025 South Africa Sudan 13 596 13 926 14 265 14 624 14 992 15 369 15 755 16 152 16 558 16 975 17 417 17 870 18 357 18 857 19 371 19 898 20 440 20 997 21 569 22 157 22 740 23 338 23 936 24 549 25 179 25 815 26 468 27 130 27 809 28 506 29 252 30 018 30 829 31 664 32 523 33 406 34 156 34 894 35 640 36 406 37 191 37 924 38 656 39 271 39 762 40 256 40 723 41 194 41 658 42 048 42 351 42 573 42 716 42 769 8 051 8 275 8 505 8 741 8 984 9 233 9 490 9 753 10 024 10 303 10 589 10 882 11 183 11 493 11 801 12 086 12 377 12 716 13 059 13 403 13 788 14 182 14 597 15 113 15 571 16 056 16 570 17 105 17 712 18 387 19 064 19 702 20 367 21 751 22 543 23 454 24 171 24 726 25 240 25 838 26 627 27 446 28 228 28 964 29 771 30 567 31 307 32 161 33 108 34 085 35 080 36 080 37 090 38 114 Swaziland 277 284 290 297 304 311 319 327 335 343 352 361 370 380 389 399 410 421 432 443 455 467 480 493 507 521 536 551 568 588 611 631 650 673 697 722 751 779 817 852 885 926 963 992 997 1 005 1 031 1 057 1 080 1 101 1 120 1 136 1 150 1 161 .The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 6a. Population of 57 African Countries.

Population of 57 African Countries. 1950-2003 (000 at mid-year) 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Tanzania Togo Tunisia Uganda Zaire Zambia Zimbabwe 7 935 8 125 8 323 8 529 8 745 8 971 9 206 9 453 9 711 9 979 10 260 10 555 10 864 11 185 11 522 11 870 12 231 12 607 12 999 13 412 13 842 14 285 14 769 15 279 15 775 16 258 16 754 17 276 17 814 18 355 18 915 19 496 20 093 20 718 21 367 22 036 22 732 23 485 24 236 24 946 25 651 26 376 27 134 28 029 29 096 30 016 30 618 31 282 32 098 32 920 33 768 34 583 35 302 35 922 1 172 1 195 1 219 1 244 1 271 1 298 1 327 1 357 1 389 1 422 1 456 1 491 1 528 1 566 1 606 1 648 1 691 1 736 1 782 1 830 1 964 2 019 2 075 2 133 2 192 2 254 2 317 2 382 2 450 2 521 2 596 2 686 2 777 2 875 2 979 3 088 3 202 3 321 3 446 3 574 3 705 3 837 3 972 3 960 4 001 4 229 4 435 4 612 4 759 4 897 5 033 5 167 5 299 5 429 3 517 3 583 3 648 3 713 3 779 3 846 3 903 3 951 4 007 4 075 4 149 4 216 4 287 4 374 4 468 4 566 4 676 4 787 4 894 4 996 5 099 5 198 5 304 5 426 5 556 5 704 5 859 6 005 6 136 6 280 6 443 6 606 6 734 6 860 7 185 7 362 7 545 7 725 7 895 8 053 8 207 8 364 8 523 8 680 8 831 8 972 9 105 9 234 9 359 9 479 9 593 9 705 9 816 9 925 5 522 5 671 5 825 5 983 6 148 6 317 6 493 6 676 6 864 7 059 7 262 7 472 7 689 7 914 8 147 8 389 8 640 8 900 9 170 9 450 9 728 9 984 10 191 10 386 10 621 10 891 11 171 11 459 11 757 12 034 12 298 12 597 12 941 13 323 13 765 14 232 14 746 15 348 15 991 16 633 17 242 17 857 18 499 19 193 19 897 20 455 20 984 21 599 22 221 22 855 23 496 24 170 24 889 25 633 13 569 13 819 14 075 14 335 14 605 14 886 15 178 15 481 15 796 16 123 16 462 16 798 17 300 17 819 18 203 18 604 19 068 19 640 20 242 20 822 21 395 21 969 22 559 23 186 23 810 24 467 25 175 25 776 26 462 27 418 28 129 28 821 29 780 30 536 31 280 32 260 33 302 34 409 35 564 36 742 37 969 39 270 40 530 41 844 43 256 45 706 46 623 47 451 48 831 50 288 51 810 53 455 55 042 56 625 2 553 2 611 2 672 2 734 2 800 2 869 2 941 3 016 3 094 3 173 3 254 3 337 3 421 3 508 3 599 3 694 3 794 3 900 4 009 4 123 4 252 4 376 4 506 4 643 4 785 4 924 5 067 5 217 5 371 5 532 5 700 5 885 6 101 6 339 6 565 6 783 7 026 7 268 7 483 7 683 7 876 8 068 8 262 8 452 8 641 8 827 9 010 9 206 9 397 9 590 9 799 9 986 10 149 10 307 2 853 2 951 3 081 3 191 3 307 3 409 3 530 3 646 3 764 3 887 4 011 4 140 4 278 4 412 4 537 4 685 4 836 4 995 5 172 5 353 5 515 5 684 5 861 6 002 6 173 6 342 6 496 6 642 6 767 6 887 7 170 7 429 7 637 7 930 8 243 8 562 8 879 9 217 9 558 9 865 10 154 10 439 10 729 10 997 11 127 11 233 11 436 11 643 11 839 12 022 12 186 12 332 12 463 12 577 207 6 Country 57 Country Total Total 1 266 1 299 1 334 1 370 1 409 1 451 1 496 1 543 1 592 1 645 1 701 1 760 1 819 1 882 1 951 2 022 2 103 2 179 2 266 2 368 2 458 2 546 2 659 2 783 2 903 2 992 3 078 3 148 3 239 3 413 3 600 3 772 3 944 4 110 4 276 4 347 4 391 4 509 4 644 4 779 4 915 5 051 5 188 5 324 5 459 5 554 5 614 5 715 5 858 6 006 6 158 6 313 6 471 6 633 227 333 232 068 237 008 242 086 247 273 252 759 258 409 264 222 270 231 276 454 282 919 289 385 295 977 303 251 310 725 318 478 326 534 334 945 343 591 352 457 361 168 370 534 380 026 390 034 400 314 410 827 422 188 433 995 446 294 459 413 472 721 486 060 500 253 515 235 530 353 545 742 561 280 577 158 593 250 609 818 626 814 644 889 662 410 679 567 696 273 713 856 730 822 748 865 766 842 785 235 803 311 821 088 838 720 856 261 .Africa Table 6a.

1950-2003 (000 at mid-year) Equatorial Guinea 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 211 214 217 220 223 226 229 233 237 240 244 248 249 250 252 253 256 260 263 267 270 274 278 271 250 213 191 193 195 221 256 272 285 300 314 325 333 341 350 359 368 378 388 398 408 418 429 440 451 463 474 486 498 510 Libya SãoTomé & Principe Mayotte + St.The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 6a. Helena + W. Population of 57 African Countries. Sahara 60 60 60 60 60 60 61 61 62 63 63 64 65 66 67 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 77 78 80 82 84 87 89 92 94 96 99 101 103 106 108 111 114 116 119 123 126 129 133 137 141 146 150 155 160 165 170 176 34 36 37 39 40 42 45 47 49 52 55 59 63 67 72 77 83 90 97 105 114 120 121 121 122 128 137 147 158 171 184 199 216 225 233 242 250 258 267 277 288 298 309 321 332 344 357 369 382 395 408 421 434 448 961 990 1 020 1 052 1 086 1 122 1 161 1 202 1 245 1 290 1 338 1 389 1 442 1 499 1 560 1 624 1 694 1 759 1 834 1 923 1 999 2 077 2 184 2 312 2 451 2 570 2 666 2 722 2 797 2 929 3 065 3 204 3 344 3 485 3 625 3 675 3 700 3 800 3 913 4 027 4 140 4 252 4 365 4 476 4 585 4 654 4 686 4 760 4 875 4 993 5 115 5 241 5 369 5 499 208 6 Country Total 1 266 1 299 1 334 1 370 1 409 1 451 1 496 1 543 1 592 1 645 1 701 1 760 1 819 1 882 1 951 2 022 2 103 2 179 2 266 2 368 2 458 2 546 2 659 2 783 2 903 2 992 3 078 3 148 3 239 3 413 3 600 3 772 3 944 4 110 4 276 4 347 4 391 4 509 4 644 4 779 4 915 5 051 5 188 5 324 5 459 5 554 5 614 5 715 5 858 6 006 6 158 6 313 6 471 6 633 .

Africa GDP L EVELS 209 IN A FRICA .

GDP Levels in 57 African Countries.The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 6b. 1950-2001 (million 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Algeria Angola Benin 12 136 12 221 12 767 13 046 13 811 14 224 15 619 17 391 18 022 21 323 22 780 20 013 15 765 19 928 20 971 22 367 21 287 23 277 25 996 28 484 31 336 28 666 34 685 35 814 37 999 40 705 43 387 47 319 53 387 58 193 59 273 60 766 64 662 68 012 71 774 75 512 74 747 74 225 72 672 75 123 73 934 73 047 74 216 72 583 71 929 74 663 77 500 78 353 82 349 84 984 87 109 89 286 4 331 4 491 4 660 4 833 4 703 5 080 4 985 5 461 5 751 5 777 6 011 6 635 6 444 6 791 7 587 8 194 8 635 9 064 8 947 9 255 9 909 9 943 10 091 10 784 10 242 6 314 5 669 5 799 6 037 6 184 6 483 6 353 6 050 5 851 5 881 5 911 5 379 5 985 6 843 6 959 7 202 7 252 7 180 5 241 5 310 5 861 6 518 7 033 7 511 7 759 7 991 8 247 1 813 1 813 1 813 1 762 1 813 1 813 1 813 1 813 1 880 1 950 2 010 2 075 2 005 2 097 2 240 2 356 2 443 2 467 2 561 2 637 2 692 2 704 2 942 3 011 2 784 2 904 3 029 3 199 3 301 3 565 3 901 4 122 4 566 4 366 4 713 5 068 5 182 5 104 5 258 5 144 5 347 5 598 5 822 6 026 6 291 6 581 6 942 7 338 7 675 8 037 8 503 8 928 Botswana 150 155 159 164 169 174 179 184 189 195 200 207 213 220 228 235 258 284 313 344 378 448 592 722 873 862 1 024 1 061 1 264 1 391 1 589 1 736 1 865 2 159 2 400 2 577 2 773 3 017 3 492 3 944 4 178 4 379 4 510 4 600 4 761 4 975 5 259 5 611 5 942 6 317 6 860 7 196 210 Burkina Faso Burundi 2 076 2 155 2 233 2 314 2 399 2 489 2 582 2 676 2 777 2 877 2 962 3 080 3 269 3 228 3 302 3 429 3 446 3 749 3 865 3 942 3 950 4 106 4 272 4 045 3 969 3 798 3 761 4 027 4 496 4 542 4 616 4 820 4 926 4 870 4 948 5 596 6 474 6 364 6 893 6 814 6 748 7 423 7 608 7 548 7 654 7 999 8 598 9 010 9 588 10 191 10 416 11 007 851 899 927 965 1 018 1 050 1 090 1 132 1 163 1 230 1 249 1 078 1 176 1 224 1 298 1 347 1 409 1 537 1 520 1 501 1 902 2 052 1 831 1 963 1 947 1 966 2 121 2 383 2 357 2 404 2 594 2 877 2 865 2 954 2 951 3 295 3 421 3 562 3 694 3 747 3 879 4 073 4 101 3 859 3 716 3 445 3 156 3 169 3 320 3 287 3 284 3 362 Cameroon Cape Verde 3 279 3 401 3 525 3 653 3 788 3 929 4 073 4 224 4 381 4 542 4 666 4 722 4 867 5 047 5 227 5 332 5 581 5 736 6 109 6 411 6 605 6 801 7 096 7 201 7 523 7 910 8 061 8 520 8 985 9 474 10 441 12 222 13 147 14 068 15 170 16 528 17 722 16 839 16 072 14 632 14 393 13 846 13 417 12 987 12 662 13 081 13 734 14 435 15 156 15 823 16 488 17 362 66 69 71 75 76 78 82 81 83 93 100 107 113 120 127 133 140 147 153 160 166 155 148 147 143 147 147 148 164 182 249 271 279 306 317 345 355 380 392 413 430 283 231 434 463 499 532 573 615 668 713 734 .

Africa Table 6b. 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 972 1 008 1 045 1 083 1 123 1 165 1 207 1 252 1 299 1 346 1 358 1 409 1 373 1 369 1 391 1 409 1 420 1 487 1 494 1 565 1 638 1 590 1 557 1 627 1 580 1 609 1 679 1 816 1 848 1 745 1 730 1 757 1 790 1 681 1 803 1 826 1 859 1 812 1 845 1 913 1 982 1 970 1 844 1 850 1 972 2 075 1 919 2 067 2 147 2 225 2 265 2 287 Chad 1 240 1 286 1 333 1 381 1 432 1 485 1 540 1 597 1 657 1 717 1 730 1 753 1 846 1 819 1 773 1 783 1 752 1 764 1 756 1 876 1 912 1 948 1 815 1 726 1 963 2 301 2 267 2 098 2 088 1 640 1 541 1 557 1 640 1 897 1 937 2 361 2 264 2 208 2 551 2 698 2 537 2 801 2 868 2 816 2 971 2 983 3 075 3 204 3 451 3 531 3 566 3 869 Comoros 83 88 90 94 99 102 106 110 113 120 130 132 144 174 188 188 208 217 218 221 238 280 258 229 279 219 194 190 197 202 215 226 235 244 252 259 266 277 289 290 294 278 302 311 294 320 316 330 333 340 336 342 Congo 990 1 027 1 064 1 103 1 144 1 186 1 230 1 275 1 323 1 372 1 419 1 465 1 513 1 563 1 616 1 670 1 757 1 850 1 948 2 050 2 158 2 333 2 523 2 727 2 947 3 185 3 199 2 934 2 883 3 323 3 891 4 697 5 072 5 327 5 667 5 412 5 044 5 079 5 089 5 277 5 394 5 523 5 667 5 610 5 301 5 514 5 751 5 716 5 928 5 750 6 221 6 402 Côte d'Ivoire 2 977 3 087 3 201 3 317 3 439 3 567 3 698 3 835 3 978 4 123 4 493 4 912 5 130 5 972 7 041 6 886 7 431 7 538 8 714 9 098 10 087 10 593 11 179 12 064 12 412 12 400 13 886 14 541 15 982 16 282 17 539 18 152 18 188 17 479 16 902 17 732 18 262 17 970 17 646 17 542 16 330 16 330 16 297 16 265 16 590 17 768 19 136 20 227 21 198 21 537 21 042 21 063 211 Djibouti 90 95 98 102 108 111 115 120 123 130 139 150 158 171 182 194 209 224 239 256 327 361 385 412 412 430 468 410 427 444 464 491 513 519 521 521 521 521 521 526 530 533 532 511 506 489 464 461 461 472 475 484 Egypt 19 288 19 635 20 001 20 349 20 715 21 101 22 104 23 145 24 245 25 402 26 617 28 372 30 263 32 288 34 448 36 724 36 936 36 473 37 052 39 598 42 105 43 861 44 690 45 924 47 680 52 501 60 622 68 530 73 795 79 620 88 223 91 733 101 531 109 343 116 016 123 674 126 933 130 135 135 593 139 663 143 000 138 424 142 992 145 280 151 052 158 065 165 950 175 073 185 115 196 044 205 845 215 109 Eritrea & Ethiopia Gabon 8 417 8 652 8 896 9 410 9 410 9 915 10 243 10 167 10 504 10 790 11 346 11 901 12 389 14 031 14 721 15 588 16 194 16 875 17 162 17 801 18 811 19 602 20 604 21 286 21 547 21 580 22 170 22 776 22 523 23 971 25 023 25 536 25 940 27 262 26 698 24 913 26 529 29 021 29 585 30 064 29 593 28 202 26 764 30 350 30 835 32 747 36 219 37 921 37 389 39 633 41 774 44 990 1 292 1 340 1 389 1 440 1 493 1 548 1 605 1 665 1 727 1 791 1 866 2 090 2 153 2 229 2 268 2 306 2 409 2 508 2 572 2 780 3 020 3 330 3 708 4 086 5 699 6 090 8 487 6 732 4 883 4 814 4 837 4 780 4 685 4 756 4 946 4 846 4 603 4 005 4 086 4 261 4 500 4 775 4 617 4 728 4 903 5 148 5 333 5 637 5 835 4 845 4 753 4 867 . GDP Levels in 57 African Countries. 1950-2001 (million 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) Central African Rep.

1950-2001 (million 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) Gambia 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 165 174 180 187 197 203 211 219 225 238 254 296 292 294 314 348 406 421 427 473 426 475 509 533 638 598 668 701 665 773 697 691 779 685 665 609 641 676 747 799 833 851 889 943 979 945 1 003 1 052 1 089 1 159 1 224 1 291 Ghana 5 943 6 163 6 050 6 888 7 755 7 256 7 684 7 933 7 803 8 932 9 591 9 930 10 412 10 774 11 006 11 154 11 166 11 368 11 529 11 939 12 515 13 514 13 109 13 484 14 411 12 616 12 171 12 450 13 508 13 163 12 747 12 765 11 879 11 339 12 319 12 943 13 621 14 274 15 077 15 843 16 372 17 240 17 912 18 808 19 429 20 206 21 135 22 023 23 058 24 073 24 963 26 012 Guinea Guinea Bissau 784 831 857 889 941 972 1 009 1 045 1 077 1 139 1 187 1 265 1 359 1 286 1 370 1 464 1 496 1 543 1 590 1 637 1 694 1 747 1 783 1 861 1 992 2 076 2 280 2 332 2 394 2 400 2 484 2 499 2 546 2 578 2 651 2 713 2 782 2 870 3 043 3 168 3 304 3 383 3 502 3 673 3 820 3 999 4 203 4 413 4 625 4 838 4 939 5 117 166 176 187 200 240 230 262 279 288 292 309 331 353 369 392 414 436 463 485 513 540 519 552 558 584 630 661 614 694 708 595 703 745 685 713 752 747 735 765 769 794 834 844 861 889 928 970 1 024 736 795 870 872 212 Kenya 3 982 4 851 4 313 4 205 4 695 5 050 5 329 5 504 5 563 5 699 5 918 5 775 6 085 6 392 7 013 7 093 8 005 8 419 9 028 9 590 10 291 10 944 11 509 12 107 12 704 12 652 13 162 14 369 15 663 16 252 17 160 17 555 18 614 18 729 19 056 19 876 21 302 22 569 23 927 25 018 26 093 26 458 26 247 26 352 27 064 28 254 29 441 30 059 30 540 30 937 30 906 31 277 Lesotho Liberia 258 273 281 292 308 318 331 343 356 366 393 400 462 511 553 565 562 624 622 631 645 585 697 878 931 855 996 1 172 1 351 1 262 1 351 1 365 1 414 1 292 1 402 1 450 1 479 1 555 1 754 1 947 2 033 2 116 2 214 2 296 2 287 2 575 2 819 2 954 2 866 2 934 3 037 3 158 869 919 947 984 1 039 1 073 1 113 1 155 1 188 1 257 1 297 1 328 1 345 1 377 1 447 1 472 1 751 1 740 1 823 1 955 2 083 2 186 2 269 2 212 2 375 2 017 2 096 2 079 2 161 2 257 2 149 2 197 2 134 2 119 2 100 2 071 2 131 2 189 2 189 2 216 2 245 2 281 2 321 2 374 2 426 2 492 2 541 2 555 2 580 2 623 2 667 2 712 Madagascar 4 394 4 557 4 724 4 895 5 075 5 264 5 457 5 660 5 870 6 086 6 169 6 297 6 442 6 380 6 635 6 604 6 741 7 114 7 597 7 883 8 296 8 621 8 511 8 292 8 459 8 564 8 300 8 498 8 274 9 087 9 157 8 366 8 213 8 278 7 975 8 155 8 213 8 393 8 525 8 867 9 210 8 630 8 733 8 917 8 917 9 069 9 259 9 602 9 976 10 445 10 946 11 680 . GDP Levels in 57 African Countries.The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 6b.

Africa Table 6b. GDP Levels in 57 African Countries. 1950-2001 (million 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) Malawi 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 913 951 990 1 031 1 074 1 093 1 184 1 233 1 279 1 324 1 360 1 428 1 428 1 403 1 369 1 554 1 714 1 889 1 868 1 988 2 017 2 307 2 543 2 756 2 955 3 117 3 269 3 437 3 747 3 919 3 945 3 746 3 783 3 945 4 123 4 446 4 463 4 572 4 690 4 923 5 146 5 594 5 185 5 688 5 102 5 954 6 389 6 632 6 850 7 124 7 388 7 499 Mali 1 685 1 747 1 811 1 879 1 946 2 018 2 093 2 170 2 249 2 333 2 399 2 414 2 428 2 591 2 714 2 753 2 869 2 964 3 075 3 060 3 248 3 361 3 535 3 449 3 365 3 831 4 352 4 648 4 524 5 612 4 953 4 787 4 512 4 711 4 918 5 029 5 348 5 449 5 440 5 995 6 040 5 986 6 488 6 333 6 498 6 952 7 251 7 737 8 116 8 660 8 981 9 115 Mauritania Mauritius 467 484 502 520 539 559 580 601 623 647 698 817 799 750 974 1 109 1 115 1 154 1 256 1 237 1 365 1 378 1 396 1 309 1 443 1 351 1 459 1 440 1 434 1 500 1 560 1 619 1 586 1 663 1 543 1 587 1 676 1 727 1 792 1 852 1 825 1 872 1 904 2 009 2 101 2 198 2 319 2 393 2 482 2 583 2 713 2 837 1 198 1 267 1 306 1 356 1 433 1 479 1 535 1 594 1 638 1 733 1 842 2 261 2 278 2 595 2 417 2 495 2 406 2 510 2 338 2 453 2 443 2 563 2 817 3 169 3 511 3 514 4 086 4 353 4 520 4 679 4 208 4 455 4 701 4 719 4 940 5 285 5 817 6 408 6 844 7 145 7 652 8 142 8 533 9 104 9 505 9 837 10 349 10 970 11 628 12 244 12 563 13 467 Morocco Mozambique Namibia 13 598 14 046 14 509 14 987 15 481 15 991 16 093 16 195 16 299 16 402 16 507 17 085 17 684 18 303 18 944 19 608 20 700 21 853 23 071 24 356 25 713 27 154 27 807 28 800 30 351 32 385 35 950 37 711 38 808 40 584 44 278 43 054 47 203 46 930 48 894 51 955 56 023 54 762 60 367 61 748 64 082 68 504 65 764 65 106 71 877 67 133 75 323 73 566 79 339 79 259 80 052 85 255 1 002 1 033 1 065 1 106 1 168 1 206 1 251 1 299 1 335 1 412 1 545 1 562 1 783 1 961 2 279 2 433 2 526 2 424 2 444 2 529 2 540 2 627 2 783 2 895 3 021 3 052 3 221 3 424 3 651 3 806 3 986 4 110 4 164 4 057 4 006 4 023 4 147 4 268 4 368 4 738 4 619 4 882 5 346 5 239 5 595 5 830 6 005 6 257 6 470 6 703 6 931 7 104 213 7 084 7 332 7 594 7 857 8 041 8 537 8 579 8 770 9 188 9 684 9 918 10 202 10 903 10 513 10 967 11 215 11 576 12 369 13 758 15 394 16 216 17 321 17 881 18 894 17 463 14 643 13 942 14 055 14 162 14 367 14 771 15 040 14 629 13 581 13 212 12 022 12 199 12 639 13 361 13 900 14 105 14 796 13 598 14 781 15 890 16 573 17 749 19 720 22 204 23 870 24 252 27 623 Niger 2 018 2 093 2 170 2 248 2 331 2 418 2 507 2 600 2 697 2 797 2 977 3 100 3 427 3 766 3 776 4 061 4 010 4 029 4 061 3 940 4 061 4 291 4 069 3 377 3 671 3 570 3 595 3 873 4 394 4 709 4 937 4 995 4 935 4 844 4 025 4 095 4 283 4 130 4 362 4 368 4 289 4 396 4 110 4 168 4 335 4 447 4 599 4 727 5 219 5 188 5 115 5 504 Nigeria 23 933 25 728 27 571 28 217 30 299 31 089 30 371 31 615 31 256 32 621 34 081 35 229 37 240 40 734 42 481 45 353 43 893 37 072 36 665 46 502 60 814 67 970 70 530 76 585 85 465 82 904 91 927 95 277 89 653 95 852 97 646 89 820 89 007 83 000 79 290 86 302 87 930 87 284 95 947 102 146 107 459 113 907 116 868 119 439 118 700 121 809 129 605 133 363 135 764 137 122 143 018 147 022 .

