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MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

THERMAL ENGINEERING LAB-I
LAB MANUAL


















PENSKY MARTIN CLOSED CUP APPARATUS




AIM:
To determine the flash and fire point of given oil sample using pensky martins closed cup
apparatus.

APPARARTUS REQUIRED:

Pen sky martin’s apparatus
Rheostat
Thermometers (0 C - 400 C)

THEORY:

FLASH POINT:
It is the lowest temperature at which the fuel will flash when an external source of fire is brought
in contact with the vapors over its surface.
FIRE POINT:
Fire point is the lowest temperature at which the formation of combustible gases from the oil is
enough to maintain a steady combustible gas fire after it is ignited.


PRECAUTIONS:
1Using a rheostat regulate the heating range to sufficiently low rate to avoid errors.
2. Provide adequate heating.

PROCEDURE:
Note down the name and serial number of oil sample.
The closed cup is filled with the given sample of oil up to the standard filling mark in the cup. A
thermometer is held in the oil such that it does not touch the metallic parts.
When the sample of oil is kept stirred and heated it gives out a vapour. A test flame using a
glowing splinter is applied at a short distance over the surface of the oil, while watching for a
flickering sound and a flash.
The minimum temperature at which the momentary flash is obtained is called the flash point. The
flash point is noted from the thermometer. Heating is continued further. As done earlier a test
flame is applied but watching for the continuous burning of the vapour.
The lowest temperature at which the ignited vapors continuously burns is called the fire point the
fire point is noted from the thermometer
Repeat the procedure for different sample







˚
TABULATION:

S. NO. NAME OF THE OIL SAMPLE TEMPERATURE OBSERVATIONS
1 SAE140oil Initial 30˚c
2 35˚c No flash point
3 38˚c No flash point
4 40˚c No flash point
5 48 ˚c flash point
6 45˚c No fire point
7 50˚c No fire point
8 52˚c fire point
9























RESULT:

The flash point of the given sample of oil is found to be 48 ˚c

The fire point of the given sample of oil is found to be 52˚c








CLEAVELAND OPEN CUP APPARATUS


AIM:
To determine the flash and fire point of given oil sample using pensky martins closed cup
apparatus.

APPARARTUS REQUIRED:

Cleveland open cup apparatus
Rheostat
Thermometers (0 C -400 C)

THEORY:

FLASH POINT:
It is the lowest temperature at which the fuel will flash when an external source of fire is brought
in contact with the vapor over its surface.
FIRE POINT:
Fire point is the lowest temperature at which the formation of combustible gases from the oil is
enough to maintain a steady combustible gas fire after it is ignited.
DESCRIPTION:
This apparatus consist of standard size cylindrical cup. it is held in the metallic holder,
which is heated by means of an electrical heater. A provision is made on the top
Edge of the cup to hold the mercury glass thermometer in correct position.
A permanent mark is in scribbled on the inner surface of the cup .the oil sample is filled
up to this mark.

PRECAUTIONS:
1Using a rheostat regulate the heating range to sufficiently low rate to avoid errors.
2. Provide adequate heating


PROCEDURE:
Note down the name and serial number of oil sample.
The cup is filled with the given sample of oil up to the standard filling mark in the cup. A
thermometer is held in the oil such that it does not touch the metallic parts.
When the sample of oil is kept stirred and heated it gives out a vapor. A test flame using a glowing
splinter is applied at a short distance over the surface of the oil, while watching for a flickering
sound and a flash.
The minimum temperature at which the momentary flash is obtained is called the flash point. The
flash point is noted from the thermometer. Heating is continued further. As done earlier a test
flame is applied but watching for the continuous burning of the vapors.
The lowest temperature at which the ignited vapor continuously burns is called the fire point the
fire point is noted from the thermometer
Repeat the procedure for different sample
TABULATION:

S. NO. NAME OF THE OIL SAMPLE TEMPERATURE OBSERVATIONS
1 SAE 40oil Initial 31˚c
2 35˚c No flash point
3 45˚c No flash point
4 50˚c No flash point
5 55 ˚c flash point
6 56˚c No fire point
7 58˚c No fire point
8 60˚c fire point
9





























RESULT:

The flash point of the given sample of oil is found to be 55 ˚c

The fire point of the given sample of oil is found to be 60˚c



REDWOOD VISCOMETER


AIM:
To determine the kinematic viscosity of the given oil sample at various temperatures and to draw
the following graph.
1. Redwoods viscosity Vs temperature.
2. kinematics’ viscosity Vs temperature
.
APPRATUS REQUIRED:

Redwood viscometer
Thermometers - 2 Nos.
Stop watch
50 cc collecting flask.

