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422 THE FORMS OF CELLS [CH.

of the first. There is a very neat expanded orifice in the cyst of
Chromulina (Fig.
136);
it is doubtless fashioned in just as simple
a way, but how I know not.
Passing from the sohtary flask-shaped cell of Lagena, but without
leaving the Foraminifera, we find in Nodosaria, Rheophax or Sagrina
constricted cyUnders, or successive unduloids, such as are repre-
sented in Fig. 137. In some of these, as in the arenaceous genus
Fig. 136. Flask-shaped shells or cysts, a, b, Chromulina and
Deropyxis (Flagellata); c,
Difflugia.
tig. llil . Various species of Nodosaria, Rheophax. Sagrina. After Brady.
Rheophax, we have to do with the ordinary phenomenon of a
partially segmenting cylinder. But in others, the structure is not
developed out of a continuous protoplasmic cyhnder, but, as we
can see by examining the interior of the shell, it has been formed
in successive stages, beginning with a simple unduloid ''Lagena,''
about which, after it solidified, another drop of protoplasm accu-
mulated, and in turn assumed the unduloid or lagenoid form. The
chains of interconnected bubbles which Morey and Draper made many
years ago of melted resin are a similar if not identical phenomenon*.
*
See Sillijnan's Journal, ii,
p. 179, 1820; and cf. Plateau, op. cit. ii,
pp.
134, 461.
OF THE SIZE OF CELLS
61
the leaf-cells are found to be of the same size in an ordinary water-
lily, in the great Victoria regia, and in the still hiiger leaf, nearly
3 metres long, of Euryale ferox in Japan*. Driesch has laid par-
ticular stress upon this principle of a "fixed cell-size," which has,
however, its own limitations and exceptions. Among these excep-
tions, or apparent exceptions, are the giant frond-like cell of a
Caulerpa or the great undivided plasmodium of a Myxomycete.
The flattening of the one and the branching of the other serve (or
help) to increase the ratio of surface to content, the nuclei tend to
multiply, and streaming currents keep the interior and exterior of
the mass in touch with one another.
j^
Rabbit
Man
Dog
Fig. 3. Motor ganglion-cells, from the cervical spinal cord.
From Minot, after Irving Hardesty.
We get a good and even a famiUar illustration of the principle
of size-hmitation in comparing the brain-cells or ganghon-cells,
whether of the lower or of the higher animals
f
. In Fig. 3 we shew
certain identical nerve-cells from various mammals, from mouse to
elephant, all drawn to the same scale of magnification ; and we see
that they are all of much the same order of magnitude. The nerve-
cell of the elephant is about twice that of the mouse in linear
sluggish Amphibia are much the largest known to us, while the smallest are found
among the deer and other agile and speedy animals (cf. Gulliver, P.Z.S. 1875,
p. 474, etc.). This correlation is explained by the surface condensation or
adsorption of oxygen in the blood-corpuscles, a process greatly facilitated and
intensified by the increase of surface due to their minuteness.
*
Okada and Yomosuke, in Sci. Rep. Tohoku Univ. iii,
pp.
271-278, 1928.
t
Cf. P. Enriques, La forma eome funzione della grandezza : Ricerche sui gangli
nervosi degli invertebrati, Arch.
f.
Entw. Mech. xxv,
p.
655, 1907-8.
VIII] OF SPORES AND POLLEN 631
fail to assume, even temporarily, the tetrahedral form: cases, in a
general way, where the four cells escape from the confinement of
their envelope, and fall into a looser, less close-packed arrangement*.
The figures given by Goebel of the development of the pollen* of
Neottia
(3,
a-e\ all the figures referring to grains taken from a
single anther) illustrate this to perfection, and it will be seen that,
Fig. 278. Various pollen-grains and spores (after Berthold, Campbell, Goebe
and others).
(1)
Epilobium;
(2) Passiflora;
(3)
Neottia;
(4)
Periploca
graeca;
(5)
Apocynum;
(6)
Erica;
(7)
spore of Osmuyida;
(8)
tetraspore of
CnUithavinion.
Fig. 271). I'ollon of bulrush (Tifpha). After Wodehouse.
when the four cells lie in a plane, they conform exactly to our
typical diagram of the first four .cells in a segmenting ovum;
physically, as well as biologically, the tetrads a-d and the tetrad e
are "allelomorphs" of one another. Again in the bulrush (Fig.
279),
*
Cf. C. Nageli, Znr Entwickhingsgeschichte des Pollens bei den Phanerogamen,
36
pp.,
Zurich, 1842; Hugo Fischer, Vergleichende Morphologie der Pollenkorner,
Berlin, 1890; see also, for many and varied illustrations, R. P. Wodehouse's
beautiful book on Pollen, 574
pp..
New York, 193o, and earlier papers.