The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 6b. GDP Levels in 57 African Countries. 1950-2001 (million 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Reunion Rwanda 485 512 528 549 580 598 621 645 663 701 756 796 859 925 1 004 1 101 1 170 1 256 1 347 1 477 1 540 1 575 1 757 1 771 1 876 1 838 1 636 1 603 1 730 1 815 1 869 1 913 2 057 2 157 2 181 2 205 2 230 2 248 2 383 2 454 2 694 2 863 2 863 2 863 2 863 2 863 3 012 3 136 3 174 3 240 3 308 3 377 1 334 1 410 1 454 1 510 1 596 1 646 1 709 1 773 1 824 1 929 1 989 1 904 2 120 1 912 1 673 1 790 1 916 2 051 2 193 2 435 2 702 2 734 2 742 2 826 2 959 3 510 3 450 3 629 3 985 4 360 4 892 5 210 5 646 5 984 5 730 5 982 6 309 6 261 6 046 6 168 6 125 5 862 6 248 5 730 2 854 3 858 4 348 4 948 5 388 5 798 6 146 6 557 Senegal 3 341 3 464 3 591 3 721 3 858 4 002 4 149 4 303 4 463 4 627 4 724 4 937 5 101 5 298 5 452 5 656 5 816 5 746 6 107 5 709 6 197 6 187 6 588 6 217 6 478 6 965 7 587 7 383 7 092 7 590 7 339 7 283 8 388 8 602 8 205 8 515 8 926 9 290 9 765 9 598 10 032 9 992 10 212 9 987 10 277 10 811 11 362 11 930 12 611 13 254 14 022 14 808 Seychelles Sierra Leone Somalia 63 67 69 71 75 78 81 84 86 91 99 94 101 111 116 116 119 119 129 129 139 162 172 187 190 197 217 234 250 292 284 265 260 255 265 290 297 311 325 343 366 376 402 428 418 420 462 518 548 532 504 463 1 370 1 448 1 493 1 550 1 638 1 696 1 760 1 826 1 878 1 986 2 050 2 087 2 182 2 219 2 245 2 405 2 559 2 542 2 791 3 045 3 149 3 120 3 086 3 180 3 309 3 408 3 305 3 353 3 363 3 554 3 721 3 951 4 019 3 961 4 014 3 904 3 767 3 965 4 072 4 164 4 335 3 988 3 605 3 609 3 735 3 362 2 528 2 083 2 066 1 899 1 971 2 078 2 576 2 724 2 810 2 915 3 083 3 183 3 301 3 425 3 520 3 726 3 775 3 956 4 130 4 290 3 826 3 572 4 079 4 313 4 388 3 840 4 174 4 282 4 717 4 625 3 682 4 960 4 944 6 185 6 500 6 270 6 005 6 482 6 716 6 098 6 306 6 816 7 056 7 409 7 359 7 349 7 231 6 505 5 536 5 536 5 701 5 867 6 048 6 044 6 044 6 151 6 260 6 371 214 South Africa Sudan Swaziland 34 465 36 085 37 360 39 117 41 427 43 494 45 907 47 665 48 664 50 835 52 972 55 247 58 349 62 622 66 827 70 825 73 892 78 959 82 371 87 437 91 986 96 501 98 362 102 498 108 254 110 253 112 941 112 734 116 077 120 627 128 416 135 171 134 619 132 172 138 893 137 239 137 307 140 099 145 855 148 888 147 509 146 034 142 967 144 683 149 313 153 942 160 561 164 786 166 054 169 541 175 305 179 162 6 609 6 926 7 270 7 613 7 983 8 373 9 259 9 133 9 510 10 640 10 838 10 838 11 592 11 261 11 142 11 896 11 717 11 354 12 048 12 781 12 246 13 092 12 814 11 783 12 966 14 612 17 302 19 932 19 621 17 586 17 758 18 128 20 421 20 844 19 800 18 557 19 291 19 720 19 952 21 518 19 793 21 179 22 280 22 904 23 362 24 063 25 242 27 766 29 432 31 699 34 773 36 616 200 211 218 226 239 247 256 266 273 289 329 371 449 475 545 630 657 719 686 715 926 942 1 057 1 114 1 238 1 282 1 324 1 364 1 399 1 424 1 466 1 566 1 656 1 664 1 698 1 804 1 872 2 031 1 984 2 111 2 154 2 208 2 237 2 310 2 389 2 479 2 576 2 674 2 759 2 856 2 919 2 966 .

GDP Levels in 57 African Countries.Africa Table 6b. 1950-2001 (million 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) Tanzania 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 3 362 3 786 3 863 3 725 4 028 4 125 4 176 4 277 4 314 4 525 4 710 4 657 5 080 5 400 5 695 5 901 6 657 6 926 7 282 7 417 7 847 8 177 8 725 9 007 9 216 9 693 10 386 10 678 10 987 11 122 11 216 11 092 11 236 11 186 11 465 11 438 11 811 12 413 12 937 13 371 13 852 14 143 14 228 14 398 14 628 15 155 15 837 15 685 16 266 16 835 17 694 18 685 Togo 673 698 723 749 777 806 836 867 899 932 1 016 1 085 1 125 1 181 1 351 1 535 1 676 1 769 1 859 2 060 2 112 2 262 2 340 2 245 2 340 2 326 2 315 2 441 2 689 2 851 2 721 2 551 2 453 2 320 2 389 2 502 2 580 2 616 2 733 2 834 2 805 2 785 2 674 2 235 2 626 2 807 3 080 2 928 2 867 2 950 2 894 2 971 Tunisia 3 920 3 963 4 450 4 618 4 720 4 477 4 775 4 579 5 175 4 959 5 571 6 053 5 912 6 806 7 100 7 547 7 735 7 684 8 491 8 793 9 315 10 302 12 129 12 051 13 019 13 952 15 054 15 567 16 571 17 657 18 966 20 013 19 915 20 848 22 040 23 279 22 918 24 451 24 478 25 384 27 387 28 455 30 675 31 349 32 352 33 129 35 481 37 397 39 192 41 582 43 537 45 714 Uganda 3 793 3 641 3 868 4 039 3 982 4 244 4 479 4 673 4 703 4 942 5 177 5 124 5 332 5 943 6 394 6 535 6 941 7 312 7 498 8 325 8 450 8 700 8 757 8 704 8 719 8 541 8 606 8 738 8 260 7 350 7 100 7 373 7 980 8 571 7 843 7 999 8 025 8 533 9 148 9 815 10 206 10 308 10 628 11 520 12 257 13 716 14 895 15 655 16 391 17 637 18 518 19 555 Zaire 7 731 8 635 9 424 9 957 10 560 10 970 11 712 12 083 11 735 12 145 12 423 11 070 13 420 14 124 13 776 13 915 14 858 14 712 15 345 16 776 16 737 17 804 17 827 19 373 20 038 19 041 17 951 18 043 17 023 17 000 17 355 17 765 17 680 17 927 18 925 19 010 19 907 20 440 20 556 20 417 19 922 18 249 16 332 14 128 13 577 13 672 13 536 12 777 12 572 12 032 11 286 10 789 215 Zambia 1 687 1 795 1 910 2 032 2 161 2 111 2 362 2 465 2 401 2 902 3 123 3 130 3 096 3 164 3 586 4 239 4 007 4 318 4 379 4 355 4 562 4 561 4 979 4 930 5 332 5 124 5 426 5 163 5 195 5 037 5 190 5 509 5 354 5 249 5 231 5 317 5 354 5 497 5 841 5 900 6 432 6 432 6 323 6 753 5 855 5 708 6 080 6 286 6 167 6 302 6 529 6 849 Zimbabwe 2 000 2 130 2 232 2 424 2 554 2 756 3 148 3 368 3 412 3 596 3 762 3 956 4 016 3 976 4 326 4 608 4 678 5 068 5 168 5 812 7 072 7 692 8 342 8 594 8 810 8 890 8 816 8 108 8 338 8 338 9 288 10 454 10 726 10 896 10 688 11 430 11 732 11 588 12 672 13 498 13 766 14 523 13 216 13 388 14 165 14 193 15 669 16 092 16 559 16 443 15 604 14 278 6 Country 57 Country Total Total 1 014 1 113 1 186 1 210 1 218 1 476 1 763 1 838 2 014 2 164 2 743 3 010 3 919 5 208 7 253 9 222 10 861 12 066 15 971 17 968 18 805 17 710 15 777 15 959 13 739 14 736 18 023 19 518 20 212 22 877 23 085 18 863 18 333 18 156 16 897 15 442 14 216 13 837 13 980 14 112 13 917 13 183 12 748 12 272 12 182 12 276 12 915 14 302 14 321 15 379 16 413 18 257 203 131 212 653 220 780 228 858 239 781 248 054 258 153 267 612 273 683 288 734 301 578 308 136 320 322 343 186 361 570 381 330 392 226 400 067 420 309 453 131 490 102 512 138 530 848 549 993 575 500 582 627 621 584 647 589 663 511 694 654 725 905 733 452 756 255 761 138 777 297 801 420 818 732 831 716 865 804 892 376 904 898 911 693 912 598 921 183 941 178 969 734 1 024 994 1 060 213 1 099 966 1 136 130 1 175 890 1 222 577 .

1950-2001 (million 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Equatorial Guinea Libya SãoTomé & Principe Mayotte + St. Sahara 6 Country Total 114 120 124 129 136 140 146 151 156 165 182 200 221 252 288 325 339 362 375 364 354 325 284 289 282 276 277 281 306 341 378 387 403 418 528 455 474 502 538 560 576 603 668 710 746 852 1 100 1 884 2 298 3 250 3 773 5 490 824 915 982 998 994 1 251 1 525 1 592 1 755 1 897 2 448 2 688 3 566 4 814 6 812 8 733 10 345 11 515 15 395 17 389 18 222 17 142 15 241 15 410 13 186 14 172 17 438 18 904 19 553 22 155 22 290 18 098 17 502 17 311 15 939 14 529 13 265 12 842 12 927 13 014 12 780 12 013 11 508 10 979 10 836 10 804 11 160 11 741 11 318 11 397 11 879 11 970 49 49 49 49 51 46 49 49 54 49 55 60 65 70 75 80 86 91 96 101 106 111 109 106 108 116 126 140 149 166 189 137 173 158 145 157 159 156 159 162 166 166 167 169 173 176 179 181 185 190 196 204 27 29 31 34 37 39 43 46 49 53 58 62 67 72 78 84 91 98 105 114 123 132 143 154 163 172 182 193 204 215 228 241 255 269 285 301 318 337 356 376 395 401 405 414 427 444 476 496 520 542 565 593 1 014 1 113 1 186 1 210 1 218 1 476 1 763 1 838 2 014 2 164 2 743 3 010 3 919 5 208 7 253 9 222 10 861 12 066 15 971 17 968 18 805 17 710 15 777 15 959 13 739 14 736 18 023 19 518 20 212 22 877 23 085 18 863 18 333 18 156 16 897 15 442 14 216 13 837 13 980 14 112 13 917 13 183 12 748 12 272 12 182 12 276 12 915 14 302 14 321 15 379 16 413 18 257 216 . GDP Levels in 57 African Countries. Helena + W.The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 6b.

Africa P ER C APITA GDP 217 IN A FRICA .

Per Capita GDP in 57 African Countries. 1950-2001 (1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Algeria Angola Benin 1 365 1 347 1 376 1 369 1 437 1 445 1 553 1 693 1 719 1 994 2 088 1 799 1 433 1 768 1 806 1 870 1 725 1 824 1 977 2 105 2 249 2 000 2 350 2 357 2 428 2 522 2 608 2 759 3 016 3 186 3 143 3 119 3 212 3 269 3 340 3 404 3 272 3 161 3 015 3 039 2 918 2 814 2 793 2 671 2 590 2 632 2 677 2 654 2 737 2 773 2 792 2 813 1 052 1 076 1 101 1 126 1 079 1 148 1 110 1 197 1 241 1 225 1 253 1 396 1 335 1 380 1 510 1 596 1 660 1 727 1 672 1 691 1 768 1 729 1 713 1 791 1 713 1 074 955 941 961 959 962 924 862 819 810 799 713 780 877 879 895 880 848 603 597 636 690 736 771 782 789 797 1 084 1 063 1 043 994 1 002 982 962 941 956 970 978 987 932 952 993 1 020 1 032 1 016 1 029 1 033 1 027 1 006 1 065 1 061 955 969 983 1 010 1 013 1 063 1 133 1 164 1 254 1 165 1 220 1 273 1 263 1 205 1 203 1 140 1 147 1 162 1 170 1 172 1 185 1 200 1 226 1 255 1 271 1 290 1 323 1 347 Botswana 349 355 359 366 372 377 383 388 392 399 403 410 415 422 430 437 473 513 557 601 647 747 954 1 119 1 293 1 215 1 370 1 344 1 519 1 591 1 738 1 827 1 891 2 110 2 259 2 336 2 421 2 538 2 833 3 097 3 183 3 245 3 258 3 244 3 282 3 359 3 485 3 659 3 824 4 026 4 348 4 552 218 Burkina Faso Burundi 474 487 500 512 526 539 554 568 583 598 609 626 657 640 646 662 655 701 711 713 702 717 732 680 654 613 594 622 679 670 665 678 676 652 645 711 802 769 809 774 742 790 784 754 743 754 787 802 829 857 853 877 360 374 379 388 402 408 416 425 429 446 444 373 398 408 421 426 434 463 448 435 542 572 520 556 543 537 568 624 602 599 627 683 659 652 632 685 691 697 699 686 734 755 749 690 645 639 588 586 605 587 575 576 Cameroon Cape Verde 671 687 704 720 737 754 771 788 805 822 832 829 840 857 872 874 898 905 946 973 982 990 1 011 1 003 1 024 1 052 1 044 1 070 1 095 1 121 1 194 1 354 1 421 1 477 1 545 1 632 1 695 1 562 1 448 1 285 1 232 1 153 1 089 1 028 978 988 1 014 1 042 1 070 1 093 1 115 1 149 450 455 461 467 460 463 469 453 449 486 508 525 539 553 564 575 585 594 602 611 619 566 536 529 512 525 520 518 567 622 841 904 916 988 1 009 1 079 1 092 1 148 1 164 1 206 1 231 797 639 1 182 1 241 1 318 1 387 1 475 1 565 1 681 1 777 1 812 .The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 6c.

1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 772 790 809 827 845 864 881 899 917 934 925 943 901 881 878 866 844 860 851 877 896 851 815 837 797 792 811 860 858 794 771 767 765 705 736 726 727 697 695 701 707 683 622 606 628 648 588 622 635 646 647 642 Chad Comoros Congo Côte d'Ivoire Djibouti Egypt 476 486 497 507 518 529 540 552 563 574 569 566 586 567 542 533 512 505 491 514 513 511 465 433 481 550 529 478 464 361 339 335 336 374 378 457 426 401 449 462 421 449 445 422 430 418 417 421 438 434 424 445 560 581 587 598 619 625 635 645 649 671 712 703 749 887 932 913 984 999 973 963 1 009 1 154 1 032 889 1 055 804 692 624 627 624 643 664 675 683 688 691 691 701 712 694 685 630 664 664 610 644 617 625 612 606 581 574 1 289 1 315 1 340 1 364 1 388 1 412 1 436 1 459 1 482 1 506 1 523 1 539 1 553 1 569 1 584 1 599 1 642 1 688 1 732 1 779 1 825 1 922 2 025 2 132 2 242 2 342 2 270 2 008 1 904 2 115 2 388 2 778 2 890 2 923 2 981 2 768 2 509 2 458 2 397 2 420 2 408 2 403 2 405 2 323 2 143 2 177 2 220 2 159 2 193 2 085 2 214 2 239 1 041 1 058 1 075 1 092 1 110 1 127 1 144 1 162 1 179 1 191 1 256 1 328 1 339 1 499 1 697 1 592 1 642 1 589 1 749 1 738 1 833 1 831 1 841 1 899 1 874 1 800 1 942 1 960 2 078 2 042 2 123 2 121 2 052 1 903 1 776 1 798 1 787 1 698 1 611 1 544 1 372 1 315 1 276 1 234 1 214 1 259 1 319 1 364 1 402 1 392 1 326 1 297 1 500 1 546 1 554 1 575 1 622 1 632 1 651 1 668 1 665 1 711 1 771 1 783 1 759 1 774 1 758 1 754 1 761 1 758 1 746 1 742 2 069 2 142 2 150 2 185 2 080 2 065 2 154 1 794 1 724 1 687 1 661 1 674 1 676 1 643 1 802 1 758 1 717 1 677 1 597 1 502 1 448 1 420 1 384 1 299 1 257 1 195 1 122 1 103 1 092 1 107 1 103 1 106 910 905 900 894 889 885 905 925 947 969 991 1 031 1 074 1 120 1 166 1 213 1 192 1 151 1 146 1 201 1 254 1 283 1 284 1 294 1 317 1 421 1 606 1 767 1 844 1 930 2 069 2 076 2 223 2 322 2 390 2 471 2 460 2 465 2 510 2 527 2 522 2 381 2 407 2 394 2 437 2 496 2 565 2 647 2 738 2 838 2 920 2 992 219 Eritrea & Ethiopia 390 394 399 414 407 421 427 416 422 425 439 451 460 511 525 545 554 566 563 571 591 603 620 626 618 605 606 608 591 622 642 646 641 656 624 573 597 633 624 611 581 530 485 537 532 550 593 606 584 605 624 660 Gabon 3 108 3 204 3 302 3 401 3 504 3 611 3 718 3 827 3 939 4 052 4 184 4 639 4 725 4 832 4 851 4 860 5 003 5 130 5 176 5 518 5 869 6 332 6 892 7 286 9 541 9 399 12 342 9 531 6 723 6 666 6 779 6 543 6 213 6 107 6 143 5 818 5 357 4 546 4 541 4 636 4 795 4 969 4 678 4 664 4 708 4 811 4 851 4 992 5 031 4 068 3 887 3 877 .Africa Table 6c. Per Capita GDP in 57 African Countries. 1950-2001 (1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) Central African Rep.

1950-2001 (1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea Bissau Kenya Lesotho Liberia Madagascar 607 627 632 640 660 664 671 678 678 697 722 815 781 762 787 846 955 957 939 1 007 879 949 985 997 1 157 1 050 1 134 1 152 1 058 1 191 1 039 997 1 088 926 867 765 776 787 838 863 866 853 858 877 878 818 838 849 850 876 895 915 1 122 1 134 1 084 1 202 1 317 1 200 1 236 1 241 1 187 1 321 1 378 1 388 1 416 1 424 1 414 1 393 1 354 1 339 1 318 1 325 1 424 1 491 1 401 1 397 1 455 1 247 1 178 1 181 1 260 1 210 1 157 1 142 1 042 933 960 978 989 1 007 1 035 1 058 1 063 1 089 1 100 1 121 1 125 1 144 1 171 1 196 1 227 1 256 1 280 1 311 303 317 322 329 343 349 357 363 368 383 392 410 433 402 420 441 442 447 452 456 463 468 468 478 502 512 551 552 555 544 551 542 541 535 525 509 505 508 525 532 526 503 501 511 514 521 529 548 566 574 572 587 289 306 323 342 408 389 439 465 476 478 501 532 562 583 642 685 728 771 794 833 872 833 883 882 912 925 902 823 915 918 754 871 902 810 824 849 824 793 805 790 797 818 803 795 797 812 832 858 602 636 681 668 651 771 667 633 687 718 736 738 725 720 726 686 701 714 758 743 812 826 857 881 913 937 949 961 971 929 929 973 1 018 1 013 1 028 1 011 1 031 998 977 982 1 014 1 037 1 063 1 077 1 090 1 072 1 028 1 003 1 008 1 029 1 049 1 048 1 044 1 038 1 020 1 016 355 370 375 384 399 405 413 422 430 435 458 457 517 560 593 593 577 626 610 605 604 535 624 769 797 715 814 936 1 054 962 1 005 991 1 001 893 944 953 949 974 1 075 1 170 1 201 1 232 1 272 1 304 1 286 1 435 1 560 1 623 1 566 1 595 1 645 1 705 1 055 1 090 1 097 1 113 1 147 1 156 1 170 1 183 1 187 1 223 1 230 1 226 1 209 1 204 1 231 1 218 1 408 1 360 1 384 1 442 1 492 1 519 1 530 1 447 1 508 1 242 1 252 1 204 1 214 1 230 1 136 1 126 1 061 1 022 982 939 937 934 905 889 1 025 1 206 1 169 1 151 1 179 1 259 1 255 1 113 972 882 847 846 951 972 992 1 012 1 032 1 052 1 072 1 092 1 112 1 132 1 125 1 126 1 129 1 096 1 116 1 088 1 087 1 123 1 174 1 192 1 226 1 246 1 202 1 144 1 139 1 126 1 063 1 061 1 007 1 076 1 055 938 895 878 822 817 800 794 784 792 799 728 715 709 689 680 674 678 683 694 706 731 220 . Per Capita GDP in 57 African Countries.The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 6c.

Per Capita GDP in 57 African Countries.Africa Table 6c. 1950-2001 (1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) Malawi 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 324 332 339 347 355 354 376 383 388 393 394 404 393 376 359 397 426 456 438 454 449 501 537 567 587 592 597 610 647 658 644 594 582 589 597 624 604 585 563 559 558 586 525 569 522 617 648 656 661 671 679 674 Mali 457 465 472 480 488 496 504 513 521 530 535 528 520 544 558 555 566 572 581 566 588 595 612 584 556 619 687 724 694 848 736 699 647 663 678 679 707 704 690 745 734 712 758 726 729 759 767 794 807 836 842 830 Mauritania 464 477 490 504 517 531 545 558 572 586 625 722 697 645 827 928 920 938 1 006 975 1 059 1 051 1 047 966 1 046 962 1 020 988 965 989 1 006 1 021 978 1 001 906 908 935 938 947 956 920 917 898 911 922 939 971 979 987 997 1 017 1 033 Mauritius 2 490 2 540 2 528 2 530 2 587 2 587 2 594 2 613 2 610 2 685 2 777 3 319 3 249 3 629 3 283 3 302 3 108 3 180 2 907 3 006 2 945 3 047 3 309 3 680 4 020 3 969 4 551 4 768 4 863 4 943 4 367 4 550 4 738 4 708 4 882 5 173 5 635 6 146 6 504 6 725 7 128 7 505 7 784 8 221 8 502 8 716 9 082 9 541 10 027 10 471 10 652 11 318 Morocco Mozambique Namibia 1 455 1 458 1 460 1 468 1 476 1 483 1 451 1 420 1 389 1 358 1 329 1 341 1 354 1 367 1 381 1 394 1 436 1 480 1 524 1 570 1 616 1 665 1 669 1 694 1 751 1 831 1 992 2 050 2 069 2 122 2 272 2 169 2 337 2 263 2 296 2 377 2 499 2 382 2 563 2 560 2 596 2 714 2 549 2 471 2 672 2 446 2 691 2 579 2 730 2 678 2 658 2 782 221 1 133 1 155 1 178 1 199 1 207 1 259 1 242 1 246 1 280 1 323 1 327 1 337 1 400 1 321 1 349 1 351 1 364 1 425 1 549 1 693 1 743 1 816 1 823 1 873 1 684 1 404 1 295 1 263 1 235 1 215 1 220 1 216 1 162 1 063 1 022 920 928 981 1 067 1 115 1 115 1 146 1 034 1 084 1 084 1 068 1 116 1 218 1 350 1 429 1 432 1 611 2 160 2 176 2 191 2 223 2 292 2 310 2 339 2 370 2 376 2 451 2 616 2 579 2 869 3 076 3 486 3 626 3 668 3 430 3 369 3 396 3 321 3 342 3 443 3 486 3 539 3 473 3 559 3 712 3 906 3 986 4 089 4 159 4 120 3 884 3 710 3 606 3 593 3 569 3 478 3 539 3 278 3 366 3 586 3 419 3 553 3 604 3 615 3 671 3 705 3 750 3 795 3 813 Niger Nigeria 813 825 835 846 856 867 877 887 897 907 940 953 1 025 1 096 1 069 1 118 1 074 1 049 1 028 969 971 997 919 741 782 738 721 754 830 863 877 860 824 783 630 622 630 589 603 588 562 560 509 502 507 504 506 506 543 525 503 526 753 793 832 835 875 877 836 850 821 837 854 862 889 950 967 1 007 951 784 756 934 1 190 1 295 1 308 1 382 1 497 1 407 1 511 1 517 1 380 1 426 1 402 1 246 1 194 1 094 1 023 1 080 1 073 1 033 1 101 1 137 1 161 1 194 1 189 1 180 1 138 1 134 1 172 1 172 1 160 1 139 1 156 1 157 .