THEORY:

VISCOSITY:
Viscosity is defined as the property of a fluid which offers resistance to the movement of one layer
of fluid over another adjacent layer of the fluid

KINEMATIC VISCOSITY:
It is defined as the ratio between the dynamic viscosity and the density of the fluid. It is denoted by
( ).

DESCRIPTION:
The redwood viscometer consists of a cylindrical oil cup and it has an orifice at the centre of its
base. The orifice can be opened and closed by a ball valve.
A hook pointing upward serves as a guide for the oil in the cup, the cup is place inside a water
bath, which can be heated electrically. A stirrer with radial vanes is provided to keep the
temperature uniform. Thermometers are held in the holders provided for reading the temperature of
water bath and oil.

FORMULA:
Dynamic viscosity = A t - (B/ t) centistokes.
Where
A & B are constant, A=0.26, B=170.5. t= time taken to collect 50 cc of oil in the flask in
seconds.
Kinematics viscosity = dynamic viscosity / density











PROCEDURE:
i) Clean the cup and move the jet is free from distance close to the orifice with help of ball
valve and fill the cup with the given oil up to the tip of the hook gauge.
ii) Insert the thermometer in the holder, one in oil cup and other in the stirrer mouth and read
the room temperature of oil.
iii) Place the cleaned standard collecting flask of 50cc capacity just below the opening of the
orifice and adjust the flask such that the stream oil coming out of orifice strikes the mouth
of the flask.
iv) The oil is heated by switching on the heater and the water is stirred continuously .the input
to the heater is varied by adjusting the rheostat regulator. Ensure the temperature reading is
same in the oil and water before opening the ball vale.
v) Opening the ball valve and then the time taken for collecting 50cc oil is measured by stop
watch. After collecting 50 cc of oil in the flask close the ball valve.
vi) Repeat the experiment different temperature. And tabulate the reading



TABULATION:
S.NO TEMPERATURE
OF OIL
TIME TAKEN
FORCOLLECTING
50cc OIL IN FLASK
KINEMATIC
VISCOSITY IN
CENTISTOKES

1 40 161 40.79
2 50 112.48 27.72
3 60 73 16.63
4 70 40.48 6.28
5 80 32.88 3.33

Model Calculation
Kinematic viscosity
==KV=
A t (B/ t)


0.26×1.61 -(171.5/161)

K.V = 40.99 centistokes.

Graph
1. Temperature Vs Redwood seconds.
2. Temperature Vs Kinematic viscosity.






RESULT:
The kinematics viscosity of the given sample was determined for the different temperatures. The
temperature Vs kinematics viscosity graphs were drawn.





SAYBOLTVISCOMETER


AIM:
To determine the kinematic viscosity of the given oil sample at various temperatures and to draw
the following graph.
3. Say Bolt viscosity Vs temperature.
4. kinematics’ viscosity Vs temperature
.
APPRATUS REQUIRED:

Say Bolt viscometer
Thermometers - 2 Nos.
Stop watch
50 cc collecting flask.

THEORY:

VISCOSITY:
Viscosity is defined as the property of a fluid which offers resistance to the movement of one layer
of fluid over another adjacent layer of the fluid

KINEMATIC VISCOSITY:
It is defined as the ratio between the dynamic viscosity and the density of the fluid. It is denoted by
( ).

DESCRIPTION:
The redwood viscometer consists of a cylindrical oil cup and it has an orifice at the centre of its
base. The orifice can be opened and closed by a ball valve.
A hook pointing upward serves as a guide for the oil in the cup, the cup is place inside a water
bath, which can be heated electrically. A stirrer with radial vanes is provided to keep the
temperature uniform. Thermometers are held in the holders provided for reading the temperature of
water bath and oil.