VI] OF MORPHOLOGICAL POLARITY 455
of linear arrangements of particles, which in the elongated or
"monopolar" cell run parallel with its axis, but tend to a radial
arrangement in the more or less rounded or spherical cell. Of late
years great importance has been attached to these various linear or
fibrillar arrangements, as they are seen
(after staining) in the cell-
substance of intestinal epithelium, of spermatocytes, of ganglion
cells, and most abundantly and frequently of all in gland cells.
Various functions have been assigned, and hard names given to
them; for these structures include your mitochondria* and your
chondriokonts (both of these being varieties of chondriosomes), your
Altmann's granules, your microsomes, pseudo-chromosomes, epi-
'M^m.
Ih
A
B
C
Fig. 149. A, B, Chondriosomes in kidney-cells, prior to and during secretory
activity (after Barratt); C, do. in pancreas of frog (after Mathews).
dermal fibrils and basal filaments, your archeoplasm and ergasto-
plasm, and probably your idiozomes, plasmosomes, and many other
histological minutiae
f.
The position of these bodies with regard to the other cell-
structures is carefully described. Sometimes they he in the
neighbourhood of the nucleus itself, that is to say in proximity to
the fluid boundary surface which separates the nucleus from the
*
Mitochondria are threads which move slowly through the protoplasm, some-
times break in two, and often tend to radiate from the centrosphere or division-centre
of the cell. The nucleoli are two or more Opaque bodies within the nucleus, which
keep shifting their position ; within the cytoplasm many small fatty bodies likewise
move about, and display the Brownian oscillation,
t
Cf. A. Gurwitsch, Morphologie und Biologie der Zelle,
1904,
pp.
169-185;
Meves, Die Chondriosomen als Trager erblicher Anlagen, Arch.
'f.
mikrosk. Anat.
1908, p. 72; J. 0. W, Barratt, Changes in chondriosomes, etc., Q.J.M.S. LVin,
pp.
553-566, 1913, etc.; A. P. Mathews, Changes in structure of the pancreas cell,
etc., Journ. Mc/rph. xv (Suppl.),
pp.
171-222, 1899.
VIIl]
OF RADIATE PATTERNS 619
among our diatoms; but when it does so, it is looked upon as the
mark and characterisation of the allied genus Arachnoidiscus.
A simple case, introductory to others of a more complex kind,
is that of the radial canals of the Medusae. Here, in certain cases
(e.g. Eleutheria), the usual arrangement of eight radial canals is not
seldom modified, as for example, when two or more of them arise
14
-<
^
15
--<.^-^l6
Fig. 207, Variations observed in the catial-system of a raedusoid {Eleutheria); after
Hans Lengerich. 1-8, the eight possible arrangements of eight radial canals;
9-10, some observed instances of nine radial canals.
not separately but by bifurcation*. We then have just eight
possible arrangements, as shewn in Fig. 267, 1-8, and of these eight
no less than six have been actually observed. The other two are
just as hkely to occur, and we may take it that they also will in
due time be recorded. It is yet another simple illustration of the
*
Hans Lengerich. Verzweigungsarten der Radialkanale bei Eleutheria, Zool.
Jahrbuch, 1922, p.
325.
IX]
OF LIESEGANG'S RINGS 663
interspaced : the result being very closely comparable to the banded
pigmentation which we see in the hair of a rabbit or a rat. In the
ordinary plate preparation, the free surface of the gelatine is under
different conditions to the layers below and especially to the lowest
layer of all in contact with the glass; and so we often obtain a
Fig. 305. Relay-crystals of common salt. After Bowman.
double series of rings, one deep and the other superficial, whiclj. by
occasional blending or interlacing may produce a netted pattern.
Sometimes, when only the inner surface of our capillary tube is
covered with a layer of gelatine, there is a tendency for the deposit
Fig. 306. Wheel-like crystals in a colloid. After Bowman.
to take place in a continuous spiral, rather than in concentric and
separate zones. By such means, -according to Kiister*, various
forms of annular, spiral and reticulated thickenings in the vascular
tissue of plants may be closely imitated ; and he and certain other
writers have been incHned to carry the same chemico-physical
*
E. Kiister, Ueber die Schichtung der Starkekorner, Ber. d. botan. Gesellsch.
XXXI,
pp.
339-346, 1913; Ueber Zonenbildung in kolloidalen Medien, Roll. Ztachr.
xiii,
pp.
192-194; XIV,
pp.
307-319, 1913-14.
IX] OF SPHERULITES OR CALCOSPHERITES 655
Fig. 293. Calcospherites, or con-
cretions of calcium carbonate,
deposited in white of egg.
^fter Harting.
Fig. 294. A single
calcospherite, with
central "nucleus,"
and striated, iride-
scent border. After
Harting.
Fig. 295. Later stages in the same experiment-
A
B
Fig. 2y(), A, Section of shell; B, Section of hinge-tooth of Mya.
After Carpenter.