Per Capita GDP in 57 African Countries. 1950-2001 (1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Reunion Rwanda Senegal 1 989 2 044 2 051 2 067 2 113 2 091 2 098 2 089 2 085 2 142 2 239 2 288 2 394 2 495 2 617 2 803 2 901 3 033 3 169 3 391 3 463 3 473 3 807 3 774 3 946 3 821 3 361 3 258 3 480 3 615 3 686 3 738 3 972 4 124 4 094 4 070 4 045 4 000 4 155 4 193 4 510 4 695 4 601 4 510 4 423 4 338 4 479 4 579 4 554 4 569 4 588 4 610 547 567 574 584 604 610 620 628 631 652 656 625 695 611 525 548 570 594 618 666 717 705 687 688 700 806 766 779 827 876 952 981 1 025 1 049 976 993 1 020 982 918 910 880 820 853 765 443 674 724 687 753 795 830 871 1 259 1 281 1 303 1 324 1 346 1 367 1 388 1 409 1 429 1 448 1 445 1 475 1 487 1 507 1 499 1 511 1 508 1 449 1 499 1 362 1 435 1 390 1 436 1 315 1 329 1 396 1 487 1 411 1 322 1 380 1 301 1 259 1 415 1 414 1 315 1 330 1 359 1 378 1 411 1 345 1 363 1 316 1 306 1 241 1 241 1 268 1 295 1 322 1 360 1 391 1 433 1 474 Seychelles 1 912 2 019 2 050 2 084 2 174 2 164 2 143 2 186 2 200 2 254 2 367 2 176 2 306 2 458 2 488 2 435 2 434 2 381 2 522 2 455 2 570 2 910 3 013 3 224 3 203 3 251 3 507 3 691 3 885 4 460 4 274 3 914 3 794 3 695 3 799 4 116 4 163 4 335 4 483 4 706 4 984 5 065 5 360 5 656 5 477 5 458 5 960 6 640 6 983 6 741 6 354 5 808 Sierra Leone 656 685 697 714 744 760 777 795 807 841 856 858 884 886 883 932 976 955 1 032 1 109 1 129 1 101 1 072 1 087 1 113 1 126 1 072 1 068 1 051 1 089 1 119 1 164 1 160 1 120 1 110 1 056 996 1 025 1 028 1 025 1 026 919 844 853 862 746 546 441 422 376 379 386 222 Somalia 1 057 1 098 1 112 1 132 1 175 1 191 1 211 1 232 1 241 1 287 1 277 1 311 1 341 1 364 1 191 1 088 1 216 1 258 1 252 1 071 1 138 1 141 1 228 1 176 914 1 202 1 167 1 421 1 390 1 181 1 037 1 113 1 152 1 016 1 016 1 057 1 053 1 070 1 067 1 089 1 083 1 009 908 914 923 933 936 911 883 873 863 851 South Africa 2 535 2 591 2 619 2 675 2 763 2 830 2 914 2 951 2 939 2 995 3 041 3 092 3 179 3 321 3 450 3 559 3 615 3 760 3 819 3 946 4 045 4 135 4 109 4 175 4 299 4 271 4 267 4 155 4 174 4 232 4 390 4 503 4 367 4 174 4 271 4 108 4 020 4 015 4 092 4 090 3 966 3 851 3 698 3 684 3 755 3 824 3 943 4 000 3 986 4 032 4 139 4 208 Sudan 821 837 855 871 889 907 976 936 949 1 033 1 024 996 1 037 980 944 984 947 893 923 954 888 923 878 780 833 910 1 044 1 165 1 108 956 931 920 1 003 958 878 791 798 798 790 833 743 772 789 791 785 787 806 863 889 930 991 1 015 Swaziland 721 745 751 762 787 793 803 814 817 843 935 1 028 1 214 1 252 1 399 1 577 1 602 1 709 1 588 1 612 2 036 2 015 2 201 2 258 2 443 2 462 2 472 2 474 2 462 2 421 2 397 2 481 2 548 2 474 2 437 2 497 2 494 2 607 2 428 2 478 2 434 2 384 2 323 2 329 2 395 2 467 2 498 2 531 2 555 2 593 2 606 2 610 .The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 6c.

Africa Table 6c. Per Capita GDP in 57 African Countries. 1950-2001 (1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) Tanzania 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 424 466 464 437 461 460 454 452 444 453 459 441 468 483 494 497 544 549 560 553 567 572 591 590 584 596 620 618 617 606 593 569 559 540 537 519 520 529 534 536 540 536 524 514 503 505 517 501 507 511 524 540 Togo Tunisia 574 584 593 602 611 621 630 639 647 656 698 728 736 754 841 932 991 1 019 1 043 1 126 1 075 1 121 1 128 1 053 1 067 1 032 999 1 025 1 098 1 131 1 048 950 883 807 802 810 806 788 793 793 757 726 673 565 656 664 695 635 602 602 575 575 1 115 1 106 1 220 1 244 1 249 1 164 1 223 1 159 1 291 1 217 1 343 1 436 1 379 1 556 1 589 1 653 1 654 1 605 1 735 1 760 1 827 1 982 2 287 2 221 2 343 2 446 2 569 2 592 2 700 2 811 2 944 3 030 2 957 3 039 3 068 3 162 3 038 3 165 3 101 3 152 3 337 3 402 3 599 3 612 3 663 3 692 3 897 4 050 4 188 4 387 4 538 4 710 Uganda Zaire Zambia Zimbabwe 570 625 670 695 723 737 772 781 743 753 755 659 776 793 757 748 779 749 758 806 782 810 790 836 842 778 713 700 643 620 617 616 594 587 605 589 598 594 578 556 525 465 403 338 314 299 290 269 257 239 218 202 661 688 715 743 772 736 803 817 776 915 960 938 905 902 996 1 147 1 056 1 107 1 092 1 056 1 073 1 042 1 105 1 062 1 114 1 041 1 071 990 967 910 911 936 878 828 797 784 762 756 781 768 817 797 765 799 678 647 675 683 656 657 666 686 701 722 724 760 772 808 892 924 906 925 938 956 939 901 953 984 967 1 015 999 1 086 1 282 1 353 1 423 1 432 1 427 1 402 1 357 1 221 1 232 1 211 1 295 1 407 1 405 1 374 1 297 1 335 1 321 1 257 1 326 1 368 1 356 1 391 1 232 1 217 1 273 1 263 1 370 1 382 1 399 1 368 1 280 1 158 687 642 664 675 648 672 690 700 685 700 713 686 694 751 785 779 803 822 818 881 869 871 859 838 821 784 770 763 703 611 577 585 617 643 570 562 544 556 572 590 592 577 574 600 616 671 710 725 738 772 788 809 223 6 Country 57 Country Total Total 801 857 889 883 864 1 017 1 179 1 191 1 265 1 315 1 613 1 710 2 154 2 767 3 717 4 560 5 164 5 536 7 048 7 589 7 652 6 956 5 934 5 734 4 732 4 925 5 855 6 200 6 241 6 703 6 413 5 001 4 648 4 418 3 952 3 552 3 238 3 068 3 010 2 953 2 831 2 610 2 457 2 305 2 232 2 210 2 301 2 503 2 445 2 561 2 665 2 892 894 916 932 945 970 981 999 1 013 1 013 1 044 1 066 1 065 1 082 1 132 1 164 1 197 1 201 1 194 1 223 1 286 1 357 1 382 1 397 1 410 1 438 1 418 1 472 1 492 1 487 1 512 1 536 1 509 1 512 1 477 1 466 1 468 1 459 1 441 1 459 1 463 1 444 1 414 1 378 1 356 1 352 1 358 1 403 1 416 1 434 1 447 1 464 1 489 .

The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 6c. Helena + W. Per Capita GDP in 57 African Countries. Sahara 790 816 837 879 915 920 965 981 991 1 014 1 047 1 053 1 068 1 074 1 086 1 089 1 097 1 094 1 083 1 084 1 076 1 103 1 187 1 268 1 331 1 348 1 330 1 314 1 291 1 257 1 237 1 209 1 181 1 196 1 222 1 246 1 270 1 308 1 332 1 357 1 374 1 344 1 309 1 291 1 284 1 289 1 334 1 343 1 361 1 372 1 385 1 408 6 Country Total 801 857 889 883 864 1 017 1 179 1 191 1 265 1 315 1 613 1 710 2 154 2 767 3 717 4 560 5 164 5 536 7 048 7 589 7 652 6 956 5 934 5 734 4 732 4 925 5 855 6 200 6 241 6 703 6 413 5 001 4 648 4 418 3 952 3 552 3 238 3 068 3 010 2 953 2 831 2 610 2 457 2 305 2 232 2 210 2 301 2 503 2 445 2 561 2 665 2 892 . 1950-2001 (1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) Equatorial Guinea 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 540 561 572 587 610 620 636 648 660 687 746 806 887 1 006 1 145 1 285 1 322 1 393 1 424 1 364 1 309 1 186 1 023 1 065 1 128 1 294 1 452 1 458 1 572 1 541 1 477 1 424 1 412 1 395 1 679 1 402 1 425 1 472 1 538 1 560 1 564 1 596 1 723 1 785 1 828 2 036 2 563 4 281 5 093 7 025 7 956 11 295 Libya SãoTomé & Principe 857 925 963 949 915 1 115 1 314 1 325 1 410 1 470 1 830 1 936 2 473 3 212 4 366 5 378 6 107 6 545 8 395 9 043 9 115 8 252 6 979 6 664 5 379 5 515 6 540 6 945 6 991 7 565 7 272 5 648 5 234 4 968 4 397 3 953 3 586 3 380 3 303 3 232 3 087 2 825 2 637 2 453 2 363 2 321 2 381 2 467 2 322 2 282 2 322 2 284 820 818 817 817 850 764 806 799 875 784 867 933 995 1 055 1 112 1 165 1 233 1 286 1 337 1 389 1 440 1 483 1 423 1 355 1 356 1 421 1 497 1 613 1 667 1 808 2 009 1 421 1 755 1 567 1 405 1 486 1 470 1 408 1 400 1 391 1 390 1 354 1 326 1 306 1 299 1 284 1 267 1 243 1 232 1 226 1 226 1 236 224 Mayotte + St.

gov/ipc. Here I have used the latest (October 2002) estimates of the US Bureau of the Census (USBC) for all countries except China. OECD sources for 20 countries and Soviet sources for 15 countries. These are time series on population which we have for 221 countries. Their impact is smoothed by UNPD interpolation between census intervals. and annually 1950–2001. USBC is probably more interested in monitoring past and present performance. Differences are mainly due to use of different sources or conjectures for cases where evidence is poor. showing the fastest demographic momentum in Africa and a general reduction in the pace of growth in the 1990s. a major objective of the UN is to provide alternative projections of population trends which are of fundamental importance in assessing prospects for its development programmes. length of perspective. The easiest way to compare the two sources is the ratio of the two alternatives shown in Table 7**. These proxies collectively represent less than 1 per cent of world output. They aggregate the detailed estimates by country in HS–1 to HS–6 and there are analytical tables showing percentage year–to–year movement in real terms. to arrive at a comprehensive world total. flight of population or natural disasters. the previous version was issued in 1998. time series showing the volume movement in GDP in constant national prices for 179 countries. They both provide annual estimates back to 1950 and projections 50 years into the future. a) World Population Movement 1950–2003 There are two comprehensive and detailed estimates of world population which are regularly updated and revised. USBC estimates are available at http://www. were prepared in February 2001. 225 . Table 7a shows my estimates. fertility and migration. For countries where all three types of measure are available. Table 7* shows UNPD figures with the same regional breakdown. 1950–2001 HS–7: The World Economy. On the country level there are larger differences between the two sources. No other source provides such comprehensive detail. With these converters we can transform the GDP volume measures into comparable estimates of GDP level across countries for every year between 1950 and 2001. World Population Prospects: The 2000 Revision.census.The World Economy. These are biggest for small countries and the UNPD omits Taiwan. Its latest estimates. One example is the genocide and exodus from Rwanda: USBC shows a 25 per cent fall of population in 1993–5. but annual country detail is available for purchase on a CD ROM. and proxy per capita GDP levels for 48 countries for the year 1990. UNPD tapers this decline over several years. 1950–2001 Tables 7a–7c show annual estimates of economic activity in 7 regions and the world for the year 1900. and the regional differences are not very large after 1973. However. In Maddison (2001). The United Nations Population Division (UNPD) is the alternative. In fact. and purchasing power converters for 99. USBC shows a 55 per cent fall in Kuwait in 1991 during the Gulf war. Both sources provide a similar long–term view. UNPD 9 per cent. we need proxy measures of GDP movement for 42 countries. The UN shows estimates for quinquennial intervals. Three basic ingredients are necessary for these estimates. India and Indonesia. based mainly on USBC. I used the USBC 1999 version for 178 countries. USBC shows a 70 per cent fall in Montserrat in 1998 due to volcanic activity. It is clear from inspection of the country detail that the USBC takes better account of short–term interruptions due to war. the estimates of per capita GDP level are derivative. or causal analysis of birth and death rates.3 per cent of world GDP in our benchmark year 1990. UNPD 2 per cent. On the world level the differences are minimal.

6 91.7 (5) 2 543.5 427.6 1 113. The total number of countries was bigger in 2001 than 1950.9 93.8 (52) 1 394.5 99.8 (20) 1 635.3 (8) 415.9 99.8 37. Generally speaking the proxies assume per capita GDP movement parallel to the average for other countries in the same region.5 (4) 695.0 99.9 (9) 644.8 per cent of world output with proxies for 42 other countries (mostly very small).8 27.The World Economy: Historical Statistics b) Movement in Volume of GDP 1950–2001 Table 7–1 shows the coverage of our GDP estimates for five benchmark years since 1820.9 680.3 80.a.3 (54) 37 056.8 99.0 88.5 Asia 92.9 (47) 983.2 (3) 290.2 (29) 1 635.5 Eastern Europe and former USSR 62.6 2001 7 540.6 99.6 98.2 63.5 (10) n.7 (2) 6.5 (4) 694.7 (57) 203.9 Africa 0.5 226 1913 1950 898.5 (6) 392.0 Asia 412.3 326.6 (39) 969.7 1 222.0 (7) 315.4 (39) 1 204.9 100.9 2 733.5 (15) 577.6 37 193.2 76. 4–5 and 5–4).0 99. per cent of regional and world total Western Europe 84.6 Latin America 15.3 9 156.4 (9) 12.0 45. Table 7-1.0 3 087.2 World 695.4 Latin America 54. 985.9 (3) 17.6 111.9 98.0 94.0 100.0 World 78.8 (29) (4) (27) (47) (57) (57) (221) . but this was due to the emergence of new states in Eastern Europe and the USSR. 1820-2001 (GDP in billion international dollars and number of countries) 1820 Sample countries Western Europe Western Offshoots Eastern Europe and former USSR Latin America Asia Africa World 1870 135.7 99. for which direct measures were not available (see Tables 1–4.9 Africa 31.9(163) 902.1 Western Offshoots 13.3 (11) n.5 133.a.2 (37) 367.7 99. 546.8 0.6 98.7(202) 99.2 (25) Total GDP including proxy component Western Europe 160.8 (35) 14 050.9 367.4 (20) 9 156.0 Coverage of Sample.9 (14) 110.1 (57) 5 329.6 (17) 30.0 79.2 (3) 383.0 14 105.0 (27) 3 078.1 (54) 5 310.1 119.3 (4) 2 072. For 2001 there were direct estimates for 179 countries representing 99.5 (1) 8.5 99.1 (28) (4) (8) (47) (55) (57) (199) 99.9 (3) 101. Coverage was much more comprehensive than for the nineteenth century.3 2 072.9 100. Coverage of World GDP Sample and Proportionate Role of Proxy Measures.3 582.2 85.2 Eastern Europe and former USSR 10.5 99.6 (3) 101. The area covered and the degree of reliance on proxies was in fact similar in 1950.5 1 396.9 (179) 7 550.5 Western Offshoots 94.0 (39) 202.

They used the Soviet material product approach (MPS). but exchange rates are mainly a reflection of purchasing power over tradeable items. and Maddison (1998) on China. and adjusted figures by the CIA were published regularly for 1950–90 in the proceedings of the Joint Economic Committee of the US Congress. with updates in its monthly ECLAC Notes. Fortunately Kremlinologists (guided by the work of Abram Bergson and Thad Alton) were able to adjust estimates for many of these countries to conform more closely to SNA criteria — see the assessment of their work in Maddison (1995) for Eastern Europe. East Asian national accounts are published in detail by the Asian Development Bank in its annual Key Indicators. c) Derivation of 1990 Benchmark Purchasing Power Converters in order to Permit Cross–country Comparison of GDP Levels and Construction of Regional and World Aggregates In order to make cross–country comparison of GDP levels and aggregate estimates of regional or world totals.The World Economy. Table 7–2 shows the derivation of the numeraire for measurement of GDP levels in my benchmark year 1990. and. because resources for statistics and trained statisticians are very scarce and in many cases. data collection has been interrupted by war. There are four options for deriving GDP converters: i) Exchange Rates: Conversion of nominal estimates by exchange rates is the simplest option. like haircuts. which exaggerated growth and left out most service activities. Communist countries were an exception. The 1990 cross–section level estimates are merged with the time series for real GDP growth to show GDP levels for all other years. with adjustment to secure comparability. IMF. because of the widespread governmental commitment to their publication. The MPS system has now been abandoned. China. adherence to the methodology of a standardised system of national accounts (SNA). government services. building construction. The Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) has published detailed national accounts annually since 1950 in its Statistical Yearbook for Latin America. Mr Patten. and World Bank (see UN. which is the interspatial–intertemporal anchor for my comprehensive world estimates. we need to convert national currencies into a common unit (numeraire). There are also countries. 1950–2001 Measures of GDP volume movement for 1950–2001 are mainly derived from official sources. particularly in Africa. and for 1947 onwards. OECD. Estimates for African countries 1950– 90 were derived mainly from the database of the OECD Development Centre whose Latest Information on National Accounts of Developing Countries was published annually from 1969 to 1991. China is an extreme case. They may also move erratically because of speculative capital movements or surges of inflation. has been published regularly since 1954. For 1990 onwards. 1993). non–tradeable services. Maddison (1997) for the USSR. the last British governor of Hong Kong. where real GDP estimates are still of low quality. stated in an article in the Economist newspaper of 4 January 1997 that “Britain’s GDP today is almost twice the size of China’s”. United Nations. are generally cheaper than in high–income countries. There are very strong reasons for 227 . North Korea and Vietnam. annual GDP movements for virtually all African countries are shown in the IMF Economic Outlook. with annual data for 1938. now endorsed by the EU. For OECD countries. Cuba. West Asian accounts are published by the Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) in its annual National Accounts Studies of the ESCWA Region. from 1953. PPP conversion shows British GDP to have been less than a third of China’s in 1997. a full set of national accounts statistics. so there is a general tendency for exchange rates to understate purchasing power of their currencies. For Eastern Europe official estimates are available in publications of the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE). This was an exchange rate comparison. but there are still residual measurement problems of adjustment to the SNA in the successor countries of the USSR. In poor countries where wages are low.

In the meantime Irving Kravis. They feared that this would make them ineligible to borrow from IDA (the cheap loan window of the Bank).The World Economy: Historical Statistics preferring PPP converters which are now available for most of the world economy. as a compromise. A substantial part of Clark’s price material was derived from a survey made for the Ford Motor Company. Binary comparisons.H. because this was the price structure to which the other countries in this group were converging as their productivity and demand patterns approached US levels. Comparisons can be made transitive if they are done on a “multilateral” rather than a “binary” basis. France/US. The OEEC first developed these comparisons of real levels of expenditure and the purchasing parity of currencies in the 1950s for 8 of its member countries and rough proxies for the rest. 1978 and 1982. ii) a Laspeyres PPP (with the quantity weights of the numeraire country — the United States). They have become highly sophisticated comparative pricing exercises involving collection of carefully specified price information on a massive scale by national statistical offices for representative items of consumption.The main current activity in this field is by OECD–Eurostat. Alan Heston and Robert Summers set up their International Comparisons Project (ICP) in 1968 and published three major studies in 1975. It was used by Kravis. Khamis) is an ingenious method for multilaterising the results which provides transitivity and other desirable properties. or iii). The corresponding measures of real expenditure levels were i) Laspeyres level comparisons based on the prices (unit values) of the numeraire country. Although the World Bank made a major contribution to finance work on PPPs. it did not use them for its analytical work because they raise the relative income levels of poor countries substantially compared to their standing in an exchange rate ranking. Their last volume covered 34 countries. in studies I made of comparative performance of advanced capitalist countries (Maddison. Such star system comparisons are not “transitive”. I preferred to use the Laspeyres level comparison at US prices. The derivative France–UK comparison will not necessarily produce the same results as direct binary comparison of France and the United Kingdom. 1982 and 1991). However. Much more sophisticated measures have been developed by co–operative research of national statistical offices and international agencies in the past few decades. The latest OECD exercise for 1999 involved collection of prices for 2 740 items. 1985). together with his own price comparisons for luxury goods and ILO material on rents in different countries. Their work made major contributions to the methodology of international income comparisons and greatly expanded their coverage. ICP estimation has now been taken over by the World Bank and the next exercise is planned for 2004. in 2002 they published a 1999 level comparison for 43 countries. investment goods and government services. They used it in conjunction with the commodity product dummy (CPD) method (invented by Robert Summers) for filling holes in the basic dataset. However. the main emphasis was on binary comparison. ii) Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) conversion: This concept was first used by Gustav Cassel in 1918. Geary and S. and UK/US can be linked with the United States as the “star” country. there was understandable reluctance on the part of some countries to abandonment of exchange rate comparisons. Altogether the two UN comparisons covered 82 countries. the Fisher geometric average of the two measures. I used PPPs of this type for 70 countries 228 . OECD reactivated this work in 1982 in cooperation with Eurostat (see Michael Ward. African and Middle Eastern countries by UN agencies in 1993. Their work was taken over by the United Nations Statistical Office which made comparisons for 1980 and 1985. Heston and Summers as a method for aggregating ICP results available at the basic heading level.g. The Geary–Khamis approach (named for R. e.S. ii) Paasche level comparisons based on own country prices (unit values). but UNSO did not attempt to integrate them. and crudely implemented by Colin Clark in 1940. There were regional comparisons for some Asian. For this reason the Bank continued to rank countries by income level in its Atlas. by using a three–year moving average of exchange rates. When the ICP approach was originally developed in OEEC. Correction for the wide disparity in price levels between countries is a logical interspatial corollary to the use of national GDP deflators to correct for intertemporal changes in the price level. The three most straightforward options were: i) a Paasche PPP (with “own” country quantity weights). or iii) a Fisher geometric average of the two measures.