FORMULA:
Dynamic viscosity = A t - (B/ t) centistokes.
Where
A & B are constant, A=0.26, B=170.5. t= time taken to collect 50 cc of oil in the flask in
seconds.
Kinematics viscosity = dynamic viscosity / density











PROCEDURE:
vii) Clean the cup and move the jet is free from distance close to the orifice with help of ball
valve and fill the cup with the given oil up to the tip of the hook gauge.
viii) Insert the thermometer in the holder, one in oil cup and other in the stirrer mouth and read
the room temperature of oil.
ix) Place the cleaned standard collecting flask of 50cc capacity just below the opening of the
orifice and adjust the flask such that the stream oil coming out of orifice strikes the mouth
of the flask.
x) The oil is heated by switching on the heater and the water is stirred continuously .the input
to the heater is varied by adjusting the rheostat regulator. Ensure the temperature reading is
same in the oil and water before opening the ball vale.
xi) Opening the ball valve and then the time taken for collecting 50cc oil is measured by stop
watch. After collecting 50 cc of oil in the flask close the ball valve.
xii) Repeat the experiment different temperature. And tabulate the reading



TABULATION:
S.NO TEMPERATURE
OF OIL
TIME TAKEN
FORCOLLECTING
50cc OIL IN FLASK
KINEMATIC
VISCOSITY IN
CENTISTOKES

1 34 70.35 13.12
2 45 65.75 12.80
3 54 55.10 10.0
4 64 40.0 7.46
5 72 30.6 2.50

Model Calculation
Kinematic viscosity
==KV=
A t (B/ t)


0.226×70.35 -(195/70.35)

K.V = 13.12 centistokes.

Graph
3. Temperature Vs se Say Bolt seconds.
4. Temperature Vs Kinematic viscosity.



RESULT:
The kinematics viscosity of the given sample was determined for the different temperatures. The
temperature Vs kinematics viscosity graphs were drawn.







VALVE TIMING DIAGRAM OF FOUR STROKE ENGINE

Ex.No:1


AIM:

To draw the valve timing diagram for the given four stroke engine

EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED:

1. Measuring tape
2. Scale
3. Thread
4. feeler gauge

FORMULA:

Required angle = Distance x 360
Circumference of the flywheel
Where,
Distance = Distance of the valve opening or closing position marked on flywheel with
respect to their dead centre

PROCEDURE:

1. First the TDC and BDC of the engine are found correctly by rotating the flywheel
and the positions are marked on the flywheel.
2. Now the circumference of the flywheel is found by using the measuring tape.

3. The flywheel is rotated and the point at which the inlet valve starts opening is found
out and its position is marked on the flywheel.
4. Similarly the position at which it closes is also found out.

5. The distances are measured by using thread with respect to their dead centre and
converted into angles.
6. The same procedure is repeated for the exhaust valves also.












TABULATION:





Event


Distance from their
respective dead centers in
“cm”


Valve opening period in
degrees
Inlet valve opens 35


6˚48’
Inlet valve closes 95 18˚28’
Exhaust valve opens 140 27˚14’
Exhaust valve closes 50 9˚48’


Angular calculation;
Diameter of the flywheel D = mm
Circumference of the flywheel X = II D


Angle θ = ×360


calculation;

1. I.V.O θ =





RESULT:

Thus the valve timing for the given four stroke engine is found out and is drawn.

Inlet valve opens …. …..6˚48’
Inlet valve closes……..18˚28
Exhaust valve opens… 27˚14’
Exhaust valve closes …..9˚48’




Ex. No :02

Date :
PORT TIMING DIAGRAM OF 2S ENGINE



AIM:


To draw the port timing diagram for the given two stroke engine.




TOOLS REQUIRED:

1. Measuring tape

2. Scale

3. Thread



FIXING THE DEAD CENTRES:

For fixing up the dead centre a chalk mark is made on the piston. The fly wheel is rotated.
When the chalk mark coincides with the end of the cylinder a mark is made on the flywheel and
it represents TDC.

