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**environmental awareness and technical developments has led
**

vigorous global efforts toward making wind power a key

component of renewable and sustainable energy resources. The

conventional wind generators are induction machine types

having small and limited wind power production and high cost

per unit. Large wind plants involving interior permanent magnet

(IPM) synchronous generators in modern power system is

becoming an engineering challenge throughout the world. Using

IPM wind generator system, the wind turbine can be operated at

its maximum power production point for various wind speeds by

adjusting its shaft speed to its optimal generated electrical power

from wind energy. The objective of this invited paper is to

provide a brief outline of the background and recent advances

in the design and development of IPM wind generators to take

advantage of high efficiency, high power factor, compact size,

large rating, high controllability, stable operation, additional

reluctance torque and low per unit cost. The IPM wind generator

system yields maximum output power, while taking into accounts

wind turbine characteristics and constraints of power electronic

converters.

I. INTRODUCTION

In the 21

st

century, global warming has become an

important issue. Carbon dioxide (Co

2

) gas emissions should be

reduced to preserve the correct air quality as per Kyoto

protocol, implemented on February 16, 2005 by most of the

countries. One of the major contributors to global climate

change is due to excessive burning of limited fossil fuels like

oil, coal and natural gas. During the recent years the

combination of advanced wind turbines, power electronics,

and control techniques have significantly influenced the wind

power technology in terms of clean and safe renewable energy

sources. In only seven years from 2000 -2007 wind energy has

become an important resource in many electric power systems,

with nearly 100 GW of nameplate capacity installed

worldwide. The ratings of available induction wind generators

vary from 100kW to 3.5 MW. The present large commercial

wind energy technology consists of doubly fed induction

generators, power electronic converters, dc link capacitors and

voltage source inverters [1]. There exist significant challenges

for successful integration of wind energy system into the

power grid. The technical issues are dynamic modeling of

wind turbines, power converter/inverter system, power and

frequency fluctuations, wind speed and pitch angle control of

turbine blades, reactive power compensation and power

system stability. Some of these issues are addressed for the

grid connected wind generation system. Because of large stand

alone infrastructure of tower, huge turbine blades, complex

pitch angle control and associated gearbox maintenance as

well as small output ratings, the per unit production cost of a

conventional wind generator is about 2-3 times that of a

commercial hydro/thermal generator[2-25]. The per unit

production cost could be competitive when the ratings of new

wind generators exceed 10MW or so.

II. CHALLENGES FOR IPM WIND GENERATION

The principle of conventional salient pole synchronous

generators is well known. The inputs are the prime mover

turbine power at fixed synchronous speed and dc excitation

power fed through slip rings in the rotor salient poles. The

obvious disadvantage is that dc power is supplied in the rotor

poles through brushes and slip rings. This dc power can be

replaced by modern permanent magnets (PM) in IPM

generators. The developed power in a salient pole synchronous

generator has two distinct components; the first is the

electrical power arising out of dc excitation and the second is

the reluctance power due to the variation of machine air gap

(d-q) axis reactances [2]. Thus there exists physical variation

of the air-gap, which in turn causes reluctance changes of the

salient pole generator. Unlike in non-salient pole synchronous

generators, the salient pole generator develops more stable

power for a given excitation level, because the total developed

power is greater than each of the electrical power

and

reluctance power

components individually. The challenges for

designers of an IPM wind generator system are follows:

(a) Create variation of d-q axis inductances without

varying air gap

(b) Vary and control of excitation for permanently excited

rotor of IPM generator

(c) Optimize PM and reluctance power components for

maximum power output

(d) Reduction of cost, weight and size of IPM wind generator

(e) intelligent converter and inverter system for IPM wind

generator.

Figure 1 IPM Wind Generator System

Advances of Interior Permanent Magnet

(IPM) Wind Generators

M.A. Rahman, Life Fellow, IEEE

Power and Energy Research Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science

Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, NL, Canada A1B 3X5

Email: rahman@engr.mun.ca

2228

Figure 1 shows the IPM generator is connected to the wind

mill via single gear system [4-5]. The output of the IPM

generator is fed into the power converter systems. The gear

box can be dispensed with for direct driven IPM wind

generator systems.