The World Economy, 1950–2001

representing 93.7 per cent of world GDP in 1990 (see Table 7–2). The Geary–Khamis approach gives
a weight to countries corresponding to the size of their GDP, so that a large economy, like the United
States, has a strong influence on the results. Eurostat (the statistical office of EU) uses a multilateral
method in which all its member countries have an equal weight. This is the EKS technique (named for
its inventors, Eltöto, Kovacs and Szulc). For my purpose an equi–country weighting system which
treats Luxemburg and Germany as equal partners in the world economy is inappropriate, so I have a
strong preference for the Geary–Khamis approach. Fortunately the OECD–Eurostat joint exercise derives
both EKS and Geary–Khamis measures — see Maddison (1995), pp. 164–79 for a detailed confrontation
of all the binary and multilateral PPPs published up to that time.
iii) Penn World Tables (PWT): For countries not covered by ICP, Summers and Heston devised
short–cut estimates. Their latest Penn World Tables (PWT 6.1, October 2002) provide PPP converters
for 168 countries. Their estimates for countries which have never had an ICP exercise are necessarily
rougher than for those where these exercises are available. For these they use much more limited price
information from cost of living surveys (of diplomats, UN officials, and people working abroad for
private business) as a proxy for the ICP specification prices. I used PPPs from PWT for 84 countries,
5.6 per cent of world GDP in 1990 (see Table 7–2).
iv) ICOP (International Comparison of Real Output and Productivity): The fourth option is to
compare levels of real output (value added) using census of production material on output quantities
and prices. Rostas (1948) pioneered this approach for manufacturing. The first study of this type for the
whole economy was a binary comparison of the United Kingdom and the United States by Paige and
Bombach (1959) published by OEEC. This approach was not used in subsequent ICP comparisons,
but I used it in a comparative study of economic growth in 29 countries (Economic Progress and
Policy in Developing Countries, 1970, Norton, New York). At that time there were no ICP estimates for
non–OECD countries. I made estimates of value added and productivity in agriculture, industry and
services and total GDP in US relative prices for the 29 countries for 1965. I merged these benchmark
estimates to time series of GDP movement in the 29 countries back to 1950, 1938, 1913 and 1870,
wherever possible. The basic approach was very similar to that in this volume, although the measures
of GDP levels in the benchmark year and the time series for GDP growth were much cruder than they
are now. In Maddison (1983) I compared my production–side estimates with those of Kravis, Heston
and Summers (1982). I also used the two sets of estimates as benchmarks for merger with time series
on economic growth to see what the implications were for comparative levels of performance back to
1820. I concluded provisionally that the ICP approach probably exaggerated service output in the
poorer countries, but that an authoritative view on this topic required more careful study on the
production side. I therefore set up the ICOP (International Comparison of Output and Productivity)
project at the University of Groningen in 1983. The Groningen Growth and Development Centre has
produced nearly 100 research memoranda on productivity as well as Ph. D theses on economic
growth and levels of performance by Bart van Ark, Tom Elfring, Pierre van der Eng, Andre Hofman,
Sompop Manarungsan, Kees van der Meer, Nanno Mulder, Dirk Pilat, Jaap Sleifer and Marcel Timmer.
These theses are in the Kuznetsian tradition with fully transparent and complete statistical appendices
showing sources and methods of approach (see Maddison and van Ark, 2000). The ICOP programme
puts primary emphasis on analysis of labour, capital and joint factor productivity for major sectors of
the economy. It was not intended as a rival to IPC, but provides and alternative and complementary
approach to the problem of international comparison of GDP levels. So far, the project has covered
one or more sectors of the economy for more than 30 countries which together represent more than
half of world GDP (see http://www.eco.rug.nl/ggdc/dseries/icop.shtml#top). Recently the scale of its
systemic comparative exercises has increased in country coverage and sector detail, in co–operation
with international agencies including Euostat, ILO and OECD. The most recent ICOP work was a
study for 19 countries, covering more than 30 sectors. These results are a useful crosscheck on the ICP
measures and on the validity of my 1990 benchmarks as an anchor for analysis of levels of performance
in the past (see HS–8 below).

229

The World Economy: Historical Statistics

Table 7-2. Nature of PPP Converters Used to Estimate GDP Levels in the Benchmark Year 1990
(billion 1990 Geary-Khamis dollars and number of countries)
Europe and
Western Offshoots
ICP
PWT
Proxies
Total
Source:

15 273 (28)
59
(3)
16 (10)
15 349 (41)

Latin America

Asia

2 131
71
38
2 240

8 017
524
87
8 628

(18)
(14)
(15)
(47)

Africa

(24)
(16)
(17)
(57)

0 (0)
891 (51)
14 (6)
905 (57)

World

25 421 (70)
1 516 (84)
155 (48)
27 122 (202)

The PPP converters used here are the same as those in Maddison (2001) except for 7 African countries.

Europe and Western Offshoots: 99.5 per cent of regional GDP from ICP 6 for 1990; 22 countries
from OECD–Eurostat and 6 countries from ECE (see OECD, 1993; ECE, 1994; Maddison, 1995, p. 172
and Maddison, 2001, pp. 189–90); 0.4 per cent of regional GDP (Bulgaria, Cyprus and Malta) from
PWT version 5.6; 0.1 per cent from proxy estimates (Albania, Andorra, Channel Isles, Faeroe Isles,
Gibraltar, Greenland, Isle of Man, Liechtenstein, Monaco and San Marino).
Latin America: 95.1 per cent of regional GDP (18 countries) from ICP. As there was no Latin
America ICP exercise for 1990 or later; I used ICP 3 for 2 countries and ICP 4 for 16 countries updated
to 1990 (see Kravis, Heston and Summers, 1982; UN, 1987; and Maddison, 2001, p. 199). Updating
involves adjustment for the GDP volume change in the specified country between the reference year
and 1990, and for the movement in the US GDP deflator in the same interval. 3.2 per cent of regional
GDP (Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Haiti, Nicaragua, Puerto Rico, St. Kitts
Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago) from PWT version 5.6; 1.7 per cent from
proxy estimates (Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bermuda, Cayman Islands, Cuba, French
Guyana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles, St. Pierre and Miquelon, Turks
and Caicos, Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands).
Asia: 92.9 per cent of regional GDP (24 countries) from ICP or equivalent. I used ICP 3 for
2 countries, ICP 4 for 5 countries. ICP 5 for 3 countreis and linked Bangladesh and Pakistan to their
1950 level relative to India. All 12 were updated to 1990. OECD estimates were available for Japan
and Mongolia for 1990, and I made an estimate for China for 1990 based on Maddison (1998) and
Ren (1997). ICP 7 estimates were available from ESCAP(1999) and ESCWA (1997) for 9 countries for
1993 and backdated to 1990 (see Maddison, 2001, pp. 202, 208, 219–20). Backdating involves the
same procedure as updating. 6.1 per cent of regional GDP (Bhutan, Burma, Fiji, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait,
Oman, Papua New Guinea, Saudi Arabia, Solomon Islands, Taiwan, Tonga, UAE, Vanuatu, Western
Samoa, and Yemen) from PWT version 5.6; 1 per cent of regional GDP from proxy estimates
(Afghanistan, American Samoa, Brunei, Cambodia, French Polynesia, Guam, Kiribati, Lebanon, Macao,
Maldives, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, New Caledonia, North Korea, Northern Marianas, Palau, Wallis
and Futuna.
Africa: 75.8 per cent of regional GDP from PWT 5.6 and 22.7 per cent from PWT 6.1; proxy
estimates for 1.5 per cent of regional GDP (Equatorial Guinea, Libya, Mayotte, St. Helena, São Tomé
& Principe and Western Sahara); see source note HS–6 and Table 6–11.

230

The World Economy, 1950–2001

d) Alternative Estimates of Movement of World GDP, 1970 onwards
The IMF now makes annual estimates of the growth of world GDP in real terms, available back
to 1970. Their preference is for PPP adjustment, but they publish an alternative with exchange rate
weights (see IMF, Economic Outlook, September 2002, pp. 189–199, which describes their method).
Their PPP estimates (with 1996 weights) are derived from ICP. For countries not covered by ICP, they
estimate PPPs using a regression technique in which exchange rates are one of the independent variables.
Table 7–3 compares the year–to–year movement of their world aggregate and mine. The IMF
measure with PPP weights shows faster growth for 1970–2001 than I do (3.9 per cent a year instead
of 3.3 per cent). One would not expect complete concordance as my PPP weights are different and
my coverage more complete, but it seems clear that the IMF exaggerates growth. Its measure excludes
non–member countries, and makes no proxy estimates for countries where estimation is difficult.
Some of these — Afghanistan, Bosnia, Cuba, North Korea, Serbia — have had negative growth. It is
clear from their database that they have not adjusted growth estimates for countries which formerly
used the Soviet system of national accounts. For China they show GDP growth averaging 8.5 per cent
a year for 1970–2001, whereas my adjusted estimate is 6.5 per cent. For Germany for the same
period, they show growth averaging 2.2 per cent a year. I show 2.0 per cent as I include East Germany
for the whole post–war period. For 1973–2001 they show Russian growth averaging 0.7 per cent and
–0.7 for the Ukraine, whereas I have –0.2 per cent for Russia and –1.5 for Ukraine
The Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations also publishes annual
estimates of world GDP, available back to 1980. Their preference is for an aggregate with exchange
rate conversion, but they publish an alternative using PPP converters (see World Economic Survey
2002, pp. 4, 278–280 and 285). Their PPP weights are for 1995, and are derived from ICP and PWT.
It is not clear from the published description how many countries are included, but their world aggregate
is probably more comprehensive than that of the IMF. The UN measure shows slower growth than the
IMF, and is closer to mine.

Table 7-3. Annual Change of World GDP, IMF and Maddison Measures, 1970-2001
(percentage change)

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985

IMF with
Ex. Rate

IMF
with PPP

Maddison
PPP

4.6
4.3
5.0
6.4
2.2
1.5
5.0
4.2
4.5
3.7
2.5
2.0
0.6
2.9
4.8
3.5

5.2
4.6
5.4
6.9
2.8
1.9
5.2
4.4
4.7
3.8
2.9
2.2
1.2
3.0
4.9
3.7

5.1
4.2
4.7
6.6
2.3
1.5
4.9
4.1
4.4
3.6
2.0
1.9
1.2
2.9
4.5
3.5

1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001

231

IMF with
Ex. Rate

IMF
with PPP

Maddison
PPP

3.3
3.7
4.5
3.7
2.7
0.7
1.0
1.0
2.9
2.8
3.3
3.5
2.2
3.1
3.9
1.1

3.7
4.1
4.7
3.7
2.8
1.5
2.1
2.2
3.7
3.7
4.0
4.2
2.8
3.6
4.7
2.2

3.5
3.6
4.3
3.2
2.0
1.1
2.0
2.2
3.4
3.4
3.9
3.9
2.5
3.3
4.4
1.9

The World Economy: Historical Statistics

Table 7a. World Population by Region, 1900 and Annual Estimates 1950-2001
(000 at mid-year)
Western
Europe

Western
Offshoots

Eastern
Europe

Former
USSR

1900

233 645

86 396

70 993

124 500

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001

304 940
307 024
308 754
310 696
312 607
314 605
316 758
318 987
321 318
323 824
326 346
329 115
332 342
335 251
338 111
340 884
343 440
345 628
347 633
349 946
352 240
354 702
356 845
358 825
360 466
361 743
362 752
363 850
364 949
366 096
367 457
368 647
369 371
369 920
370 509
371 162
372 001
372 887
374 092
375 950
377 856
379 688
381 580
383 334
384 719
385 936
387 063
388 065
388 977
389 945
391 036
392 101

176 458
179 667
183 025
186 273
189 819
193 395
197 027
200 936
204 541
208 165
211 671
215 357
218 807
222 128
225 410
228 454
231 351
234 132
236 710
239 293
242 290
245 500
248 287
250 841
253 386
256 071
258 622
261 274
264 036
266 918
270 106
272 975
275 785
278 403
280 908
283 494
286 181
288 928
291 768
294 843
298 304
302 265
306 337
310 340
314 108
317 858
321 620
325 459
329 239
332 994
336 601
339 838

87 637
88 713
89 814
91 081
92 341
93 719
94 985
96 049
97 149
98 217
99 254
100 292
101 172
102 057
102 908
103 713
104 494
105 256
106 302
107 117
107 921
108 753
109 589
110 418
111 377
112 372
113 357
114 339
115 199
116 058
116 804
117 483
118 173
118 772
119 285
119 866
120 402
120 881
121 092
121 394
121 569
121 847
121 880
121 605
121 379
121 135
120 983
120 942
120 924
120 904
120 913
120 912

179 571
182 677
185 856
188 961
192 171
195 613
199 103
202 604
206 201
209 928
213 780
217 618
221 227
224 585
227 698
230 513
233 139
235 630
237 983
240 253
242 478
244 887
247 343
249 712
252 111
254 519
256 883
259 225
261 525
263 751
265 973
268 217
270 533
273 010
275 574
278 108
280 646
283 124
285 482
287 011
289 045
290 754
292 079
292 686
292 755
292 597
292 188
291 750
291 373
291 012
290 654
290 349

232

Latin
America

Asia

Africa

World

64 764

873 324

110 000

1 563 622

165 938
170 411
174 975
179 664
184 563
189 673
194 935
200 395
206 069
211 951
218 029
224 157
230 450
236 957
243 648
250 474
257 370
264 339
271 430
278 670
286 007
293 427
300 900
308 399
315 957
323 524
331 109
338 791
346 493
354 326
362 069
370 057
378 204
386 279
394 193
402 110
410 248
418 470
426 758
435 097
443 276
451 387
459 512
467 639
475 790
483 957
492 093
500 150
508 094
515 916
523 612
531 213

1 382 447
1 407 689
1 435 439
1 464 409
1 495 497
1 526 707
1 558 727
1 594 212
1 631 177
1 664 717
1 686 796
1 703 409
1 732 716
1 773 645
1 814 092
1 856 366
1 901 303
1 946 533
1 993 844
2 042 155
2 092 954
2 145 665
2 197 174
2 248 260
2 298 349
2 346 352
2 391 522
2 437 228
2 483 253
2 532 444
2 580 468
2 626 665
2 669 803
2 728 669
2 779 117
2 830 331
2 882 699
2 937 328
2 992 532
3 047 760
3 102 638
3 154 008
3 205 102
3 257 972
3 308 981
3 361 948
3 411 457
3 460 624
3 509 481
3 561 961
3 605 017
3 653 504

227 333
232 068
237 008
242 086
247 273
252 759
258 409
264 222
270 231
276 454
282 919
289 385
295 977
303 251
310 725
318 478
326 534
334 945
343 591
352 457
361 168
370 534
380 026
390 034
400 314
410 827
422 188
433 995
446 294
459 413
472 721
486 060
500 253
515 235
530 353
545 742
561 280
577 158
593 250
609 818
626 814
644 889
662 410
679 567
696 273
713 856
730 822
748 865
766 842
785 235
803 311
821 088

2 524 324
2 568 249
2 614 871
2 663 170
2 714 271
2 766 471
2 819 944
2 877 405
2 936 686
2 993 256
3 038 795
3 079 333
3 132 691
3 197 874
3 262 592
3 328 882
3 397 631
3 466 463
3 537 493
3 609 891
3 685 058
3 763 468
3 840 164
3 916 489
3 991 960
4 065 408
4 136 433
4 208 702
4 281 749
4 359 006
4 435 598
4 510 104
4 582 122
4 670 288
4 749 939
4 830 813
4 913 457
4 998 776
5 084 974
5 171 873
5 259 502
5 344 838
5 428 900
5 513 143
5 594 005
5 677 287
5 756 226
5 835 855
5 914 930
5 997 967
6 071 144
6 149 005

The World Economy, 1950–2001

Table 7b. World GDP by Region, 1900 and Annual Estimates 1950-2001
(million 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars)
Western
Europe

Western
Offshoots

1900

675 923

346 869

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001

1 396 188
1 478 599
1 532 433
1 611 339
1 699 722
1 805 779
1 888 452
1 971 596
2 018 551
2 114 619
2 250 549
2 370 583
2 486 946
2 603 774
2 761 481
2 877 269
2 983 130
3 088 548
3 252 072
3 438 238
3 590 948
3 711 784
3 875 271
4 096 456
4 185 248
4 167 528
4 346 755
4 471 506
4 606 129
4 774 306
4 849 408
4 860 516
4 901 367
4 990 650
5 110 650
5 238 333
5 385 159
5 539 861
5 763 264
5 960 940
6 032 764
6 132 879
6 202 870
6 182 982
6 354 335
6 506 739
6 617 683
6 791 738
6 991 426
7 180 236
7 430 287
7 550 272

1 635 490
1 753 540
1 821 083
1 903 763
1 898 106
2 032 869
2 082 376
2 123 207
2 111 417
2 261 993
2 320 141
2 374 411
2 518 521
2 630 968
2 785 505
2 962 352
3 151 817
3 234 760
3 389 792
3 507 231
3 527 862
3 647 077
3 836 032
4 058 289
4 067 628
4 069 398
4 280 195
4 459 671
4 700 723
4 866 597
4 878 155
5 006 126
4 912 862
5 103 869
5 467 359
5 687 354
5 875 446
6 086 756
6 344 832
6 560 368
6 665 584
6 624 976
6 813 766
6 997 300
7 287 292
7 488 397
7 745 855
8 071 150
8 419 092
8 774 087
9 110 246
9 156 267

Eastern
Europe
102 084
185
195
198
209
218
233
239
257
272
286
304
322
328
344
364
380
404
420
436
449
465
499
524
550
583
604
619
641
662
672
675
667
674
684
705
706
725
721
727
718
662
590
559
550
572
605
628
645
663
675
701
728

023
670
236
145
886
857
494
611
635
886
685
781
253
112
518
016
452
645
444
862
695
790
971
756
528
251
961
681
328
299
819
932
202
326
274
201
733
188
564
039
604
280
611
399
242
392
591
039
471
657
746
792

Former
USSR

Latin
America

Asia

154 049

71 810

556 845

510 243
512 566
545 792
569 260
596 910
648 027
710 065
724 470
778 840
770 244
843 434
891 763
915 928
895 016
1 010 727
1 068 117
1 119 932
1 169 422
1 237 966
1 255 392
1 351 818
1 387 832
1 395 732
1 513 070
1 556 984
1 561 399
1 634 589
1 673 159
1 715 215
1 707 083
1 709 174
1 724 741
1 767 262
1 823 723
1 847 190
1 863 687
1 940 363
1 965 457
2 007 280
2 037 253
1 987 995
1 863 524
1 592 084
1 435 008
1 231 738
1 163 401
1 125 992
1 149 255
1 124 868
1 171 952
1 264 526
1 343 230

415 897
438 230
453 597
469 274
499 214
530 878
553 540
595 876
625 722
640 897
683 003
715 561
745 366
767 858
820 323
861 456
904 391
945 275
1 001 933
1 066 861
1 139 930
1 207 883
1 285 171
1 389 001
1 472 097
1 516 401
1 600 191
1 676 351
1 748 863
1 859 032
1 959 640
1 971 428
1 948 323
1 899 500
1 971 670
2 031 533
2 114 420
2 180 944
2 201 128
2 228 787
2 239 774
2 322 319
2 395 378
2 477 861
2 604 244
2 642 430
2 733 963
2 877 476
2 943 073
2 950 010
3 057 026
3 086 936

983 737
1 052 267
1 139 703
1 218 405
1 270 868
1 330 326
1 421 380
1 485 225
1 581 790
1 657 765
1 736 343
1 744 557
1 822 562
1 950 307
2 123 867
2 232 507
2 393 627
2 511 607
2 678 075
2 935 884
3 202 413
3 384 521
3 584 101
3 865 936
3 955 086
4 143 267
4 353 000
4 597 844
4 873 135
5 074 326
5 249 683
5 466 812
5 711 348
6 003 271
6 354 835
6 676 210
6 959 604
7 360 551
7 847 201
8 186 232
8 627 846
8 983 054
9 493 542
10 007 080
10 564 953
11 196 934
11 879 126
12 413 389
12 591 481
13 079 182
13 762 085
14 105 724

233

Africa

66 136

1
1
1
1
1
1

203
212
220
228
239
248
258
267
273
288
301
308
320
343
361
381
392
400
420
453
490
512
530
549
575
582
621
647
663
694
725
733
756
761
777
801
818
831
865
892
904
911
912
921
941
969
024
060
099
136
175
222

131
653
780
858
781
054
153
612
683
734
578
136
322
186
570
330
226
067
309
131
102
138
848
993
500
627
584
589
511
654
905
452
255
138
297
420
732
716
804
376
898
693
598
183
178
734
994
213
966
130
890
577

World

1 973 716
5
5
5
6
6
6
7
7
7
8
8
8
9
9
10
10
11
11
12
13
13
14
15
16
16
16
17
18
18
19
20
20
20
21
22
23
23
24
25
26
27
27
27
28
29
30
31
33
33
34
36
37

329
643
911
210
423
829
153
425
662
021
439
727
137
535
228
763
349
770
416
106
768
351
032
023
396
644
456
167
969
648
047
431
671
266
234
004
819
686
757
584
121
428
969
571
555
573
756
008
833
967
501
193

719
536
635
056
499
803
473
611
653
152
748
808
914
239
009
066
595
344
612
621
791
050
152
529
098
898
303
829
933
326
814
038
650
508
307
771
491
508
109
033
506
768
895
861
982
080
260
319
438
319
872
868

The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 7c. 1900 and Annual Estimates 1950-2001 (1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) Western Europe Western Offshoots Eastern Europe Former USSR Latin America 1900 2 893 4 015 1 438 1 237 1 109 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 4 579 4 816 4 963 5 186 5 437 5 740 5 962 6 181 6 282 6 530 6 896 7 203 7 483 7 767 8 167 8 441 8 686 8 936 9 355 9 825 10 195 10 465 10 860 11 416 11 611 11 521 11 983 12 289 12 621 13 041 13 197 13 185 13 269 13 491 13 794 14 113 14 476 14 857 15 406 15 856 15 966 16 152 16 256 16 129 16 517 16 860 17 097 17 502 17 974 18 413 19 002 19 256 9 268 9 760 9 950 10 220 10 000 10 511 10 569 10 567 10 323 10 866 10 961 11 025 11 510 11 844 12 358 12 967 13 624 13 816 14 320 14 657 14 560 14 856 15 450 16 179 16 053 15 892 16 550 17 069 17 803 18 233 18 060 18 339 17 814 18 333 19 463 20 062 20 531 21 067 21 746 22 250 22 345 21 918 22 243 22 547 23 200 23 559 24 084 24 799 25 571 26 349 27 065 26 943 2 111 2 206 2 207 2 296 2 370 2 495 2 521 2 682 2 806 2 921 3 070 3 218 3 245 3 372 3 542 3 664 3 871 3 996 4 106 4 200 4 315 4 596 4 790 4 988 5 239 5 377 5 469 5 612 5 749 5 793 5 786 5 685 5 705 5 762 5 913 5 892 6 028 5 966 6 008 5 915 5 450 4 844 4 591 4 526 4 715 4 998 5 196 5 333 5 487 5 588 5 804 6 027 2 841 2 806 2 937 3 013 3 106 3 313 3 566 3 576 3 777 3 669 3 945 4 098 4 140 3 985 4 439 4 634 4 804 4 963 5 202 5 225 5 575 5 667 5 643 6 059 6 176 6 135 6 363 6 454 6 559 6 472 6 426 6 430 6 533 6 680 6 703 6 701 6 914 6 942 7 031 7 098 6 878 6 409 5 451 4 903 4 207 3 976 3 854 3 939 3 861 4 027 4 351 4 626 2 506 2 572 2 592 2 612 2 705 2 799 2 840 2 974 3 037 3 024 3 133 3 192 3 234 3 241 3 367 3 439 3 514 3 576 3 691 3 828 3 986 4 117 4 271 4 504 4 659 4 687 4 833 4 948 5 047 5 247 5 412 5 327 5 152 4 918 5 002 5 052 5 154 5 212 5 158 5 123 5 053 5 145 5 213 5 299 5 474 5 460 5 556 5 753 5 793 5 718 5 838 5 811 234 Asia Africa World 638 601 1 262 712 748 794 832 850 871 912 932 970 996 1 029 1 024 1 052 1 100 1 171 1 203 1 259 1 290 1 343 1 438 1 530 1 577 1 631 1 720 1 721 1 766 1 820 1 887 1 962 2 004 2 034 2 081 2 139 2 200 2 287 2 359 2 414 2 506 2 622 2 686 2 781 2 848 2 962 3 072 3 193 3 330 3 482 3 587 3 588 3 672 3 817 3 861 894 916 932 945 970 981 999 1 013 1 013 1 044 1 066 1 065 1 082 1 132 1 164 1 197 1 201 1 194 1 223 1 286 1 357 1 382 1 397 1 410 1 438 1 418 1 472 1 492 1 487 1 512 1 536 1 509 1 512 1 477 1 466 1 468 1 459 1 441 1 459 1 463 1 444 1 414 1 378 1 356 1 352 1 358 1 403 1 416 1 434 1 447 1 464 1 489 2 111 2 197 2 261 2 332 2 367 2 469 2 537 2 581 2 609 2 680 2 777 2 834 2 917 2 982 3 135 3 233 3 340 3 395 3 510 3 631 3 736 3 813 3 914 4 091 4 107 4 094 4 220 4 317 4 430 4 508 4 520 4 530 4 511 4 554 4 681 4 762 4 848 4 939 5 065 5 140 5 157 5 132 5 152 5 182 5 284 5 385 5 517 5 656 5 720 5 830 6 012 6 049 . World Per Capita GDP by Region.