Now the flywheel is again rotated and the position at which the piston reaches the lower
most position is noted on flywheel and it represents the BDC.

\

IDENTIFICATION OF PORTS:

The port which has more area and is nearer to the TDC is the exhaust port and the other is
the inlet port.



DIRECTION OF ROTATION:

As the port opening and closing are symmetrical about the dead centre any arbitrary
direction of rotation may be selected.










FORMULA:

Required angle = Distance x 360
Circumference of the flywheel
Where,


Distance = Distance of the valve opening or closing position marked on flywheel with
respect to their dead centre



PROCEDURE:
1. The flywheel is turned in any arbitrary direction.

2. During the downward traverse position when it just uncovers a port it is marked as the
opening of the port on the flywheel.
3. The rotation is further continued until the piston covers the port during its upward
travel.
4. A mark is made on the flywheel against the fixed mark. This gives the closing of the
port.
5. The same procedure is repeated for other ports also.




Angular calculation;
Diameter of the flywheel D = mm
Circumference of the flywheel X = II D


Angle θ = ×360







TABULATION:



Event


Distance from their
respective dead centers in
“cm”


Port opening period in
degrees
Inlet port opens 80 45˚50
Inlet port closes 80 45˚50
Transfer port opens 130 74˚29
Transfer port closes 130 74˚29
Exhaust port opens 90 51˚33
Exhaust port closes 90 51˚33




calculation;

1. I.P.O θ =








RESULT:

Thus the port time for the given two stroke engine is found out and the port timing
diagram is drawn.
Inlet port opens = …………...... 45˚50
Inlet port closes = ……………. 45˚50
Transfer port opens = 74˚29
Transfer port closes = 74˚29
Exhaust Port opens = 51˚33
Exhaust port closes = 51˚33




PERFORMANCE TEST ON SINGLE CYLINDER FOUR STROKE DIESEL ENGINE



AIM:
To determine the performance of the single cylinder diesel IC engine




Apparatus required.

IC Engine
Loading arrangement
Stop watch
Tachometer




Name Plate Details
1. Name of the Engine…….
2. Type of the Engine
Stroke……………Four stroke
Fuel Used….. ……Diesel
No. of cylinders……Single cylinders
Cooling…………Water cooling
Speed……………1500rpm
BP…………….(if the brake power is in HP then BP=HP×736watts)
Type of loading…………Mechanical loading-Drum




PRECAUTIONS:
1. Check the fuel level in the fuel tank and open the fuel knob.
2. Check lubrication oil level in the crankcase
3. Ensure cooling water supply to engine before starting the engine.
4. Ensure cooling water supply to brake drum before loading the engine.
5. Engine should be started on no load condition.
Load should be added or removed gradually by adjusting the speed of the engine to its rated
value by screwing in or out of the governor nut.
7. Engine should stopped only at no load condition
8. During starting the engine the handle used on the crank shaft to start the
engine, should be removed immediately once the engine is started
9. Decompression lever should not be used to stop the engine.
10. . Do not over load the engine beyond ten percent more than the full load capac
Calculation:
1. Total fuel consumption

mf



mf


2. Heat input

H.I


H.I




3.Break power


B.p ×(w – s )Rb


×(3 )×0.16


B.P

4.Specific fuel consumption S.F.C

=

S.F.C = 1.16kg/kw.h









FORMULA USED:
V x I
1). Brake power = -----------------

generator

10 x specific gravity of fuel x 3600
2). Total fuel consumption
( TFC) = ----- --------- kg / hr
t 1000
Where,
Specific gravity of diesel fuel =0.835


3) Heat supplied (Qs
)
= TFC x CV kJ /S

Where,

TFC= Total Fuel consumption in kg/ s
CV= calorific value of diesel =44100 kJ/S

TFC
4) Specific fuel consumption (SFC) = ------- kg / kWh
BP

5) Indicated power = BP + FP
Where,
FP = Friction power (measured from TFC Vs BP)
BP
6) Brake thermal efficiency = --------
TFC x CV

IP
7). Indicated thermal efficiency = ------------
TFC x CV
BP
8). Mechanical efficiency = ------------------
IP


Procedure:
1). Start the engine at no load condition
2).Apply loads on the engine and then adjust the rated speed of the engine. Allow
The engine to attain steady state.
3). Time taken for 10 cc of fuel consumption is measured.
4). Repeat the procedure for loads.