The major challenge for creation of reluctance

variation of the IPM generator can been met by inserting

modern high energy permanent magnets (PM) like

Neodymium Iron Boron (NdFeB) in various arrangements

and magnet polarity orientations below the conduction cage of

the IPM rotor such that the machine reluctance variations are

made possible but keeping the air-gap length uniformly

constant. The critical properties of permanent magnets for

IPM wind generators are high (BH)

energy product. The

commercially available Nd

2

Fe

14

B magnets have energy

product approaching 60 MG Oe. These are quite adequate for

large IPM wind generators having ratings exceeding 10MW

per unit. Another challenge has been to operate the IPM

generator with permanently excited PM poles at variable

power factors. By using innovative vector control technique,

the level of d-q axis currents can be controlled for maximum

wind power output at any power factor.

III. STEADY STATE ANALYTICAL MODEL

Figure 2 shows IPM wind generator schematic with details of

stator and rotor including 4-pole NdFeB straight –type

magnets polarity.

Figure 2. Schematic of 4-pole IPM wind generator with

straight-type NdFeB permanent magnets [3].

The developed power P

d

in a 2-pole 3-phase Y-connected

salient pole synchronous wind generator can be given as [2-3];

δ 2 sin

X 2X

) X (X 3V

sin

X

E 3V

P

q d

q d

2

p

d

0 p

d

−

+ = δ (1)

Where V

p

is generated voltage/per phase,

E

o

is excitation voltage/per phase;

X

d

and X

q

are d-q axis reactances per phase, respectively.

Furthermore, these synchronous d-q reactances are given as

X

d

= X

l

+ X

md

(2)

X

q

= X

l

+ X

mq

(3)

Where X

l

is the stator leakage reactance , X

md

and X

mq

are d-q

axis magnetizing reactances, respectively;

and δ is load angle between V

p

and E

o

.

Figure 3. Phasor Diagram of IPM Wind Generator

In conventional salient pole synchronous machines, the

airgap length at the direct (d) axis is small and the airgap

length at the quadrature (q) axis is large. Thus there exists

physical variation of the airgap, which in turn causes

reluctance changes, when the rotor shaft of the synchronous

generator is propelled by the wind turbine.

The equation (1) can be rewritten as;

δ 2 sin P sin P P

r e d

+ = δ (4)

Where, P

e

= [3V

p

E

o

]/ X

d

(5)

and P

r

= [3V

p

2

(X

d

-X

q

)]/ 2 X

d

X

q

(6)

It is to be noted that the power developed in (5) is identical

to the dc excited cylindrical-rotor (non-salient pole)

synchronous generator. It is important for an IPM wind

generator. The terms in equation (6) constitute the reluctance

torque. Efficient utilization of this reluctance torque

component of equation (6) is most critical for higher power

and more stable operation and relatively higher efficiency

improvement in IPM wind generators.

P

e

is the peak power component due to dc field excitation

and P

r

is the peak power component due to reluctance

variation at the airgap. The latter is called the reluctance

power. The contribution of each power component to the total

generated power P

d

is significant for the optimum design of a

salient pole synchronous generator. For fixed parameter values

2229

it is obvious that the equation (5) is maximum when δ is 90

0

,

and the equation (6) is maximum for δ = 45

0

. The salient

pole synchronous generator develops more steady state power

for a given excitation level, because the total developed peak

power P

d peak

is greater than each of the P

e

and P

r

components

individually. The optimum value of δ

max

lies between 60

0

and

75

0

.

Figure 3 shows the sinusoidal phasor diagram of an IPM

wind generator, where the voltage E

o

is obtained due to the

interior permanent magnet excitation.

In a practical IPM generator, the accurate determination of

machine parameters is difficult. Further more the magnitude of

a permanently magnetized field excitation E

o

can not be

changed.

Figure 4 shows the Norton’s equivalent of an IPM generator

with PM excitation as an equivalent current source I

f

.

~

j Xm

If

If

Is

Im

Vp

Norton's Equivalent Circuit of IPM Generator

Figure 4. Equivalent Circuit of IPM Wind Generator

By changing the angleδ between I

m

and I

f

, one achieves the

same objective of varying the power factors of the IPM wind

generator. Figures 5 (a-c) show the power factor control of

the IPM wind generator in unity, lagging and leading modes of

operation.

IV. LINEAR IPM MODEL

The challenge for designers for an IPM generator is to

create reluctance variation of the generator by keeping airgap

length constant. This has been done by inserting permanent

magnets in various arrangements and magnet polarity

orientations below the amortissuer windings (damper bars) of

the IPM rotor pole assembly such that the machine reluctance

variations are made possible but keeping the airgap length

uniformly constant [20].