4 0.1 1.8 1.3 2.9 1.9 1.4 1.1 1.6 2.3 2.0 1.2 -0.8 0.1 1.7 1.2 0.3 1.7 1.2 1.3 2.7 1.5 1.1 -0.4 1.9 1.7 2.8 0.1 -0.7 0.7 2.3 2.8 2.0 2.6 0.3 0.7 2.8 1.8 0.3 0.9 1.4 1.4 1.7 1.4 1.8 0.0 0.0 2.4 2.6 2.9 1.5 0.4 0.9 1.1 0.2 2.8 2.2 1.2 0.2 0.9 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.7 1.0 1.8 1.1 -0.6 0.1 2.5 2.8 1.3 0.9 1.7 2.5 2.5 1.5 2.2 2.9 0.4 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.7 0. 1950–2001 Table 7a.3 1.4 0.2 2.8 2.3 1.3 2.1 -0.0 0.6 0.6 1.5 2.0 1.5 0.5 1.8 2.0 1.4 2.3 2.5 1.6 0.0 2.6 2.5 1.8 2.8 2.3 0.5 2.3 0.9 2.2 0.0 2.3 1.2 0.0 2.8 2.1 0.9 0.9 1.8 1.9 1.7 1.3 1.2 1.0 0.9 1.2 1.0 2.0 Eastern Europe Former USSR Latin America Asia Africa World 1.5 1.4 0.5 0.9 0.8 2.7 1.8 0.9 2.9 0.8 1.2 1.6 2.8 1.3 2.6 2.8 2.1 1.7 1.0 1.3 2.6 1.6 0.1 1.4 0.8 1.8 1.The World Economy.1 2.3 0.6 2.6 2.1 2.9 2.2 1.7 0.7 0.8 1.4 2.8 1.5 0.9 2.6 0.4 2.0 2.9 2.3 2.8 0.2 -0.0 0.0 2.4 1.0 0.0 2.8 1.6 2.1 1.9 0.8 2.3 1.2 1.1 2. 1950-2001 Western Europe 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 0.9 2.6 0.3 235 .8 1.0 2.2 1.0 1.6 1.1 2.9 0.0 2.7 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.5 2.3 1.7 0.5 2.1 1.9 0.8 1.0 1.3 2.7 2.5 0.7 1.7 1.8 0.1 1.9 0.1 2.8 2.7 1.8 2.8 2.5 1.0 0.7 1.3 2.4 2.5 2.9 1.5 0.9 3.8 0.0 1.0 0.9 2.2 1.8 1.0 2.2 1.1 1.1 1.8 1.3 1.1 1.1 -0.6 2.9 0.4 2.0 -0.4 2.4 2.8 0.3 Western Offshoots 1.0 1.0 0.6 0.5 2.6 1.9 1.8 2.7 0.7 1.5 2.1 2.1 2.1 1.6 2.2 0.9 0.7 1.9 0.6 1.3 0.1 -0.8 1.5 1.2 2.6 0.7 2.6 0.0 1.8 1.8 1.5 0.8 1.9 0.2 0. by Region.3 2.9 1.7 1.7 0.4 2.9 0.0 1.9 2.2 0.1 2.0 2.8 1.7 2.0 0.2 2.7 2.9 1.9 0.3 0.1 2.2 1.6 1.5 1.7 0.8 1.1 1.3 0.7 2.8 0.0 2.6 1.2 1.7 2.6 0.5 1.8 0.9 0.1 0.4 1.2 1.4 1.4 1.9 2.8 2.1 2.5 0.4 1.1 2.9 0.1 1.8 2.2 -0.8 2.7 1.9 1.9 0.0 0.5 2.5 2.0 1.8 2.7 1.7 1.9 1.6 1.2 0.6 2.7 0.9 0.1 2.8 1.4 1.0 1.3 0.7 1.5 0.5 1.9 1.2 1.8 2.2 2.8 0.8 1.1 1.7 1.3 2.5 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.0 -0.7 1.8 2.2 0.6 0.6 1.8 0. Year–to–Year Percentage Change in World Population.9 0.2 1.7 1.7 0.7 1.6 1.6 1.0 2.4 2.2 0.5 2.0 1.5 0.3 2.3 2.9 0.6 2.3 2.

1 3.6 3.6 Western Offshoots 7.7 2.9 4.7 0.6 5.0 5.The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 7b.1 1.0 3.1 -2.4 5.8 3.5 0.1 0.5 3.5 4.4 3.9 1.5 5.8 2.2 5.4 0.0 8.3 7.9 3.2 4.2 2.8 1.9 3.1 4.6 2.4 1.2 2.7 -10.7 1.9 6.1 1.9 3.5 4.2 4.3 5.6 2.1 9.8 1.0 2.5 4.1 4.5 Eastern Europe Former USSR 5.9 6.0 3.0 -0.6 0.6 6.3 2.5 4.2 0.6 5.5 6.4 5.9 1.1 2.1 3.9 2.2 3.9 8.3 6.5 4.4 1.7 6.6 0.1 2.3 2.3 7.3 3.1 5.5 0.2 236 Latin America Asia Africa World 5.9 4.3 5.2 4.4 4.5 3.8 4.8 -0.1 0.3 2.0 5.8 2.3 4.8 3.9 6.1 0.3 3.4 2.2 1.6 2.0 5.4 -6.3 3.8 5.1 4.2 2.4 7.0 1.5 2.1 -0.1 4.1 5.5 -1.4 2.3 4.6 4.1 3.6 -9.8 5.2 3.5 5.2 -1.2 4.5 1.4 4.8 4.6 4.2 1.7 -2.8 6.7 4.5 1.0 5.9 4.4 4.9 5.2 7.7 5.4 5.7 6.4 6.5 4.1 3.1 2.7 6.7 2.4 5.1 5.8 5.5 6.0 3.9 -5.4 3.3 4.2 2.6 4.6 3.7 4.4 4.6 1.7 3.3 -7.8 3.6 7.1 7.8 3.3 4.4 2.5 3.3 4.5 -2.2 3.9 7.9 4.3 1.4 3.3 12.8 6.6 4.3 5.9 4.5 6.0 4.8 0.8 4.2 4.2 -2.7 4.1 2.8 2.9 7.8 0.3 6.2 4.2 3.1 5.6 9.9 5.1 3.0 7.6 1.5 -1.1 1.7 6.4 4.2 5.5 3.9 4.9 -14.0 3.0 5.5 3.6 -1.4 8.1 0.0 6.8 0.5 4.4 2.1 2.2 2.7 0.5 3.5 7.7 5.0 8.2 -0.9 .5 2.8 5.5 3.8 3.7 2.0 5.5 3.2 4.4 4.6 -0.4 7. by Region.3 6.2 -5.5 4.2 1.0 3. 1950-2001 Western Europe 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 5.5 6.3 0.3 0.9 0.7 3.9 1.0 6.2 3.6 2.3 5.2 3.9 1.0 7.7 3.7 3.0 4. Year–to–Year Percentage Change in World GDP Volume.4 3.6 4.9 4.4 5.2 1.6 8.5 6.1 4.4 5.4 2.6 6.2 5.2 5.4 3.4 3.6 9.5 -0.7 4.5 4.4 2.5 7.9 2.2 3.5 3.9 0.8 2.2 3.2 2.7 1.0 4.6 -1.4 0.5 3.0 3.9 2.1 3.5 1.1 6.9 3.9 5.4 5.6 4.5 4.3 -14.6 5.9 3.7 2.9 1.7 5.0 3.6 2.6 4.7 3.7 3.8 3.9 2.0 5.6 2.1 1.9 1.1 4.6 3.9 4.0 4.8 2.1 4.4 6.8 3.1 7.0 2.0 3.0 1.3 6.7 3.9 5.0 6.7 4.5 4.0 7.0 6.8 2.7 2.5 -3.6 2.1 4.8 6.3 5.3 5.4 4.4 6.1 4.5 5.6 2.4 3.5 6.7 4.8 8.1 5.5 5.9 4.1 0.2 4.5 4.3 4.5 3.2 5.5 5.8 3.9 2.6 9.9 4.4 4.7 3.1 2.4 3.2 0.5 -0.2 2.1 3.6 2.9 2.2 6.6 4.2 3.7 2.5 0.9 6.5 0.8 5.4 1.8 4.3 5.8 3.3 4.2 6.7 5.4 1.9 -1.3 7.4 3.2 0.1 5.3 4.7 4.7 4.4 2.6 5.3 0.3 6.5 5.6 4.

8 -1.0 3.4 1.6 3.0 6.1 2.0 3.8 3.4 -0.1 3.5 1.1 1.7 3.7 4.5 4.1 3.4 2.9 7.9 4.8 -15.1 Africa World 2.9 -0.8 3.3 0.4 3.1 2.3 -0.4 3.7 2.9 5.9 1.4 2.0 1.6 1.3 3.7 0.3 2.7 1.7 1.1 5.9 2.3 -0.1 2.0 2.2 5.3 0.3 2.0 -0.3 2.8 3.6 2.1 3.2 2.4 2.6 2.4 3.4 5.3 4.6 3.6 2.9 3.1 2.2 4.6 1.4 1.3 2.1 4.9 2.9 -11.7 0.7 6.0 2.5 6.8 0.2 -0.0 0.6 -0.7 4.8 1.0 3.7 0.5 -2.1 2.1 0.7 -1.1 2.7 1.3 -1.9 2.3 8.6 1.1 7.7 0.4 0.9 2.7 -0.5 0.0 4.9 1.3 -0.7 4.2 3.9 6.9 5.9 2.1 3.3 3.0 6.9 2.4 3.8 1.9 1.3 2.7 1.7 -1.3 2.2 1.6 3.7 4.3 Western Offshoots 5.6 -0.9 1.8 5.1 6.3 1.6 2.7 3.2 2.1 -2.7 2.1 3.7 7.0 3.2 -1.3 4.7 -1.3 1.4 2.8 1.2 3. Year-to-Year Percentage Change in World Per Capita GDP.8 4.5 0.1 0.3 -0.2 6.6 0.0 3.7 2.6 0.0 4.6 4.4 2.9 0.4 4.0 2.0 -1.3 0.3 5.5 -1.2 -2.1 -0.5 4.6 4.1 2.7 1.3 -0.1 1.7 2.4 3.5 0.4 1.9 3.2 1.The World Economy.5 Asia 5.9 3.4 0.7 -0.3 237 Latin America 2.0 4. by Region.4 2.5 4.9 0.2 2.3 1.0 2.8 0.2 1.8 3.4 4.1 4.2 1.8 2.0 4.1 -5.9 1.8 0.6 3.1 2.6 -0.6 -2.9 1.1 2.7 2.7 -0.4 -1.9 5.7 2.3 2.4 3.8 -0.3 5.6 -1.0 -3.9 1.1 4.6 1.5 -3.5 2.9 1.6 2.4 3.9 4.5 2.3 4.1 1.6 .1 5.2 3.6 3.8 1.6 4.6 3.4 3.7 2.3 0.0 3.2 4.9 3.1 1.2 2.3 1.3 -0.2 -1.3 -0.4 7.0 4.3 -4.9 0.1 1.9 2.6 3.7 2.7 1.2 3.1 -0.9 -1.0 6.3 4.6 4.7 3.7 2.0 3.1 0.3 0.1 0.2 3.4 2.8 4.1 5.7 0.7 1.2 0.1 -0.9 4.5 1.8 1.5 4.6 2.4 3.7 3.0 2.6 2.7 5.9 1.5 3.9 2.4 2.2 1.6 3.3 0.6 3.4 0.4 0.0 2.8 5.6 1.9 3.6 4.1 4.2 -0.0 1.0 -3.4 6.4 1.4 -0. 1950-2001 Western Europe 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 5.5 2.8 5.1 2.1 2.0 0.4 5.9 3.5 4.3 1.8 2.6 3.3 1.9 3.2 -5.4 0.8 2.9 3.4 5.7 2.2 -2.2 1.5 3. 1950–2001 Table 7b.0 2.0 6.0 -2.5 3.1 1.6 -7.6 1.3 1.8 2.6 -3.3 -2.6 2.1 -6.5 0.4 0.6 3.1 3.3 4.2 0.6 3.1 -14.7 3.5 2.2 0.4 -0.8 2.3 0.1 3.8 3.0 2.7 1.6 -1.1 -1.3 2.7 11.4 2.2 -0.3 2.4 4.3 -1.3 0.2 5.1 1.6 1.6 1.9 2.3 0.7 3.5 4.6 1.1 -1.2 4.8 1.5 0.4 1.0 -10.5 2.7 1.9 1.7 -2.6 3.1 2.1 3.4 4.5 1.7 4.2 3.7 -0.5 2.7 -1.3 2.7 2.8 5.9 2.1 1.6 2.8 0.2 5.4 3.5 Eastern Europe Former USSR 4.5 1.

The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 7a*. 1950-2000 (000 at mid-year) 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 Western Europe Western Offshoots Eastern Europe Former USSR Latin America 305 346 306 928 308 740 310 693 312 722 314 794 316 900 319 062 321 323 323 739 326 359 329 197 332 210 335 287 338 280 341 080 343 641 345 987 348 156 350 222 352 234 354 199 356 094 357 905 359 610 361 194 362 669 364 044 365 304 366 427 367 408 368 237 368 943 369 609 370 346 371 234 372 294 373 506 374 859 376 328 377 885 379 537 381 267 382 990 384 595 386 001 387 172 388 124 388 894 389 544 390 121 181 677 184 495 187 617 190 973 194 501 198 147 201 863 205 608 209 350 213 060 216 716 220 297 223 784 227 156 230 396 233 495 236 437 239 229 241 914 244 550 247 183 249 835 252 499 255 153 257 758 260 291 262 743 265 141 267 539 270 009 272 605 275 349 278 229 281 207 284 231 287 262 290 286 293 319 296 382 299 510 302 725 306 028 309 403 312 834 316 298 319 774 323 261 326 752 330 214 333 606 336 903 87 673 89 008 90 307 91 574 92 809 94 014 95 184 96 318 97 410 98 456 99 451 100 394 101 290 102 149 102 984 103 808 104 624 105 434 106 242 107 055 107 875 108 703 109 540 110 391 111 263 112 160 113 083 114 026 114 964 115 868 116 714 117 489 118 195 118 841 119 445 120 019 120 572 121 092 121 543 121 876 122 060 122 079 121 954 121 739 121 512 121 329 121 211 121 143 121 103 121 055 120 970 180 980 183 626 186 630 189 877 193 275 196 752 200 259 203 771 207 281 210 795 214 322 217 854 221 354 224 755 227 968 230 936 233 624 236 060 238 325 240 537 242 782 245 091 247 446 249 818 252 162 254 445 256 663 258 840 261 001 263 183 265 411 267 671 269 949 272 279 274 702 277 233 279 898 282 641 285 302 287 665 289 574 290 967 291 886 292 411 292 670 292 761 292 711 292 504 292 142 291 620 290 940 167 030 171 440 176 038 180 796 185 695 190 728 195 895 201 209 206 690 212 363 218 248 224 354 230 665 237 144 243 734 250 396 257 114 263 896 270 756 277 718 284 800 291 995 299 295 306 704 314 230 321 875 329 641 337 514 345 458 353 425 361 380 369 308 377 210 385 096 392 981 400 878 408 783 416 690 424 597 432 504 440 408 448 310 456 206 464 094 471 971 479 836 487 684 495 515 503 325 511 109 518 865 238 Asia 1 375 431 1 404 108 1 431 671 1 458 753 1 485 891 1 513 524 1 541 990 1 571 534 1 602 308 1 634 396 1 667 851 1 702 748 1 739 223 1 777 493 1 817 804 1 860 282 1 904 964 1 951 655 1 999 935 2 049 230 2 099 059 2 149 357 2 200 035 2 250 556 2 300 282 2 348 797 2 395 837 2 441 605 2 486 754 2 532 225 2 578 728 2 626 370 2 675 010 2 724 796 2 775 840 2 828 160 2 881 900 2 936 899 2 992 473 3 047 698 3 101 898 3 154 793 3 206 517 3 257 320 3 307 635 3 357 778 3 407 796 3 457 557 3 506 994 3 562 826 3 604 492 Africa World 220 888 225 634 230 526 235 583 240 822 246 257 251 899 257 757 263 838 270 146 276 686 283 464 290 486 297 763 305 307 313 125 321 237 329 644 338 319 347 225 356 340 365 655 375 204 385 056 395 306 406 026 417 236 428 928 441 103 453 754 466 871 480 450 494 482 508 941 523 797 539 016 554 594 570 508 586 684 603 029 619 477 635 996 652 604 669 345 686 288 703 487 720 952 738 675 756 680 774 991 793 627 2 519 025 2 565 238 2 611 528 2 658 249 2 705 716 2 754 214 2 803 991 2 855 260 2 908 200 2 962 955 3 019 633 3 078 307 3 139 011 3 201 746 3 266 473 3 333 121 3 401 640 3 471 903 3 543 647 3 616 536 3 690 271 3 764 836 3 840 112 3 915 583 3 990 612 4 064 789 4 137 873 4 210 098 4 282 122 4 354 891 4 429 118 4 504 874 4 582 017 4 660 769 4 741 343 4 823 802 4 908 327 4 994 655 5 081 841 5 168 610 5 254 027 5 337 710 5 419 837 5 500 733 5 580 970 5 660 967 5 740 787 5 820 270 5 899 353 5 984 752 6 055 918 . Alternative UNPD World Population Estimates by Region.

016 1.000 0.006 1.006 1.006 1.000 0.000 1.001 1.996 0.994 0.987 0.998 0.001 1.998 0.003 1.001 1.001 1.000 1.006 1.000 1.002 0.991 0.984 0.999 0.000 1.003 1.985 0.008 1.999 0.020 1.997 0.997 0.999 1.002 1.985 0.998 0.001 1.988 0.000 0.982 0.000 0.994 1.005 1.003 1.000 1.999 0.007 1.002 1.995 0.995 0.000 0.001 1.007 1.004 1.997 0.999 0.988 0.025 1.009 1.994 0.000 1.994 0.012 1.000 1.003 1.998 0.998 0.999 1.001 1.998 0.985 0.000 1.003 1.001 1.002 1.996 0.001 1.001 1.997 0.001 1.001 1.002 1.993 0.022 1.991 0.001 1.012 1.999 1.003 1.006 1.000 0.000 1.002 1.024 1.997 0.992 0.996 0.022 1.998 0.996 0.027 1.001 1.024 1.000 0.981 0.025 1.023 1.998 0.989 0.024 1.000 1.000 1.009 1.008 1.001 1.980 0.022 1.000 1. 1950–2001 Table 7a**.997 0.004 1.997 .012 1.983 0.000 1.000 0.999 0.999 0.999 0.030 1.002 1.001 1.997 0.000 1.000 1.997 0.997 0.998 0.002 1.986 0.998 1.002 1.006 1.000 0.002 1.002 1.999 0.000 1.002 1.025 1.000 1.001 1.015 1.998 0.998 1.000 1.001 1.002 0.000 1.995 0.025 1.000 1.993 0.996 0.999 0.998 0.000 Former USSR 1.999 0.000 1.000 1.988 0.998 0.016 1.988 0.002 1.000 1.999 1.000 1.997 0.001 1.003 1.000 1.013 1.009 1.000 1.000 1.001 1.000 0.997 0.999 0.982 0.005 1.006 1.000 1.004 1.999 0.014 1.006 1.999 0.990 0.998 0.023 1.001 1.000 1.990 0.000 1.001 1.976 0.001 1.989 0.997 0.018 1.988 0.987 0.977 0.994 0.998 0.004 1.998 0.972 0.010 1.999 0.002 1.002 1.003 1.995 0.986 0.998 0.001 1.001 1.998 0.003 1.986 0.001 1.005 1.988 0.000 0.001 239 Latin America Asia Africa World 1.988 0.002 1.989 0.004 1.002 1.996 0.999 0.991 0.000 1.000 1.001 1.999 0.988 0.001 1.999 1.001 1.973 0.003 1.001 1.999 0.000 1.001 1.999 0.999 0.023 1.000 1.999 1.988 0.017 1.987 0.999 1.998 0.997 0.005 1.992 0.001 0.988 0.000 1.001 1.002 1.016 1.983 0.002 1.002 1.991 0.974 0.997 0.999 0.976 0.022 1.001 1.998 0.001 1.001 1.001 1.000 1.999 0.022 1.001 1.000 1.017 1.001 1.992 0.999 1.985 0.988 0.000 1.001 1.017 1.003 1.001 1.001 1.004 1.000 1.002 1.025 1.973 0.998 0.991 0.997 0.003 1.015 1.997 0.001 1.000 1.022 1.998 0.999 1.997 0.975 0.002 1.000 0.015 1.987 0.005 1.998 0.989 1.995 0.001 1.002 1.005 1.999 0.002 1.987 0. World Population: Confrontation of UNPD and USBC-Maddison Estimates (ratio UNPD to USBC-Maddison) 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 Western Europe Western Offshoots Eastern Europe 1.987 0.000 1.004 1.998 0.000 1.978 0.999 0.972 0.974 0.997 0.000 1.988 0.002 1.997 0.987 0.001 1.006 1.988 0.001 1.004 1.995 0.023 1.991 0.002 1.013 1.986 0.999 0.999 0.000 1.995 0.986 0.985 0.997 0.001 1.002 1.000 1.005 1.988 0.010 1.000 1.002 1.003 1.001 1.001 1.001 1.006 1.991 0.016 1.The World Economy.000 1.999 0.000 1.002 1.984 0.000 1.002 1.000 1.000 1.982 0.005 1.998 0.001 1.002 1.002 1.996 0.999 0.988 0.999 1.

Population Change 1–1820 AD For the centuries before 1820 the most comprehensive evidence is for population and it is of greater proportionate importance for analysis as per capita income growth was much slower then and economic growth was largely extensive. Indonesia and Japan annual estimates are shown back to 1870. 1870 and 1913 in Table 6–10 of HS–6. 1-2001 AD HS–8: The World Economy. 1–2001 AD Tables HS–8 show levels of population. For Eastern Europe. India. annual estimates are shown from 1920. For Western Europe. The sources are described in HS–1 and HS–2.The World Economy. it is useful to distinguish between estimates for 1820–1950 and those for the centuries before 1820 where the documentation is weaker and the element of conjecture bigger. For other countries there are estimates for benchmark years 1820. HS–7 explained the derivation of estimates for 1950–2001. Ottoman. The 1820 and 1870 estimates in Maddison (2001) for the smaller countries are revised and augmented from the Cambridge History of Latin America. 1900 and 1913. Earlier than this. There are also 5 analytical tables showing rates of growth and shares of world population and GDP. GDP and per capita GDP in 20 countries. Derivation of estimates in the territory corresponding to present boundaries is possible. Russian and German Empires. For Western Offshoots. annual estimates. the statistical basis is weaker than elsewhere. these countries were divided between the Austro–Hungarian. For Asia annual estimates are shown from 1913 for the 16 core countries. For Latin America annual estimates are shown back to 1900 for 23 countries. and for benchmark years 1820. 241 . Engerman and Higman (1997) and other sources cited in HS–4. In most cases the sources in HS–5 are the same as in Maddison (2001). but they are too rough to warrant presentation on an annual basis. Population sources are described in HS–3. adjusted to a midyear basis are shown for all countries back to 1820. they are shown separately for the indigenous population and those of European/ African origin at decade intervals for 1820–1870. For China. For Africa. 1870. Before the first world–war. 1850 1870 1890 and 1900. I show no annual estimates before 1950. population estimates for this period are based mainly on censuses dating back to the eighteenth century for Scandinavia and Spain and the early nineteenth for most other countries. Population Movement 1820–1950 For West European countries and Western Offshoots. but give detail for the sample countries for 1820. 7 regions and the world for eight benchmark years in the past two millennia. with annual estimates for the total population thereafter. Estimates for the territory of the former USSR are also too rough to warrant annual presentation before 1920.

