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You are on page 1of 8

**PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
**

NEB10103

LABORATORY REPORT :

OHM'S LAW, CURRENT DIVIDER AND VOLTAGE

DIVIDER RULE

PREPARED BY :

MOHAMAD AMIRUL ASHRAFF BIN MOHD NIZA

(51210113115)

MUHAMMAD IZZAT LUQMAN BIN SHAHDAN

(51210113241)

DATE :

31/1/2013

INTRODUCTION :

Ohm's Law

Ohm's law states that the current flowing through a conductor is directly proportional to the

potential difference between two point on the conductor provided the resistance and

temperature are kept constant.

V I

Voltage Divider Rule

The Voltage Divider Rule (VDR) states that the voltage across an element or across a series

combination of elements connected in a series circuit is equivalent to the ratio of the element or

series combination of elements to the total resistance of the series circuit multiplied by the total

voltage source as in Figure 1 :

From Ohm's law :

V

T

= IR

T

; I = V

T

/R

T

Therefore :

V

out

= I x R

n

=

=

---------------- (Eq1)

Equation 1 indicates that the voltage across any resistor R

i

(R

i

, i = 1, 2,..... n) in a series circuit

is equal to the applied voltage, E across the circuit multiplied by a factor. The value of the

current flow, I must be the same through all the resistors.

Current Divider Rule

The Current Divider Rule (CDR) states that the current through one of the two parallel

branches is equal to the ratio of the resistance of the other branch to the sum of the resistance of

the two parallel branches and is multiplied by the total current entering the two parallel

branches in Figure 2 :

⁄

⁄

or

(

)

---- Eq (2)

Similarly, the current flowing through the other resistor R

2

can be obtained as :

(

)

---- Eq (3)

PROCEDURE :

Part A : Voltage Divider Rule

1. The circuit was constructed and connected as shown in Figure 1 with E = 10V, R

1

= 82Ω,

R

2

= 100Ω and R

3

= 150Ω.

2. The voltage and current of R

1

, R

2

and R

3

was measured.

3. The value of resistors were changed as following and step 2 was repeated :

R

1 =

10KΩ, R

2

= 1000Ω, R

3

= 50Ω.

4. The value of resistors were changed again as following and step 2 was repeated :

R

1 =

30Ω, R

2

= 500Ω, R

3

= 100Ω.

5. VDR was applied to calculate the voltage and current of R

1

, R

2

and R

3

for each value of

resistors in step 1, 3 and 4.

6. The data was recorded in Table 1.1 - 1.3

7. The measurements obtained were compared with the calculated results.

Part B : Current Divider Rule

1. The circuit was constructed and connected as shown in Figure 2 with E = 5V, R

1

= 82Ω

and R

2

= 100Ω.

2. The voltage and current of R

1

and R

2

was measured.

3. The value of resistors were changed as following and step 2 was repeated :

R

1 =

10KΩ and R

2

= 1000Ω.

4. The value of resistors were changed again as the following and step 2 was repeated :

R

1 =

30Ω and R

2

= 500Ω.

5. CDR was applied to calculate the voltage and current of R

1

and R

2

for each value of

resistors in step 1, 3 and 4.

6. The data was recorded in Table 2.1 - 2.3

7. The measurements obtained were compared with the calculated results.

RESULTS :

Part A :

V

R1

V

R2

V

R3

I

R1

I

R2

I

R3

Measurement 2.40V 2.80V 4.60V 0.03A 0.03A 0.03A

Calculation 2.47V 3.01V 4.52V 0.03A 0.03A 0.03A

% of error 2.83% 6.98% 1.77% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00%

Table 1.1

V

R1

V

R2

V

R3

I

R1

I

R2

I

R3

Measurement 9.00V 0.90V 0.04V 0.90mA 0.90mA 0.90mA

Calculation 9.05V 0.90V 0.05V 0.90mA 0.90mA 0.90mA

% of error 0.55% 0.00% 20.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00%

Table 1.2

V

R1

V

R2

V

R3

I

R1

I

R2

I

R3

Measurement 0.46V 8.00V 1.55V 15mA 15mA 15mA

Calculation 0.48V 7.94V 1.58V 16mA 16mA 16mA

% of error 4.17% 0.76% 1.90% 6.25% 6.25% 6.25%

Table 1.3

Part B :

V

R1

V

R2

I

R1

I

R2

Measurement 4.80V 4.80V 55mA 45mA

Calculation 5.00V 5.00V 61mA 50mA

% of error 4.00% 4.00% 9.84% 10.00%

Table 2.1

V

R1

V

R2

I

R1

I

R2

Measurement 5.00V 5.00V 0.5mA 5mA

Calculation 5.00V 5.00V 0.5mA 5mA

% of error 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00%

Table 2.2

V

R1

V

R2

I

R1

I

R2

Measurement 4.80V 4.80V 150mA 9.5mA

Calculation 5.01V 5.00V 167mA 10mA

% of error 4.19% 4.00% 10.18% 5.00%

Table 2.3

ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

1. Based on the experiment conducted as above, in task 1, when the value of resistor is high,

the potential difference across the resistor is also high and the current flowing through the

resistors is constant due to its series connection. Meanwhile, in task 2, when the resistance

is low, the current flowing through it is high and the potential difference across all resistors

connected in parallel is the same.

2. The measurements obtained from this experiment differs from the ones calculated using the

formula derived earlier despite having a few accurate readings. This is due to the scale of

the analogue multimeter which is limited to a smallest of 1 decimal for one division on its

scale, while the decimal places obtained by using the formula is rounded up to 1 or 2

decimal places which affects the results slightly. Other than that, these differences is due to

the loading effect of the multimeter caused by its internal resistance. Robbins and Miller

(2000) stated that the loading effect for an instrument must be ideally zero for it to provide

an accurate reading, but practically, it is impossible for any instrument to have zero loading

effect since energy is absorbed from the circuit.

3. Hoppe (2012) stated that Voltage Divider Rule is applied to determine the voltage drop

across a resistor in series while the Current Divider Rule is used to determine the current

flowing through one branch of a parallel circuit.

4.

(

)

= (

)

= 37.27V

5. For I

3 :

(

)

(

)

Therefore, for I

5

:

(

)

(

)

For I

1 :

(

)

(

)

For I

2

:

(

)

(

)

Therefore the values calculated using CDR are as below

I

1

= 8.4A

I

2

= 2A

I

3

= 6.4A

I

5

= 2.4A

CONCLUSION

VDR is applied in a series circuit and the voltage drop is high for a resistor that has a

large value while the current flow is the same throughout the circuit. CDR is applied in a

parallel circuit and the current flow is low for a resistor that has a large value while the

potential difference is the same for all elements in the circuit.

REFERENCES

1. Robbins A., Miller W.C. (2000). Circuit Analysis Theory and Practice.

Albany, N.Y. : Delmar Cengage Learning.

2. Hoppe R., (2012). Voltage Divider Rule (VDR). Retrieved from : http://www.wisc-

online.com/objects/ViewObject.aspx?ID=DCE3402

3. Hoppe R., (2012). Current Divider Rule (CDR). Retrieved from : http://www.wisc-

online.com/Objects/ViewObject.aspx?ID=DCE3502

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