The developed torque T

d

is obtained by dividing equation

(1) by angular synchronous speed. An IPM generator develops

its power due to both the permanent magnet rotor excitation

and reluctance variation in the airgap without varying the

physical air gap.

The developed torque T

d

for an IPM generator can also be

expressed for synchronously revolving d-q axis reference

frame as ;

[ ]

q d q d q m d

i )i L (L i λ

2

3p

T − + = (7)

If

Im

Is

Vp

β

If cos(β)=Im, so Is is in-phase with

Vp

Is

(a) Unity Power Factor Operation

If cos(β)<Im, so Is is lagging Vp

θ

β

Vp

Is

Im

If

Is

(b) Lagging Power Factor Operation

If

Im

Is

Vp

β

θ

If cos(β)>Im, so Is is leading Vp

Is

(c)Leading Power Factor Operation

Figure 5. Phasor Representations of Power Factor Control

for IPM Wind Generator

Where, p is number of pole pairs,

m

λ is flux linkage due

to permanent magnet excitation, L

d

and L

q

are d-q axis

inductances, respectively; i

d

and i

q

are d-q axis currents,

respectively.

2230

The stator phase current i

s

is expressed as

d q i i i

2 2

s

+ = (8)

It is to be noted that the first term in (7) is identical to the

dc excited cylindrical-rotor (non-salient pole) synchronous

generator. It is important for indirect vector control of an IPM

wind generator. The 2

nd

term in equation (7) constitutes the

reluctance torque. Efficient utilization of this reluctance torque

component of equation (7) is most critical for higher

developed torque and more stable operation and relatively

higher efficiency improvement in IPM wind generators.

V. NON-LINEAR IPM MODEL

It is also to be noted that the torque equation (7) is quite

non-linear, because

m

λ , L

d

, L

q

, i

d

and i

q

are not constants. The

flux linkage

m

λ is responsible for excitation voltage E

o

, hence

it is also quite nonlinear. Figure 6 shows the second quadrant

of the B-H characteristic of the NEOREC 38SH permanent

magnets. It illustrates the remnant magnetization of NdFeB

magnet is reduced from 1.2 (T) at no load to 1.0 (T) along the

recoil line , when IPM wing generator is loaded. This in effect

changes the excitation voltage E

o

due to anisotropic NdFeB

magnet.

Figure 6. Second Quadrant of B-H Curve for NdFeB magnet

All these

m

λ , L

d

, L

q

, i

d

and i

q

five quantities vary during

dynamic operating conditions [7]. The requirements for

quality NdFeB magnets are high energy product, very large

coercive force, high Curie temperature, long life and corrosion

free environment, etc.

The non-linearity arises due to the intrinsic nature of

Nd

2

Fe

14

B metallic magnets. Like in other hard permanent

magnetic materials, the net spin moment of electrons in the

atomic structure of Neodymium material is not zero. When

magnetized by external magnetizing field, the metallic NdFeB

magnets are produced by sophisticated sintered axially pressed

process along the easy axis of magnetization. Furthermore,

when the IPM wind generator is delivering power, the

demagnetization of anisotropic NdFeB magnets takes place

along the principal stress axis, which is different from the easy

axis of magnetization. This process of magnetization and

demagnetization in the metallic Nd

2

Fe

14

B magnets gets further

complicated, when the magnets are oriented to an inclined

direction. The magnetic field produced by the inclined

permanent magnets has significant effect on the

demagnetization process. This will ultimately affect the d-q

axis inductance parameters L

d

and

L

q

more, depending on the

degree of magnet orientation and generator loading. Thus it

is perhaps obvious that the classical armature reaction of the

conventional synchronous wind generator or the surface

mounted permanent magnet wind generator is not strictly

applicable for the highly non-linear IPM wind generator with

inclined (v-shaped) NdFeB magnets under loaded conditions

even in the steady state mode of operations.

Another problem of IPM wind generator is the non-linear

demagnetization effect which occurs due to the combined

armature reaction and the rotor core high temperature, when it

is loaded. Analytically, the three dimensional (3-D) finite

element (FE) analysis is becoming essential to accurately

determine and verify the complex demagnetization effects of

the anisotropic Nd

2

Fe

14

B metallic magnets in an IPM wind

generator.