The most detailed and best documented are those in McEvedy and Jones (1978). assembled without international guidelines to provide comparability. Western Offshoots. Latin America back to 1500 and for Africa back to the first century. the Chinese 3. fertility and life expectation in Roman Egypt of the third century. c) the Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Family Structure (established in the 1970s) has carried out a massive research project to reconstitute English population size and structure on an annual basis back to 1541 (Wrigley et al.6 per cent. and suggests that the non–agricultural component of economic activity is increasing. it indicates a growing surplus beyond subsistence in agriculture. These records were designed to assess taxable capacity. In this study more country detail is shown for Western Europe. Netherlands from 1913.g. increases in life expectancy. b) INED (Institut National des Études Démographiques) founded in the 1950s to exploit family reconstitution techniques developed by Louis Henry. There were non–official estimates in pre–war years. changes in average age which affect labour force participation. Bagnall and Frier (1994) made brilliant use of fragments of ancient censuses to estimate occupational structure. Canada from 1926 and the United States from 1929. These changing differentials in urban ratios were used to buttress other evidence on per capita progress in China and Europe in Maddison (1998). Appendix B of Maddison 2001 provided source notes and estimates for 20 countries and 7 regions for benchmark years between the first century and 1700. This kind of analysis has been sharpened by the application of massive computing power. changes in the structure of the labour force.The World Economy: Historical Statistics Demographic changes. 1995).. None of these are suitable for our purpose. e. which was used by Perkins (1969) to assess long run movements in Chinese output per capita. GDP Growth 1820–1950 Before the second worldwar.8 per cent. In the past 60 years. Ester Boserup’s (1965) analysis of the interaction between demographic pressure. marriage patterns. In the year 1000. and include information on cultivated area and crop production. This was the source of my estimates for Africa (see also the masterly analysis of African development in McEvedy. are important in providing clues to per capita income development. There are some changes in the regional totals for Africa (see Table 6–1). Modernised techniques and similar types of evidence have been used to make retrospective estimates of population for other European countries for periods before census material was available. As a result of these efforts we are better placed to measure long term changes in world population. but none for other regions. Thanks to the work of de Vries for Europe and of Rozman for Asia. this ratio was virtually zero in Europe (there were only 4 towns with more than 10 000 inhabitants) and in China it was 3 per cent. Investigations of this character have been carried out by a) the Office of Population Research in Princeton University (established in 1936). The Chinese bureaucracy kept population registers which go back more than 2 000 years. household size. agricultural technology and intensity of labour input in Asia has helped discredit simplistic Malthusian interpretations. Norway from 1865. Serious work on historical demography started in the seventeenth century with John Graunt (see Prologue). but there are retrospective official estimates of fairly recent vintage which I used for Austria from 1830. When countries are able to expand their urban ratios. By 1800 the West European urban ratio was 10. but all those he cited have now been superseded. for some countries. Colin Clark (1940) made a comprehensive survey. measure the proportion of population living in towns with more than 10 000 inhabitants. A striking example is the urbanisation ratio. work on retrospective national accounts has been undertaken by a large number of scholars who have generally linked their 242 . one can. 1997). There has been a flood of publications on Latin American demography and the shipment of slaves from Africa. Research on Japanese population history has blossomed under the leadership of Akira Hayami and Osamu Saito. only 10 countries had official estimates of national income.

Thailand. Their approach is a variant of that developed originally by Wilfred Beckerman (1966) as a shortcut cross– section technique to measure comparative income levels. The European Historical Economics Society (EHES) has also been active in promoting research on quantitative economic history since 1997 when it created the European Review of Economic History. It has published research studies on GDP growth in Brazil. Riitta Hjerppe supervised a 13 volume study for Finland which was completed in 1989. problems of methodology and definition since 1949. Egypt. Productivity and Purchasing Power in Asia and Australia). His very long career included creation of official US accounts in 1934 and 5 monographs of historical accounts for the United States in 1941–61. 1-2001 AD series to official post–war estimates. established scholars working on historical accounts. 243 . Nick Crafts (1983) was the first to use it for diachronic analysis (see Maddison. Sweden and the United Kingdom. the University of Groningen has been active in this field since 1982. Scandinavia has a long history in this field. Kazushi Ohkawa organised a 14–volume study (1966–1988) of Japanese growth at Hitotsubashi University. open to new ideas and willing to comment sympathetically in detail on the work of others. Indonesia. Taiwan and Vietnam. persuaded the US Social Science Research Council to finance comparative research in other countries. Sri Lanka. Italy. The proxy estimates I use for Bulgaria. He encouraged a band of scholars all over the world to consider that such an enterprise was feasible. and Olle Krantz has made annual estimates of GDP growth since 1800. Japan.The World Economy. Between 1953 and 1989 he published 8 volumes containing 70 analytical essays comparing the results which emerged from these quantitative studies and assessing their significance for the study of “modern economic growth”. Korea. Svend Aage Hansen produced the second major study of Danish growth in 1974. China. and was associated with the research of Maddison (1998) on China and Sivasubramonian (2000) on India. He encouraged comparable studies for Australia. Indonesia. Korea. Germany. Poland. important and rewarding. The International Association for Research in Income and Wealth (IARIW) has held conferences and workshops on measurement of comparative GDP growth and levels of performance. To facilitate this research he helped found the International Association for Income and Wealth in 1947. with annual GDP estimates back to 1818. In the Netherlands. which is revising the Scandinavian historical accounts to enhance their comparability. which produced basic growth studies for Argentina. It is also linked with the COPPAA group (Comparisons of Output. There is now a Nordic Group. Germany. Taiwan. He was free from partisanship. Romania and Yugoslavia for 1870 to the 1920s were derived from David Good and Tongshu Ma (1999). Mexico. and younger researchers serving their apprenticeship in this field and has played a major role in developing a standardised approach and extending the range of countries for which studies are available. which has carried out a number of studies of comparative performance of economies in the Asia–Pacific region. and implemented with relatively simple statistical techniques. the Netherlands. and the USSR. The University now has an ambitious comparative project on the quantitative economic history of China. sponsoring their own research and strengthening international networks by holding workshops. These set high standards of scholarship with meticulous and transparent description of sources and methods. The vitality of recent research activity is clear from Table 8–1 which shows amendments to my estimates since publication of Maddison (2001). 1990). His persuasive power and influence stemmed from professional integrity and depth of scholarship. Its Growth and Development Centre has played a major role in international studies of productivity levels and in developing an international database on economic growth. These characteristics have permitted succeeding generations of scholars to stand on his shoulders. and played a major role in the creation of the Yale Growth Center. Korea. There have been five rounds of research in Sweden since 1937. It maintained close links with Jan Luiten van Zanden’s team working on Dutch growth in the University of Utrecht and with the University of Leuven’s research on long–run growth in Belgium. based in Brisbane. Its membership has always included official statisticians. France. and a six–country comparison for Latin America. Several university centres are now active in this field. His influence was reinforced by his style of analysis–use of ideas that could be clearly expressed in literary form. Taiwan. exciting. Japan. The temporal horizon of this new generation of Kuznetsian scholarship was concentrated on developments since the mid–nineteenth century. The initial thrust for these exercises in quantitative economic history was given by Simon Kuznets. and has published its quarterly Review of Income and Wealth since 1968.

244 . Portugal.1 percent a year). and 1911-38 Hungary 1870-1900 Netherlands 18201913 Portugal 1851-1910 Cuba 1929-50 Jordan 1820-1950 Algeria 1880--1950 Jamaica 1820-1950 Malaysia 1911-50 Egypt 1886-1950 Uruguay 1870-1913 Palestine 1820-1950 Ghana 1891-1950 Spain 1850-1950 Philippines 1902-50 Switzerland 18511913 Sri Lanka 1820-1950 Tunisia 1910-50 South Korea 1913-50 Syria 1820-1950 Turkey 1820-1950 Vietnam 1820-1950 Amended and New Proxy Estimates Greece 1820-1913 Switzerland 182051. Western Offshoots: There are changes in the “multicultural” per capita GDP estimates 1700– 1820 for Australia. as noted by Boisguilbert and Vauban. See Table 4–1 for a more detailed sub–regional specification for 1500–1820 than in Maddison (2001). Greece. Sweden and 13 small territories. estimates for earlier centuries are unchanged. In the case of France. Eastern Europe: Per capita GDP growth rates prior to 1820 are unchanged (0. Latin America: More detailed scrutiny of the evidence for the Caribbean sugar colonies led to upward revision of their per capita GDP and population levels in 1700–1820. but for the second half of the seventeenth century I assume stagnant per capita income because of hunger crises and the depressing influence of more or less continuous warfare. as specified in detail in Tables 2–1 and 2–5. Canada and New Zealand.Albania 1870-1950 1913 Bulgaria 1870-1924 Caribbean 1820-1950 Arabia 1820-1950 Algeria 1820-80 Iran 1820-1950 Egypt 1820-86 Poland 1870-1929 Romania 1870-1926 Iraq 1820-1950 Lebanon 1820-1950 Ghana 1820-91 Morocco 1820-1920 Yugoslavia 18701912 North Korea 18201950 Tunisia 1820-1910 South Africa 18201912 GDP Growth before 1820 Western Europe: Per capita GDP growth rates prior to 1820 in Maddison (2001) are unchanged for Germany. There was no significant change for Russia. but the level for 1500–1700 is higher due to use of the Good–Ma proxies for the nineteenth century. Amendments to GDP Estimates in Maddison (2001) for 1820-1950 Western Europe Western Offshoots Eastern Europe and former USSR Latin America Asia Africa Amendments and New Estimates France 1820-70 Australia 1820-70. the Netherlands. Spain.The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 8-1. the 1700–1820 growth rate is unchanged. and 1914-24 New Zealand 1870. but levels for 1500–1700 for these countries are affected by the amendments for 1820.

245 . Laspeyres. India.The World Economy. g. on the same lines as PWT estimates for countries where there has been no ICP exercise. It would be useful and probably feasible to construct such a measure e. and there are several others which confirm my findings. 162–179. It would not be possible replicate the detail or systemic rigour of modern ICP exercises (prices for more than 2000 items for 200 categories of expenditure). I am satisfied that the 1990 benchmark estimates I used are the best presently available. The most promising crosschecks on my estimates of relative standing in the past have come from binary comparisons of countries which have a significant weight in the world total.1 exercises were too recent to be fully digested here (see Table 6–11). but no information on relative price structures. Toda and van Zanden cited below. but I was able to make a more detailed scrutiny for West Asia thanks to recent work by Sevket Pamuk (see Tables 5–6 and 5–8). e. It is clear that patterns of expenditure have changed radically over the long–term (as illustrated by the comparison of British expenditure patterns in 1688 and 1996 in Table 1). g. But such deviations are obviously a useful crosscheck. These are merged with measures of comparative GDP levels in the reference year 1990 at 1990 prices. Leandro Prados has made proxy estimates of PPPs and per capita income relatives for benchmark years since 1820. However. Heston and Summers (1993) compare the GDP growth rates implicit in ICP cross–section estimates of the relative standing of countries at different points of time with direct measures of inter–temporal GDP growth. updates of the 1990 benchmarks are less important than crosschecks on their validity as measures of relative performance in the distant past. using econometrics. and there have also been big changes in relative prices and output structure. where the results of the OECD (2002) and PWT 6. using reduced information. EKS and Geary–Khamis). the bulk of the evidence consists of measures of inter–temporal change in GDP volume in individual countries. but this certainly needs to be investigated. The derivation of the inter–spatial estimates is explained in the source notes to HS–7 and in Table 7–2. moving backwards from 2001. Indonesia and Japan in Maddison (2001) are unchanged. 1-2001 AD Asia: GDP estimates for China. A more comprehensive survey of the array of level estimates available for years between 1970 and 1990 can be found in Maddison (1995) pp. Africa: I have made more detailed sub–regional conjectures of long–run per capita GDP movement than in Maddison (2001). However the level estimates for 1700 and earlier are unchanged. and presented a detailed analysis of the forces affecting the contours of demographic development. but real wage analysts have accumulated quite a lot of material on price structures which could be mobilised for this purpose. Some of these changes may have had a similar impact across countries. My 1990 benchmark can be subjected to comprehensive review when the World Bank’s ICP exercise for 2004 becomes available. Crosschecking Measures of Comparative Levels of Performance before 1950 In this study. In the absence of such measures. for 1900 or 1870. those of Broadberry. Fisher. Some of these I have done myself. See source note HS–6. It would also be useful to have ICOP or ICP type multilateral cross–section studies for different points of time in the past. with the possible exception of those for Eastern Europe and Africa. The results are too shaky to be a serious challenge to my estimates of relative levels in 1820 (see Table 8–2). This indicates the range of variance between the results of the successive ICP and PWT rounds and compares the attributes of alternative aggregation procedures (Paasche. They do not suggest that deviations between implicit and direct measures cast serious doubt on the latter. This raised the 1820 per capita GDP level for this group and its rate of growth 1700–1820. and Tables 6–1 and 6–2.

ii) Yasushi Toda (1990): presented a binary comparison of Japanese and Russian urban consumption levels in 1913 and Japan/USSR in 1975–6. At first sight these judgements seemed incompatible. The gaps are filled by a structural equation. As a test. whereas I found that US productivity leadership at the aggregate level (GDP per man hour) began several decades later. distribution of income. b) Conflicting Interpretations i) Leandro Prados (2000) offers proxy estimates of per capita GDP levels relative to the United States for 17 benchmark years between 1820 and 1990. nor does he measure price structures. He restricts the coverage to OECD countries. Instead he backcasts an econometric relationship between purchasing power parity converters and exchange rates which prevailed in 1950-90. and 110 items for 1975–6. He had no explicit measure of growth. Susan Hanley and Kenneth Pomeranz) whose judgement of the relative standing of major Asian countries and Western Europe is very different from mine. He found the Japanese real per capita consumption level below that in Russia in 1913 and significantly higher in 1975–6. a) Confirmatory Crosschecks i) Stephen Broadberry (1997a): provides the most important of the binary cross–checks because he scrutinises the relative standing of the two successive lead counties (the United Kingdom and the United States) for benchmark years between 1870 and 1990. He suggests that the relationship between real wages and average per capita GDP is highly variable and dependent on many factors such as the length of the working year. but the implicit differential in growth rates was very similar to what I found for per capita GDP for this period. As a test. compared UK and German performance for the same period with 1935 weights. with his aggregate of value added by sector. He makes no use of inter-temporal measures of change in real GDP to estimate past levels of performance. food consumption patterns.The World Economy: Historical Statistics There are some authors (Paul Bairoch. I give my reasons for disagreeing with them below. He concludes that “in the 1820s per capita GDP in Java was about one third of Dutch per capita GDP” and that my estimates of relative levels of the two economies in 1820 are “by and large correct”. he compared Dutch growth to his new estimates of Javanese GDP growth for 1815–1880 and made PPP adjustments to compare levels of per capita income in the 1820s. and comparative physical stature of Dutch and Indonesians. some of which contradicts my view of West European development over the past few centuries. reconciling my estimate of the relative standing of the two countries in terms of aggregate GDP using 1990 expenditure weights. using 1935 weights. life expectation. which attributes spreads between PPPs and exchange rates to four variables: a) openness of the economies as measured by the ratio of foreign trade (exports and imports) to GDP. He had a matched sample of 46 items at Japanese and Russian prices for 1913. relative prices etc. He also makes comparative estimates of real wages. iii) Jan Luiten van Zanden (2003) expressed his concern that distortions may arise in using 1990 benchmarks back to 1820 because of changes in relative price structures. Broadberry (1997a) made an ICOP type analysis of performance in 9 sectors and aggregate GDP in the two countries for 1870–1990 using 1937 value added weights. Finally. His results were compatible with my aggregate comparison with 1990 expenditure weights. For 1880 he shows estimates for 23 countries but the coverage drops to 6 countries in 1820. 1997b. He has 89 ICP or OEEC direct measures of this relationship to support the 155 estimates he shows for 7 reference years from 1950 to 1990 (see his tables 3 and 9). These “direct indicators” show a narrower gap. Broadberry. He arrived at a similar confirmatory result. I would like to comment on the real wage literature. b) the ratio of net 246 . He found US productivity in manufacturing ahead of the United Kingdom by the middle of the 19th century. Argentina and Russia.

He assumes that the PPP/exchange rate relationships for 1950-1990 are a good guide to the situation in 1820-1938. It compares his per capita relatives and mine for 1900 and 1820. 4 derived by multiplying my estimate for the United States by Prados’ relatives in column 3. smaller but appreciable differences for 1900.a. This is the case for his benchmark country.9 45.78 1.7 97.The World Economy.08 1.1 100.a.5 76. 136. whereas my estimate includes aborigines (see HS–2 for white population). Comparison of Maddison Per Capita GDP Levels and Prados’ Proxies. n.0 122. The United States is his benchmark country but he does not show his estimate in absolute terms. He shows estimates labelled “Maddison Revised”. and his implicit absolute levels.43 1. 1820–1900 Maddison Maddison Prados Implicit Prados Maddison Prados per capita GDP in 1990 int.59 1. In the bottom panel I compare my estimates of per capita growth with his implicit growth rates. and nominal estimates of GDP are often not available. Col.34 1. he refers to the white population.0 54.2 90.2 100.0 91.6 56.8 1 1 1 1 285 257 213 006 896 645 n. Table 8–2 shows the Prados results for the 6 countries where his estimates go back to 1820. his four variables and estimates of nominal GDP. with France and Denmark growing faster than the United States. He provides two pages of source notes. His growth rate for Australia is much slower than mine. $ nominal per capita GDP % of US nominal per capita GDP % of US 1820 Australia United States United Kingdom Netherlands France Denmark Australia United States United Kingdom Netherlands France Denmark 1 1 1 1 1 518 257 706 838 135 274 41.49 1. derived by multiplying his relatives by my estimate for the United States.0 109.2 100.7 70.5 80. It shows my estimates in 1990 international dollars.3 100. My growth rates for per capita GDP 1820–1900 are very different from his implicit rates.42 1.6 59.7 71.5 100.a.4 1900 1820–1900 annual average compound growth rate Australia United States United Kingdom Netherlands France Denmark Source: 2.49 1. $ per capita GDP % of US per capita GDP % of US per capita GDP in 1990 int. Table 8–2. His cross– section relatives are derived from estimates of these four items for the years he covers. but I could not see from the description how he derived these and must therefore register a disclaimer. 1-2001 AD capital inflows to GDP: c) the size of the country in terms of its surface area and population.2 66.22 0.6 52. There are very big differences between his relatives and mine for 1820.3 101. With this information he infers the Paasche PPP for a given year in the past for each of the countries. 247 .3 51.3 73.0 91. Estimates of variables a and b are likely to be pretty shaky for the early years.a. and knowledge of the exchange rates prevailing in those years.58 1.0 71. he has no ICP or PWT (reduced-information) measures of PPPs. n. For years before 1950.82 Maddison estimates from basic tables. column 5 from Maddison (1991c). but he shows much faster growth for the four European countries.0 135.0 99. Columns 3 and 6 from Prados (2000). the United States where he derived a nominal value by reflating the real GDP estimates for 1820–1860 with a cost of living and a wholesale price index.8 83. He applies these PPPs to convert estimates of nominal GDP in each country from national currencies into US dollars of the year in question. n.a.a. n.4 102.8 3 4 3 2 3 2 993 091 751 925 142 733 104.3 4 4 4 3 2 3 013 091 492 424 876 017 98. For Australia 1820.9 69. Table 9.0 92. n.8 66.8 95. and d) a periphery dummy (in cases where per capita income is less than half of the average level).3 50. but shows only his results and none of the basic material on PPPs.7 146.0 96.1 100.17 1.6 100.

The World Economy: Historical Statistics ii) Paul Bairoch (1930-1999) was a very prolific quantitative historian. In fact the two countries had a similar level of per capita GDP in 2001. urbanisation and labour force participation. In Bairoch. Japan would now have a gigantic lead over the United Kingdom. 12. Asia and Latin America) for 6 benchmark years between 1750 and 1995. He showed China at more or less the same level as Western Europe in 1800. In Hanley (1997) she asserted that “Japanese physical well–being in the 1860s was at least as high as in nineteenth century England”. A good deal of his analysis concentrated on the forces making for divergence in the growth of advanced capitalist countries and the third world. (Victoires et Déboires. augmented by the proxy PPPs in Beckerman (1966). 104. and that of the Ottoman Empire around 1600. She is a member of the revisionist school which found evidence to warrant a much more positive view of economic performance from 1600 to the 1860s than that of an earlier generation of scholars. I commented on the quality of these estimates in Maddison (1990). or the estimates in Table P. 1967) that the third world was impoverished by the development process and policies of the rich countries. iii) Susan Hanley is a demographer and social historian who has concentrated mainly on the economic history of Tokugawa Japan. 3 vols.. In Britain it rose 6–fold. In assessing the relative position of two countries at a given point in the past. This analysis is difficult to reconcile with his earlier position. To me the most surprising and interesting part of his 1997 study is his discussion of the relative performance and interaction of the European and Asian economies between 1500 and 1800 (pp. and greatly exaggerates its level of performance in the 1860s. and dairy products. Table XII. the peak for Moghul India was in the 16th century. pp. 642–5). Journal of European Economic History. If Hanley’s judgement on nineteenth century levels were correct. 1981. Paris. presents estimates for each of his 24 “developed countries” for 7 benchmark years from 1800 to 1913. it is always useful to consider their growth trajectories since that point. comprehensive and fascinating survey of world economic history from 1492 to 1995. and slightly lower in 1800. He suggests that Asia was probably somewhat more advanced than Europe around 1500 and that by the eighteenth century this advantage had disappeared. It is much less quantitative than most of his other work. He argued (see Bairoch. p. Chinese superiority had been greatest in the 12th century. Bairoch’s last major work. She alleges that English working class diets in the mid– nineteenth century consisted largely of “bread and margarine” (i. The Muslim advantage over Europe in the Abbasid caliphate peaked in the 10th century. As in his earlier work. However.e. 14. In fact. The estimates for Europe are similar to those he presented in 1976 and are in 1960 dollars derived mainly from the OEEC (1958) study of purchasing power.2 in volume 2. 2 788 pages) is a massive. Stagnation or decline followed thereafter. Our basic tables show that per capita income has risen 28–fold in Japan since 1870. They were most exiguous for Asia or Latin America and his results for these continents must therefore be taken with a pinch of salt. fish. Fall 1976. she is an unconstrained admirer of Japan. Western Offshoots and Japan) and the “third world” (Africa.4. The historical accounts of both Japan and the United Kingdom are of high quality. but he shows no country detail for the third world. the third world is credited with a higher level than the developed group in 1750. 252–3. Her evidence for England is pretty flimsy. 527– 645). with minimal progress until after 1950. whereas Europe made substantial progress from 1500 to 1800 (see pp. at a time before margarine was invented). He has a very small table P. and Latin America ahead of North America. 111 of volume 1 comparing the aggregate per capita GNP performance of the “developed countries” (Europe. he showed the “third world” with a slightly higher average per capita GNP than the “developed countries” in 1750. She admits that Japanese ate virtually no meat. Gallimard. 1997. Bairoch’s source notes were frequently cryptic and often cited “personal estimates” he did not publish.4 on p. but alleges that this was also the case in mid–nineteenth century England. and 35 per cent consisted of meat. but it is much nearer to my view of the relative performance of these two parts of the world economy between 1500 and 1800. The most detailed documentation of his estimates can be found in “Europe’s Gross National Product: 1800-1975”. we can see from Table 1 (in the Prologue) that already in 1695 only 20 per cent of English food and drink expenditure consisted of bread or things made of meal or flour. who published many comparative studies of GNP levels. 248 . pp 8.