TABULATION:














GRAPHS:

1. BP Vs TFC


2. BP Vs SFC

3. BP Vs
MECH



4. BP Vs
BTH





RESULT:
The performance test was conducted on the single cylinder diesel engine and the performance
curves were drawn.




s.no Load(W)
Kgf
Speed(N)
rpm
Time
taken for
10 cc of
fuel (sec)
TFC kg
/ hr

HI
Kg /kWh
BP
kW
SFC
kW
IP
kW
mech
%

BTH
%


1 0 646 13 22.98 274.48 0 0 23 0 0
2 3 614 6 49.80 594.83 30.86 1.61 53.86 57.29 5.18
3 4 605 5.5 54.32 648.82 40.54 1.34 63.54 63.8 6.25
4 6 593 4.3 69.48 829.90 59.61 1.16 82.61 72.15 7.18



RETARDATION TEST ON SINGLE CYLINDER FOUR STROKE DIESEL ENGINE



AIM:
To conduct a retardation test on engine and determine the frictional power loss and hence
determine the mechanical efficiency. .

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

1. Stop watch
2. Tachometer

TECHNICAL DETAILS OF THE ENGINE:

Four stroke diesel water-cooled brake drum loading:

1. Brea k power. :
2. Lubrication. oil:
3. Rated speed. :


PROCEDURE:

1. Start the engine by hand cracking with the decompression lever pressing down the exhaust
value.
2. Tack out the hand crank release the decompression lever to run at no load for about 5-10
mines to warm up and attain steady state condition at rated speed.
3. Adjust the rate of cooling water flow.
4By pulling the control rod cut off the diesel supply to the engine and simultaneously start the
stop watch.
5.Record the time for crankshaft speed to reduce 560,460,360,rpm by running the stopwatch.

MODEL CALCULATION:
Effective radius, Re = Brake drum radius + Radius of rope
1. Brake torque B.T = W x 9.81 x Re in N-m
2. Frictional Torque T.F = Tf1 + Tf2 + Tf3 in N-m
Tf1 = BT – (T1/ (Tm-T1) in N-m

t
1
=time taken for fall of speed at no load condition
t
2
=time taken for fall of speed at no load condition

3. Break Power B.P = (2π x W x Re x g) / (60x1000) in KW
4. Frictional Power Loss FP = (2 x N x T
f
)

/ 60000 in KW
5. Mechanical Efficiency
mech
= (B.P /(BP + FP) x 100 in %

Where, g = Acceleration due to gravity = 9.81 m / sec


Calculation:

1. Brake Torque :
B.T = W x 9.81 x Re
= 13 x 9.81 x 0.473
B.T = 60.32 N-m

GRAPH:
Thgraph drawn by B.P Vs
mech




TABULATION:

S.NO

LOAD(kgf)
Time taken to reach
from 660 rpm to (sec)
Break
Torque
N-m
Average
Friction
Torque
N-m


Break
Power
KW


Friction
Power
KW


mech
%

W1 W2
W
W1-W2
560
rpm
460
rpm
360
rpm

1. 0 0

0
5.16

9

13

0

0

0

0

0

2. 15 2 13
3

5

7

60.32

59.05

4.169

4.08

50.53

3. 22 4
18

3

7

8

83.52

81.35

5.77

5.62

50.65

4. 23 5
18

3

6

7

83.52

82.00

5.78

5.66

50.62










RESULT:
Thus the Retardation test on engine in conducted and the. Frictional power loss mechanical
efficiency at about three loads are found out.




HEAT BALANCE TEST ON FOUR STROKE DIESEL ENGINE

AIM:
To determine the percentage of heat converted into useful work, heat carried away by cooling
water, heat carried away by exhaust gas, and unaccounted losses.

