You are on page 1of 8

Chemistry Laboratory Guide for Freshmen 1

st
Sem, 14-15



1
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
1. Read the activity manual in advance to
be able to appreciate the concepts and
objectives of the activity.
2. Take note of the precautions and
laboratory hints to avoid accidents and
injuries.
3. Eating and drinking are greatly
prohibited while doing experiments.
4. Consider all chemicals and reagents inside
the laboratory kit as poisonous. DO
NOT taste any chemical or reagent.
5. Solid wastes (matchsticks, filter paper, stoppers, etc.) should be thrown into
their corresponding trash bins and spent liquid chemicals into containers
provided for them.
6. Keep the tabletop clean during the laboratory period.
7. After the laboratory period, kindly return all the pieces of equipment to their
specific containers and clean the working area before leaving.
8. Since the danger of chemical spill is unavoidable, DO NOT LEAN OR SIT on
the tabletop.
9. Read the labels on the reagent bottles at least twice before taking a sample.
Do not handle/carry reagent bottles by the cap to avoid accidents. Avoid
wasteful use of reagents, fuel gas, and water.
10. Since the dangers of broken glass and corrosive chemical spills are common in
conducting experiments, open sandals are not permitted. For added
protection, students may wear laboratory gown, mask and goggles. Students
with long hairs are advised to have them pony-tailed.
11. Do not play with fire. Smoking is strictly prohibited especially while an
experiment is going on.
12. For minor skin burns, immediately plunge the burned area into cold water for
several minutes. Report immediately to the instructor all accidents no
matter how minor.
13. If chemicals get into your eye, wash immediately with plenty of water and
use dilute base solution (1% sodium bicarbonate solution) for acidic chemicals
and dilute acid solution (1% boric acid solution) for alkaline chemicals. If
chemicals are spilled on the skin, wash with soap and water.
14. In case of fire, turn off fuel lines and any burner in the area. Douse the flame
with wet cloth or sand. If clothing is on fire, do not run. Roll over to smother
the flame. Know the location of the fire extinguisher.
15. Never work alone in the laboratory and never perform an unauthorized
experiment.
16. Remember the golden rule inside the laboratory: when in doubt, ASK.




Chemistry Laboratory Guide for Freshmen 1
st
Sem, 14-15



2

Experiment No. 1
DESCRIBING SUBSTANCES
AND MIXTURES

OBJECTIVES
At the end of the activity, the
learner should be able to:
 demonstrate understanding of
substances and mixtures and the
different ways of describing them
 define solubility through the
dissolution of a solute in a solvent
 differentiate homogeneous
mixture (solution) from heterogeneous
mixture through gravity filtration



DEFINITION OF TERMS

 Condensation – transformation of gas to liquid.
 Distillate – the products of distillation formed by condensing vapors.
 Distillation – the process of producing a gas or vapor from a liquid by heating
the liquid in a vessel and collecting and condensing the vapors into liquids.
 Homogeneous Mixture – a substance having uniform composition or
structure; a solution
 Heterogeneous Mixture – a substance that has two or more distinct phases
 Residue – substance that remained after the distillation process.
 Saturated Solution - solution that contains the maximum amount of solute
dissolved by a given amount of solvent.
 Solubility – the ability of a substance to form a solution with another
substance
 Solute – the substance dissolved in a solvent.
 Solvent – that part of a solution that is present in the largest amount, or the
compound that is normally liquid in the pure state (as for solutions of solids or
gases in liquids).
 Unsaturated Solution – contains less solute than the maximum amount it can
dissolve at a given temperature.




Chemistry Laboratory Guide for Freshmen 1
st
Sem, 14-15



3
PROCEDURE

Setup 1: Solubility of Substances
1. Prepare 5 50 mL beaker and add water up to the 40 mL mark.
2. Mix 1/2 teaspoon of the sample solid or 5 mL of the sample liquid to each beaker.
3. Use a stirrer to dissolve as much of each sample as possible. Use a different stirrer for
each sample.
4. Filter the solution with filter paper aided by a funnel (Figure 1-1).
5. Record your observations in Table 1-1 on the data sheet.

Setup 2: Solubility of Different Amounts of Solute in a Solvent
1. Put 20 mL water in a 40 ml beaker.
2. Add ½ teaspoon of sugar and stir.
3. Record your observations in Table 1-2 on the data sheet.
4. To the sugar solution in step #1, add ½ teaspoon sugar, a small portion at a time and
stir the solution to dissolve the sugar.
5. Add ½ teaspoon of sugar to the sugar solution in step #2 and stir the solution. At this
point, you have added one and ½ teaspoons of sugar.
6. Continue adding ½ teaspoon sugar to the same cup until the added sugar no longer
dissolves.
7. Record the total amount of sugar added to the solution until it no longer dissolves.