9 392. and HS–8 basic tables. In Maddison (1998) I concluded that Western Europe drew level with China in the fourteenth century and that its average per capita level was twice the Chinese in 1820 (see Table 8–3). HS–5.5 57. Pomeranz relies mainly on illustrative evidence and partial indicators of performance to back his judgement.0 304. The comparison is mainly with Western Europe. 249 .1 10.8 11.2 7 550.0 72.6 60.8 26.The World Economy.1 44. The China/West European Dichotomy. Maddison (1998 and 2001).0 437.1 546.6 59. He does not provide a chronological profile of development in Europe or China before and beyond his point of comparison.2 61. His conclusions are very different from mine. His main argument is that both were subject to Malthusian/ecological constraints.0 103.4 24.4 41.0 381.0 261.6 28.2 34. $) 1 1000 1300 1400 1500 1820 1913 1950 2001 450 450 600 600 600 600 552 439 3 583 450 400 593 676 771 1 204 3 458 4 579 19 256 GDP (billion 1990 int $) 1 1000 1300 1400 1500 1820 1913 1950 2001 Source: 26.0 43.3 1 396. There are only four tables with no attempt at macro–quantification (except for his comparison of life expectancy). that Chinese performance was in many respects better than that of Europe before 1800.1 Per Capita GDP (1990 int.1 902. and little discussion of the forces affecting the divergent development of technology in China and Europe. There are many penetrating insights into the differences between these two areas. He suggests that Western Europe was “a non–too–unusual economy. 1-2001 AD Table 8–3.3 239. 1–2001 AD China West Europe Population (million) 1 1000 1300 1400 1500 1820 1913 1950 2001 59.8 1 275.2 160.4 58.3 HS–1.7 25.6 241.8 228.0 100.3 133.9 4 569. it became a fortunate freak only when unexpected and significant discontinuities in the late eighteenth and especially nineteenth centuries enabled it to break through the fundamental constraints of energy and resource availability that had previously limited everyone’s horizons”. iv) Kenneth Pomeranz (2000) presents a fascinating comparative picture of Chinese economic performance in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. He has one passing reference to Needham.

but I think he still exaggerates Chinese performance. their estimate for England should be adjusted upwards. He compares this with the Wrigley and Schofield (1981) estimate of English life expectancy at birth of 37 years for 1600–1749. Pomeranz stresses Western Europe’s benefits from international trade.The World Economy: Historical Statistics I find Pomeranz’s judgements unconvincing. In 1800. the degree of urbanisation was three times higher in Western Europe than in China. Li (1998) has shown significant advances in productivity and income in the lower Yangtse area during the Ching dynasty. 49 he says “it seems likely that average incomes in Japan. The Pomeranz position is stated with four degrees of nuance. i. In Maddison (2001) I compared life expectation in different parts of the world in 1820. Pomeranz. My estimate of Chinese and West European income levels in 1750 can be derived by interpolating between the estimates for 1700 and 1820 in Table 8c. and he claims Asian superiority was characteristic only for “core regions”. Here he is on firmer ground. though the European diet included a much higher proportion of meat and dairy products. his core region is the lower Yangtse (which had about 18 per cent of China’s population). p. Ma (2003) shows its per capita land tax revenue was about 145 per cent of that for China as a whole in 1753. He cites an estimate of Chinese life expectancy of 32 years at age 1 for both sexes combined in Manchuria in 1792–1867 (from Lee and Campbell. Davies. 37 suggests that Chinese longevity was “quite comparable” to European. not downwards. On China. the proportion of the population employed in agriculture was a good deal smaller. In fact. because 17 per cent of infants died before their first birthday (I am grateful to Jim Oeppen for this information).e. intensive water management and rural industry demanded much higher labour inputs. If Ma’s fiscal estimate is taken as a proxy for lower Yangtse per capita income around 1750. Oeppen. Chinese life expectation was two–thirds of that in Western Europe. Following a critique by Razzell. There are at least four views on the contours of long–run Chinese development and two on West European. 1997). its precocity in developing printing and the existence of a common written language. because Chinese multi–cropping of rice. Pomeranz’s obsession with Malthusian constraints leads him to neglect this Chinese–European differential in labour inputs. Thus on p. Joseph Needham’s view was that its technology gave it a lead over Western Europe from the second century AD. If this were a legitimate correction. 44. The Cambridge group rebutted Razzell’s critique in their 1997 study (Wrigley. On p. Research on Chinese economic history has increased substantially in quantity and quantity in the past two decades. he says “core regions in China and Japan circa 1750 seem to resemble the most advanced parts of western Europe”. Because of its meritocratic bureaucracy. an average of 32. However. China and parts of southeast Asia were comparable to (or higher than) those in western Europe even in the late eighteenth century.” Elsewhere his position is more cautious. and the Ching dynasty forbade settlement on its own ghost acres in Manchuria. He treats this benefit as if it were a windfall gain. China turned its back on international trade in the middle of the fifteenth century. Ester Boserup has stressed increased labour intensity as the Chinese response to land shortage. This proposition I find completely implausible. it would mean that longevity in England and China were indeed “quite comparable”. Pomeranz states that “Europeans were not ahead in overall productivity in 1750”. “Chinese evolution represented a slowly rising curve. which augmented its supply of food and raw materials from the “ghost acreage” of distant lands. The average for Western Europe was 36 years and 24 for Asia at birth. best–practice technology was more easily diffused than in Europe (a point 250 . he suggests that Wrigley and Schofield got it wrong and that their figure should be reduced to “somewhere between 31. (particularly in the lower Yangtse region) than was the case in Europe. Running at a higher and sometimes much higher level than Europe between the second and fifteenth centuries”. it would have been about 870 dollars compared to 1 080 for western Europe as a whole and more than 1 400 for the United Kingdom. For China.0”.6 and 34. 17.8. Life expectation at age 1 in eighteenth century England was about 7 years higher than at birth. On p. and Schofield).

Mulhall’s temporal horizon was much shorter than that of Rogers. 1866–1902) and Six Centuries of Work and Wages (1884). p. c) giving substantial attention to price history. and their plausibility is not heightened when he throws in supposedly corroborative estimates of real wages which rise (in sheng of grain per person) from 120 in the first century to 800 in 1086 and fall to 12 in 1818! My view of the contours of West European development is that there was a decline in per capita income after the fall of the Roman Empire. 463–465). Rogers was an active politician. which has no counterpart in China. whereas Rogers concentrated on one kind of income. the working man of today is not so well off as he was in the fifteenth century” It is interesting to compare his work with that of his near–contemporary Michael Mulhall (1836– 1900). and had high–level stagnation until the nineteenth century. Thereafter there was a substantial acceleration of growth. Between 1400 and 1820. d) reaching pessimistic conclusions. It is similar in shape to my graph of Chinese and West European per capita GDP in Maddison. 89. The sources for his estimates are not adequately documented. It is summarised in quantitative terms in Table 8–3 and in graphical form in Maddison (2001). 414. The serious study of real wages began with Thorold Rogers (1823–1890). He was a Liberal member of parliament (1880–1886) and an advocate of political reform who argued that the condition of English wage earners could be improved by extending the franchise and encouraging trade union activity. My interpretation is a hybrid of Needham and Elvin. However. His major works in this field were A History of Agriculture and Prices in England (7 vols. with per capita output falling back to 1st century levels in 1949. 87. b) giving almost exclusive emphasis to labour income. 2001. For him low wages were the result of exploitation of the labourer by the ruling elite.The World Economy. followed by a millennium of decline. where he used wheat prices as a crude deflator. 355) “society may make notable progress in wealth. 251 . as is clear in his citation of Gregory King’s estimates of inequality (Rogers. and would certainly not have regarded real wages as a proxy for real GDP. as well as a prolific price historian and professor of political economy in Oxford. because of Malthusian pressure of population on limited land resources. 1884 pp. p. He was not a Malthusian. China lost its leadership position because it had no counterpart to Europe’s scientific revolution. whereas Europe had a mild degree of intensive growth. China experienced extensive growth. Chinese population grew significantly faster than that of Western Europe. except that Needham makes no allowance for Sung exceptionalism. He suggests that per capita grain output rose by half from the 1st to the 11th century. and wages remain low. His main concern was to measure aggregate value added (see Table 3 in the Prologue). 216–220). I think Elvin overstates stagnation after the Sung. The alternative view is that there were centuries of Malthusian torpor followed by an industrial revolution and a sudden take–off. and its GDP growth was only slightly less than Europe’s. Mulhall’s estimates all referred to nominal income. Mark Elvin’s (1973) interpretation is that China made a major advance in the Sung dynasty (960– 1280). v) The Real Wage Literature and its Relation to National Accounts. Rogers differed from some of his disciples in two important respects. …relatively speaking. 42. and his qualitative judgement probably implies a bigger leap in the Sung than I find. Needham gave a graphical comparison of the contours of Chinese and European technological development in Clerks and Craftsmen in China and the West (1970). and a sustained process of slow per capita growth from the eleventh to the early nineteenth century. The least plausible interpretation is that of Kang Chao (1986. I think Elvin is correct in stressing the special character of Sung experience. Mulhall was a pioneer in comparative analysis of national income. He made a clear distinction between wage income and national income. 1995). except for the United Kingdom. Rogers devoted massive effort to price history. However. He summarised his position. p. he did not attempt macro–quantification. pp. 42. 1-2001 AD stressed by Justin Yifu Lin. Later generations of real wage analysts have generally followed his lead: a) adopting a very long–term perspective. and he was not a social or political reformer. saying (p. Pomeranz’s interpretation involves acceptance of this second view.

A third wave of interest in real wages was sparked in 1952–57. For the most part. For England. They did not discuss the representativity of their measure. Hamilton and Pribram) on Austria. they suggested that real wages for building workers in southern England fell by 60 per cent. much shorter than that of real wage analysts. such as servants. and the armed forces received an appreciable part of their remuneration in kind. It continued to ignore non–wage income. Many others. they represented only 5 per cent of the workforce in 1700. pp. Some of the researchers (Beveridge and Posthumus) concentrated on price history. have developed a standardised system (which defines coverage within clearly defined boundaries of activity) and there are fairly comprehensive crosschecks on consistency. Arthur Bowley (1869–1957) made a considerable effort to incorporate real wage and real income analysis into national accounts. People employed in agriculture were 56 per cent of the total and most of them were producing and directly consuming the items which figure in the price index. 1995. National accountants take a macroeconomic view. In the 1920s–40s there was a coordinated European–US research effort with financial support from the International Committee on Price History. However. when Henry Phelps Brown (1906–94). their results were readily accepted. They have developed techniques for measuring real output and real expenditure. and Spain. Le Roy Ladurie’s judgement in 1960 was that Languedoc had suffered recurrent and prolonged population setbacks because limited land resources had set rigid limits to agricultural production. and made new estimates for France. At that time there was some interaction with national accountants. the standard of living in Europe progressively declined. From 1500 to 1800. 1967. producing 40 volumes on the deteriorating condition of the proletariat under capitalism. Historical national accountants have progressed well beyond Mulhall. Colin Clark (1940) used real wages as a real income proxy for 20 countries. It is clear from the account of Cole and Crandall (1964) that they had no guidelines on coverage and methodology. without indicating annual hours worked. The validity of the inter–temporal measures was questionable and there were no cross–country comparisons of wage levels. They had no data on weekly or annual earnings or days worked. Germany. As there was no work in historical national accounts for this period. but they almost never attempt separate deflation of the components of nominal income (see Maddison. Even if their coverage of building workers is assumed to be adequate. (Phelps Brown and Hopkins. and have deflators for the components of these aggregates.The World Economy: Historical Statistics The Rogers–Mulhall dichotomy is interesting because real wage analysis and historical national accounts have continued to tread separate paths. The conclusions of Phelps Brown and Hopkins were extremely pessimistic. their findings attracted interest because of the long period they covered and their meticulous scholarship in providing detailed and transparent discussion of sources and methods. Jürgen Kuczynski (1904–95) provided a Marxist counterpart. but there was also a substantial effort to measure long–term trends in real wages. Before this time. their time horizon was. Within the field of wage–income. Until recently real wage analysis had not progressed much beyond Rogers. 1981) They synthesised the work of the pre–war group (Elsas. They measured wage rates rather than earnings. in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries …conditions were better”. 120–123). Between 1500 and 1800 there were 82 years for which they had no wage estimates. sample coverage was usually quite small. Sheila Hopkins and other associates produced scholarly articles developing new annual measures of wages and prices in England from 1264 to 1954. There was no attempt to determine the relative size of non–wage income. They concluded that “from the late fifteenth century until well into the beginning of the eighteenth century. In spite of these shortcomings. until recently. the clergy. A large part of the working population were thus sheltered from the impact of price rises. Eton school and some other employers in the south of England. they had daily wage rates for building workers hired by Oxford and Cambridge colleges. and used data for a small fraction of wage earners without indicating what proportion of the labour force were covered. they had 15 or more quotations a year for craftsmen and 3 for building workers. His inaugural lecture at 252 . artisans. Their results were enthusiastically received by Braudel and Spooner (Cambridge Economic History of Europe. p. 429). From 1939 to 1968. This judgement was easily accepted in France because members of the Annales school were profoundly Malthusian.

They rejected Boserup’s view that “population growth in a pre–industrial economy tended to spark off changes in agricultural techniques which would allow productivity per head in agriculture to be maintained. They do not suggest that their measure is 253 . and new estimates by Jeffrey Williamson (1995) for 17 countries 1830–1988. They found it convenient because it was “an approximate guide to fluctuations in the standard of living” in their period (pp. Wilhelm Abel (1978). England and the Netherlands consistently reveal two features. showed no interest in it. he stated that there were “clear continuities in European history. each generation of decedents from the mid–seventeenth to the late eighteenth century left behind more and better possessions”. they made some judicious comments on its deficiencies.the faster population grew. With very few exceptions. that the transforming power of industry was felt later than previously thought . Wrigley (1988) concluded his penetrating new analysis thus: ”The single most remarkable feature of the economic history of England between the later sixteenth and the early nineteenth century was the rise in output per head in agriculture”(p. The Phelps Brown analysis was also accepted by Wrigley and Schofield (1981) as a complement to their analysis of English demographic experience from 1541 to 1871. emphasised the large number of items omitted from the Phelps Brown price index. There was a fifth wave of real wage analysis in the past decade. It helps explain how intensified labour inputs overcame what were previously considered Malthusian constraints. One reason real wage analysis remained primitive was that historical national accountants and their leading figure. 39).The World Economy. suggested that real living standards fell in Germany from the first half of the fourteenth to the first half of the eighteenth century. 312– 313). the German historian. In their analysis (pp. They find a level in 1820 similar to that at the end of the fifteenth century (with some big dips in between) and about 40 per cent higher by 1910–14. 402–412) of the relation between population growth and living standards they concluded that Malthus was right “Before 1800 matters fell out much as Malthus insisted they must. Feinstein. the lower the standard of living and the grimmer the struggle to exist” A “decisive break” occurred during the industrial revolution. Studenski (1958) and Stone (1997) made no mention of the real wage literature. but he made no reference to their work. The articles on Asia break new ground and are discussed below. The first of these is the regular rise in GNP come hell or high water”. while at the same time encouraging changes elsewhere in the economy that would lead to a rise in output per head overall”. They adjusted the results to interpolate gaps (pp. pp. albeit at the cost of longer hours of work. which incorporate inter–spatial as well as inter–temporal comparisons. and that the century of the Industrial Revolution witnessed no sharp acceleration–not in production. He questioned the representativity of construction worker experience. 1998. 139–140) speculations on the likely growth of European real per capita GDP between 1500 and 1750 contrasted sharply with the conclusions of Phelps Brown and his disciples. 314. and contrasted its sombre and stagnant conclusions with his own evidence from probate inventories “All the studies I have examined for colonial New England and the Chesapeake. not in consumption”. but they took the real wage index to be a representative picture of living standards. The Phelps Brown results have now been almost universally rejected as a proxy for the movement of real GDP per capita. Jan de Vries (1993) joined the attack on the real wage approach. 638–41). He concluded that “economic growth began earlier than previously thought. Özmucur and Pamuk (2002) present estimates of real wages of building workers in Istanbul for 1489–1914. In Braudel (1985) p. 1-2001 AD the Collège de France in 1973 restated this notion of l’histoire immobile. In de Vries (1994) he developed the notion of an “industrious revolution” which is similar to Ester Boserup’s (1965) analysis in the Asian context. The two major historians of the national accounting tradition. is the first rigorous and comprehensive measurement of real earnings of manual workers (1770–1870) by a historical national accountant since Bowley (1900). Braudel reversed his judgement with characteristic insouciance. Kuznets’ (1973. This includes 2 articles on Asia. repair work on the second generation estimates by Robert Allen (2001).. Kuznets.

This makes no difference to estimates of growth rates for the first millennium. with I BC as the preceding year. The Protestant countries of Europe started to adopt this calendar in 1700. A good deal of their bread must have been home–baked. The article is useful in shaking up conventional views. appealing to even–handed political authorities in case of dispute. The sources of his Indian wage estimates are not very clear. it seemed logical to start with the year zero. The Julian calendar. and the new Gregorian year would start on 1st January. and was replaced in the Catholic countries of Europe on October 4th 1582. They probably got quite a lot of calories from meat and potatoes. 254 .The World Economy: Historical Statistics a satisfactory proxy for per capita income. assuming a lb of Indian rice equivalent to 1500 calories and a lb of British bread 1000 calories. To complete the transition. but as they have no estimates of the latter before the nineteenth century. The previous anachronistic system meant that anything published from 1st January to 24th March was attributed to the preceding year. It is perhaps useful to consider changes in conventions for measuring time over these two millennia. In fact. there is no year zero in the Christian era which begins in AD 1. and substituted year 1 for year zero. It may be true that individual workers in England had a weak bargaining position. 3rd to 13th September were omitted from the 1752 calendar (Wednesday 2nd September being followed by Thursday 14th). but it seems likely that in Indian village “collectives” lower castes and untouchables were exploited by the brahmin elite. Parthasarathi (1998). on the advice of the Alexandrian astronomer Sosigenes. The British parliament endorsed the change in 1751. He also covers spinners and farm labourers where his evidence is much thinner. Julius Caesar in 46 BC.2425 days). stipulating that the year would end on 31st December. and it adapted successfully to changing circumstances from the seventeenth to the nineteenth century. The last European country to switch was the USSR in 1918. Until then their year began with Lady Day. and his assumption that British workers got their calories from wheaten loaves bought from bakeries is rather odd. England and its colonies changed over in 1752. It exaggerated the length of the year by a tiny fraction. they conclude from their evidence that the decline of the Ottoman empire in the sixteenth century was reversed. He converts weekly wages of weavers in both countries into grain units. their conclusions are cautious and Pamuk has also made tentative estimates for of GDP in Turkey and other parts of the Ottoman Empire back to 1820. The Gregorian year was a little shorter (averaging of 365. He claims that labourers in South India were in a better bargaining position than their English counterparts because they operated as village collectives. cheese and beer which were not available in south India. In Britain weekly earnings of weavers bought 40 to 140 lbs of grain and in South India 65 to 160. with an average year of 365.25 days was inaugurated by the Roman dictator. 10 days (5–14th October) were dropped from that year to link the two systems. as decreed in a papal bull of Gregory XIII. In tables HS–8. I have bowed to convention. on advice from the astronomer Clavius and others. as official celebrations treated the year 2000 as the beginning of a new millennium. This study throws new light on a region that has played a significant role in world history for centuries. on 25th March. In England legislation prohibited combinations of workers. is a cross–country level comparison of weavers’ wages in South India and England in the eighteenth century. Chronology In surveying economic development over the last two millennia in Maddison (2001). Their research is well documented. but is certainly contestable.

106. with continuous numbering since the creation which he assumed had occurred 5630 years before 1695. He provided an alternative numbering system for years before and after Christ. using the concept of anno mundi. Dionysius believed that Christ was born in 1BC. but distinguished years ante and post Christum. The Christian era was first proposed by Dionysius Exiguus in AD 532. The traditional Roman era began with the foundation of Rome (ab urbe condita) which was thought to have been in 753 BC. with a dividing point in the year 0.The World Economy. there is a precedent for starting the Christian era in year zero. Gregory King in his Notebook. and that the first year of the new era (anno domini) should be the following year which he called AD 1 (see Richards. dating from the battle of Actium in 31BC. He had been asked by Pope John the 1st to provide clear guidelines for calculating the date of Easter. 1969). completed in 731. There was no symbol for zero in the Roman system of numeration. 4. 1-2001 AD There have also been changes in the dating and denomination of eras. referring instead to a year in the era as “anno dominicae incarnationis”(see Colgrave and Mynors. 217–8 and 351). He did not use the term anno domini. made a comprehensive survey and forecast of world population. pp. 255 . There was an era of the Emperor Augustus. He did not use the terms BC and AD. and the concept of zero as a number did not come to Europe until several centuries later. and did not come into general use until the eleventh century. and an era of the Emperor Diocletian dating from his accession in 284 AD. The Christian era does not seem to have been inaugurated by a papal bull. p. The first author to use the concept systematically for his chronology was Bede in his Ecclesiastical History of the English People. He also suggested the creation of a Christian era to replace that of Diocletian (who martyred Christians). In fact.

256 680 490 1 170 2 200 3 400 5 600 3 000 United States Other Western Offshoots Total Western Offshoots Mexico Other Latin America Total Latin America Japan 16 500 230 820 Africa World 600 000 600 200 3 900 Former USSR China 59 India 75 Other Asia 36 Total Asia (excluding Japan) 171 4 750 4 2 24 17 5 3 7 500 300 180 20 000 000 000 200 100 200 300 800 600 500 500 100 700 Eastern Europe Austria Belgium Denmark Finland France Germany Italy Netherlands Norway Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom 12 Country Total Portugal Spain Other Total Western Europe 1 267 573 32 300 59 000 75 000 41 400 175 400 7 500 4 500 6 900 11 400 1 300 660 1 960 7 100 6 500 700 400 360 40 6 500 3 500 5 000 300 200 400 300 2 000 19 700 600 4 000 1 113 25 413 1000 438 428 46 610 103 000 110 000 55 400 268 400 15 400 7 500 10 000 17 500 2 000 800 2 800 16 950 13 500 2 000 1 400 600 300 15 000 12 000 10 500 950 300 550 650 3 942 48 192 1 000 6 800 1 276 57 268 1500 556 148 55 320 160 000 135 000 65 000 360 000 18 500 2 500 6 100 8 600 1 500 800 2 300 20 700 16 950 2 500 1 600 650 400 18 500 16 000 13 100 1 500 400 760 1 000 6 170 62 580 1 100 8 240 1 858 73 778 1600 603 490 61 080 138 000 165 000 71 800 374 800 27 000 4 500 7 550 12 050 1 000 750 1 750 26 550 18 800 2 500 2 000 700 400 21 471 15 000 13 300 1 900 500 1 260 1 200 8 565 68 796 2 000 8 770 1 894 81 460 1700 (000) 1 041 834 74 236 381 000 209 000 89 400 679 400 31 000 6 587 15 118 21 705 9 981 1 250 11 231 54 765 36 457 3 369 3 434 1 155 1 169 31 250 24 905 20 176 2 333 970 2 585 1 986 21 239 114 571 3 297 12 203 2 969 133 040 1820 520 096 888 754 440 231 888 610 735 169 655 400 386 327 201 590 504 000 000 792 792 1 271 915 90 466 358 253 119 730 34 437 9 219 31 180 40 399 40 241 5 847 46 088 88 672 53 557 4 5 1 1 38 39 27 3 1 4 2 31 162 4 16 4 187 1870 1 791 091 124 697 437 140 303 700 184 849 925 689 51 672 14 970 65 965 80 935 97 606 13 795 111 401 156 192 79 530 6 767 7 666 2 983 3 027 41 463 65 058 37 248 6 164 2 447 5 621 3 864 45 649 227 957 5 972 20 263 6 783 260 975 1913 Table 8a. 1-2001 AD 2 524 324 227 333 546 815 359 000 392 827 1 298 642 83 805 28 485 137 453 165 938 152 271 24 186 176 457 179 571 87 637 6 935 8 639 4 271 4 009 41 829 68 375 47 105 10 114 3 265 7 014 4 694 50 127 256 377 8 443 28 063 12 058 304 941 1950 3 916 489 390 034 881 940 580 000 677 613 2 139 553 108 707 57 643 250 756 308 399 211 909 38 932 250 841 249 712 110 418 7 586 9 738 5 022 4 666 52 157 78 950 54 797 13 438 3 961 8 137 6 441 56 210 301 103 8 976 34 837 13 909 358 825 1973 6 149 006 821 088 1 275 392 1 023 590 1 227 630 3 526 612 126 892 101 879 429 334 531 213 285 024 54 815 339 839 290 349 120 912 8 151 10 259 5 353 5 176 59 658 82 281 57 845 15 981 4 503 8 875 7 283 59 723 325 088 10 066 40 087 16 860 392 101 2001 The World Economy: Historical Statistics . 20 Countries and Regional Totals. World Population.