APPRATUS REQUIRED:

1. Temperature Indicator,
2. Stopwatch,
3. Tachometer.

ENGINE SPECIFICATION:

1. Type: TEX-V-ISP
2. Rated speed: 1500rpm
3. Brake power: 3.7 KW
4. No. of cylinder: 4 cylinder
5. Fuel: Diesel
6. Cooling system: Water cooling
7. Type of loading device: Mechanical load



PRECAUTIONS:
1 Check the fuel level in the fuel tank and open the fuel knob.
2 Check lubrication oil level in the crankcase
3 Ensure cooling water supply to engine before starting the engine.
4 Ensure cooling water supply to brake drum before loading the engine.
5 Engine should be started on no load condition.
6 Load should be added or removed gradually by adjusting the speed of the engine to its
rated value by screwing in or out of the governor nut.
7 Engine should stopped only on no load condition
8 During starting the engine the handle used on the crank shaft to start the engine, should be
removed immediately once the engine is started
9 Decompression lever should not be used to stop the engine.
10 Do not over load the engine beyond ten percent more than the full load capacity.



FORMULA USED:

1) Heat supplied Qs =TFC x CV kJ / S

Where,

TFC=Total fuel consumption in kg/ s
CV= calorific value of diesel =44100 kJ/S

2 NW(R+ r) x 9.81
2) Heat equivalent to useful work (BP)= ------------------------ kJ/S
60 x 1000

Where,
N = speed of the engine.
W = load
R = radius of the brake drum
r = radius of rope

3) Heat carried away by cooling water Q
w
= M
w
C
v

(
T
1
-T
2
) kJ/S

Where
M
w = Mass of cooling water.

C
V = specific heat of cooling water
T
1 = cooling water inlet temperature.
T
2= cooling water outlet temperature.


4)
Heat carried away by exhaust gas Q g

= M
g
Cg
(T g
-T
a)
kJ/S

Where,
M
g = Mass of exhaust gas.

C
g = specific heat of exhaust gas
T
g = temperature of exhaust gas.
T
a=ambient temperature of air.


PROCEDURE:

1) Start the engine at no load condition
2) After steady state is reached note down the following

i) Speed of the engine.
ii) The time for 10 cc of fuel consumption
iii) Time for 1 let of cooling water collection.
iv) Air inlet temperature.
v) Exhaust gas temperature
vi) Cooling water inlet and outlet temperature.
vii) Manometer reading.
Repeat the above procedure for various loads.



TABULATION:

Sl.No
Load
(w) in Kgf
Time for 10 cc
Fuel
Consumption
Temperature (˚C)
T.F.C
(kg /
hr)
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5
1. 0 70.8 26 35 131 143 27 0.432
2. 2 65 24 34 138 147 26 0.471
3. 4 60 26 35 156 164 24 0.510
4. 6 50 26 37 196 205 27 0.612
5. 8 45 23 38 206 216 25 0.680

HEAT BALANCE SHEET:


S.no




Load
(kgf)



Heat
inout
(kw)



B.P


P water


P exhaust


P unacc


KW

%

KW

%

KW

%

KW

%
1.


0

5.16

0

0
0.0696


1.14

0.0683

1.4

5.026

97.3
2.


2

5.62
0.4931
8.8
0.0619


1.8
0.0971


1.8

4.968
88.4

3.

4


6.09
0.9862


16.2
0.0696


1.14

0.1267

2.0

4.489

73.8
4.

6

7.30

1.4793

20.3


0.0851

1.16

0.1470

2.1

5.589

76.5
5. 8 8.12 1.9724 24.3 0.0928 1.13 0.1400 1.7 5.915 72.8,

Calculation:

1. T.F.C :
= = =

T.F.C = 0.471 kg/hr

2. Brake power :

= ×

=

+ BP = 0.4931 kw
Result:
Thus the heat balance test was conducted in the single cylinder engine 4-stroke diesel engine
and the heat balance sheet is drawn.




MORSE TEST ON MULTI-CYLINDER PETROL ENGINE

AIM:
To determine the frictional power and mechanical efficiency of the multi-cylinder petrol
engine.


Apparatus required:

Stop watch
Tachometer.


