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# NPTEL >>Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System Module 1- Lecture 5

Dynamic Modelling of Mechanical Systems
Dr. Bishakh Bhattacharya
Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering g g
IIT Kanpur
J oint Initiative of IITs and IISc - Funded by MHRD
NPTEL >>Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System Module 1- Lecture 5
Hints of the Last Assignment g
The Governing EOM may be written as:
0 ) (
) ( ) (
. ..
.
1 1 2 1 1
..
1 1
= + ÷ +
B K K M
t f x B x x K x M
a
Now, you may consider the following states for the system:
0 ) (
2 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 2
= + + ÷ + x B x K x x K x M
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
=
.
1
1
x
x
X
C h d d O i f fi d O d b i h
¦
¦
)
`
¦
¦
¹
´
.
2
2
x
x
X
2
Covert the two second order ODEs into four first order ODEs  and obtain the state space
representation.
Joint Initiative of IITs and IISc ‐ Funded by MHRD
NPTEL >>Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System Module 1- Lecture 5
This Lecture Contains
Modelling of a Mechanical System Modelling of a Mechanical System
Basic Elements of a Mechanical System y
Examples to Solve
J oint Initiative of IITs and IISc - Funded by MHRD
NPTEL >>Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System Module 1- Lecture 5
Mechanical Systems
Mechanical systems are generally modeled as a lumped
parameter system such that a distributed system like a beam parameter system, such that a distributed system like a beam
could be considered to be a system consisting of an array of
rigid inertia elements linked by a combination of  mass‐less
spring and dashpot elements.
The inertia elements represent the kinetic energy stored in  p gy
the system; springs the potential energy and dashpots the
energy that gets dissipated from a mechanical system in the
form of heat/sound etc form of heat/sound etc .
Joint Initiative of IITs and IISc ‐ Funded by MHRD
NPTEL >>Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System Module 1- Lecture 5
For translatory mechanical systems, inertia is represented by
mass ‘ m’, while for rotational systems this is represented by
moment of inertia ‘J’.
Consider a rotor of mass ‘m’, rotating about it’s centroidal
axis. The moment of inertia will be defined as:
dm r J
m
}
=
2
Where ‘r’ denotes the distance of an elemental mass dm
from the centroidal axis. For a rotation about an axis which is
at a distance ‘d’ from the centroidal axis, following parallel‐
axis theorem the moment of inertia could be expressed as:
2
d J J
2
d m J J
new
+ =
Joint Initiative of IITs and IISc ‐ Funded by MHRD
NPTEL >>Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System Module 1- Lecture 5
For translatory mechanical systems, stiffness is represented  y y , p
by  spring element ‘k’, while for rotational systems this is
represented by torsional spring element ‘k
t
’. For example:
diameter
diameter diameter
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NPTEL >>Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System Module 1- Lecture 5
A few more translational spring constants
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NPTEL >>Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System Module 1- Lecture 5
Torsional Spring Constants p g
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NPTEL >>Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System Module 1- Lecture 5
Damping Element p g
There are two common damping elements used to model energy dissipation from a
mechanical system. These are Viscoelastic Damping and Friction Damping.
Viscous damping model is most common; here, the damping force is taken to be
proportional to the velocity across the damper, acting in the direction opposite to
that of the velocity that of the velocity.
Linear damping force is represented by a viscous dashpot, which shows a piston
moving relative to a cylinder containing a fluid. The ideal linear relationship
between the force and the relative velocity holds good so long as the relative y g g
Velocity is low, ensuring a laminar fluid flow.
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NPTEL >>Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System Module 1- Lecture 5
Friction Damping Element p g
Another type of common damping force is the so-called dry friction force between
two solid interfaces. This is known as Coulomb damping. In this model, the
magnitude of damping force is assumed to be a constant, which is independent of
the relative velocity (or slip velocity) at the interface. The direction of the damping the relative velocity (or slip velocity) at the interface. The direction of the damping
force is opposite to that of the relative velocity. In a physical model, a Coulomb
damper is represented by the symbol shown below. The nature of change of the friction
force with respect to displacement of the system is shown next. The area under this
curve represents the amount of energy dissipated from the system curve represents the amount of energy dissipated from the system.
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NPTEL >>Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System Module 1- Lecture 5
Concept of Degrees of Freedom p g
An important element in describing the dynamics of a system consisting of
multiple lumped parameters is the Degrees of Freedom (DOF) for the system. This
is defined as the number of kinematically independent variables required to
describe completely the motion of the system.
It may be noted that the number of degrees of freedom of a particle/lumped mass
gets reduced if it is subjected to constraints. For example, a particle in three
dimensional space may have 3 DOF, hence two such particles may have total p y , p y
6DOF. However, if they are connected together by a rigid link, this will come down
to 6-1=5 DOF. Thus, the actual number of DOF of a system equals to the difference
between the numbers of unconstrained DOF and the constraining conditions.
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Joint Initiative of IITs and IISc ‐ Funded by MHRD
NPTEL >>Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System Module 1- Lecture 5
Examples and Assignments p g
Consider the first two cases: there are two links of identical lengths but subjected
ff O to different boundary constraints. Find out the DOF in each case.
(A)
N id th f ll i i t d fi d t th i EOM f th Now, consider the following assignments and find out the governing EOM of the
mechanical systems.
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Joint Initiative of IITs and IISc ‐ Funded by MHRD
NPTEL >>Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System Module 1- Lecture 5
(B)
(C)
Joint Initiative of IITs and IISc ‐ Funded by MHRD
NPTEL >>Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System Module 1- Lecture 5
Special References for this Lecture p
• System Dynamics for Engineering Students – Nicolae Lobontiu Academic Press • System Dynamics for Engineering Students – Nicolae Lobontiu, Academic Press
• Fundamentals of Mechanical Vibrations – S Graham Kelly, McGraw-Hill
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