38 0.13 1.18 0.42 0.25 0.54 United States 0.53 2.95 0. Rate of Growth of World Population.77 0.88 1.76 0.18 0.63 0.28 0.06 0.69 World 0.65 1.70 0.00 0.14 0.22 0.43 0.02 0.09 1.25 1.14 3.03 0.01 0.50 2.09 0.07 0.96 Japan 0.79 0.71 0.17 0.93 1.25 1.81 1.00 2.73 1.25 0.06 0.32 0.26 1.04 0.32 1.37 2.39 0.26 0.94 0.59 0.45 2.28 0.22 12 Country average Portugal 0.91 1.29 0.15 Total Asia (excl.02 0.44 2.10 0.15 0.52 0.05 Other Asia 0.53 0.64 2.31 Switzerland 0.03 0.80 0.31 0.16 0.97 1.35 1.23 0.00 0.10 0.14 0.80 Africa 0.07 0.32 Former USSR 0.75 0.15 0.47 0.44 United Kingdom 0.75 3.07 1.99 1.96 0.The World Economy.48 0.41 -0.48 Germany 0.06 0.01 2.14 0.07 0.19 Denmark 0.32 Eastern Europe 0.70 0.07 1.15 0.09 0.03 0.09 0.09 Mexico 0.70 0.62 0.88 0.01 0.19 1.66 0.27 0.28 0.88 0.25 0.03 0.02 0.16 0.15 0.62 Norway 0.58 0.18 0.61 2.18 0.05 Other Latin America 0.13 1.07 0.00 0.86 2.35 0.15 0.07 0.94 Total Latin America 0.07 0.10 0.06 0.65 0.27 0.57 0.13 2.46 Sweden 0.25 1.12 0.97 0.00 0.15 0.03 0.59 1.20 0.04 0.37 1.93 1.96 0.07 0.44 0. Japan) 0.10 0.40 0.11 2.57 0.94 0.11 0.23 0.79 0.20 0.79 0.43 0.11 0.45 1.75 1.07 0.41 Spain -0.66 0.08 0.68 0.33 India 0.10 1.01 0.23 Finland 0.50 0.21 0.69 Total Western Europe 0.26 0.01 0.64 0.04 0.05 0.09 0.21 1.03 0.07 0.06 Other Western Offshoots 0.20 0.50 Other -0.91 1.21 0.83 2.80 0.60 0.15 Italy -0.71 0.07 0.17 0.40 0.11 2.26 Belgium 0.76 2.02 1.42 0.06 0.39 0.08 1.13 0.09 0.63 1.19 Netherlands 0.37 France 0.67 1.33 0.23 0.07 0.84 0.55 China 0. 20 Countries and Regional Totals.00 0.37 0.87 0.06 2.69 0.17 0.78 0.52 0. 1-2001 AD Table 8a.77 0.40 2.37 0.92 0.38 1.01 0.08 0.65 0.53 1.55 0.46 1.32 0.27 0.40 0.23 Total Western Offshoots 0.54 1.96 2.88 0.24 0.55 0.95 1.07 0. 1-2001 AD (annual average coumpound growth rates) 1-1000 1000-1500 1500-1820 1820-70 1870-1913 1913-50 1950-73 1973-2001 Austria 0.94 0.27 0.62 257 .92 2.07 -0.03 0.

1 France 2.0 Total Western Europe Total Latin America 2.7 51.1 3.3 12.5 0.1 1.2 0.4 0.3 0.1 24.4 3.2 0.1 0.0 100.0 1.3 0.1 Belgium 0.0 1.3 0.1 0.4 Eastern Europe 2.1 0.5 51.4 0.0 0.4 0.1 0.2 Spain 1.7 Other 0.6 9.2 0.8 1.0 100.1 0.1 1.5 12.9 2.5 28.1 0.1 1.4 2.8 2.2 0.5 2.1 0.9 1.1 0.0 Former USSR 1.0 100.2 4.2 0.1 Denmark 0.1 24.0 0.0 9.3 15.1 0.8 2.5 3.3 7.0 1.2 11.7 2.4 0.7 0.0 0.3 0.6 12.0 100.1 9.4 3.0 5.0 14.1 0.2 0.3 4.2 2.3 0.1 0.3 2.6 Other Western Offshoots 0.1 0.1 7.4 5.The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 8a.0 0.3 0.4 4.9 15.4 1.9 2.1 0.3 2.1 1.5 6.6 17.3 0.7 4.9 17.6 61.2 0.3 Italy 3.9 Netherlands 0.7 5.1 China 25.4 5.7 11.0 100.3 27. 1-2001 AD (per cent of world total) 1 1000 1500 1600 1700 1820 1870 1913 1950 1973 2001 Austria 0.2 0.1 United Kingdom 0.5 1.7 0.1 0.4 0.4 10.2 0.0 Total Asia (excl.5 2.7 0.2 5.7 2.4 0.3 0.3 0.6 7.5 3.1 1.6 Other Asia 15.0 Germany 1.1 0. Japan) 74.5 1.7 0.3 0.0 13.7 22.3 20.1 0.6 3.1 0.3 3.0 0.4 21.5 2.5 28.7 7.0 1.1 0.1 0.5 20.0 100.5 2.2 5.0 1.5 0.0 8.3 0.1 0.7 0.8 3.2 7.2 14.5 12.3 11.7 14.6 2.2 1.3 Norway 0.5 1.1 0.8 16.3 0.9 36.1 3.1 13.3 0.1 23.0 10.4 3.1 0.4 0.0 100.4 World 100.2 11.0 0.5 0.3 0.9 8.4 0.6 9.3 1.3 0.9 3.3 0.1 3.4 2.2 0.3 1.3 0.7 0.0 258 .0 2.2 0.1 65.0 3.1 0.2 0.1 12.0 12 Country total Portugal 7.1 Switzerland 0.2 4.3 1.7 62.2 0.4 0.3 0.2 65.7 2.8 1.7 1.5 3.5 1.7 Other Latin America 2.0 2.7 0.1 0.3 7.4 0.1 0.2 64.2 1.6 57.3 0.3 1.3 13.1 10.1 0.2 0.6 28.5 Mexico 1.2 11.6 11.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 2.6 0.0 2.4 7.9 10.2 0.2 0.3 1.9 3.2 0.3 0.6 1. Share of World Population.4 0.3 12.6 6.1 0.4 4.6 0.7 3.2 2.0 3.5 2.2 0.0 2.4 0.5 2.4 4.8 14.1 3.3 0.9 1.2 0.4 54.2 0.3 1.9 0.3 0.1 0.5 0.8 0.4 6.1 Sweden 0.1 3.2 0.2 57.9 0.7 2.9 2.3 20.4 0.6 0.3 0.4 Africa 7.1 19.7 9.0 25.1 0.1 0.1 0.9 8.8 22.5 13.7 India 32.4 0.5 4.1 6.1 Finland 0.1 0.3 10.6 Japan 1.1 7.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 100.0 100.7 United States 0.0 6.1 0.3 10.2 6.3 2.3 4.3 0.8 22.9 1.4 0.9 Total Western Offshoots 0.5 0.2 7.4 6.1 7.4 2.3 1.4 0.3 0. 20 Countries and Regional Totals.5 0.4 3.4 3.1 0.0 100.2 1.0 3.

1-2001 AD .259 26 550 33 750 18 630 78 930 13 720 China 26 820 India 33 750 Other Asia 16 470 Total Asia (excluding Japan) 77 040 7 096 102 619 Africa World 116 787 3 188 1 200 Japan 4 560 2 240 784 2 840 2 600 10 165 1000 Mexico Other Latin America Total Latin America 468 1 560 Former USSR United States Other Western Offshoots Total Western Offshoots 1 900 11 115 Eastern Europe Austria Belgium Denmark Finland France Germany Italy Netherlands Norway Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom 12 Country Total Portugal Spain Other Total Western Europe 1 248 308 19 283 61 800 60 500 31 301 153 601 7 700 3 188 4 100 7 288 800 320 1 120 8 458 6 696 1 414 1 225 443 136 10 912 8 256 11 550 723 192 382 411 2 815 38 459 606 4 495 602 44 162 1500 330 982 23 349 96 000 74 250 36 725 206 975 9 620 1 134 2 629 3 763 600 320 920 11 426 9 289 2 093 1 561 569 215 15 559 12 656 14 410 2 072 304 626 750 6 007 56 822 814 7 029 975 65 640 1600 371 269 25 692 82 800 90 750 40 567 214 117 15 390 2 558 3 788 6 346 527 306 833 16 196 11 393 2 483 2 288 727 255 19 539 13 650 14 630 4 047 450 1 231 1 068 10 709 71 077 1 638 7 481 1 106 81 302 1700 695 346 31 161 228 600 111 417 52 177 392 194 20 739 5 000 10 024 15 024 12 548 951 13 499 37 678 24 906 4 104 4 529 1 471 913 35 468 26 819 22 535 4 288 1 071 3 098 2 165 36 232 142 693 3 043 12 299 2 110 160 145 1820 1 112 655 45 234 189 740 134 882 76 994 401 616 25 393 6 214 21 305 27 519 98 374 13 129 111 493 83 646 50 163 8 419 13 716 3 782 1 999 72 100 72 149 41 814 9 952 2 485 6 927 5 581 100 180 339 104 4 219 19 556 4 712 367 591 1870 (million 1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) 2 732 131 79 486 241 344 204 242 163 109 608 695 71 653 25 921 93 950 119 871 517 383 65 558 582 941 232 351 134 793 23 451 32 347 11 670 6 389 144 489 237 332 95 487 24 955 6 119 17 403 16 483 224 618 840 743 7 467 41 653 12 478 902 341 1913 Table 8b. 20 Countries and Regional Totals. 1-2001 AD 2 624 523 722 198 2 364 808 3 087 006 7 965 795 1 190 472 9 156 267 1 343 230 728 792 164 851 214 655 123 978 105 298 1 258 297 1 536 743 1 101 366 347 136 110 683 182 492 162 150 1 202 074 6 509 723 143 234 627 733 269 582 7 550 272 2001 549 993 1 222 577 740 048 4 569 790 494 832 2 003 193 1 388 124 4 908 218 2 623 004 11 481 201 1 242 932 279 302 1 109 727 1 389 029 3 536 622 521 667 4 058 289 1 513 070 550 756 85 227 118 516 70 032 51 724 683 965 944 755 582 713 175 791 44 544 109 794 117 251 675 941 3 660 253 63 397 266 896 105 910 4 096 456 1973 5 329 719 16 023 529 37 193 868 203 131 239 903 222 222 363 646 822 771 160 966 67 368 348 539 415 907 1 455 916 179 574 1 635 490 510 243 185 023 25 702 47 190 29 654 17 051 220 492 265 354 164 957 60 642 17 838 47 269 42 545 347 850 1 286 544 17 615 61 429 30 600 1 396 188 1950 The World Economy. World GDP.

72 5.92 2.94 2.06 3.06 0. 20 Countries and Regional Totals.89 Japan 0.08 2.47 1.38 2.07 Mexico Other Latin America Total Latin America 0.76 3.40 1.51 0.62 2.07 0.48 3.55 1.90 2.93 1.11 1.37 0.45 5.58 1.74 United States Other Western Offshoots Total Western Offshoots 0.13 1.29 0.71 China India Other Asia 0.74 1.41 2.49 2.93 4.75 0.38 5.65 5.00 1.24 1.52 3.00 6.12 2.38 3.00 0.17 2.61 6.11 1.41 0.94 5.82 5.91 1.23 2.42 0.90 3.21 9.35 1.34 4.43 2.07 0.64 4.02 3.81 1.61 2.80 0.30 1.51 2.81 2.20 5.75 2.28 0.03 0.45 2.89 World 0.16 2.39 1.01 Former USSR 0.91 2.57 2.21 Eastern Europe 0.95 0.19 0.15 0.70 1.The World Economy: Historical Statistics Table 8b.29 0.01 0.75 2.61 Total Asia (excl.22 3.25 1.42 5.68 5.82 4.30 1.57 4. 1-2001 AD (annual average compound growth rates) 1-1000 1000-1500 1500-1820 Austria Belgium Denmark Finland France Germany Italy Netherlands Norway Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom 12 Country Average Portugal Spain Other Total Western Europe 1820-70 1870-1913 1913-50 1950-73 1973-2001 0.15 4.44 1.06 2.31 3.01 0.93 2.10 0.32 0.24 1.18 0.21 0.79 2.05 1.86 1.14 0.94 2.16 -0.46 3.97 1.93 4.02 2.08 2.74 4.29 2.66 2.19 4.00 0.05 5.45 2.56 0.44 2.54 0.31 0.41 2.03 2.16 2.01 0.03 2.16 3.38 0.43 2.32 0.32 2.41 2.37 0. Rate of Growth of World GDP.60 5.30 2.75 1.41 0.99 0.38 2.12 4.62 1.12 0.55 2.41 0.74 2.70 1.78 4.86 0.40 2.38 0.29 0.10 0.17 0.08 3.81 4.05 0.63 2.78 0.09 0.17 5.60 0.41 1.83 4.15 0.39 3.33 0.60 1.35 4.05 260 .69 1.76 -0.05 0.19 5.51 2.23 1.55 2.54 6.66 0.37 0.34 1.10 3.73 6.14 2.43 2.16 2.84 2.33 0.19 0.19 1.93 2.22 0.73 4.83 1.02 0.20 1.97 0.84 -0.86 4.00 0.62 3.95 3.15 0.66 0.77 2.56 0.41 Africa 0.39 -0.68 2.52 0.07 0.94 3.06 2.13 0. Japan) 0.

0 24.5 0.8 0.4 3.8 0.7 0.3 0.5 4.2 2.4 7.8 8.6 8.3 6.3 24.9 0.8 8.6 29.6 0.9 6.1 0.9 0.4 30.7 0.2 1.1 67.8 0.6 0.3 0.1 3.2 0.1 2.7 0.1 0.9 32.1 0.7 0.9 3.0 33.9 0.4 1.1 0.0 100.4 3.5 0.7 0.3 3.3 1.3 15.2 0.5 0.5 3.9 4.6 3.3 0.4 13.4 0.0 33.4 1.4 3.1 0.0 100.9 16.6 1.9 2.7 Total Western Europe 1000 10.4 United States Other Western Offshoots Total Western Offshoots 0. Japan) 75.8 0.3 30.1 3.5 0.5 1.9 62.7 17.4 1.2 0.5 0.6 0.7 2.2 6.2 1.1 8.2 0. 1-2001 AD Table 8b.0 100.7 0.3 30.2 0.3 Eastern Europe 1.0 0.5 3.9 1.3 2.8 19.3 5.8 4.9 0.3 0.2 2. 20 Countries and Regional Totals.6 0.4 2.9 8.0 100.5 0.4 0.2 1.7 3.7 Mexico Other Latin America Total Latin America 2.2 0.0 3.7 56.3 1.1 1.4 2.3 0.4 5.4 27.5 0.5 0.5 4.5 9.4 12.1 6.8 4.1 32.2 0.0 0.1 8.2 2.6 22.3 Japan 1.1 5.3 0.0 100.9 1.6 0.4 3.8 7.1 0.0 0.4 0.9 16.2 0.5 24.3 5.2 5.0 100.3 0.2 0.9 0.7 3.1 0.7 0.1 3.3 1.5 0.6 0.2 0.3 20.2 3.1 2.1 5.3 5.5 0.7 4.1 0.2 0.9 2.9 Africa 6.2 Total Asia (excl.3 0.6 20.0 Former USSR 1.6 0.0 0.4 0.3 3.8 7.1 1.0 22.2 0.5 0.9 3.8 0.2 0.2 0.4 10.5 4.9 10.2 0.2 25.3 19. Share of World GDP.6 0.1 12.1 0.5 8.1 4.0 100.0 22.9 4.0 7.4 3.1 5.7 8.9 1.4 3.6 1.4 0.9 23.3 4.5 57.0 4.3 8.7 7.8 0.3 3.0 7.9 24.5 4.2 0.6 3.5 0.1 0.6 4.0 21.5 6.4 7.1 China India Other Asia 26.9 3.0 100.6 0.1 3.3 0.9 3.7 1.0 26.8 0.4 16.7 6.1 0.1 22.0 2.1 4.1 22.6 9.5 4.8 1.0 100.7 25.7 2.4 36.3 21.4 11.8 7.8 0.8 6.1 0.2 12 Country total Portugal Spain Other 15.4 30.3 0.4 1.5 17.7 3.2 17.8 21.8 3.4 4.5 6.9 1.0 100.5 2.2 0.3 24.7 3.The World Economy.2 6.4 0.6 0.7 17.2 18.8 1.8 0.6 0.5 0.9 11.1 6.3 4.2 0.9 0.1 0.4 1.1 1.1 3. 1-2001 AD (per cent of world total) 1 1500 1600 1700 1820 1870 1913 1950 1973 2001 Austria Belgium Denmark Finland France Germany Italy Netherlands Norway Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom 0.8 3.6 61.7 28.2 1.3 World 100.3 2.9 0.0 261 .9 3.2 0.7 0.6 1.5 9.4 22.9 16.7 1.4 3.5 0.7 12.2 2.9 2.3 4.

450 400 400 400 400 400 450 450 450 450 430 445 Austria Belgium Denmark Finland France Germany Italy Netherlands Norway Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom 12 Country Average Portugal Spain Other West European average Eastern Europe Former USSR United States Other Western Offshoots Average Western Offshoots Mexico Other Latin America Latin American Average Japan China India Other Asia Asian average (excl. World Per Capita GDP. 20 Countries and Regional Averages. 1-2001 AD 4 091 1 410 839 853 2 049 1 226 11 434 4 845 4 426 4 504 16 689 13 399 16 179 6 059 4 988 11 235 12 170 13 945 11 085 13 114 11 966 10 634 13 082 11 246 13 493 18 204 12 025 12 156 7 063 7 661 7 614 11 416 1973 6 049 1 489 3 583 1 957 3 998 3 256 20 683 7 089 5 508 5 811 27 948 21 718 26 943 4 626 6 027 20 225 20 924 23 160 20 344 21 092 18 677 19 040 21 722 24 580 20 562 22 264 20 127 20 024 14 229 15 659 15 989 19 256 2001 The World Economy: Historical Statistics . Japan) Africa World 1 262 436 425 450 450 450 450 425 400 400 400 400 400 1000 566 414 600 550 565 572 500 425 410 416 400 400 400 499 496 707 875 738 453 727 688 1 100 761 640 695 632 714 798 606 661 472 771 1500 595 422 600 550 565 575 520 454 431 438 400 400 400 552 548 837 976 875 538 841 791 1 100 1 381 760 824 750 974 908 740 853 525 890 1600 615 421 600 550 565 571 570 568 502 527 527 408 476 610 606 993 1 144 1 039 638 910 910 1 100 2 130 900 977 890 1 250 1 033 819 853 584 998 1700 667 420 600 533 584 577 669 759 663 692 1 257 761 1 202 688 683 1 218 1 319 1 274 781 1 135 1 077 1 117 1 838 1 104 1 198 1 090 1 706 1 245 923 1 008 711 1 204 1820 (1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) 875 500 530 533 643 550 737 674 683 681 2 445 2 245 2 419 943 937 1 863 2 692 2 003 1 140 1 876 1 839 1 499 2 757 1 432 1 662 2 102 3 190 2 088 975 1 207 1 027 1 960 1870 1 525 637 552 673 882 658 1 387 1 732 1 424 1 481 5 301 4 752 5 233 1 488 1 695 3 465 4 220 3 912 2 111 3 485 3 648 2 564 4 049 2 501 3 096 4 266 4 921 3 688 1 250 2 056 1 840 3 458 1913 2 111 894 439 619 926 634 1 921 2 365 2 536 2 506 9 561 7 425 9 268 2 841 2 111 3 706 5 462 6 943 4 253 5 271 3 881 3 502 5 996 5 463 6 739 9 064 6 939 5 018 2 086 2 189 2 538 4 579 1950 Table 8c.

88 Eastern Europe 0.02 4.20 1.41 263 .46 1.01 0.19 3.17 2.45 5.81 0.00 0.30 0.17 0.74 1.57 0.14 0.25 0.00 -0.60 1.78 United States Other Western Offshoots Total Western Offshoots 0.34 1.13 2.58 0.17 0.87 3.25 4.63 1.01 1.68 Former USSR 0.00 0.The World Economy.00 0.72 0.43 2.01 0.00 0.04 0.59 2.54 3.13 2.13 0.94 3.35 0.98 1.58 1.70 1.72 1.06 2.00 0.22 0.19 1.13 1.92 5.35 -0.54 1.86 1.03 1.05 1.91 Japan 0.66 1.12 1.74 0.32 3.08 4.19 1.11 0.14 0.85 1.83 2.25 1.85 1.17 0.60 2.91 1.00 -0.05 0.33 0.76 3.00 0.57 3.09 0.15 -0.60 4.30 1. 1-2001 AD (annual average compound growth rates) 1-1000 1000-1500 1500-1820 1820-70 1870-1913 1913-50 1950-73 1973-2001 Austria Belgium Denmark Finland France Germany Italy Netherlands Norway Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom 0.53 2.05 1.57 1.04 0.10 2.60 3.42 -0.63 1.26 1.00 0.13 0.68 Total Western Europe -0.52 0.28 0.76 1.14 0.01 0.03 0.12 0.83 2.81 1.86 12 Country Average Portugal Spain Other 0.10 0.17 0.86 1.83 1.06 1.89 1.88 8.95 1.06 2.00 0.18 0.37 0.10 0.10 0.90 1.00 0.01 0.41 1.92 2. 20 Countries and Regional Averages.56 1.00 0.00 0.66 1.00 -0.54 0.42 2. 1-2001 AD Table 8b.45 1.17 0.61 1.17 0.91 3.71 1.06 3.96 0.84 0.34 2.18 0.04 5.82 1. Japan) 0.05 0.82 1.01 2.08 0.19 World 0.45 1.56 2.81 0.76 4.13 0.16 -0.42 Total Asia (excl.52 0.36 0.05 0.39 0.08 2.26 0.17 0.22 1.19 1.06 0.04 0.39 0.37 0.12 2.00 0.13 0.17 0.55 Africa 0. Rate of Growth of World Per Capita GDP.62 -0.01 0.45 3.04 0.21 2.00 Mexico Other Latin America Total Latin America 0.59 0.14 0.74 -0.33 0.44 0.92 1.44 1.01 0.45 1.19 0.05 0.06 0.36 0.95 3.61 1.88 2.07 2.00 0.32 1.40 3.45 1.93 4.76 1.14 China India Other Asia 0.45 2.80 2.84 1.48 0.10 0.24 0.10 1.27 0.51 5.91 0.01 -0.85 1.

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