ENGINE SPECIFICATION:

Make: rated speed: brake power:

No. of cylinder: fuel: cooling system:

Type of loading device:

FORMULA USED:
W x N
Brake power = ----------------------
C
Where,
W- Load acting on the engine

N- speed of the engine

C- dynamometer constant

for 4-cylinder engine ,

ip
1
+ ip
2
+ ip
3
+ ip
4
= bp
1234
+ fp ------ (1)

1
st
cylinder is cut –off, it will not produce any power but it will have friction, then


ip
2
+ ip
3
+ ip
4
= bp
234
+ fp --------- (2)

Then subtracting equ - (2) from equ - (1)

ip
1
= bp
1234
- bp
234



Similarly we can find the indicated power of a remaining cylinder, viz., ip
2
, ip
3
, ip
4
.
ip2 = bp
1234 -
bp
134


ip
3
= bp
1234 -
bp
124


ip
4
= bp
1234 -
bp
123


ip
1234
= ip
1
+ ip
2
+ ip
3
+ ip
4
FRICTION
power of the engine is given by

fp = ip
1234
– bp
1234

bp
Mechanical efficiency of the engine = --------------
bp+ fp

PRECAUTIONS:

1. Check the fuel level in the fuel tank and open the fuel knob.
2. Check lubrication oil level in the crankcase
3. Ensure cooling water supply to engine before starting the engine.
4. Ensure cooling water supply to brake drum before loading the engine.
5. Engine should be started on no load condition.
6. Engine should stopped only at no load condition
7. Before starting the engine, condition of battery and battery terminal electrical
connection to be checked
8. Throttle position should be set at minimum level.
9. Do not over load the engine beyond ten percent more than the full load capacity.

Procedures
1. Disengage the clutch rod before starting.
2. The engine is started on no load and engages the clutch.
3. the engine is allowed to run for 2 to 3 minutes for initial warm up
4. Apply required load on the dynamometer.
5. Adjust the speed of the engine to at 1500 rpm by throttle valve.
6. Adjust the gear wheel, dynamometer water delivery and bring the dynamometer
body into horizontal position.
7. Measure the engine speed.
8. Now cut-off the ignition supply to the cylinder- 1 ( by opening the Morse switch -1)
9. Now the speed and output the engine drops.
10. Then the engine speed is brought to its original value by reducing the load . now
note down the value of speed and load
11. Similarly cut-off the cylinders 2, 3 and 4 respectively. And find the corresponding
value load and speed of the engine.






TABULATION


Si.no



Speed
(rpm)
No. of the
cylinder
cut off
Voltage
V
(volts)
Current
I
(Amps)

Brake power
B I(k w )
Indicated
Power(kw)

Frictional
Power F
P(k w)

mech



1.

1800
All
working


430


4

3.310

17.332

7.132

32.34

2.



04

350
1.5










3.



03

275

1.25









4.



02

250

2









5.



01

215

1













Calculation:
1. B.P =

=

B.P = 3.310 KW












Result:
Thus Morse test was conducted on multi-cylinder petrol engine.

The friction power of the engine = -----------

Mechanical efficiency of the engine = ----------

















STUDY OF BOILER AND STEAM TURBINE




AIM:
To study the boiler and steam turbine


BOILER SPECIFICATION
Make: Steam output: fuel: type:

Boiler:

Boiler is a closed vessel made of steel .Its function is to transfer heat to water to produce steam


CONSTRUCTION:
The boiler is bolted on a sturdy chassis .the body is a double jacketed casing. Ladder is in the
front, adjacent to the control panel. The coil is at the centre of the boiler and is made of boiler
quality carbon steel tubes. The coil is enclosed by a pair if concentric shell, top of the coil is
enclosed by top refractory which is bolted to the inner shell. Outer shell is cover by an
insulated to cover. Blower is connected to the boiler by an air duct at the bottom.
A duct joins the economizer the boiler flue gas outlet. The economizer is a shell and tube heat
exchanger having a number of vertical steel tubes welded between the two tube plates. The
chimney duct is bolted above the economizer. It has a flanged opening for the chimney
connection.
The fuel pump is connected to the blower motor with the coupling and is mounted on a
common base frame bolted to the bottom chassis. the fuel filter the fuel oil preheating tank are
also mounted on the base frame.
A burner assembly is on the top plate. Metallic hoses are attached to it for fuel supply. The
control panel houses the electric al controls. Various switches and indicators lamps are
mounted on its fronts.