Nahata, el [13] have recently proposed a technique to

determine the remnant magnetization distribution from an

applied demagnetization field in anisotropic hard permanent

magnets using a combination of the 3-D variable

magnetization Stoner-Wohlfarth method in conjunction with

the 3-D FE analysis. It has been particularly noted in reference

[13] that the effect of the demagnetization fields is severe at

the edges of the metallic NdFeB magnets embedded inside the

rotor core of the IPM generator.

Like in conventional synchronous generators, the damper

(amortissuer) windings also play significant role in

reducing/eliminating the non-linear hunting/vibration of the

rotor of an IPM generator. It is quite obvious that the

electromagnetic fields induced in the damper/conductor cages

further complicate the field analysis of IPM wind generators.

Finite element (FE) analysis is a requirement for fine-tuning

the parameters determination of the IPM wind generators for

their optimum performances.

In summary, it may be stated that the linear model for

determining the developed power and torque in an IPM wind

generator is perhaps not adequate. One of the solutions to

approximate these non-linear effects is to modify the

developed torque expression of equation (7) by the following

expressions [7];

[ ]

[ ]

q d q mq lq q lmd ld

d0 q q m d

i ))i (i L (L - )) (i L (L

2

3p

) (i )i (i λ

2

3p

T

+ + +

=

(9)

and

2231

( )

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

+

−

=

md

q

md

d0

q

2

q d

d

X

di

dX

i

i X X

i (10)

Figure 7 shows the finite element based d-q axis magnetic

flux density distribution of rotor permanent magnets at full-

loads in IPM wind generator with straight magnet orientation

of figure 2. Design optimization of the IPM wind generator

system can also be carried out by various methods [24].

Another IPM wind generator schematic with v-shaped rotor magnets

arrangements is shown in figure 8. The finite element (FE) grid as

well as flux lines and flux density contours of figure 8 are shown in

figures 9-10, respectively. It is evident from figure 10 that the flux

distribution in an IPM wind generator undergoes significant changes

when loaded.

Fig 7. Flux Density distribution of IPM Wind Generator at full-load

Fig. 8. Stator and rotor schematic of IPM wind generator with

V-shaped rotor magnet

Fig. 9. Finite element grids and flux distribution of Fig.8

Fig. 10. Flux density contours of IPM Generator at full load

VI CONCLUSIONS

This paper provides a brief introduction of the classical

background and recent but timely updates on the advances in

the design, analysis and development of IPM wind generators.

It highlights many of their inherent advantages and serious

limitations. It ends with a short list of pertinent references in

order to stimulate further thorough investigations on all

aspects of the IPM wind generator technology worldwide.

REFERENCE

[1] H. Li and Z. Chen, “Overview of Different Wind Generator Systems and

their Comparisons” , IET Renewable Power Generation Journal , Vol.2,

No. 2, 2008, pp.123-138.

[2] M. A. Rahman, “Advances of Modern IPM Motor Drives for High

Performance Applications”, A keynote lecture, Proceedings of ICEMS-

2006 , Nagasaki, Japan, November 20-23, 2006.

[3] P.Zhou, “Field and Circuit Combined Analysis of Permanent Magnet

Synchronous Motor”, PhD Thesis, Memorial University of

Newfoundland, Canada, 1994

[4] S. Morimoto, H. Kato, M. Sanada and Y. Takeda, “Output Maximization

Control for Wind Generation System with Interior Permanent Magnet

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[6] W. Wu, V. S. Ramsden, T. Crawford and T. Hill, “ A Low speed High –

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2232

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[7] A. Consoli, G Scarcella ,, G. Scelba and S. Sindoni, “ Modeling Control

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[10] M. Katter, “Angular Dependence of Demagnetization Stability of

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[12] R. Skomski and J. M. D. Coey, “Permanent Magnetism”, College Park,

MD, USA, Institute of Physics, P. 230.

[13] Y.Nakahata, T. Todaka and M. Enokizono, “Magnetization Process

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Dimensional VMSW Method”, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol.

44, No. 6, June 2008, pp. 858- 861.

[14] F.Gurakuq and G. Dieter, “A New Electromagnetic Model for PM

Synchronous Machines”, Proceedings of European Power Electronics

Conference, EPE-2007 , Aalborg, Denmark, September 2-5, 2007, CD

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[15] F. Marius, T. Lucian and I. Boldea , “ Novel Motion Sensorless Control

of Stand Alone Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator: Harmonics

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[18] Y Young-Doo, L. Wook-Jin and S. Seung-Ki, “New Flux Weakening

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pp. 725-733.

.

2233

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