Figure 1-1. Filtration Setup





Chemistry Laboratory Guide for Freshmen 1
st
Sem, 14-15



4
Name :_________________________________ Date of Experiment: ___/___/___
Section :_________________________________ Date Submitted: ___/___/___
Group # :_________________________________ Score:________________________

Experiment No. 1
DESCRIBING SUBSTANCES AND MIXTURES

I. Objectives

At the end of the activity, the learner should be able to:
 Demonstrate understanding of substances and mixtures and the different ways of
describing them
 Define solubility through the dissolution of a solute in a solvent
 Differentiate homogeneous mixture (solution) from heterogeneous mixture
through gravity filtration

II. Data and Results

Table 1-1. Characteristics of Substances and Mixture

Sample
Solubility in Water
(soluble, partially
soluble, not
soluble)
Appearance
(uniform or not
uniform)
Can be separated
by filtration
(yes or no)








Table 1-2. Solubility of Different Amounts of Solute in Solvent

Sample
Solubility
(completely soluble, partially soluble or not soluble)
½ teaspoon 1 teaspoon 2 teaspoons 3 teaspoons
Salt/Sugar



Chemistry Laboratory Guide for Freshmen 1
st
Sem, 14-15



5
III. Discussion
Guide questions for discussion:
1. Which of the substances is soluble in water? Partially soluble? Not soluble?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
2. What factors affect the solubility of solute in solvent?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
3. Which of the samples appears uniform throughout the mixture?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
4. Which of the mixtures has different phases?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
5. Differentiate homogeneous from heterogeneous mixture.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
IV. Conclusion
Based on the results of the experiment, it can be concluded that
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________








Chemistry Laboratory Guide for Freshmen 1
st
Sem, 14-15



6
Experiment No. 2
MEASUREMENT AND CONVERSION
OF UNITS

OBJECTIVES
At the end of the activity the learner should be
able to:
 demonstrate understanding of the way
measurements are being expressed
 convert a unit of measurement to
another unit
 systematically report data from actual
measurement

Materials Needed

 100 mL beaker
 Triple beam balance
 100 mL Erlenmeyer flask
 Graduated cylinder
 Tape measure
 Spatula
 Thermometer
 Weighing scale
 Volumetric flask
 Spatula
 Calculator

Procedure

MEASUREMENT OF HEIGHT/LENGTH
1. Identify a wall in the classroom which can be used as a guide for measuring the
height of each group member.
2. Fix a tape measure to the wall, making sure that it falls freely vertically down the
wall with the zero of the tape measure on the line formed by the wall and the
floor.
3. Barefoot, each member of the group must stand erect with feet as close together
as is comfortable and with palms of the hands on the thighs and back against the
tape measure fixed to the wall. The eyes are directed forward. With his/her
weight well-distributed over the feet, he/she steps slowly backward until some
part of his/her body touches the tape measure on the wall. He/she must remain in
this position which measurement is being taken.


Chemistry Laboratory Guide for Freshmen 1
st
Sem, 14-15



7
4. The person reading the measurement must stand on the subject’s right side facing
the subject. He/he then locates the vertex of the subject head, and slide the ruler
to rest on the vertex, the ruler kept parallel to the floor touching the tape measure
that is fixed to the wall. Without moving the ruler, the subject slips out so that the
person measuring can read off the point, along centimeter scale, at which the ruler
touches the tape measure.
5. Each member must convert his/her height in millimeters (mm), inches (in), and
meter (m).
6. Record the measured and converted height values in Table 2-1.

MEASUREMENT OF WEIGHT
1. Using a portable weighing scale, measure your weight in kilograms.
2. Barefoot, position yourself on the center of the platform of the scale,
3. Let your groupmate read and record the point on the kilogram scale where the
dial indicator has rested.
4. Convert your weight in pounds (lb), milligrams (mg) and grams (g).
5. Record the measured and converted values in table 2-1.

MEASUREMENT OF BODY TEMPERATURE
1. Using a digital thermometer, get your body temperature in degrees Celsius (˚C).
2. Convert this temperature in degrees Fahrenheit (˚F) and Kelvin (K).
3. Record the measured and converted values in Table 2-1.

MEASUREMENT O VOLUME AND DENSITY
1. Pour enough water up to 10 mL of a marked volume of a graduated cyclinder.
2. Record this initial reading (Table 2-2).
3. Weigh 4-5 grams of pebbles and pour slowly and carefully into the graduated
cylinder.
4. Record the reading of the meniscus level of the cylinder as the final reading.
5. Calculate the volume of the pebbles by subtracting the final reading from the
initial reading.
6. Express this volume in ounce (oz), liter (L), and gallons (gal).
7. Calculate the density of pebbles in g/mL.
8. Convert the density in lb.mL, mg/mL, kg/L.
9. Record the measured and converted values in Table 2-2.











Chemistry Laboratory Guide for Freshmen 1
st
Sem, 14-15



8
Name :_________________________________ Date of Experiment: ___/___/___
Section :_________________________________ Date Submitted: ___/___/___
Group # :_________________________________ Score:________________________

Experiment No. 2
MEASUREMENT AND CONVERSION OF UNITS

I. Objectives

At the end of the activity, the learner should be able to:
 Demonstrate understanding of the way measurements are being expressed
 Convert a unit of measurement to another unit
 Systematically report data from actual measurement


II. Data and Results

Table 2-1. Measured and Converted Values
Parameters Measured
Value
Converted Value
Height
Weight
Temperature
Volume
Density

III. Calculations (Attach your answer sheet)
IV. Conclusion
Based on the results of the experiment, it can be concluded that
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________