STEAMBEST BOILER:
It is an instant steam generator of water tube design. it is a fully automatics , packaged unit
of consisting of the boiler and its accessories mounted on the chassis. Now the fuel is injected
by the injector at the top of the boiler. The chemical energy in the fuel is released in the form
of heat during combustion. The product of combustion of the flue gases, transfer this heat to
the coil carrying water by radiation and convection.
Residual heat in the flue gas is absorbed in the economizer, where feed water is heated to
expel the dissolved gases. Air required for the combustion is supplied by the blower which
imparts velocity and pressure to the air centrifugal action of the rotating blades.

The steam best has a reversible flame type furnace. The flame produced by the burner travels
down in the furnace and the flue gases are in the reverse direction









WATER SYSTEM:
Water softener is used for converting the hard water into soft water. The soft water is stored in
tank. The soft water from the soft water tank enters the unit. This water then enters into the
economizer .the flue gases passes through the economizer tube bank heat the water. Hot water
comes out of the top of the economizer. The dissolved gasses in the water are released as it
heated and are vented out through the air vent connection.
The pump discharges the water at a pressure equal to the steam outlet pressure plus the
pressure required to overcome the coil resistance. A relief valve protects the pump from over
pressure. The water passes through the non return valve. The water enters the coil at the
bottom, evaporates and the steam comes out of the top of the coil. The pressure and
temperature sensing connections are provided on the outlet header.


FUEL SYSTEM:
The fuel from the service tank is filtered before entering the fuel pump in the unit. The
fuel under pressure is filtered again through a second filter. The filters are self – cleaning type
with a drain plug at the bottom. Fuel pressuregauge indicating the pressure at this point. When
n the burner solenoid coil is energized the fuel enters the burner rod and it is sprayed through
the nozzle.


AIR SYSTEM:
The blower drives air into the bottom of the air jacket and enters the burner. The flame cone
diffuser – plate combination causes vigorous mixing of air with atomized fuel. The flame is
shot downward in the furnace. The flue gases passes through the inner coil and outer coil and
travel upward back to top of the coil.
The gasses then pass through the gap between coil and inner shell and enter the economizer
from bottom. After passing through the economizer tubes, they are let out of the chimney.


ELECTRICAL SYSTEM:
The boiler operates on 415 V, 50 HZ, 3 phases, 4 wire electric supplies. The control
circuit voltage is 230 V. Three phase supply is given to blower motor, water pump. The
following safety circuits are available on the control panel, water low level, and electrical lock
out, steam temperature high.





STEAM TURBINE

The steam turbine is a single stage impulse turbine, condensing type. The turbine consists of a
wheel manufactured from a single gun metal casting. The turbine blades have a large clearance
at the sides of the wheel. The blades are designed in such a way that there, is negligible end
thrust.
the wheel is mounted on the shaft carried on the ball bearing and closed in a pressure
tight casing .The glands between the wheel and bearing , prevent escape of the operating
medium steam from the shaft. The critical speed of the shaft is well above the operating
speed. The direction of rotation of the shaft is clock wise looking on the turbine shaft
extension. The steam enters the casing through valve.
The steam enters in to the nozzle and the steam is directed to the blades. The nozzle angle is 32
degree. The exhaust steam from the turbine enters into the condenser.

Specification of steamturbine.

Operating medium: power output:
Inlet pressure: inlet temperature:

STEAM CONDENSER:

The steam leaves from the turbine exhaust enter into the condenser. The steam condenser is a
device which helps the exhaust steam from the turbine to condensate into water by exchanging
the heat to the continuously circulating cooling media.

SEPARATING AND THROTTLING CALORIMETER:
Separating and throttling calorimeter is placed in between boiler and turbine. The quality of
steam that entering into the turbine is measured by this apparatus

















RESULT:
Thus the boiler and steam turbine are studied











.